 n grammar, a clause a pair or group of words that consist of a subject and a predicate, although in some languages and some

types of clauses, the subject may not appear explicitly as a noun phrase. It may instead be marked on the verb (this is especially common in null subject languages). ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clauses  clause - (grammar) an expression including a subject and predicate but not constituting a complete sentence  clause - article: a separate section of a legal document (as a statute or contract or will) wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn  Clause - In logic, a clause is a disjunction of literals. In propositional logic, clauses are usually written as follows, where the symbols are literals: In some cases, clauses are written as sets of literals, so that clause above would be written as . ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clause_(logic)  clause - (grammar, informal) A group of two or more words which include a subject and any necessary predicate (the predicate also includes a verb, conjunction, or a preposition) to begin the clause; however, this clause is not considered a sentence for colloquial purposes; (grammar) A word or group of ... en.wiktionary.org/wiki/clause  Either a Prolog fact or rule. www.pcai.com/web/glossary/pcai_p_s_glossary.html  a structural unit of language which is smaller than the sentence but larger than phrases or words, and which contains a finite verb www.nwlg.org/pages/resources/knowitall/resources/english.htm  clause - On this website, a clause refers to the basic unit of a Regulation or a Bill. Each clause within a Regulation or Bill deals with a separate subject or idea and has its own number. When a Bill becomes an Act, its clauses are called sections. ... www.legislation.govt.nz/glossary.aspx  a clause has the attributes of a sentence but may occur within a sentence, for example a relative clause who played the alto within the sentence The man who played the alto was Charlie Parker. homepage.ntlworld.com/vivian.c/Linguistics/LinguisticsGlossary.htm  clause - Words in a policy which describe certain specifications, limitations or modifications. www.ibc.ca/en/need_more_info/glossary/C.asp  clause - divisions of a bill consisting of an individual sentence or statement, once a bill becomes law, its clauses are referred to as sections; www.pap.gov.pk/html/1195027328_e.shtml  clause - A verb and all its associated arguments. See phrase. williamcalvin.com/LEM/LEMend.htm  clause - a provision in a mortgage contract requiring that the entire loan balance be paid immediately on demand in the event of the sale of a mortgaged property. ... www.articlesalley.com/article.detail.php/74729/24/RealEstate/Finance/3/Real_Estate_Investor_Jargon_Every_Newbie_Should_Know  clause - A string of words containing a subject and a verb. Some clauses are independent; that is, they express a complete thought ("Samantha cried." or "Charlie stumbled through the

. so-called for their syntactic and semantic resemblance to . Hence. Dependent clauses would be awkward or nonsensical if they were to stand by themselves. adjective clauses." "that the dog ran through the yard" is a clause. It may instead be marked on the verb (this is especially common in null subject languages). a clause that is organized around a non-finite verb. More complicated sentences may contain multiple clauses. The most basic kind of sentence consists of a single clause. modern linguists do not draw the same distinction. and therefore require an independent clause in the same sentence. even when connected with different clauses in the same sentence.org/education_planner/essay_article. Independent clauses can be easily differentiated from dependent clauses by their ability to stand by themselves. while "the yard. Contents [hide] • • • • 1 Functions of dependent clauses 2 Structures of dependent clauses 3 References 4 See also [edit] Functions of dependent clauses Under this classification scheme." and "the dog" are all phrases. Clauses are divided into two categories: independent clauses and dependent clauses. a clause was said to have both a finite verb and its subject. A sentence made up of just one clause which can stand by itself is made up of an independent clause. in the sentence "I didn't know that the dog ran through the yard. including clauses contained within clauses. Traditionally. as they accept the idea of a non-finite clause. Clauses are often contrasted with phrases. However.asp From Wikipedia In grammar.. and adverb clauses." "through the yard. there are three main types of dependent clauses: noun clauses." "ran through the yard.educationplanner. whereas a phrase either contained a finite verb but not its subject (in which case it is a verb phrase) or did not contain a finite verb. www. although in other languages in certain clauses the subject may not appear explicitly as a noun phrase.. a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition[1] . In some languages it may be a pair or group of words that consists of a subject and a predicate. as is the sentence as a whole.door").

dependent noun clauses are shown in bold: • • "I imagine that they're having a good time. plus what would otherwise be an independent clause. adjectives.nouns. [edit] Structures of dependent clauses The other major way to classify dependent clauses is by their structure. adjective clauses typically come at the end of their phrase and usually have a relative pronoun forming a relative clause. Sometimes the two interpretations are not synonymous. and adverbs. although even this classification scheme does make some reference to the clause's function in a sentence.) An adjective clause modifies a noun phrase. as in the English sentence "We saw a movie.") or as an adverb clause ("We saw a movie. The pronoun can sometimes be omitted to produce a reduced relative clause: • • "The woman I saw said otherwise. and. At times more than one interpretation is possible. we went dancing." "She's worried because they were already an hour late. as in "Let me know when you're ready. in some languages. such as "before he comes" or "because they agreed. all will be explained. we went dancing. In the following English examples. and are either adjective clauses or adverb clauses." consist of a preposition-like subordinating conjunction." where "after which we went dancing" can be seen either as an adjective clause ("We saw a movie. . it usually precedes (in a periodic sentence) or follows (in a loose sentence) its main clause. with many being able to function in either capacity. but are both intended. In English. respectively. as there are many different ways that a dependent clause can be structured. but "that they're having a good time" is a dependent clause. These clauses act much like prepositional phrases." An adverb clause typically modifies its entire main clause. it may be difficult to apply these classifications at all." "I keep thinking about what happened yesterday." The line between categories may be indistinct. In English."). after which we went dancing. common structures include the following: • Many dependent clauses." (The word that is optional in the first sentence." where "when you're ready" functions both as a noun clause (the object of know. In English. identifying what knowledge is to be conveyed) and as an adverb clause (specifying when the knowledge is to be conveyed)." "I found the book that she suggested to me. After the movie. This scheme is more complex. After we saw the movie. highlighting a complication in the entire dependent/independent contrast: "They're having a good time" is a complete sentence. The following adverb clauses show when (with the subordinating conjunction "when") and why (with the subordinating conjunction "because"): • • "When she gets here. and therefore an independent clause.

" usually consist of the conjunction that plus what would otherwise be an independent clause. or of an independent clause alone (with an implicit preceding that). such as "what she did" (in the sense of "the thing she did").com/Q/What_is_clauses#ixzz1GGMYX94c Types of clauses Types of Clauses Like a phrase. For this reason. such as one of the participants (as in "I wonder who came") or even the truth of the state (as in "I wonder whether he came"). but occasionally they function as adverb clauses. they are often called that-clauses. plus a clause in which the relative pronoun plays a part. along with having a subject and predicate. a subordinate or dependent clause does not express a complete thought and therefore is not a sentence. Declarative content clauses refer to states of affairs. such as "whether they came" and "where he went" (as in "I don't know where he went"). are much like declarative ones. expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence." generally consist of a relative pronoun.com A clause is a group of words that have a subjet and a predicate and is used as a sentence or part of a sentence. On the contrary. Declarative content clauses.• • • • • Relative clauses. An independent clause. such as "him leave" (as in "I saw him leave") and "him to leave" (as in "I wanted him to leave"). Read more: http://wiki. a clause is a group of related words. Fused relative clauses.answers. they modify their relative pronoun's antecedent and follow the phrase or clause that they modify. as in "It is doubtful that they came. a clause has a subject and predicate. in either case. they incorporate their subjects into their relative pronouns." but this implication is easily removed by the context. consisting only of an object and an additional structure (usually an infinitive). except that they are introduced by interrogative words. they refer to an unknown element of a state of affairs. Small clauses. From answer. Rather than referring to a state of affairs. such as "which I couldn't see. with the latter being predicated to the former by a controlling verb or preposition. . Relative clauses usually function as adjective clauses. as in "It is fortunate that they came." Interrogative content clauses. it is often implied that the state of affairs is the case. A subordinate clause standing alone is the most common type of sentence fragment. are minimal predicate structures. are like ordinary relative clauses except that they act as noun clauses. but unlike a phrase. such as "that they came.

or. • After she told Fernando to leave. Free speech has a price. Erica brushed her long. . The most important thing to remember is that an independent clause can stand alone as a complete sentence. • Erica brushed her long. but. raven hair while she waited for Fernando to leave. and Erica brushed her long. raven hair. raven hair. Erica brushed her long. The Washingtons hurried home. When they are part of longer sentences. a semicolon joins two independent clauses: • Fernando left. raven hair. Here. nor. and yet) or by using semicolons. Here.Independent clauses He saw her. The independent clause is preceded by a clause that can't stand alone. In the following example the independent clause is a simple sentence. they are referred to as independent (or main) clauses. the coordinating conjunction and joins two independent clauses: • Fernando left. All sentences must include at least one independent clause. Two or more independent clauses can be joined by using coordinating conjunctions (and. raven hair. Grammatically complete statements like these are sentences and can stand alone. for. • Erica brushed her long. so.

In the following sentence. This clause couldn't stand by itself. and adverbs. received intense coverage.). But everyone agreed that something should be done. In the complete sentence. which is the relative pronoun that begins the subordinate clause.) Sometimes beginning a sentence this way creates exactly the effect you want. you'll have no trouble finding support for your position from the best writers and usage experts. as in the following sentence. Relative clauses A relative clause begins with a relative pronoun and functions as an adjective. An old rule says that you shouldn't. unless. or. this clause functions as an adjective describing ceremony. Subordinate clauses A subordinate clause has a subject and predicate but. nouns. If you're confronted with an advocate of the old rule. it separates the clause and yet draws attention to its relationship with the previous clause.The independent clause is followed by a clause that can't stand alone. (Notice the preceding sentence. which is why it is also called a dependent clause. cannot stand by itself. Use this technique when it works for you. the subject of the independent clause. that. Subordinate clauses function in sentences as adjectives. Note that in a relative clause the relative pronoun is sometimes the subject of the clause. Celebrities is the subject of the clause and attended is the predicate. • The novel that won the Pulitzer Prize didn't sell well when it was first published. It depends on something else to express a complete thought. for example. yet) can be used to join an independent clause to another independent clause. if. which several celebrities attended. the relative pronoun that is the subject of its clause and won is the predicate. Its role in the complete sentence is to modify novel. for. etc. which. . but. nor. as in the next sentence. But can you begin a sentence with one of these conjunctions? • No one knew what to do. Beginning sentences with coordinating conjunctions Any of the coordinating conjunctions (and. • The ceremony. and sometimes the object. whom. what. whose) and some by subordinating conjunctions (although. In the next example . But beginning a sentence with a coordinating conjunction is widely accepted today. unlike an independent clause. when. so. Some subordinate clauses are introduced by relative pronouns (who. because.

) The following two sentences show more dramatically how you must focus on the clause rather than the complete sentence in choosing the right pronoun case. (subject of the predicate is) The host told us how he escaped. mother is the subject of the clause. offered to be scorekeeper. (A good way to determine the right pronoun case is to forget everything but the clause itself: whoever presented the winning ticket. In this clause. whom. whomever. Again. remember this important rule: The case of the pronoun is governed by the role it plays in its own clause. whoever is correct because it is the subject of called. The clause modifies Arthur. • • We asked whomever we saw for a reaction to the play. adored is the predicate. (complement of the linking verb is) Give it to whoever arrives first. not whoever. who comes to the games every week. is the object of the preposition. In each sentence the clause is the direct object of asked. In deciding which case of who you should use in a clause. We asked whoever called us to call back later. while in the second sentence. you may be tempted to think whomever rather than whoever should be the pronoun here. Noun clauses A noun clause serves as a noun in a sentence. the clause modifies Arthur. on the assumption that it is the object of the preposition to. Look at the following sentence. Refer to the basic rule: The case should be based on the pronoun's role within its own clause. • • • • What I want for dinner is a hamburger.• Arthur. (object of the preposition to) Pronoun case in subordinate clause Who. Who is the subject of the clause and comes is the predicate. not by its relation to the rest of the sentence. was asked to be scorekeeper. In the following sentence . Choosing the right case of pronoun can be especially confusing because the pronoun may appear to have more than one function. At first. • Arthur. whoever. (object of the predicate told) The vacation is what I need most. . whoever is the subject of the verb presented. whomever is correct because within its clause it is the object of saw. But in the first sentence. yes. But in fact the entire clause. whom the team mother adored. • They gave the money to whoever presented the winning ticket. whomever presented the winning ticket. and whom is the direct object of adored. no.

adjectives. if. because introduces the adverbial clause in which van is the subject and needed the predicate. Again. and under what conditions.Adverbial clauses Many subordinate clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions called adverbial clauses. the subject of the clause is Mauna Loa and the predicate is was erupting and [was] spewing. Dependent clauses can function as nouns. but with both a subject and predicate (more on those in the next post). the subordinate clause as a whole acts as an adverb. Types of clauses from other A clause is essentially a phrase. These clauses begin with a dependent word. telling why the tourists decided to have lunch in the village. answering questions like how. when. to what extent. or complement (see English Grammar: Basic Sentence Elements). while a dependent clause cannot. The adverbial clause answers the question “When did we drive?” In the following sentence.”). Examples of these conjunctions are because. like a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun. functioning as a subject. What happened while the volcano was erupting? The independent clause we drove away as quickly as we could completes the thought. What these conjunctions have in common is that they make the clauses that follow them unable to stand alone.“). Dependent or Subordinate Clauses A dependent or subordinate clause depends on an independent clause to express its full meaning (as in “Because I love grammar.” A noun clause can replace any noun in a sentence. • While Mauna Loa was erupting and spewing fountains of lava into the air. Clauses are either dependent or independent. and adverbs: • Noun Clause – “The boy wondered if his parents bought him what he wanted for Christmas. when. while is a subordinating conjunction introducing the adverbial clause. An independent clause can exist by itself as a complete sentence (as in “I love grammar. • The group of tourists decided to have lunch in the village because the van needed repairs. unless. This clause is dependent because it is an incomplete thought. . What happened because the van needed repairs? The independent clause The group of tourists decided to have lunch in the village is necessary to complete the thought. This clause is an incomplete thought. why. object. we drove away as quickly as we could. The clauses act as adverbs. and although. where. In the preceding sentence .

the song that you told me about.” A nonrestrictive clause begins with a relative pronoun like which or who. sold for a lot of money. they’re either restrictive or nonrestrictive (also called defining and non-defining. the good song. but I’ve yet to find a source mentioning an “appositive clause. adverb clauses express when.• Adjective Clause (or relative clause) – “I listened to the song that you told me about. as in “I’ll do the laundry later. Note: the relative pronoun is often omitted (“The building (that) they built”). there’s only one building to talk about. or integrated and supplementary): o Restrictive Clause – “The building that they built in San Francisco sold for a lot of money.” • Note: appositives can include clauses. . leaving what is called an elliptical clause or contact clause. why. whereas the example for the restrictive clause implies that there could be several buildings. It specifies or restricts the noun. even though they can be restrictive or nonrestrictive like relative clauses.” An adjective clause describes a noun just like an adjective. which they built in San Francisco. Which song? The new song. essential and nonessential. and how something occurs. A dependent clause is an adverb clause if you can replace it with an adverb. Adverb Clause – “I’ll do the laundry when I’m out of clothes. It adds extra information about an already-specific noun. in this case. it specifies which building the speaker is referring to. in this case.” Like all adverbials. o Nonrestrictive Clause – “The building.” They’re generally regarded as a type of noun phrase.” A restrictive clause begins with a relative pronoun like that or who (or sometimes which – see Which Versus That). Often called relative clauses. where.

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