“A PROJECT OF CROSS – CULTURAL COMMUNICATION”

BY: SYEDA SIDRA QAMAR (Reg. # 61101-9709019-6) SOBIA MEHMOOD (Reg. # SIBGHA MALIK (Reg. # 37405-2179412-0) SUMERA IQBAL (Reg. # UZMA TARIQ (Reg. # 34705-7695420-6) FATIMA JINNAH WOMEN UNIVERSITY, THE MALL, RAWALPINDI, 2006.

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“A PROJECT OF CROSS – CULTURAL COMMUNICATION”

This project has been submitted in the partial fulfillment of requirement of the degree of MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION MAY,2006 FATIMA JINNAH WOMEN UNIVERSITY, THE MALL, RAWALPINDI, 2006.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are really thankful to Mr. Ahmad Noubi Mousa, Press Counsellor, Embassy of Egypt, who proved to be a great help in making our project and providing all the relevant information. We are also grateful to Miss Hend, who helped us in preparing our display and also gave information about the Egyptian lifestyle. We took a lot of help from the World Bank in getting our economic data and latest facts and figures.

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ABSTRACT

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CONCLUSION ……………………………………... 4 6 39 40 5 ..TABLE OF CONTENTS S... 1 2 3 4 Contents ABSTRACT ………………………………………… INTRODUCTION…………………………………. REFERENCES ……………………………………… Page No. No.

A small group of people were nobles. The areas of our focus will be the geography. or in the streets. social. while the second and third floors provided the family living space. In an environment. farmers. The people of ancient Egypt built mud brick homes in villages and in the country. chests for clothing. economic and cultural aspects of Egypt. craftsmen and scribes. HISTORY OF EGYPT ANCIENT EGYPTIAN LIFE Daily life in ancient Egypt revolved around the Nile and the fertile land along its banks. which has a diversified work force. pottery jars. The yearly flooding of the Nile enriched the soil and brought good harvests and wealth to the land. The knowledge about inter cultural differences is very important for effective communication. 6 . The commoners lived in town houses usually two to three stories high. it is vital to consider these differences so that there is no miscommunication or misunderstanding between people. political. history. these different groups of people made up the population of ancient Egypt. Most ancient Egyptians worked as field hands. Together. in the river. In this report we will focus on different aspects of Egypt with reference to inter cultural communication. small boxes for jewelry and cosmetics. Most all people had some furniture consisting mostly of a stool.Inter cultural or cross-cultural communication means the communication among different cultures whose perceptions and backgrounds are different from each other’s.the region of the Nile and the Pharaohs. and oil lamps. They grew some of their own food and traded in the villages for the food and goods they could not produce. The first story of the town home was usually reserved for businesses. Many people slept on the roof during the summer to keep cool. Sewage had to be disposed of by each household in pits.

Figure 2:Pharaoh Jewelry 7 . The runoff water drained away through a pipe that led to the garden. They were ground into a powder and mixed with oil to make eye color called Kohl. Other cosmetics used included colors for the lips. The common folk wore their hair short. It was believed the makeup had magical and even healing powers. HAIRSTYLES Hairstyles were very similar to that of today’s. JEWELERY Everyone in Egypt wore some type of jewelry. and anklets. bracelets. armlets. Most people bathed daily in the river or out of a water basin at home. Wigs were worn by both men and women.a gray Figure 1: Kohl lead ore. Both men and women wore pierced earrings. People rubbed themselves daily with perfumed oil. a cleansing cream was used. Men. Mirrors of highly polished silver or copper were used. and galena -. It was also used to fight eye infections and reduce the glare of the sun. Rings and amulets were especially worn to ward off the evil spirits and injury. The Kohl was kept in jars and applied to the eyes with a small stick. Eye paint was made from green malachite. Some even believed that wearing it would restore poor eyesight. women and children of all ages and classes wore makeup. Instead of washing with soap. except for one braided lock worn to one side.COSMETICS Cleansing rituals were very important to the Egyptians. Young girls usually kept their hair in pigtails while boys had shaved heads. cheeks and nails. The upper and lower eyelids were painted with the black cosmetic that extended in a line out to the sides of the face.

men usually wore a short skirt Figure 3:Kilt and Frock called a kilt. Clothes were usually made of linens ranging from coarse to fine texture. and some took care of people after they died. or minor gods who represented plants or animals. Women wore a straight fitting dress held up by straps. Parties and festivals were also celebrated oftenly. The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to recognize and worship these gods and goddesses so that life continued smoothly. swimming. Some gods and goddesses took part in creation. Each one with their own role to play in maintaining peace and harmony across the land.CLOTHING Egyptian clothing styles did not change much throughout ancient times. and boat games. ENTERTIANMENT Egyptians spent their spare time doing a wide variety of things. but the most important source of entertainment & relaxation was the Nile river. Others were either local gods who represented towns. and many of these activities are shown on the tomb walls. During the Old and Middle kingdoms. some offered protection. Dramatizations were held in the temples. hunting crocodiles and hippopotamuses. some Figure 4: Gods and Goddesses brought the flood every year. Activities on the river include fishing. 8 . GODS AND GODDESSES The ancient Egyptians believed in many different gods and goddesses.

The Egyptian method of preparing the body varied with the social status of the deceased . creating lifelike and natural 'mummies'. the ancient Egyptians developed a method of preserving bodies so they would remain lifelike. The pharaoh was the political and religious leader of the Figure 7: Pharaoh 9 . The process included embalming the bodies and wrapping them in strips of linen. and occasionally. the ancient Egyptians began burying their dead in coffins to protect them from wild Figure 5: Making a Mummy animals in the desert. Later. The best preserved mummies are those of the pharaohs and their relatives. However. dry sand of the desert.MUMMIFICATION The earliest ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert. Over many centuries.Members of the nobility and officials also often received the same treatment. they realized that bodies placed in coffins decayed when they were not exposed to the hot. The heat and dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies quickly. some animals were also mummified. Today we Figure 6: Mummy call this process mummification. PHARAOH The most powerful person in ancient Egypt was the Pharaoh. Mummification was related to beliefs concerning the afterlife and was undertaken to safeguard the fate of the soul. For religious reasons. common people.

There are about eighty pyramids known today from ancient Egypt. 10 . the pharaoh represented the gods on Earth. and defended Egypt against foreigners. Many pharaohs went to war when their land was threatened or when they wanted to control foreign lands. As 'Lord of the Two Lands' the pharaoh was the ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt. It is known as the 'Great Pyramids. If the pharaoh won the battle. He owned all of the land. holding the titles: 'Lord of the Two Lands' and 'High Priest of Every Temple'. The most well-known of these pyramids was built for the pharaoh Khufu. made laws. As 'High Priest of Every Temple'. The three largest and best-preserved of these were built at Giza at the beginning of the Old Kingdom.Egyptian people. collected taxes. The pharaohs were buried in pyramids of many different shapes and sizes from before the beginning of the old kingdom to the end of the middle Figure 8: The Pyramids kingdom. PYRAMIDS The ancient Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs and their queens. the conquered people had to recognize the Egyptian pharaoh as their ruler and offer him the finest and most valuable goods from their land. He performed rituals and built temples to honor the gods.

some 11 . During this time there were many changes in terms of what the ancient Egyptians believed in. and how they lived their lives.TEMPLES The ancient Egyptians believed that temples were the homes of the gods and goddesses. TRADE Craftsmen in ancient Egypt were usually trained and skilled labourers. However. many aspects of the basic culture. These scenes showed the pharaoh fighting in battles and performing rituals with the gods and goddesses TIME PERIOD OF ANCIENT EGY PT The civilization of ancient Egypt lasted for over three thousand years. Every temple was dedicated to a god or goddess and he or she was worshipped there by the temple priests and the pharaoh. They were often well-respected in the community and had a comfortable lifestyle. Yet every craftsman's lifestyle and social standing depended on the Figure 10: Ancient Egyptian Craftsmen Figure 9: Philae Temple quality of his skills and experience. religion. Their walls were covered with scenes that were carved onto the stone then brightly painted. The large temple buildings were made of stone so that they would last forever. Thus. and artistic style of ancient Egypt remained the same.

craftsmen had more difficult lives than others. scribes were able to preserve the beliefs. WRITINGS The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to record and communicate information about religion and government. Thus. GEOGRAPHY OF EGYPT GEOGRAPHIC BORDERS 12 . history and ideas of ancient Egypt in temple and tomb walls and on papyrus scrolls. throughout three thousand years of ancient Figure 11: Egyptian Hieroglyphs Egyptian civilization. at least three other scripts were used for different purposes. Objects for temples or the pharaoh were made in temple workshops or palace workshops. they invented written scripts that could be used to record this information. Most craftsmen worked in workshops with other craftsmen. Objects for ordinary people were made by local craftsmen in small workshops. The most famous of all ancient Egyptian scripts is hieroglyphic. Using these scripts. However.

the Gulf of Suez.024 Figure 12: Map of Egypt kilometers. except the frontier ones. 1.449 square kilometers of land. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION Egypt can be divided in to four parts 13 . The country has shorelines on the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. it borders Libya to the west. Its elevation extremes are lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m highest point: Mount Catherine 2. is about the same size as Texas and New Mexico combined. which is considered part of Southwest Asia. the Sinai Peninsula is in Southwest Asia. Egypt. All governorates.Most of Egypt is in North Africa. the eight governorates of Upper Egypt along the Nile River south from Cairo to Aswan. The country is located in North Africa and includes the Sinai Peninsula. which include four city governorates: Alexandria (Al Iskandariyah).900 kilometers of coastline along the Mediterranean Sea. Egypt's natural boundaries consist of more than 2. Port Said (Bur Said) and Suez. covering 1.240 kilometers. the nine governorates of Lower Egypt in the Nile Delta region. are in the Nile Delta or along the Nile Valley and Suez Canal.001. and from east to west. and the five frontier governorates covering Sinai and the deserts that lie west and east of the Nile. and the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east. Cairo (Al Qahirah).629 m PROVINCES Egypt is divided into twenty-six governorates (sometimes called provinces). the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. The country's greatest distance from north to south is 1. Sudan to the south.

THE SINAI PENINSULA Sinai is shaped like a triangle having its base at the Mediterranean in the North and its apex in the South at Ras Mohammed. only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere 2. 4. THE WESTERN DESERT Extends from the Nile Valley in the East to the Libyan borders in the west. THE EASTERN DESERT Extends from the Nile Valley in the West to the Red Sea. Suez gulf. GEOGRAPHICAL IMPORTANCE Egypt has great geographical importance Figure 13: Rivers and Seas 1. and Suez Canal in the East. the Gulf of Aqaba to the East and the Gulf of Suez and Suez canal to the west. THE NILE VALLEY AND DELTA It extends from north of the valley to the Mediterranean Sea and is divided into Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt: extending from Wadi Halfa to the south of Cairo and from North Cairo to the Mediterranean Sea. shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea 14 .1. 3. and from Lake Manzala on the Mediterranean in the North to Egypt's southern birders with Sudan in the south. It controls Sinai Peninsula. and from the Mediterranean in the north to Egypt's southern borders. 2. It also controls Suez Canal.

industrial. which qualifies them to attend universities later. Students with high scores continue on to a general secondary school. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF EGYPT EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM The education system in Egypt is state-sponsored and set up in three stages: primary school (6 years).3. Primary schools are not segregated by sex. Recently. The preparatory school exams are taken at the end of the 9th year which determine the school the student moves on to. secretaries. and juxtaposition to Israel. establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics. and secondary school (3 years). etc. or agricultural education and pursue careers as technicians. Those with low scores are directed to technical secondary schools. but the public preparatory and secondary schools are. Basic education consists of the first two stages and is obligatory for all students in the country. salespeople. Also its size. preparatory school (3 years). the National Council for Women has launched an optimistic project in cooperation with the Elderly Education Organization and with the help of nongovernmental organizations aiming at 15 Figure 14: Al Azhar University . although 16% of girls still do not enroll in primary school. where students study commercial.

One may choose to relax on the wondrous Egypt Figure 17: Deep Sea diving in Red Sea 16 . thus laying grounds for human civilization. and tours to Christian and other religious monuments are popular. The modern style of houses is simple and spacious with relatively a few number of rooms. The modern buildings of today Figure 15:State Building are very stylish and technically constructed.eradicating illiteracy among women aged 15-45 years as well as executing a plan for total elimination of illiteracy among those aged 15-35 by the year 2006. BUILDINGS There is consensus among historians and Egyptologists that the ancient Egyptians were the first builders ever known to man. Certainly it is a prime location to see the great heritage from the ancient world. great scuba diving and even golf. Egypt also offers nature and desert treks. TOURISM Most people who think of Egypt think of antiquities. Is the oldest continuously operating university in the world. the increase in percentage of women in universitites has increased manifolds. urbanization and man's settlement in a specific homeland of his own for the first time in history. including Pyramids and wonderful temples. they taught humanity how to design and erect buildings. An important university is Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo. this program has worked very efficiently and by 2000. but it is also part Figure 16: A view on Nile of the Holy Land. fishing and birding expeditions. but Egypt offers much more.

Hur Palace Village. is the region between Cairo and the Mediterranean Sea. The underwater museum of sunken monuments is also a great attraction for divers and sea lovers.Red Sea whose beaches are an exquisite gift of nature. Yasmine Village. The long chain of mountains. offers colorful corals and rare marine life. Shedwan Village. or even leisurely float down the Egyptian Nile on a luxurious river boat. run parallel to the coastline. Safaga . It is the country's number one foreign currency earner. most of which is suitable for camping. Figure 18: Egyptian Farmers About half of the population of the Nile Delta are fellahin 17 . Princess Village. tourism is vital. providing the area with a very rich soil. with their different colors.km. producing about $4bn a year and accounting for more than 11% of GDP. The sea with its crystal clear blue waters. A very good time to visit Egypt is during the spring time. with several thousand persons/sq. As a result. During spring the weather is fairly moderate. many places in the Nile Valley region are extremely crowded.You can take in the high culture of Cairo. separated from the sea only by a plain. Seven branches of the Nile create the triangular-shaped delta. POPULATION DWELLING The vast majority of Egypt's inhabitants live in the Nile valley and delta. and the rest of the country (about 96% of Egypt's total land area) is sparsely populated. Some of the famous tourist sites are Ayn Sukhna "Hot Spring". For the Egyptians. The areas to the west and the east of the Nile River--the Western and the Eastern Deserts--only contain small settlements of semi-nomads--the Bedouins (pronounced bed-oo-in) OCCUPATION The Nile Delta. or Lower Egypt.

before it of course the Coptic language was the main language. Pants are usually worn with a top that is not tucked in. or peasants--either small landowners or laborers--living on the produce of the land. is that it tends to discourage male advances. LANGUAGE The ancient Egyptian language spoken by the pharoahs no longer exists and no one speaks it. and to keep sand and dust out of their eyes. especially the women. this English and French are widely understood by educated classes. physical or verbal. The current official language of Egypt is Arabic which came to Egypt since the Arab/Islamic invasions very long ago.(pronounced fel-uh-heen). Most fellahin. Other than. One reason this is favored by many young women. who start working as soon as they are able to do so. FOOD 18 . spend their lives in drudgery. Women in Egypt are beautiful. demonstrating either modesty or Figure 20: Traditional Dresses Muslim piety. CLOTHING Egyptians wear cloths over their heads to shade their eyes from the bright desert sun. The average family of fellahin has four or five children. Most of the Muslim women wear a higab (a large scarf fastened at the neck) or garb themselves in a piece of fabric that also covers their breasts. Skirts and dresses are long. The men sometimes wear the tarboosh (pronounced tahr-boosh) a tall red hat with a Figure 19: Tarboosh black tassel.

Because Egypt was very dry. mutton and pork. and apricots.The principal Egyptian food is a porridge made of dried brown beans or lentils baked for 24 hours and served with butter or olive oil and lemon. they eat inexpensive food such as rice and cornmeal bread. figs. You will hear the music of different kinds and genres. snake charmers and jugglers perform for the 19 . Due to meat being expensive. They enjoy Figure21: Traditional Foods many drinks with barley in it like beer and wine. beef. from indigenous folk and Arabic music to the modern Western-style songs. present entertainment to passers-by: groups of Figure 22: Evening Dances street-dancers dance to the music of the kanoun (pronounced kah-noon)--a string instrument. Cheese is a very common food. Market places in cities and villages. The main source of protein is bread. LIFE STYLE People in Egypt like music. Sweet Turkish coffee and dark tea flavored with herbs are the favorite beverages. People very often sing as they work. They eat a variety of fish and fowl. and so are such fruits as dates. especially onions and tomatoes. There is a KFC or other fast food restaurant in almost every city. Mainly they grew wheat and barley. Fast food in Egypt is very common. called bazaars. drinks like wine and beer. and sweet things. The Egyptians love good food. Vegetables are always in season and people eat many of them. Egyptians made the wheat into bread and into soup and porridge.

on the contrary. The most humid area is along the Mediterranean coast. Religious rituals are habitually practiced at home. Winter weather is fairly cold than most people anticipate and cold winds blew over the desert at sunrise and sunset. In the coastal region average annual temperatures range from a maximum of 37° C (99° F) to a minimum of 14° C (57° F). however. does not mean the Egyptians avoided the pleasant things in life. love chants. SOCIAL CUSTOMS AND NORMS The Egyptian civilization was one of the great civilizations that had deep-rooted values and persistent traditions. Egyptians joyfully embraced life. most of which are still prevalent in daily life and social behaviours. songs. and folk arts. In recent years the humidity has spread to Cairo and the city swelters in August. Being religious and acknowledging God's grace is a common phenomenon in Egyptian society. the Egyptian people kept their customs and traditions. WEATHER Egyptian summer is hot and dry in most of the country and humid in the Delta and along the Mediterranean Coast. ranging from a maximum of 46° C (114° F) during daylight hours to a minimum of 6° C (42° F) after sunset. Adherence to religion. Despite the succession of different political rules. where the average annual rainfall is about 200 mm. as evident in their jokes.coins the audiences toss them. but usually there are bright. 20 . Feasts and festivals play an important part in Egyptian life. Along with these religious rituals are habitually practiced at home. Winter is mild with some rain. sunny days and with cold nights. Wide variations of temperature occur in the deserts. During the winter season desert temperatures often drop to 0° C (32° F).

deplored vice. Other feasts and ceremonies are also celebrated. the Middle and Outset of Sha'aban. In every age. such as Epiphany and Christmas. and held ethics as the standard by which people are appraised. which is currently called Sham El-Nassem. These feasts are still celebrated by Egyptians and some of them are celebrated by both Muslims and Christians. Egyptians still celebrate these two feasts. Ancient Egypt was among the earliest civilizations. many aspects of Egypt's ancient culture exist in interaction with newer elements. For millennia. Theatrical plays depicting myths are also performed. the Outset of Rajab. there is the feast of spring. CULTURE OF EGYPT The Culture of Egypt has five thousand years of recorded history. Feasts and festivals played an important part in Egyptian life. Arab and Islamic culture. itself with roots in Ancient Egypt. including the influence of modern Western culture. LANGUAGE 21 . Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism. The Egyptians are faithful. Egypt maintained a strikingly complex and stable culture that influenced later cultures of Europe. Today. Other occasions are New Year's Day and various feasts for the beginning of the seasons. and later. there were new feasts to be celebrated. There is the feast of flood tide that is known in the modern age as Nile Flood Day. In addition. the Tenth of Moharam. After the Pharaonic era. for a time Christianity.One of the most important characteristics of Egyptian society since the dawn of civilization is the cooperation among society members. the New Hijri Year's Day. the Middle East and Africa. and the Outset of Ramadan. among which are the Prophet's Birthday.

Much of the remaining 6 % of the population are Christians. Coptic became popular in the Roman and Byzantine periods. RELIGION Ancient Egyptian religion was a polytheistic system that saw the world as in conflict between forces of order and chaos. it is the most widely spoken second dialect. Arabic came to Egypt in the seventh century and Egyptian Figure23:Coptic Languages Arabic has since become the modern speech of the country. Christians constitute about 10% of the population. Domari language and Berber language Siwi are spoken in different parts.The Ancient Egyptian language was among the first written languages. Egypt is a republic with Islam as the figures. Among other languages are Nobiin. The Coptic language. the only extant descendant of Egyptian. the majority of whom belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church. Today. probably due to the influence of Egyptian cinema throughout the Arabic-speaking world. is today the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church. Bedawi (a Beja language). are Sunni and 1% are Shi'a Muslims. and is known from hieroglyphic inscriptions preserved on monuments and sheets of papyrus. 22 . Kenuzi-Dongola. Of the many varieties of Arabic. approximately 94 %. Islam in Egypt came to the country with the successors of Mohammed. and Egypt was indeed one of the strongest early Christian communities.

Islam is the official state religion. and they creates paper as ancient Egyptian created papyrus. the ney and the oud. African and Western influences. EGYPTIAN ART IN MODERN TIMES Modern and contemporary Egyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art scène. the Government places restrictions on this right. According to the Constitution. ancient Egyptians were playing harps. From the 1970s. and Shari'a is the primary source of legislation. flutes. As early as 4000 BC. MUSIC AND DANCE Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous. The Egyptian pyramids that still inspire awe and admiration are result of the strong resolution of pharaohs to be respected and remembered by the future generations. wood. Folk music from Egypt's many cultures is also listened to a lot and played during weddings and other festivites. It is composed of organic material such as tree bark and palm fibers. however. The foundation of most of artists is paper making. Egyptian music has strong improvisatory and rhythmic components. Egyptian pop music has become increasingly Figure 24:An Oud important in Egyptain cultured: listened to by mainly the large youth population of Egypt. Egyptian mummies and sculptures of stone. Arabic. Turkish. clay and metals are very famous. 23 . . Belly dance is very common and often women dance in groups.STATUS OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM The Constitution provides for freedom of belief and the practice of religion.

the 6th of January. This festival includes parades in the city streets and lights. The end of Ramadan and the end of the fasting is marked with a festival called Eid-al-Fitr and is celebrated with large feasts. Some festivals are historic. Egyptians share a delightful Gaelic-like wit and an understanding of human behavior that far 24 . Most important are: SHAMAL-NASEEM Both Muslims and Christians in Egypt welcome the first day of spring with a festive picnic called Sham al-Naseem. The people of Egypt are a culture built upon for thousands of years. it remains an energetic country but it has also made its way into the modern world. which means “the smell of spring”. Christmas trees and manger scenes in the week leading up to Christmas. RAMADAN Ramadan is a very important festival in the Islamic calendar. MILAD-UN-NABI The Prophet Mohammed's birthday is celebrated at “Milad-un-Nabi”. celebrations in churches are held and the bells of the churches ring out. drummers and special sweets. EGYPTIAN CHRISTMAS Churches and Christian homes are festooned with lights. some are secular and some are religious. In general. Like ancient Egypt. DAILY LIFE IN EGYPT Modern Egypt is full of life and people who are hopeful for their future.FESTIVALS Egypt is a wonderous country with many festivals and celebrations. and on Christmas Eve. feasts.

The people of ancient Egypt highly valued family life. In many areas of Nile Valley region women do not appear in public without a veil. Here they are so close to each others. creating an ideal environment. They have a tendency to resist problem solutions. dignity. family honor is very important. In general. extremely clever and expressive of their feeling without the need for shame. the Egyptians are moderately religious and religious principles is quite noticed in their daily lives. Egyptians are 25 . hospitable and modest. EGYPTIAN PEOPLE Egyptians are friendly. guardianship. Usually an elder male member is the head of the family. funny. For most women. and vendetta laws (a feud between families) apply. FAMILY LIFE The family is the backbone of the Egyptian/Middle Eastern culture. Each family member is responsible for the integrity of family and for the behaviour of other members. valued and coddled by the whole family and community. They also have a sense of balance and moderation. generous. marriage marks the transition to adulthood. The Egyptian people are beautiful. For most men. The father controls families' possessions and income. The most deeply held values-honor.exceeds ours. marriage means leaving their families' homes and sometimes their home areas. kind. . and security--are derived by an individual only as part of a larger kin group. and inheritance) while canon law defines these matters among Christians.Insha’Allah and Ma'lesh are essential vocabulary for the visitor. family ties are far stronger than in the west. children are adored. Whether Muslim or Copt. The traditional Sunni religious code for Muslims defines most Muslims' family matters (marriage.

Superstition is part of the Egyptian way of life.The population growth rate is 1. It is the most important ceremony for Egyptian females. This has been made Figure 25: Egyptian Bride clear in the many statues and writings that depict men and women in a relationship where both depended upon each other. Arabs.1% BEHAVIOUR Egyptians are. About 8 percent of the Egyptians are Copts. HIV/AIDS . Egyptian football clubs enjoy 26 . They ask for God’s mercy when they get desperate. SPORTS The most played most-watched sport in Egypt is football.proud and sensitive. color blind. and Turks. Other races are regarded as equal and given the same consideration. The ancient Egyptians held marriage as a sacred bond. Greeks.78% (2005). generally speaking. People are in habit of taking good care of their health and observe proper cleanliness. Foreigners who live in Egypt are treated with respect and tolerance. THE EGYPTIAN WEDDING Egyptian wedding is a very special historical ceremony. sub-Saharan Africans. Egypt remains one of the more secure and friendly countries in the world for tourists. More then 250 mosques stand in the city. Wedding is considered as a strong bond and life time commitment. being descended from the ancient Egyptians. Berbers. Most modern Egyptians are of a complex racial mixture. Cairo is the center of Islam in Egypt. proud of their history but sensitive of their present.adult prevalence rate is less than 0. More then 90 percent of Egyptians are Muslims.

white. The national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band.popularity even non-egyptians in the Arab countries. There is a national holiday on Revolution Day. Among the most-watched sports in Egypt are basketball. Its capital is Cairo. The local name is Misr. squash and tennis. and black. GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL NAME OF COUNTRY The conventional long name is Arab Republic of Egypt. Conventional short form is Egypt. Currency is Egyptian pound. Design is based on the Arab Liberation flag . Figure 26: Flag of Egypt CONSTITUTION 27 . 23 July (1952). GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE COUNTRY Egypt gained its independence on 28 February 1922 (from UK). while the former name is United Arab Republic (with Syria). Official language is Arabic. Its national anthem is “Biladi Biladi Biladi” FLAG DESCRIPTION Three equal horizontal bands of red (top). handball.

it is the supreme executive and administrative organ of the State. According to the Constitution. then elected by popular referendum for a six-year term. 28 .The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt. It consists of the Council of Ministers. who is nominated by a two-thirds majority of the People's Assembly. and proposes new laws and regulations to the People's Assembly. The current Head of State is Mohamad Hosni Mubarak. declares that Egypt is an Arab Republic with a democratic system. EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY Executive authority is vested in the Head of State. new laws. the budget and the development plan. who has been reelected for a fourth six-year term in October 1999. WORKING OF GOVERNMENT The type of government is Republic. JUDICIAL SYSTEM The judiciary authority is exercised through four categories of courts of justice: the Supreme Constitutional Court. the People's Assembly is made up of 444 directly elected members and 10 members appointed by the President. The Shura Council is Egypt's consultative council. It offers advice and consultation. the Court of Cessation. The Constitution further outlines Egypt's political system and defines public authorities. who serve for a term of five years. adopted in 1971 and amended in 1980. The People's Assembly is the legislative branch of the State. the President of the Republic. The President formulates and supervises the implementation of general state policy. He also acts as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. which is the highest judicial body. It approves the general policy. who supervises the work of the government. headed by the Prime Minister.

Mubarak is currently serving his sixth term in office. 29 . The National Democratic Party currently holds the majority of seats in the People's Assembly. ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS Egypt is divided into 26 Governorates.the seven courts of Appeal in the various Governorates. and designate industrial areas. WMO. UNESCO. each headed by a Governor who is appointed by the President. CURRENT POLITICAL SITUATION Egypt has been a republic since 18 June 1953. provide services. Ahmed Nazif was sworn in as Prime Minister on 9 July 2004. Local Popular Councils are elected bodies that work closely with local government administrative units at various levels.g. President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak has been the President of the Republic since October 14. UNHCR. This law prohibits the formation of religiousbased political parties. There are currently 17 active political parties representing various stands across the political spectrum. local government units establish and manage all public utilities. WHO. Within their districts. WIPO. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION PARTICIPATION Egypt is a participant in many of the international organizations e. Prime Minister Dr. and the Summary Tribunals in the districts. WTO and many others. He is the leader of the ruling National Democratic Party. Law 40 of 1977 regulates the formation of political parties in Egypt. POLITICAL SYSTEM The political system is based on a Multi-party system. 1981. following the assassination of former-President Mohammed Anwar El-Sadat.

It also stresses on the need of developing relations with Arab and African countries and maintaining regional peace. designed to prevent well-known candidates such as Ayman Nour from standing against Mubarak. FOREIGN RELATIONS Geography. Adopt the dialogue rather than conflict. the Egyptian people had an apparent chance to elect a leader from a list of various candidates. to enhance Egypt's international relations and to invest her time– honored reputation of honoring her international covenants. Mubarak announced that he had ordered the reform of the country's presidential election law. call for serious world move to combat terrorism. These endeavors combined should establish past gains and open up new prospects in the future. paving the way for multi-candidate polls in the upcoming presidential election. military strength. But the results of the recent parliamentary elections. For the first time since the 1952 movement. genuinely indicate that a change of some sorts is underway. and diplomatic expertise give Egypt extensive political influence in the Middle East.In late-February 2005. history. and paved the road for his easy re-election victory. population. Cairo has been a crossroads of Arab 30 . However. FOREIGN POLICY The main feature of Egyptian foreign policy is the drive to strengthen independent decision-making. which saw Islamist parties such as the banned Muslim Brotherhood winning many seats. the new law placed draconian restrictions on the filing for presidential candidacies.

Egypt is developing the Hala'ib Triangle north of the Treaty line. and was the first Arab nation to make peace with Israel. POLITICAL OVERVIEW Egypt is politically stable.. The League of Arab States headquarters is in Cairo. Since the attack on Taba and other Egyptian resort towns on the Red Sea in October 2004.commerce and culture for millennia. The Secretary General of the League has traditionally been an Egyptian. and civil rights are in most cases well secured. but which adhere to an anti-democratic ideology.215 refugees living here. they cannot do without this aid. but have withdrawn their military presence. 31 . Former Egyptian Foreign Minister Amr Moussa is the present Secretary General of the Arab League. The main challenge is the Muslim Brotherhood. and its intellectual and Islamic institutions are at the center of the region's social and cultural development. Egypt vigilantly monitors the Sinai and borders with Israel and the Gaza Strip. where elections allow only some political parties. Egypt is a country with a fair amount of freedom of speech. and. Egypt has only a limited democracy. TRANSNATIONAL ISSUES Egypt and Sudan retain claims to administer the two triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel.Egypt is on good terms with all of its neighbours.S. Egypt's political system receives strong financial support from the U. but there have been many examples of unrest in recent years. There are some 70. which runs for elections. given all the challenges of the Egyptian state.

4%). $337. POSITION IN THE WORLD: Egypt has the largest population in the Arab world and. However. Still. controlling about 2/3 of all seats. Tourism.e. The development of an export market for natural gas is a bright spot for future growth prospects. has become increasingly resilient and has recovered 32 .9 billion (2005 est. account for onehalf of GDP(48.Tourism and the Suez Canal are important service sectors.The 2005 elections represented a little earthquake to Egyptian politics. after Saudi Arabia. vulnerable to political events. although the ruling party remained in full control of the People's Assembly. ECONOMY OF EGYPT ECONOMIC OVERVIEW Lack of substantial progress on economic reform since the mid 1990s has limited foreign direct investment in Egypt and kept annual GDP growth in the range of 2%-3% in 200103. but improvement in the capital-intensive hydrocarbons sector does little to reduce Egypt's persistent unemployment. in part as a result of these reforms.1% of GDP the previous year. the strong progress by the Muslim Brotherhood sent a signal of a people increasingly in the mood for political change.5% ECONOMIC STRUCTURE: The economy of Egypt is comprised of following main sectors: SERVICES: The economy is dominated by services. the largest GDP i. including public administration.) with a growth rate of 4. in 2004 Egypt implemented several measures to boost foreign direct investment. The budget deficit rose to an estimated 8% of GDP in 2004 compared to 6.

2%. construction. rice. and 38% of the merchandise exports.8% of GDP in fiscal year 2005. sheep and goats. 33 . food processing. Even though only 3% of total land area is cultivable land.Manufacturing industries are also important. fruits. hydrocarbons. The Suez Canal has performed strongly in recent years as high fuel prices have made the longer trip around Africa more expensive for ships traveling between Europe and Asia. and are heavily concentrated in Cairo and the Nile Delta.strongly from the effects of both the September 11. but it is still an important activity. cattle. tourism. agriculture accounted for 15% of GDP in fiscal 2005. The industrial production growth rate is 3. INDUSTRIES: Overall contribution of the industries in the GDP is 37%. metals . 2001 suicide attacks in the US and the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. corn. accounting (including oil refining) for 18. Major industries are textiles. cement. vegetables. beans. accounting for 14. The major agricultural products are cotton. wheat. chemicals. AGRICULTURE: Agriculture’s contribution to GDP is gradually diminishing. MINING: Mining (while includes petroleum and natural gas) is also a mainstay of the economy.2% of GDP in fiscal 2005. water buffalo.

4 -10.1 13.7%.3 15.1%.2 3. growth is expected to strengthen to 5.9 29.There is an attempt to constrain by the stability of the Egyptian pound against the US $ as well as by a decline in average world non-oil commodity prices.ECONOMIC FORECAST / MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS: Factors Real GDP Industrial production growth Gross agricultural production growth Unemployment rate (average) Consumer price inflation (av) Lending rate Government Balance(% of GDP) Exports of goods fob (US $ bn ) Imports of goods fob (US $ bn ) External debt(year end .5 10 4.9 13. ECONOMIC GROWTH: 2005 4.US $ bn ) Exchange rate E :US $ (av) Population (m) Source: Economic intelligence unit. BUDGET 34 . INFLATION Average consumer price inflation in 2006 is expected to rise to 5.78 74. POVERTY The population living below the poverty line is 16.70 Egypt has raised its forecast for real GDP growth in fiscal 2006 to 5%.5 37.0 37.0 4.2 3.1 9 5.3% in fiscal 2007.8 5.4 -9.3 26.9 5.0 2006 5.2 17.1 3.

As a result of strengthening foreign currency inflows and major improvements in the policy framework.5.6% of GDP. bolstered by tariff cuts. the Egyptian pound strengthened on the official market in late 2004---for the first time since its ten years.4% to 9. but banking sector consolidation and privatization have continued to make rapid progress.78.03 billion expenditures: $24. which will be dragged down by a sharp decline in oil prices.55 billion. EXCHANGE SECTOR: In calendar 2006 trade deficit will be little changed. The Central Bank has lowered interest rates.30 June. The budget (central government) deficit widened markedly in fiscal 2005 from 6. strengthening economic growth and a depreciation of the US dollar. FISCAL POLICY: The fiscal year starts and ends at 1 July . The exchange rates are Egyptian pounds per US dollar . outweighing export growth. ECONOMIC POLICY: There were few new economic policy initiatives during the cabinet interregnum.The budget details of Egypt lie at revenues: $18. as a rise in gas exports offsets strong growth in import spending. The trade deficit will widen markedly as imports continue to rise strongly. 35 . EXCANGE RATES The currency of Egypt is Egyptian Pound (EGP).

Foreign reserves reached almost US $20bn by end-September. The second phase of pipeline to export gas to Arab countries has been completed. FOREIGN TRADE AND PAYMENTS The current account returned to surplus in the third quarter of calendar 2005 and the capital account registered a surplus equivalent to 7% of GDP on an annualized basis. US. Suez Canal receipts reached another record in 2005. However. THE DOMESTIC ECONOMY: Since the 1970s billions of dollars in economic aid have poured into Egypt from the United States. The domestic economy of Egypt has progressed a lot in the recent years. unemployment. appear to be having a positive effect on the country's overall economy. has introduced more coherence into monetary management by raising interest rates on Treasury bills and other saving instruments to counter inflation and support the Egyptian pound. and its large investments in warfare resulted in inflation. the country's inefficient state-run industries. and European nations. 36 . its bloated public sector. A series of economic and fiscal reforms undertaken in the 1990s. EXPORTS AND IMPORTS Main destinations for exports for Egypt are Italy. The tourism sector broke records in 2005 despite a renewal of attacks. UK and France while main origins of imports are US. Arab neighbors. and heavy public debt. a severe trade deficit. Inflation has continued to fall. under the govern ship of Farouk -al-Okdah. Germany. Italy and France. the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE). with support from the International Monetary Fund.MONETARY POLICY: After years of poorly focused monetary policy.

The internet code of the country is .44 billion that makes 3. the merchant marine has total 77 ships. Egypt has a large communication system. Damietta. Alexandria.000 km and waterways of 3.THE IMPACT OF THE WTO In June 1995. Air Force. The imports and exports between the two countries are increasing. Around 90% of Egypt trade is with WTO member states.eg .4% of the GDP. Zeit are some of the important ports and terminals. El Dekheila. Egypt has 87 airports and 2 heliports. There are 98 TV broadcast systems.500 km. The annual expenditure on military is $2. Egypt acceded the World Trade Organization (WTO). roadways total 64. MILITARY The military of the Egypt has major branches of Army.6 million telephone users. Air Defense Command. The government has prescribed 18 years of age for conscript military service in which 3-year service is obligatory.2 million internet users. There are 9. it is acknowledged that some negative effects are likely to arise. It also imports fruits like oranges from Egypt.063 km. and it has a longer period in which to adapt to WTO rules. Nevertheless. Egypt imports surgical tools 37 . Port Said. Internet access and cellular service are available commonly. Suez. Navy. Egypt benefits from several concessions. including better access to markets in developing countries. INFRASTRUCTURE The transportation services consist of railways total 5. There are 50 ISPs with 4. Pakistan is the second country of the world to import cotton from Egypt. RELATIONS WITH PAKISTAN Egypt is developing relations with Pakistan.

Goal of intercultural communication can 38 . Having considerable knowledge of each others culture will create an ideal communication environment to conduct a business successfully. The Egyptian Prime Minister and his ministers are soon going to visit Pakistan and Prime Minister Shoukat Aziz is also reciprocating the good will visit in order to increase the bilateral relations and cross cultural communication. CONCLUSION In the report different aspects of Egypt are discussed in a brief but comprehensive manner. We learnt a lot about cultural differences while doing this report. Investment in the cement industry of Pakistan is also in the pipeline.from Pakistan and is also negotiating to import wheat.

concepts of space and rules of social behavior to conduct a business. Chronicle of the Pharaohs. 39 . Anatomy of a Civilization. Egypt is blend of vast historic.Thames and Hudson. (2001). The ancient and modern Egypt is enriched in its cultural heritage and traditions. (1989).P. Pakistan and Egypt have good bilateral relationship in the fields of economy and trade but these need to develop more in order to increase cross cultural communication between the two countries. modern and Islamic traditions. James TGH. Facts on File Inc. as both countries are tied in golden thread of Islam. The Path to Tutankhamun . Ancient Egypt. The Great Discoveries. Ancient Egypt is perhaps the most fascinating of the ancient civilizations. Rout ledge. Kegan Paul. REFERENCES Clayton. Ancient Egypt.only be successfully achieved by knowing cultural differences. Reeves N . (1994) . (1992) . Howard Carter. Kemp BJ. The people have respectable social relations with each other.

(1988) . The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt . Valley of the Kings . The Complete Valley of the Kings.Thames and Hudson. Oxford University Press. Romer J . 40 . Tyldesley JA . Wilkinson RH.Reeves N. Shaw I . Michael O'Mara Books. (2000) . (2004). Rutherford Press. (2000). Tales from Ancient Egypt .