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BY: SYEDA SIDRA QAMAR (Reg. # 61101-9709019-6) SOBIA MEHMOOD (Reg. # SIBGHA MALIK (Reg. # 37405-2179412-0) SUMERA IQBAL (Reg. # UZMA TARIQ (Reg. # 34705-7695420-6) FATIMA JINNAH WOMEN UNIVERSITY, THE MALL, RAWALPINDI, 2006.
“A PROJECT OF CROSS – CULTURAL COMMUNICATION”
This project has been submitted in the partial fulfillment of requirement of the degree of MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION MAY,2006 FATIMA JINNAH WOMEN UNIVERSITY, THE MALL, RAWALPINDI, 2006.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are really thankful to Mr. Ahmad Noubi Mousa, Press Counsellor, Embassy of Egypt, who proved to be a great help in making our project and providing all the relevant information. We are also grateful to Miss Hend, who helped us in preparing our display and also gave information about the Egyptian lifestyle. We took a lot of help from the World Bank in getting our economic data and latest facts and figures.
TABLE OF CONTENTS S.. 4 6 39 40 5 .. REFERENCES ……………………………………… Page No.. 1 2 3 4 Contents ABSTRACT ………………………………………… INTRODUCTION………………………………….. CONCLUSION ……………………………………. No..
The areas of our focus will be the geography. The commoners lived in town houses usually two to three stories high.Inter cultural or cross-cultural communication means the communication among different cultures whose perceptions and backgrounds are different from each other’s. HISTORY OF EGYPT ANCIENT EGYPTIAN LIFE Daily life in ancient Egypt revolved around the Nile and the fertile land along its banks. The knowledge about inter cultural differences is very important for effective communication. craftsmen and scribes. in the river. The people of ancient Egypt built mud brick homes in villages and in the country. Together. or in the streets. these different groups of people made up the population of ancient Egypt. small boxes for jewelry and cosmetics. and oil lamps. The first story of the town home was usually reserved for businesses. which has a diversified work force. Sewage had to be disposed of by each household in pits. chests for clothing. In an environment. A small group of people were nobles. it is vital to consider these differences so that there is no miscommunication or misunderstanding between people. economic and cultural aspects of Egypt. Most ancient Egyptians worked as field hands. Many people slept on the roof during the summer to keep cool. They grew some of their own food and traded in the villages for the food and goods they could not produce. Most all people had some furniture consisting mostly of a stool. In this report we will focus on different aspects of Egypt with reference to inter cultural communication.the region of the Nile and the Pharaohs. farmers. political. pottery jars. while the second and third floors provided the family living space. The yearly flooding of the Nile enriched the soil and brought good harvests and wealth to the land. 6 . social. history.
People rubbed themselves daily with perfumed oil. except for one braided lock worn to one side. Men. a cleansing cream was used. Young girls usually kept their hair in pigtails while boys had shaved heads. JEWELERY Everyone in Egypt wore some type of jewelry. Figure 2:Pharaoh Jewelry 7 . Eye paint was made from green malachite. bracelets. women and children of all ages and classes wore makeup. Both men and women wore pierced earrings. Most people bathed daily in the river or out of a water basin at home. and galena -. They were ground into a powder and mixed with oil to make eye color called Kohl. The Kohl was kept in jars and applied to the eyes with a small stick. armlets.a gray Figure 1: Kohl lead ore. Wigs were worn by both men and women. and anklets. Rings and amulets were especially worn to ward off the evil spirits and injury. The upper and lower eyelids were painted with the black cosmetic that extended in a line out to the sides of the face. HAIRSTYLES Hairstyles were very similar to that of today’s. Mirrors of highly polished silver or copper were used.COSMETICS Cleansing rituals were very important to the Egyptians. Some even believed that wearing it would restore poor eyesight. Other cosmetics used included colors for the lips. Instead of washing with soap. The runoff water drained away through a pipe that led to the garden. It was also used to fight eye infections and reduce the glare of the sun. It was believed the makeup had magical and even healing powers. The common folk wore their hair short. cheeks and nails.
The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to recognize and worship these gods and goddesses so that life continued smoothly. Each one with their own role to play in maintaining peace and harmony across the land. 8 . and some took care of people after they died. swimming. ENTERTIANMENT Egyptians spent their spare time doing a wide variety of things. some Figure 4: Gods and Goddesses brought the flood every year. hunting crocodiles and hippopotamuses.CLOTHING Egyptian clothing styles did not change much throughout ancient times. and boat games. Clothes were usually made of linens ranging from coarse to fine texture. some offered protection. During the Old and Middle kingdoms. but the most important source of entertainment & relaxation was the Nile river. Others were either local gods who represented towns. Dramatizations were held in the temples. men usually wore a short skirt Figure 3:Kilt and Frock called a kilt. Women wore a straight fitting dress held up by straps. GODS AND GODDESSES The ancient Egyptians believed in many different gods and goddesses. Parties and festivals were also celebrated oftenly. Activities on the river include fishing. or minor gods who represented plants or animals. Some gods and goddesses took part in creation. and many of these activities are shown on the tomb walls.
and occasionally. The Egyptian method of preparing the body varied with the social status of the deceased . Over many centuries. Later. the ancient Egyptians began burying their dead in coffins to protect them from wild Figure 5: Making a Mummy animals in the desert. Mummification was related to beliefs concerning the afterlife and was undertaken to safeguard the fate of the soul. some animals were also mummified. Today we Figure 6: Mummy call this process mummification. creating lifelike and natural 'mummies'. However. common people. PHARAOH The most powerful person in ancient Egypt was the Pharaoh. they realized that bodies placed in coffins decayed when they were not exposed to the hot. The heat and dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies quickly.MUMMIFICATION The earliest ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert. The process included embalming the bodies and wrapping them in strips of linen. For religious reasons. The best preserved mummies are those of the pharaohs and their relatives.Members of the nobility and officials also often received the same treatment. the ancient Egyptians developed a method of preserving bodies so they would remain lifelike. dry sand of the desert. The pharaoh was the political and religious leader of the Figure 7: Pharaoh 9 .
The most well-known of these pyramids was built for the pharaoh Khufu. made laws. 10 . holding the titles: 'Lord of the Two Lands' and 'High Priest of Every Temple'. The pharaohs were buried in pyramids of many different shapes and sizes from before the beginning of the old kingdom to the end of the middle Figure 8: The Pyramids kingdom. It is known as the 'Great Pyramids. There are about eighty pyramids known today from ancient Egypt. the conquered people had to recognize the Egyptian pharaoh as their ruler and offer him the finest and most valuable goods from their land. the pharaoh represented the gods on Earth. If the pharaoh won the battle. He owned all of the land. and defended Egypt against foreigners. The three largest and best-preserved of these were built at Giza at the beginning of the Old Kingdom. As 'High Priest of Every Temple'. As 'Lord of the Two Lands' the pharaoh was the ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt. He performed rituals and built temples to honor the gods. PYRAMIDS The ancient Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs and their queens.Egyptian people. Many pharaohs went to war when their land was threatened or when they wanted to control foreign lands. collected taxes.
They were often well-respected in the community and had a comfortable lifestyle. Yet every craftsman's lifestyle and social standing depended on the Figure 10: Ancient Egyptian Craftsmen Figure 9: Philae Temple quality of his skills and experience.TEMPLES The ancient Egyptians believed that temples were the homes of the gods and goddesses. The large temple buildings were made of stone so that they would last forever. many aspects of the basic culture. religion. and how they lived their lives. However. Every temple was dedicated to a god or goddess and he or she was worshipped there by the temple priests and the pharaoh. and artistic style of ancient Egypt remained the same. These scenes showed the pharaoh fighting in battles and performing rituals with the gods and goddesses TIME PERIOD OF ANCIENT EGY PT The civilization of ancient Egypt lasted for over three thousand years. Their walls were covered with scenes that were carved onto the stone then brightly painted. During this time there were many changes in terms of what the ancient Egyptians believed in. Thus. TRADE Craftsmen in ancient Egypt were usually trained and skilled labourers. some 11 .
However. they invented written scripts that could be used to record this information. Using these scripts. at least three other scripts were used for different purposes. GEOGRAPHY OF EGYPT GEOGRAPHIC BORDERS 12 . history and ideas of ancient Egypt in temple and tomb walls and on papyrus scrolls.craftsmen had more difficult lives than others. Most craftsmen worked in workshops with other craftsmen. Objects for temples or the pharaoh were made in temple workshops or palace workshops. throughout three thousand years of ancient Figure 11: Egyptian Hieroglyphs Egyptian civilization. The most famous of all ancient Egyptian scripts is hieroglyphic. Objects for ordinary people were made by local craftsmen in small workshops. scribes were able to preserve the beliefs. Thus. WRITINGS The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to record and communicate information about religion and government.
it borders Libya to the west. except the frontier ones. and from east to west.449 square kilometers of land. The country is located in North Africa and includes the Sinai Peninsula.Most of Egypt is in North Africa. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION Egypt can be divided in to four parts 13 . the nine governorates of Lower Egypt in the Nile Delta region. Egypt. the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. The country has shorelines on the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.900 kilometers of coastline along the Mediterranean Sea. which include four city governorates: Alexandria (Al Iskandariyah). All governorates. and the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east. The country's greatest distance from north to south is 1. the Gulf of Suez. Egypt's natural boundaries consist of more than 2. are in the Nile Delta or along the Nile Valley and Suez Canal. Its elevation extremes are lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m highest point: Mount Catherine 2. the Sinai Peninsula is in Southwest Asia. and the five frontier governorates covering Sinai and the deserts that lie west and east of the Nile.629 m PROVINCES Egypt is divided into twenty-six governorates (sometimes called provinces).240 kilometers.024 Figure 12: Map of Egypt kilometers. the eight governorates of Upper Egypt along the Nile River south from Cairo to Aswan. Cairo (Al Qahirah). Port Said (Bur Said) and Suez. 1. Sudan to the south. is about the same size as Texas and New Mexico combined.001. covering 1. which is considered part of Southwest Asia.
THE SINAI PENINSULA Sinai is shaped like a triangle having its base at the Mediterranean in the North and its apex in the South at Ras Mohammed. 2. 4.1. 3. and from the Mediterranean in the north to Egypt's southern borders. the Gulf of Aqaba to the East and the Gulf of Suez and Suez canal to the west. It controls Sinai Peninsula. THE WESTERN DESERT Extends from the Nile Valley in the East to the Libyan borders in the west. THE NILE VALLEY AND DELTA It extends from north of the valley to the Mediterranean Sea and is divided into Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt: extending from Wadi Halfa to the south of Cairo and from North Cairo to the Mediterranean Sea. and Suez Canal in the East. THE EASTERN DESERT Extends from the Nile Valley in the West to the Red Sea. shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea 14 . It also controls Suez Canal. and from Lake Manzala on the Mediterranean in the North to Egypt's southern birders with Sudan in the south. Suez gulf. only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere 2. GEOGRAPHICAL IMPORTANCE Egypt has great geographical importance Figure 13: Rivers and Seas 1.
preparatory school (3 years). Students with high scores continue on to a general secondary school. although 16% of girls still do not enroll in primary school. Recently. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF EGYPT EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM The education system in Egypt is state-sponsored and set up in three stages: primary school (6 years). secretaries. but the public preparatory and secondary schools are. industrial. The preparatory school exams are taken at the end of the 9th year which determine the school the student moves on to. which qualifies them to attend universities later. salespeople. Primary schools are not segregated by sex. the National Council for Women has launched an optimistic project in cooperation with the Elderly Education Organization and with the help of nongovernmental organizations aiming at 15 Figure 14: Al Azhar University . and secondary school (3 years). Also its size. or agricultural education and pursue careers as technicians. and juxtaposition to Israel. Basic education consists of the first two stages and is obligatory for all students in the country. Those with low scores are directed to technical secondary schools. where students study commercial. establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics. etc.3.
Egypt also offers nature and desert treks. An important university is Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo. but Egypt offers much more. fishing and birding expeditions. The modern buildings of today Figure 15:State Building are very stylish and technically constructed. and tours to Christian and other religious monuments are popular. including Pyramids and wonderful temples. TOURISM Most people who think of Egypt think of antiquities. BUILDINGS There is consensus among historians and Egyptologists that the ancient Egyptians were the first builders ever known to man. but it is also part Figure 16: A view on Nile of the Holy Land. great scuba diving and even golf. they taught humanity how to design and erect buildings. the increase in percentage of women in universitites has increased manifolds. One may choose to relax on the wondrous Egypt Figure 17: Deep Sea diving in Red Sea 16 .eradicating illiteracy among women aged 15-45 years as well as executing a plan for total elimination of illiteracy among those aged 15-35 by the year 2006. thus laying grounds for human civilization. The modern style of houses is simple and spacious with relatively a few number of rooms. this program has worked very efficiently and by 2000. urbanization and man's settlement in a specific homeland of his own for the first time in history. Certainly it is a prime location to see the great heritage from the ancient world. Is the oldest continuously operating university in the world.
tourism is vital. producing about $4bn a year and accounting for more than 11% of GDP. Seven branches of the Nile create the triangular-shaped delta. or Lower Egypt. Hur Palace Village. Shedwan Village. with several thousand persons/sq. Safaga .You can take in the high culture of Cairo. offers colorful corals and rare marine life. or even leisurely float down the Egyptian Nile on a luxurious river boat.km. most of which is suitable for camping. is the region between Cairo and the Mediterranean Sea. run parallel to the coastline. Figure 18: Egyptian Farmers About half of the population of the Nile Delta are fellahin 17 . and the rest of the country (about 96% of Egypt's total land area) is sparsely populated. Princess Village. The underwater museum of sunken monuments is also a great attraction for divers and sea lovers. POPULATION DWELLING The vast majority of Egypt's inhabitants live in the Nile valley and delta. Yasmine Village. A very good time to visit Egypt is during the spring time. For the Egyptians.Red Sea whose beaches are an exquisite gift of nature. Some of the famous tourist sites are Ayn Sukhna "Hot Spring". The sea with its crystal clear blue waters. many places in the Nile Valley region are extremely crowded. During spring the weather is fairly moderate. The long chain of mountains. providing the area with a very rich soil. with their different colors. It is the country's number one foreign currency earner. As a result. separated from the sea only by a plain. The areas to the west and the east of the Nile River--the Western and the Eastern Deserts--only contain small settlements of semi-nomads--the Bedouins (pronounced bed-oo-in) OCCUPATION The Nile Delta.
One reason this is favored by many young women. before it of course the Coptic language was the main language. physical or verbal. LANGUAGE The ancient Egyptian language spoken by the pharoahs no longer exists and no one speaks it. and to keep sand and dust out of their eyes. FOOD 18 . The average family of fellahin has four or five children.(pronounced fel-uh-heen). spend their lives in drudgery. demonstrating either modesty or Figure 20: Traditional Dresses Muslim piety. CLOTHING Egyptians wear cloths over their heads to shade their eyes from the bright desert sun. or peasants--either small landowners or laborers--living on the produce of the land. The current official language of Egypt is Arabic which came to Egypt since the Arab/Islamic invasions very long ago. who start working as soon as they are able to do so. is that it tends to discourage male advances. Pants are usually worn with a top that is not tucked in. Women in Egypt are beautiful. The men sometimes wear the tarboosh (pronounced tahr-boosh) a tall red hat with a Figure 19: Tarboosh black tassel. Most of the Muslim women wear a higab (a large scarf fastened at the neck) or garb themselves in a piece of fabric that also covers their breasts. Skirts and dresses are long. Most fellahin. Other than. this English and French are widely understood by educated classes. especially the women.
People very often sing as they work.The principal Egyptian food is a porridge made of dried brown beans or lentils baked for 24 hours and served with butter or olive oil and lemon. Cheese is a very common food. There is a KFC or other fast food restaurant in almost every city. You will hear the music of different kinds and genres. Fast food in Egypt is very common. The Egyptians love good food. figs. They enjoy Figure21: Traditional Foods many drinks with barley in it like beer and wine. and so are such fruits as dates. they eat inexpensive food such as rice and cornmeal bread. Because Egypt was very dry. Mainly they grew wheat and barley. snake charmers and jugglers perform for the 19 . Sweet Turkish coffee and dark tea flavored with herbs are the favorite beverages. The main source of protein is bread. They eat a variety of fish and fowl. Vegetables are always in season and people eat many of them. and sweet things. Egyptians made the wheat into bread and into soup and porridge. Market places in cities and villages. from indigenous folk and Arabic music to the modern Western-style songs. drinks like wine and beer. and apricots. beef. especially onions and tomatoes. LIFE STYLE People in Egypt like music. called bazaars. Due to meat being expensive. present entertainment to passers-by: groups of Figure 22: Evening Dances street-dancers dance to the music of the kanoun (pronounced kah-noon)--a string instrument. mutton and pork.
most of which are still prevalent in daily life and social behaviours. the Egyptian people kept their customs and traditions. does not mean the Egyptians avoided the pleasant things in life. songs. Egyptians joyfully embraced life. WEATHER Egyptian summer is hot and dry in most of the country and humid in the Delta and along the Mediterranean Coast. Despite the succession of different political rules. where the average annual rainfall is about 200 mm. Winter is mild with some rain. Feasts and festivals play an important part in Egyptian life. ranging from a maximum of 46° C (114° F) during daylight hours to a minimum of 6° C (42° F) after sunset. SOCIAL CUSTOMS AND NORMS The Egyptian civilization was one of the great civilizations that had deep-rooted values and persistent traditions. sunny days and with cold nights. Adherence to religion. The most humid area is along the Mediterranean coast. however. and folk arts. In the coastal region average annual temperatures range from a maximum of 37° C (99° F) to a minimum of 14° C (57° F). love chants. but usually there are bright. as evident in their jokes. Winter weather is fairly cold than most people anticipate and cold winds blew over the desert at sunrise and sunset. on the contrary. Religious rituals are habitually practiced at home. In recent years the humidity has spread to Cairo and the city swelters in August. During the winter season desert temperatures often drop to 0° C (32° F). Wide variations of temperature occur in the deserts.coins the audiences toss them. Being religious and acknowledging God's grace is a common phenomenon in Egyptian society. Along with these religious rituals are habitually practiced at home. 20 .
Feasts and festivals played an important part in Egyptian life. the New Hijri Year's Day. and the Outset of Ramadan. there is the feast of spring. many aspects of Egypt's ancient culture exist in interaction with newer elements. and held ethics as the standard by which people are appraised. such as Epiphany and Christmas. deplored vice. CULTURE OF EGYPT The Culture of Egypt has five thousand years of recorded history. For millennia. Egyptians still celebrate these two feasts. the Tenth of Moharam. In addition. the Middle and Outset of Sha'aban. There is the feast of flood tide that is known in the modern age as Nile Flood Day. LANGUAGE 21 . Ancient Egypt was among the earliest civilizations. Today. among which are the Prophet's Birthday. there were new feasts to be celebrated. In every age. including the influence of modern Western culture. Other occasions are New Year's Day and various feasts for the beginning of the seasons. for a time Christianity. and later. which is currently called Sham El-Nassem. Egypt maintained a strikingly complex and stable culture that influenced later cultures of Europe. Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism. Theatrical plays depicting myths are also performed. These feasts are still celebrated by Egyptians and some of them are celebrated by both Muslims and Christians. The Egyptians are faithful. the Outset of Rajab. itself with roots in Ancient Egypt. After the Pharaonic era. Other feasts and ceremonies are also celebrated. the Middle East and Africa.One of the most important characteristics of Egyptian society since the dawn of civilization is the cooperation among society members. Arab and Islamic culture.
22 . the majority of whom belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church. Kenuzi-Dongola. RELIGION Ancient Egyptian religion was a polytheistic system that saw the world as in conflict between forces of order and chaos.The Ancient Egyptian language was among the first written languages. Christians constitute about 10% of the population. probably due to the influence of Egyptian cinema throughout the Arabic-speaking world. and is known from hieroglyphic inscriptions preserved on monuments and sheets of papyrus. approximately 94 %. Much of the remaining 6 % of the population are Christians. Domari language and Berber language Siwi are spoken in different parts. Egypt is a republic with Islam as the figures. Bedawi (a Beja language). the only extant descendant of Egyptian. Islam in Egypt came to the country with the successors of Mohammed. Arabic came to Egypt in the seventh century and Egyptian Figure23:Coptic Languages Arabic has since become the modern speech of the country. Coptic became popular in the Roman and Byzantine periods. are Sunni and 1% are Shi'a Muslims. it is the most widely spoken second dialect. Among other languages are Nobiin. The Coptic language. is today the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church. Of the many varieties of Arabic. and Egypt was indeed one of the strongest early Christian communities. Today.
It is composed of organic material such as tree bark and palm fibers. Turkish. From the 1970s. wood. the ney and the oud. African and Western influences. The Egyptian pyramids that still inspire awe and admiration are result of the strong resolution of pharaohs to be respected and remembered by the future generations. and they creates paper as ancient Egyptian created papyrus. According to the Constitution. Islam is the official state religion. however. Egyptian mummies and sculptures of stone. As early as 4000 BC. Arabic. The foundation of most of artists is paper making. ancient Egyptians were playing harps. . Folk music from Egypt's many cultures is also listened to a lot and played during weddings and other festivites. 23 .STATUS OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM The Constitution provides for freedom of belief and the practice of religion. clay and metals are very famous. EGYPTIAN ART IN MODERN TIMES Modern and contemporary Egyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art scène. Egyptian music has strong improvisatory and rhythmic components. flutes. Belly dance is very common and often women dance in groups. MUSIC AND DANCE Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous. Egyptian pop music has become increasingly Figure 24:An Oud important in Egyptain cultured: listened to by mainly the large youth population of Egypt. and Shari'a is the primary source of legislation. the Government places restrictions on this right.
it remains an energetic country but it has also made its way into the modern world. which means “the smell of spring”. drummers and special sweets. Like ancient Egypt. Most important are: SHAMAL-NASEEM Both Muslims and Christians in Egypt welcome the first day of spring with a festive picnic called Sham al-Naseem. Some festivals are historic. the 6th of January. The people of Egypt are a culture built upon for thousands of years. celebrations in churches are held and the bells of the churches ring out. some are secular and some are religious. Egyptians share a delightful Gaelic-like wit and an understanding of human behavior that far 24 . Christmas trees and manger scenes in the week leading up to Christmas. feasts. and on Christmas Eve. RAMADAN Ramadan is a very important festival in the Islamic calendar. The end of Ramadan and the end of the fasting is marked with a festival called Eid-al-Fitr and is celebrated with large feasts. In general. MILAD-UN-NABI The Prophet Mohammed's birthday is celebrated at “Milad-un-Nabi”. This festival includes parades in the city streets and lights. EGYPTIAN CHRISTMAS Churches and Christian homes are festooned with lights.FESTIVALS Egypt is a wonderous country with many festivals and celebrations. DAILY LIFE IN EGYPT Modern Egypt is full of life and people who are hopeful for their future.
extremely clever and expressive of their feeling without the need for shame.Insha’Allah and Ma'lesh are essential vocabulary for the visitor. Egyptians are 25 . The people of ancient Egypt highly valued family life. For most women. In many areas of Nile Valley region women do not appear in public without a veil. generous. Here they are so close to each others. In general. and vendetta laws (a feud between families) apply. The traditional Sunni religious code for Muslims defines most Muslims' family matters (marriage. guardianship. . family ties are far stronger than in the west. kind. Usually an elder male member is the head of the family. the Egyptians are moderately religious and religious principles is quite noticed in their daily lives. and security--are derived by an individual only as part of a larger kin group. For most men. marriage means leaving their families' homes and sometimes their home areas. FAMILY LIFE The family is the backbone of the Egyptian/Middle Eastern culture. children are adored. The most deeply held values-honor.exceeds ours. Each family member is responsible for the integrity of family and for the behaviour of other members. hospitable and modest. They have a tendency to resist problem solutions. dignity. The father controls families' possessions and income. and inheritance) while canon law defines these matters among Christians. creating an ideal environment. funny. valued and coddled by the whole family and community. Whether Muslim or Copt. EGYPTIAN PEOPLE Egyptians are friendly. The Egyptian people are beautiful. family honor is very important. They also have a sense of balance and moderation. marriage marks the transition to adulthood.
Cairo is the center of Islam in Egypt. THE EGYPTIAN WEDDING Egyptian wedding is a very special historical ceremony.proud and sensitive.78% (2005). SPORTS The most played most-watched sport in Egypt is football. generally speaking. This has been made Figure 25: Egyptian Bride clear in the many statues and writings that depict men and women in a relationship where both depended upon each other. color blind. More then 90 percent of Egyptians are Muslims. Other races are regarded as equal and given the same consideration. and Turks. being descended from the ancient Egyptians. sub-Saharan Africans. Superstition is part of the Egyptian way of life. proud of their history but sensitive of their present. Foreigners who live in Egypt are treated with respect and tolerance.adult prevalence rate is less than 0.1% BEHAVIOUR Egyptians are.The population growth rate is 1. The ancient Egyptians held marriage as a sacred bond. It is the most important ceremony for Egyptian females. Berbers. Wedding is considered as a strong bond and life time commitment. They ask for God’s mercy when they get desperate. Greeks. HIV/AIDS . Egypt remains one of the more secure and friendly countries in the world for tourists. Most modern Egyptians are of a complex racial mixture. Egyptian football clubs enjoy 26 . About 8 percent of the Egyptians are Copts. More then 250 mosques stand in the city. Arabs. People are in habit of taking good care of their health and observe proper cleanliness.
Among the most-watched sports in Egypt are basketball. and black. handball. squash and tennis. Conventional short form is Egypt. The local name is Misr. Currency is Egyptian pound. Official language is Arabic. Its national anthem is “Biladi Biladi Biladi” FLAG DESCRIPTION Three equal horizontal bands of red (top). GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE COUNTRY Egypt gained its independence on 28 February 1922 (from UK). GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL NAME OF COUNTRY The conventional long name is Arab Republic of Egypt. Design is based on the Arab Liberation flag . Its capital is Cairo.popularity even non-egyptians in the Arab countries. while the former name is United Arab Republic (with Syria). There is a national holiday on Revolution Day. Figure 26: Flag of Egypt CONSTITUTION 27 . 23 July (1952). white. The national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band.
declares that Egypt is an Arab Republic with a democratic system. The current Head of State is Mohamad Hosni Mubarak. WORKING OF GOVERNMENT The type of government is Republic. the budget and the development plan. It approves the general policy. The Shura Council is Egypt's consultative council. the President of the Republic. who is nominated by a two-thirds majority of the People's Assembly. JUDICIAL SYSTEM The judiciary authority is exercised through four categories of courts of justice: the Supreme Constitutional Court. EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY Executive authority is vested in the Head of State. which is the highest judicial body. who serve for a term of five years. then elected by popular referendum for a six-year term. new laws. and proposes new laws and regulations to the People's Assembly. It consists of the Council of Ministers. The Constitution further outlines Egypt's political system and defines public authorities. 28 . He also acts as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. the Court of Cessation. The President formulates and supervises the implementation of general state policy. who supervises the work of the government.The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt. adopted in 1971 and amended in 1980. the People's Assembly is made up of 444 directly elected members and 10 members appointed by the President. According to the Constitution. The People's Assembly is the legislative branch of the State. it is the supreme executive and administrative organ of the State. headed by the Prime Minister. who has been reelected for a fourth six-year term in October 1999. It offers advice and consultation.
UNHCR.g. ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS Egypt is divided into 26 Governorates. WMO. UNESCO. each headed by a Governor who is appointed by the President. President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak has been the President of the Republic since October 14. POLITICAL SYSTEM The political system is based on a Multi-party system. following the assassination of former-President Mohammed Anwar El-Sadat. He is the leader of the ruling National Democratic Party. Within their districts. local government units establish and manage all public utilities. This law prohibits the formation of religiousbased political parties. Mubarak is currently serving his sixth term in office. Ahmed Nazif was sworn in as Prime Minister on 9 July 2004. The National Democratic Party currently holds the majority of seats in the People's Assembly. There are currently 17 active political parties representing various stands across the political spectrum. 1981. WIPO.the seven courts of Appeal in the various Governorates. WTO and many others. Prime Minister Dr. and the Summary Tribunals in the districts. CURRENT POLITICAL SITUATION Egypt has been a republic since 18 June 1953. Law 40 of 1977 regulates the formation of political parties in Egypt. 29 . provide services. and designate industrial areas. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION PARTICIPATION Egypt is a participant in many of the international organizations e. Local Popular Councils are elected bodies that work closely with local government administrative units at various levels. WHO.
FOREIGN RELATIONS Geography. paving the way for multi-candidate polls in the upcoming presidential election. which saw Islamist parties such as the banned Muslim Brotherhood winning many seats. Cairo has been a crossroads of Arab 30 . Mubarak announced that he had ordered the reform of the country's presidential election law. genuinely indicate that a change of some sorts is underway. For the first time since the 1952 movement.In late-February 2005. and paved the road for his easy re-election victory. It also stresses on the need of developing relations with Arab and African countries and maintaining regional peace. Adopt the dialogue rather than conflict. to enhance Egypt's international relations and to invest her time– honored reputation of honoring her international covenants. military strength. call for serious world move to combat terrorism. These endeavors combined should establish past gains and open up new prospects in the future. However. the Egyptian people had an apparent chance to elect a leader from a list of various candidates. FOREIGN POLICY The main feature of Egyptian foreign policy is the drive to strengthen independent decision-making. and diplomatic expertise give Egypt extensive political influence in the Middle East. history. population. But the results of the recent parliamentary elections. designed to prevent well-known candidates such as Ayman Nour from standing against Mubarak. the new law placed draconian restrictions on the filing for presidential candidacies.
The League of Arab States headquarters is in Cairo.215 refugees living here. and civil rights are in most cases well secured. The main challenge is the Muslim Brotherhood. but there have been many examples of unrest in recent years. Egypt vigilantly monitors the Sinai and borders with Israel and the Gaza Strip. they cannot do without this aid. and. given all the challenges of the Egyptian state. Egypt's political system receives strong financial support from the U. Egypt has only a limited democracy. Since the attack on Taba and other Egyptian resort towns on the Red Sea in October 2004. which runs for elections. Former Egyptian Foreign Minister Amr Moussa is the present Secretary General of the Arab League. Egypt is developing the Hala'ib Triangle north of the Treaty line. and was the first Arab nation to make peace with Israel. There are some 70. and its intellectual and Islamic institutions are at the center of the region's social and cultural development. POLITICAL OVERVIEW Egypt is politically stable. TRANSNATIONAL ISSUES Egypt and Sudan retain claims to administer the two triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel.. The Secretary General of the League has traditionally been an Egyptian.commerce and culture for millennia.S. Egypt is a country with a fair amount of freedom of speech. but have withdrawn their military presence. 31 .Egypt is on good terms with all of its neighbours. but which adhere to an anti-democratic ideology. where elections allow only some political parties.
1% of GDP the previous year.Tourism and the Suez Canal are important service sectors. $337. the largest GDP i.4%). Tourism. including public administration. The budget deficit rose to an estimated 8% of GDP in 2004 compared to 6.9 billion (2005 est. has become increasingly resilient and has recovered 32 . controlling about 2/3 of all seats. the strong progress by the Muslim Brotherhood sent a signal of a people increasingly in the mood for political change.) with a growth rate of 4. after Saudi Arabia. vulnerable to political events. POSITION IN THE WORLD: Egypt has the largest population in the Arab world and. account for onehalf of GDP(48. in 2004 Egypt implemented several measures to boost foreign direct investment. However. in part as a result of these reforms. The development of an export market for natural gas is a bright spot for future growth prospects. although the ruling party remained in full control of the People's Assembly.5% ECONOMIC STRUCTURE: The economy of Egypt is comprised of following main sectors: SERVICES: The economy is dominated by services.The 2005 elections represented a little earthquake to Egyptian politics.e. ECONOMY OF EGYPT ECONOMIC OVERVIEW Lack of substantial progress on economic reform since the mid 1990s has limited foreign direct investment in Egypt and kept annual GDP growth in the range of 2%-3% in 200103. Still. but improvement in the capital-intensive hydrocarbons sector does little to reduce Egypt's persistent unemployment.
tourism. fruits. corn. and are heavily concentrated in Cairo and the Nile Delta.strongly from the effects of both the September 11. and 38% of the merchandise exports. construction. chemicals. AGRICULTURE: Agriculture’s contribution to GDP is gradually diminishing. The major agricultural products are cotton. food processing.8% of GDP in fiscal year 2005. MINING: Mining (while includes petroleum and natural gas) is also a mainstay of the economy. vegetables. sheep and goats. water buffalo. Even though only 3% of total land area is cultivable land. The industrial production growth rate is 3. but it is still an important activity. accounting (including oil refining) for 18. 2001 suicide attacks in the US and the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. Major industries are textiles. metals .2%. rice. wheat. 33 . accounting for 14. beans. hydrocarbons. cement. agriculture accounted for 15% of GDP in fiscal 2005. The Suez Canal has performed strongly in recent years as high fuel prices have made the longer trip around Africa more expensive for ships traveling between Europe and Asia. cattle. INDUSTRIES: Overall contribution of the industries in the GDP is 37%.2% of GDP in fiscal 2005.Manufacturing industries are also important.
9 5.3 26.3 15.2 3. INFLATION Average consumer price inflation in 2006 is expected to rise to 5.2 17. BUDGET 34 .9 13.There is an attempt to constrain by the stability of the Egyptian pound against the US $ as well as by a decline in average world non-oil commodity prices.8 5. POVERTY The population living below the poverty line is 16.0 2006 5.78 74.3% in fiscal 2007.1%.5 37.9 29.70 Egypt has raised its forecast for real GDP growth in fiscal 2006 to 5%.1 13.7%.5 10 4.ECONOMIC FORECAST / MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS: Factors Real GDP Industrial production growth Gross agricultural production growth Unemployment rate (average) Consumer price inflation (av) Lending rate Government Balance(% of GDP) Exports of goods fob (US $ bn ) Imports of goods fob (US $ bn ) External debt(year end .4 -10.4 -9.0 37. ECONOMIC GROWTH: 2005 4.0 4.US $ bn ) Exchange rate E :US $ (av) Population (m) Source: Economic intelligence unit. growth is expected to strengthen to 5.1 9 5.2 3.1 3.
35 . The exchange rates are Egyptian pounds per US dollar . The trade deficit will widen markedly as imports continue to rise strongly. the Egyptian pound strengthened on the official market in late 2004---for the first time since its ten years.55 billion.5.6% of GDP. As a result of strengthening foreign currency inflows and major improvements in the policy framework. outweighing export growth.4% to 9. ECONOMIC POLICY: There were few new economic policy initiatives during the cabinet interregnum. as a rise in gas exports offsets strong growth in import spending. bolstered by tariff cuts. strengthening economic growth and a depreciation of the US dollar. The Central Bank has lowered interest rates.30 June. EXCANGE RATES The currency of Egypt is Egyptian Pound (EGP).The budget details of Egypt lie at revenues: $18. but banking sector consolidation and privatization have continued to make rapid progress. The budget (central government) deficit widened markedly in fiscal 2005 from 6. FISCAL POLICY: The fiscal year starts and ends at 1 July . which will be dragged down by a sharp decline in oil prices.03 billion expenditures: $24.78. EXCHANGE SECTOR: In calendar 2006 trade deficit will be little changed.
The domestic economy of Egypt has progressed a lot in the recent years. has introduced more coherence into monetary management by raising interest rates on Treasury bills and other saving instruments to counter inflation and support the Egyptian pound. Inflation has continued to fall. the country's inefficient state-run industries. and European nations. Suez Canal receipts reached another record in 2005.MONETARY POLICY: After years of poorly focused monetary policy. and heavy public debt. Germany. EXPORTS AND IMPORTS Main destinations for exports for Egypt are Italy. with support from the International Monetary Fund. A series of economic and fiscal reforms undertaken in the 1990s. Arab neighbors. Italy and France. The second phase of pipeline to export gas to Arab countries has been completed. THE DOMESTIC ECONOMY: Since the 1970s billions of dollars in economic aid have poured into Egypt from the United States. The tourism sector broke records in 2005 despite a renewal of attacks. Foreign reserves reached almost US $20bn by end-September. However. US. and its large investments in warfare resulted in inflation. a severe trade deficit. UK and France while main origins of imports are US. under the govern ship of Farouk -al-Okdah. its bloated public sector. appear to be having a positive effect on the country's overall economy. unemployment. FOREIGN TRADE AND PAYMENTS The current account returned to surplus in the third quarter of calendar 2005 and the capital account registered a surplus equivalent to 7% of GDP on an annualized basis. 36 . the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE).
Internet access and cellular service are available commonly.2 million internet users. Air Defense Command. and it has a longer period in which to adapt to WTO rules. The annual expenditure on military is $2. roadways total 64. Egypt benefits from several concessions. Egypt has a large communication system.THE IMPACT OF THE WTO In June 1995. Alexandria. Egypt has 87 airports and 2 heliports. the merchant marine has total 77 ships. Around 90% of Egypt trade is with WTO member states. Egypt acceded the World Trade Organization (WTO). El Dekheila. RELATIONS WITH PAKISTAN Egypt is developing relations with Pakistan. Egypt imports surgical tools 37 . It also imports fruits like oranges from Egypt.063 km. Suez.6 million telephone users.eg . including better access to markets in developing countries. Nevertheless. it is acknowledged that some negative effects are likely to arise. Damietta. MILITARY The military of the Egypt has major branches of Army. The imports and exports between the two countries are increasing. Pakistan is the second country of the world to import cotton from Egypt.000 km and waterways of 3.500 km. There are 98 TV broadcast systems.4% of the GDP. Navy.44 billion that makes 3. Air Force. There are 9. There are 50 ISPs with 4. Zeit are some of the important ports and terminals. The internet code of the country is . Port Said. INFRASTRUCTURE The transportation services consist of railways total 5. The government has prescribed 18 years of age for conscript military service in which 3-year service is obligatory.
Goal of intercultural communication can 38 . Investment in the cement industry of Pakistan is also in the pipeline. CONCLUSION In the report different aspects of Egypt are discussed in a brief but comprehensive manner. The Egyptian Prime Minister and his ministers are soon going to visit Pakistan and Prime Minister Shoukat Aziz is also reciprocating the good will visit in order to increase the bilateral relations and cross cultural communication. Having considerable knowledge of each others culture will create an ideal communication environment to conduct a business successfully. We learnt a lot about cultural differences while doing this report.from Pakistan and is also negotiating to import wheat.
The ancient and modern Egypt is enriched in its cultural heritage and traditions. Ancient Egypt.P. Chronicle of the Pharaohs. Facts on File Inc. James TGH. (1994) . Ancient Egypt. The Great Discoveries. Pakistan and Egypt have good bilateral relationship in the fields of economy and trade but these need to develop more in order to increase cross cultural communication between the two countries. The people have respectable social relations with each other.Thames and Hudson. Kegan Paul. Anatomy of a Civilization. Egypt is blend of vast historic. Ancient Egypt is perhaps the most fascinating of the ancient civilizations. modern and Islamic traditions. REFERENCES Clayton. Kemp BJ. Howard Carter. (1992) . (1989). The Path to Tutankhamun .only be successfully achieved by knowing cultural differences. as both countries are tied in golden thread of Islam. 39 . concepts of space and rules of social behavior to conduct a business. (2001). Reeves N . Rout ledge.
(2004). (1988) . Wilkinson RH. Tyldesley JA . Romer J . Tales from Ancient Egypt . (2000) . Valley of the Kings . 40 .Reeves N. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt . Michael O'Mara Books. Rutherford Press. (2000). The Complete Valley of the Kings. Shaw I . Oxford University Press.Thames and Hudson.