“A PROJECT OF CROSS – CULTURAL COMMUNICATION”

BY: SYEDA SIDRA QAMAR (Reg. # 61101-9709019-6) SOBIA MEHMOOD (Reg. # SIBGHA MALIK (Reg. # 37405-2179412-0) SUMERA IQBAL (Reg. # UZMA TARIQ (Reg. # 34705-7695420-6) FATIMA JINNAH WOMEN UNIVERSITY, THE MALL, RAWALPINDI, 2006.

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“A PROJECT OF CROSS – CULTURAL COMMUNICATION”

This project has been submitted in the partial fulfillment of requirement of the degree of MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION MAY,2006 FATIMA JINNAH WOMEN UNIVERSITY, THE MALL, RAWALPINDI, 2006.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are really thankful to Mr. Ahmad Noubi Mousa, Press Counsellor, Embassy of Egypt, who proved to be a great help in making our project and providing all the relevant information. We are also grateful to Miss Hend, who helped us in preparing our display and also gave information about the Egyptian lifestyle. We took a lot of help from the World Bank in getting our economic data and latest facts and figures.

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ABSTRACT

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REFERENCES ……………………………………… Page No.TABLE OF CONTENTS S...... 1 2 3 4 Contents ABSTRACT ………………………………………… INTRODUCTION…………………………………. CONCLUSION ……………………………………. No. 4 6 39 40 5 .

The knowledge about inter cultural differences is very important for effective communication. HISTORY OF EGYPT ANCIENT EGYPTIAN LIFE Daily life in ancient Egypt revolved around the Nile and the fertile land along its banks. The commoners lived in town houses usually two to three stories high. A small group of people were nobles. pottery jars. The people of ancient Egypt built mud brick homes in villages and in the country. history. or in the streets. They grew some of their own food and traded in the villages for the food and goods they could not produce. political. 6 .the region of the Nile and the Pharaohs. and oil lamps. Many people slept on the roof during the summer to keep cool. Sewage had to be disposed of by each household in pits. Most ancient Egyptians worked as field hands. craftsmen and scribes. The first story of the town home was usually reserved for businesses. farmers.Inter cultural or cross-cultural communication means the communication among different cultures whose perceptions and backgrounds are different from each other’s. social. which has a diversified work force. The areas of our focus will be the geography. chests for clothing. Most all people had some furniture consisting mostly of a stool. economic and cultural aspects of Egypt. these different groups of people made up the population of ancient Egypt. it is vital to consider these differences so that there is no miscommunication or misunderstanding between people. In an environment. In this report we will focus on different aspects of Egypt with reference to inter cultural communication. in the river. Together. The yearly flooding of the Nile enriched the soil and brought good harvests and wealth to the land. while the second and third floors provided the family living space. small boxes for jewelry and cosmetics.

Mirrors of highly polished silver or copper were used. Young girls usually kept their hair in pigtails while boys had shaved heads. a cleansing cream was used. They were ground into a powder and mixed with oil to make eye color called Kohl. armlets. and galena -. cheeks and nails. The common folk wore their hair short. Eye paint was made from green malachite. HAIRSTYLES Hairstyles were very similar to that of today’s. Instead of washing with soap. The upper and lower eyelids were painted with the black cosmetic that extended in a line out to the sides of the face. Men. People rubbed themselves daily with perfumed oil. Rings and amulets were especially worn to ward off the evil spirits and injury. It was also used to fight eye infections and reduce the glare of the sun. The Kohl was kept in jars and applied to the eyes with a small stick. Figure 2:Pharaoh Jewelry 7 . JEWELERY Everyone in Egypt wore some type of jewelry.COSMETICS Cleansing rituals were very important to the Egyptians. Some even believed that wearing it would restore poor eyesight. It was believed the makeup had magical and even healing powers. except for one braided lock worn to one side. Wigs were worn by both men and women. and anklets.a gray Figure 1: Kohl lead ore. bracelets. The runoff water drained away through a pipe that led to the garden. Both men and women wore pierced earrings. women and children of all ages and classes wore makeup. Other cosmetics used included colors for the lips. Most people bathed daily in the river or out of a water basin at home.

Activities on the river include fishing. but the most important source of entertainment & relaxation was the Nile river. Women wore a straight fitting dress held up by straps. Dramatizations were held in the temples. and boat games. and some took care of people after they died. 8 . hunting crocodiles and hippopotamuses. some offered protection.CLOTHING Egyptian clothing styles did not change much throughout ancient times. swimming. and many of these activities are shown on the tomb walls. Each one with their own role to play in maintaining peace and harmony across the land. men usually wore a short skirt Figure 3:Kilt and Frock called a kilt. ENTERTIANMENT Egyptians spent their spare time doing a wide variety of things. During the Old and Middle kingdoms. Clothes were usually made of linens ranging from coarse to fine texture. GODS AND GODDESSES The ancient Egyptians believed in many different gods and goddesses. or minor gods who represented plants or animals. Parties and festivals were also celebrated oftenly. The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to recognize and worship these gods and goddesses so that life continued smoothly. Others were either local gods who represented towns. some Figure 4: Gods and Goddesses brought the flood every year. Some gods and goddesses took part in creation.

common people. The process included embalming the bodies and wrapping them in strips of linen. some animals were also mummified. PHARAOH The most powerful person in ancient Egypt was the Pharaoh. However. Over many centuries. the ancient Egyptians began burying their dead in coffins to protect them from wild Figure 5: Making a Mummy animals in the desert. they realized that bodies placed in coffins decayed when they were not exposed to the hot. The Egyptian method of preparing the body varied with the social status of the deceased . The pharaoh was the political and religious leader of the Figure 7: Pharaoh 9 . The heat and dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies quickly. The best preserved mummies are those of the pharaohs and their relatives.Members of the nobility and officials also often received the same treatment. dry sand of the desert. Mummification was related to beliefs concerning the afterlife and was undertaken to safeguard the fate of the soul. and occasionally.MUMMIFICATION The earliest ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert. For religious reasons. Today we Figure 6: Mummy call this process mummification. the ancient Egyptians developed a method of preserving bodies so they would remain lifelike. Later. creating lifelike and natural 'mummies'.

The three largest and best-preserved of these were built at Giza at the beginning of the Old Kingdom. Many pharaohs went to war when their land was threatened or when they wanted to control foreign lands. There are about eighty pyramids known today from ancient Egypt. the conquered people had to recognize the Egyptian pharaoh as their ruler and offer him the finest and most valuable goods from their land. PYRAMIDS The ancient Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs and their queens. The pharaohs were buried in pyramids of many different shapes and sizes from before the beginning of the old kingdom to the end of the middle Figure 8: The Pyramids kingdom. It is known as the 'Great Pyramids. holding the titles: 'Lord of the Two Lands' and 'High Priest of Every Temple'. He performed rituals and built temples to honor the gods. As 'Lord of the Two Lands' the pharaoh was the ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt. The most well-known of these pyramids was built for the pharaoh Khufu. and defended Egypt against foreigners. 10 . He owned all of the land. As 'High Priest of Every Temple'. If the pharaoh won the battle.Egyptian people. made laws. collected taxes. the pharaoh represented the gods on Earth.

However. Yet every craftsman's lifestyle and social standing depended on the Figure 10: Ancient Egyptian Craftsmen Figure 9: Philae Temple quality of his skills and experience. religion. TRADE Craftsmen in ancient Egypt were usually trained and skilled labourers. many aspects of the basic culture. Thus. and artistic style of ancient Egypt remained the same. The large temple buildings were made of stone so that they would last forever. These scenes showed the pharaoh fighting in battles and performing rituals with the gods and goddesses TIME PERIOD OF ANCIENT EGY PT The civilization of ancient Egypt lasted for over three thousand years. some 11 .TEMPLES The ancient Egyptians believed that temples were the homes of the gods and goddesses. and how they lived their lives. Their walls were covered with scenes that were carved onto the stone then brightly painted. Every temple was dedicated to a god or goddess and he or she was worshipped there by the temple priests and the pharaoh. They were often well-respected in the community and had a comfortable lifestyle. During this time there were many changes in terms of what the ancient Egyptians believed in.

craftsmen had more difficult lives than others. Objects for ordinary people were made by local craftsmen in small workshops. they invented written scripts that could be used to record this information. However. WRITINGS The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to record and communicate information about religion and government. The most famous of all ancient Egyptian scripts is hieroglyphic. Using these scripts. GEOGRAPHY OF EGYPT GEOGRAPHIC BORDERS 12 . Thus. at least three other scripts were used for different purposes. throughout three thousand years of ancient Figure 11: Egyptian Hieroglyphs Egyptian civilization. history and ideas of ancient Egypt in temple and tomb walls and on papyrus scrolls. Objects for temples or the pharaoh were made in temple workshops or palace workshops. Most craftsmen worked in workshops with other craftsmen. scribes were able to preserve the beliefs.

Its elevation extremes are lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m highest point: Mount Catherine 2.449 square kilometers of land. and the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east.240 kilometers. 1.900 kilometers of coastline along the Mediterranean Sea. and from east to west. The country has shorelines on the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Cairo (Al Qahirah). covering 1. The country is located in North Africa and includes the Sinai Peninsula. Port Said (Bur Said) and Suez. Egypt's natural boundaries consist of more than 2.024 Figure 12: Map of Egypt kilometers. the nine governorates of Lower Egypt in the Nile Delta region. and the five frontier governorates covering Sinai and the deserts that lie west and east of the Nile. it borders Libya to the west. which include four city governorates: Alexandria (Al Iskandariyah).001. are in the Nile Delta or along the Nile Valley and Suez Canal.629 m PROVINCES Egypt is divided into twenty-six governorates (sometimes called provinces). The country's greatest distance from north to south is 1. Sudan to the south.Most of Egypt is in North Africa. the eight governorates of Upper Egypt along the Nile River south from Cairo to Aswan. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION Egypt can be divided in to four parts 13 . is about the same size as Texas and New Mexico combined. except the frontier ones. the Gulf of Suez. All governorates. the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. the Sinai Peninsula is in Southwest Asia. Egypt. which is considered part of Southwest Asia.

only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere 2. and from Lake Manzala on the Mediterranean in the North to Egypt's southern birders with Sudan in the south. It controls Sinai Peninsula. Suez gulf. THE SINAI PENINSULA Sinai is shaped like a triangle having its base at the Mediterranean in the North and its apex in the South at Ras Mohammed. 2. shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea 14 . THE WESTERN DESERT Extends from the Nile Valley in the East to the Libyan borders in the west. the Gulf of Aqaba to the East and the Gulf of Suez and Suez canal to the west. GEOGRAPHICAL IMPORTANCE Egypt has great geographical importance Figure 13: Rivers and Seas 1. THE NILE VALLEY AND DELTA It extends from north of the valley to the Mediterranean Sea and is divided into Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt: extending from Wadi Halfa to the south of Cairo and from North Cairo to the Mediterranean Sea.1. 3. THE EASTERN DESERT Extends from the Nile Valley in the West to the Red Sea. It also controls Suez Canal. and from the Mediterranean in the north to Egypt's southern borders. and Suez Canal in the East. 4.

where students study commercial. Also its size. establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics. Primary schools are not segregated by sex. although 16% of girls still do not enroll in primary school. the National Council for Women has launched an optimistic project in cooperation with the Elderly Education Organization and with the help of nongovernmental organizations aiming at 15 Figure 14: Al Azhar University . or agricultural education and pursue careers as technicians. secretaries. Recently. Basic education consists of the first two stages and is obligatory for all students in the country. Those with low scores are directed to technical secondary schools. salespeople.3. preparatory school (3 years). The preparatory school exams are taken at the end of the 9th year which determine the school the student moves on to. but the public preparatory and secondary schools are. which qualifies them to attend universities later. and secondary school (3 years). etc. industrial. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF EGYPT EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM The education system in Egypt is state-sponsored and set up in three stages: primary school (6 years). and juxtaposition to Israel. Students with high scores continue on to a general secondary school.

this program has worked very efficiently and by 2000. they taught humanity how to design and erect buildings. One may choose to relax on the wondrous Egypt Figure 17: Deep Sea diving in Red Sea 16 . but it is also part Figure 16: A view on Nile of the Holy Land.eradicating illiteracy among women aged 15-45 years as well as executing a plan for total elimination of illiteracy among those aged 15-35 by the year 2006. the increase in percentage of women in universitites has increased manifolds. The modern buildings of today Figure 15:State Building are very stylish and technically constructed. BUILDINGS There is consensus among historians and Egyptologists that the ancient Egyptians were the first builders ever known to man. Is the oldest continuously operating university in the world. including Pyramids and wonderful temples. great scuba diving and even golf. fishing and birding expeditions. An important university is Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo. urbanization and man's settlement in a specific homeland of his own for the first time in history. The modern style of houses is simple and spacious with relatively a few number of rooms. Egypt also offers nature and desert treks. Certainly it is a prime location to see the great heritage from the ancient world. TOURISM Most people who think of Egypt think of antiquities. but Egypt offers much more. thus laying grounds for human civilization. and tours to Christian and other religious monuments are popular.

The long chain of mountains. many places in the Nile Valley region are extremely crowded. is the region between Cairo and the Mediterranean Sea. providing the area with a very rich soil. Some of the famous tourist sites are Ayn Sukhna "Hot Spring". with several thousand persons/sq. For the Egyptians. Yasmine Village. It is the country's number one foreign currency earner. separated from the sea only by a plain.You can take in the high culture of Cairo. and the rest of the country (about 96% of Egypt's total land area) is sparsely populated. Shedwan Village.km. producing about $4bn a year and accounting for more than 11% of GDP. Hur Palace Village. Figure 18: Egyptian Farmers About half of the population of the Nile Delta are fellahin 17 . Princess Village. offers colorful corals and rare marine life. tourism is vital. Seven branches of the Nile create the triangular-shaped delta. with their different colors. or Lower Egypt. POPULATION DWELLING The vast majority of Egypt's inhabitants live in the Nile valley and delta. run parallel to the coastline. During spring the weather is fairly moderate. Safaga . As a result. or even leisurely float down the Egyptian Nile on a luxurious river boat. The underwater museum of sunken monuments is also a great attraction for divers and sea lovers. A very good time to visit Egypt is during the spring time.Red Sea whose beaches are an exquisite gift of nature. The areas to the west and the east of the Nile River--the Western and the Eastern Deserts--only contain small settlements of semi-nomads--the Bedouins (pronounced bed-oo-in) OCCUPATION The Nile Delta. most of which is suitable for camping. The sea with its crystal clear blue waters.

especially the women. is that it tends to discourage male advances. One reason this is favored by many young women. Most fellahin. Women in Egypt are beautiful. FOOD 18 . or peasants--either small landowners or laborers--living on the produce of the land. LANGUAGE The ancient Egyptian language spoken by the pharoahs no longer exists and no one speaks it. and to keep sand and dust out of their eyes. demonstrating either modesty or Figure 20: Traditional Dresses Muslim piety. this English and French are widely understood by educated classes. Skirts and dresses are long. who start working as soon as they are able to do so. The men sometimes wear the tarboosh (pronounced tahr-boosh) a tall red hat with a Figure 19: Tarboosh black tassel. The current official language of Egypt is Arabic which came to Egypt since the Arab/Islamic invasions very long ago. Pants are usually worn with a top that is not tucked in. Other than. before it of course the Coptic language was the main language. CLOTHING Egyptians wear cloths over their heads to shade their eyes from the bright desert sun. physical or verbal. The average family of fellahin has four or five children. Most of the Muslim women wear a higab (a large scarf fastened at the neck) or garb themselves in a piece of fabric that also covers their breasts.(pronounced fel-uh-heen). spend their lives in drudgery.

Vegetables are always in season and people eat many of them. and apricots. They eat a variety of fish and fowl. There is a KFC or other fast food restaurant in almost every city. and sweet things. Sweet Turkish coffee and dark tea flavored with herbs are the favorite beverages. Mainly they grew wheat and barley. mutton and pork. People very often sing as they work. and so are such fruits as dates. called bazaars. Cheese is a very common food. drinks like wine and beer. The Egyptians love good food. beef. figs. Due to meat being expensive. from indigenous folk and Arabic music to the modern Western-style songs. snake charmers and jugglers perform for the 19 . especially onions and tomatoes. LIFE STYLE People in Egypt like music. Egyptians made the wheat into bread and into soup and porridge. Fast food in Egypt is very common. they eat inexpensive food such as rice and cornmeal bread.The principal Egyptian food is a porridge made of dried brown beans or lentils baked for 24 hours and served with butter or olive oil and lemon. You will hear the music of different kinds and genres. Market places in cities and villages. The main source of protein is bread. They enjoy Figure21: Traditional Foods many drinks with barley in it like beer and wine. Because Egypt was very dry. present entertainment to passers-by: groups of Figure 22: Evening Dances street-dancers dance to the music of the kanoun (pronounced kah-noon)--a string instrument.

Feasts and festivals play an important part in Egyptian life. the Egyptian people kept their customs and traditions. on the contrary. During the winter season desert temperatures often drop to 0° C (32° F). Wide variations of temperature occur in the deserts. however. 20 . In the coastal region average annual temperatures range from a maximum of 37° C (99° F) to a minimum of 14° C (57° F).coins the audiences toss them. and folk arts. In recent years the humidity has spread to Cairo and the city swelters in August. Winter is mild with some rain. WEATHER Egyptian summer is hot and dry in most of the country and humid in the Delta and along the Mediterranean Coast. Along with these religious rituals are habitually practiced at home. Winter weather is fairly cold than most people anticipate and cold winds blew over the desert at sunrise and sunset. Religious rituals are habitually practiced at home. songs. as evident in their jokes. The most humid area is along the Mediterranean coast. Despite the succession of different political rules. most of which are still prevalent in daily life and social behaviours. ranging from a maximum of 46° C (114° F) during daylight hours to a minimum of 6° C (42° F) after sunset. Egyptians joyfully embraced life. Adherence to religion. but usually there are bright. sunny days and with cold nights. where the average annual rainfall is about 200 mm. Being religious and acknowledging God's grace is a common phenomenon in Egyptian society. does not mean the Egyptians avoided the pleasant things in life. SOCIAL CUSTOMS AND NORMS The Egyptian civilization was one of the great civilizations that had deep-rooted values and persistent traditions. love chants.

Today. The Egyptians are faithful. many aspects of Egypt's ancient culture exist in interaction with newer elements.One of the most important characteristics of Egyptian society since the dawn of civilization is the cooperation among society members. LANGUAGE 21 . Ancient Egypt was among the earliest civilizations. including the influence of modern Western culture. Egyptians still celebrate these two feasts. among which are the Prophet's Birthday. such as Epiphany and Christmas. Theatrical plays depicting myths are also performed. These feasts are still celebrated by Egyptians and some of them are celebrated by both Muslims and Christians. the Middle East and Africa. there is the feast of spring. and the Outset of Ramadan. the Tenth of Moharam. For millennia. After the Pharaonic era. the Outset of Rajab. there were new feasts to be celebrated. for a time Christianity. Feasts and festivals played an important part in Egyptian life. the Middle and Outset of Sha'aban. deplored vice. and later. CULTURE OF EGYPT The Culture of Egypt has five thousand years of recorded history. Arab and Islamic culture. itself with roots in Ancient Egypt. There is the feast of flood tide that is known in the modern age as Nile Flood Day. Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism. Egypt maintained a strikingly complex and stable culture that influenced later cultures of Europe. which is currently called Sham El-Nassem. the New Hijri Year's Day. and held ethics as the standard by which people are appraised. In addition. In every age. Other feasts and ceremonies are also celebrated. Other occasions are New Year's Day and various feasts for the beginning of the seasons.

are Sunni and 1% are Shi'a Muslims. Today. Kenuzi-Dongola. Among other languages are Nobiin. approximately 94 %. Bedawi (a Beja language). Christians constitute about 10% of the population. probably due to the influence of Egyptian cinema throughout the Arabic-speaking world. Domari language and Berber language Siwi are spoken in different parts. and is known from hieroglyphic inscriptions preserved on monuments and sheets of papyrus.The Ancient Egyptian language was among the first written languages. Egypt is a republic with Islam as the figures. The Coptic language. Much of the remaining 6 % of the population are Christians. 22 . and Egypt was indeed one of the strongest early Christian communities. it is the most widely spoken second dialect. Of the many varieties of Arabic. Coptic became popular in the Roman and Byzantine periods. the majority of whom belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church. the only extant descendant of Egyptian. Arabic came to Egypt in the seventh century and Egyptian Figure23:Coptic Languages Arabic has since become the modern speech of the country. Islam in Egypt came to the country with the successors of Mohammed. RELIGION Ancient Egyptian religion was a polytheistic system that saw the world as in conflict between forces of order and chaos. is today the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church.

and they creates paper as ancient Egyptian created papyrus. the ney and the oud.STATUS OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM The Constitution provides for freedom of belief and the practice of religion. Egyptian music has strong improvisatory and rhythmic components. Folk music from Egypt's many cultures is also listened to a lot and played during weddings and other festivites. Islam is the official state religion. wood. Arabic. As early as 4000 BC. Belly dance is very common and often women dance in groups. The Egyptian pyramids that still inspire awe and admiration are result of the strong resolution of pharaohs to be respected and remembered by the future generations. Egyptian mummies and sculptures of stone. . The foundation of most of artists is paper making. however. Egyptian pop music has become increasingly Figure 24:An Oud important in Egyptain cultured: listened to by mainly the large youth population of Egypt. ancient Egyptians were playing harps. From the 1970s. and Shari'a is the primary source of legislation. 23 . It is composed of organic material such as tree bark and palm fibers. clay and metals are very famous. the Government places restrictions on this right. African and Western influences. Turkish. EGYPTIAN ART IN MODERN TIMES Modern and contemporary Egyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art scène. According to the Constitution. MUSIC AND DANCE Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous. flutes.

and on Christmas Eve. Some festivals are historic.FESTIVALS Egypt is a wonderous country with many festivals and celebrations. In general. it remains an energetic country but it has also made its way into the modern world. The end of Ramadan and the end of the fasting is marked with a festival called Eid-al-Fitr and is celebrated with large feasts. The people of Egypt are a culture built upon for thousands of years. which means “the smell of spring”. drummers and special sweets. feasts. some are secular and some are religious. Christmas trees and manger scenes in the week leading up to Christmas. This festival includes parades in the city streets and lights. Egyptians share a delightful Gaelic-like wit and an understanding of human behavior that far 24 . celebrations in churches are held and the bells of the churches ring out. the 6th of January. EGYPTIAN CHRISTMAS Churches and Christian homes are festooned with lights. DAILY LIFE IN EGYPT Modern Egypt is full of life and people who are hopeful for their future. Like ancient Egypt. MILAD-UN-NABI The Prophet Mohammed's birthday is celebrated at “Milad-un-Nabi”. RAMADAN Ramadan is a very important festival in the Islamic calendar. Most important are: SHAMAL-NASEEM Both Muslims and Christians in Egypt welcome the first day of spring with a festive picnic called Sham al-Naseem.

Usually an elder male member is the head of the family. Here they are so close to each others. guardianship. kind. For most women. and inheritance) while canon law defines these matters among Christians.exceeds ours. The father controls families' possessions and income. creating an ideal environment. and vendetta laws (a feud between families) apply. generous. family ties are far stronger than in the west. They also have a sense of balance and moderation. In many areas of Nile Valley region women do not appear in public without a veil. The most deeply held values-honor. The people of ancient Egypt highly valued family life. Whether Muslim or Copt. marriage marks the transition to adulthood. and security--are derived by an individual only as part of a larger kin group. valued and coddled by the whole family and community. hospitable and modest. extremely clever and expressive of their feeling without the need for shame. EGYPTIAN PEOPLE Egyptians are friendly. Each family member is responsible for the integrity of family and for the behaviour of other members. dignity. children are adored. FAMILY LIFE The family is the backbone of the Egyptian/Middle Eastern culture. family honor is very important.Insha’Allah and Ma'lesh are essential vocabulary for the visitor. . For most men. Egyptians are 25 . They have a tendency to resist problem solutions. the Egyptians are moderately religious and religious principles is quite noticed in their daily lives. The Egyptian people are beautiful. In general. The traditional Sunni religious code for Muslims defines most Muslims' family matters (marriage. funny. marriage means leaving their families' homes and sometimes their home areas.

being descended from the ancient Egyptians.proud and sensitive. and Turks. Superstition is part of the Egyptian way of life. SPORTS The most played most-watched sport in Egypt is football. Other races are regarded as equal and given the same consideration. Egypt remains one of the more secure and friendly countries in the world for tourists. Foreigners who live in Egypt are treated with respect and tolerance. THE EGYPTIAN WEDDING Egyptian wedding is a very special historical ceremony. Arabs. Egyptian football clubs enjoy 26 . People are in habit of taking good care of their health and observe proper cleanliness.78% (2005). Wedding is considered as a strong bond and life time commitment. sub-Saharan Africans. HIV/AIDS . Most modern Egyptians are of a complex racial mixture.The population growth rate is 1. Greeks.adult prevalence rate is less than 0.1% BEHAVIOUR Egyptians are. proud of their history but sensitive of their present. The ancient Egyptians held marriage as a sacred bond. More then 90 percent of Egyptians are Muslims. More then 250 mosques stand in the city. They ask for God’s mercy when they get desperate. About 8 percent of the Egyptians are Copts. Berbers. Cairo is the center of Islam in Egypt. generally speaking. This has been made Figure 25: Egyptian Bride clear in the many statues and writings that depict men and women in a relationship where both depended upon each other. color blind. It is the most important ceremony for Egyptian females.

Figure 26: Flag of Egypt CONSTITUTION 27 . Conventional short form is Egypt. Currency is Egyptian pound. There is a national holiday on Revolution Day. and black. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE COUNTRY Egypt gained its independence on 28 February 1922 (from UK).popularity even non-egyptians in the Arab countries. handball. GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL NAME OF COUNTRY The conventional long name is Arab Republic of Egypt. Among the most-watched sports in Egypt are basketball. Its capital is Cairo. The national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band. The local name is Misr. 23 July (1952). Official language is Arabic. squash and tennis. Its national anthem is “Biladi Biladi Biladi” FLAG DESCRIPTION Three equal horizontal bands of red (top). while the former name is United Arab Republic (with Syria). Design is based on the Arab Liberation flag . white.

the President of the Republic. who has been reelected for a fourth six-year term in October 1999. The Constitution further outlines Egypt's political system and defines public authorities. It offers advice and consultation. declares that Egypt is an Arab Republic with a democratic system. WORKING OF GOVERNMENT The type of government is Republic. He also acts as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. It approves the general policy. it is the supreme executive and administrative organ of the State. According to the Constitution. who serve for a term of five years. and proposes new laws and regulations to the People's Assembly. JUDICIAL SYSTEM The judiciary authority is exercised through four categories of courts of justice: the Supreme Constitutional Court. The Shura Council is Egypt's consultative council. The President formulates and supervises the implementation of general state policy. It consists of the Council of Ministers. which is the highest judicial body. EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY Executive authority is vested in the Head of State. then elected by popular referendum for a six-year term. the Court of Cessation. The People's Assembly is the legislative branch of the State.The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt. The current Head of State is Mohamad Hosni Mubarak. new laws. 28 . who supervises the work of the government. who is nominated by a two-thirds majority of the People's Assembly. headed by the Prime Minister. the People's Assembly is made up of 444 directly elected members and 10 members appointed by the President. adopted in 1971 and amended in 1980. the budget and the development plan.

The National Democratic Party currently holds the majority of seats in the People's Assembly. POLITICAL SYSTEM The political system is based on a Multi-party system. This law prohibits the formation of religiousbased political parties.g. 29 . INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION PARTICIPATION Egypt is a participant in many of the international organizations e. ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS Egypt is divided into 26 Governorates. Prime Minister Dr. WHO. UNHCR. Mubarak is currently serving his sixth term in office. WTO and many others. Ahmed Nazif was sworn in as Prime Minister on 9 July 2004. UNESCO. CURRENT POLITICAL SITUATION Egypt has been a republic since 18 June 1953. Local Popular Councils are elected bodies that work closely with local government administrative units at various levels. and the Summary Tribunals in the districts. 1981. local government units establish and manage all public utilities. WIPO. provide services. Law 40 of 1977 regulates the formation of political parties in Egypt. each headed by a Governor who is appointed by the President. following the assassination of former-President Mohammed Anwar El-Sadat. Within their districts. President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak has been the President of the Republic since October 14. and designate industrial areas. He is the leader of the ruling National Democratic Party. WMO. There are currently 17 active political parties representing various stands across the political spectrum.the seven courts of Appeal in the various Governorates.

But the results of the recent parliamentary elections. the new law placed draconian restrictions on the filing for presidential candidacies. population. It also stresses on the need of developing relations with Arab and African countries and maintaining regional peace. However. designed to prevent well-known candidates such as Ayman Nour from standing against Mubarak. paving the way for multi-candidate polls in the upcoming presidential election. Mubarak announced that he had ordered the reform of the country's presidential election law. and paved the road for his easy re-election victory. military strength. Adopt the dialogue rather than conflict. to enhance Egypt's international relations and to invest her time– honored reputation of honoring her international covenants. genuinely indicate that a change of some sorts is underway. call for serious world move to combat terrorism. FOREIGN RELATIONS Geography. Cairo has been a crossroads of Arab 30 . FOREIGN POLICY The main feature of Egyptian foreign policy is the drive to strengthen independent decision-making. These endeavors combined should establish past gains and open up new prospects in the future. which saw Islamist parties such as the banned Muslim Brotherhood winning many seats.In late-February 2005. history. For the first time since the 1952 movement. the Egyptian people had an apparent chance to elect a leader from a list of various candidates. and diplomatic expertise give Egypt extensive political influence in the Middle East.

TRANSNATIONAL ISSUES Egypt and Sudan retain claims to administer the two triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel. and. Egypt's political system receives strong financial support from the U. Egypt has only a limited democracy. they cannot do without this aid. There are some 70. The main challenge is the Muslim Brotherhood.S. and civil rights are in most cases well secured. Egypt vigilantly monitors the Sinai and borders with Israel and the Gaza Strip. The League of Arab States headquarters is in Cairo. given all the challenges of the Egyptian state. but which adhere to an anti-democratic ideology. Egypt is developing the Hala'ib Triangle north of the Treaty line. but there have been many examples of unrest in recent years. 31 .215 refugees living here. and was the first Arab nation to make peace with Israel. which runs for elections. Since the attack on Taba and other Egyptian resort towns on the Red Sea in October 2004. The Secretary General of the League has traditionally been an Egyptian. POLITICAL OVERVIEW Egypt is politically stable.. where elections allow only some political parties. Egypt is a country with a fair amount of freedom of speech.commerce and culture for millennia. and its intellectual and Islamic institutions are at the center of the region's social and cultural development.Egypt is on good terms with all of its neighbours. Former Egyptian Foreign Minister Amr Moussa is the present Secretary General of the Arab League. but have withdrawn their military presence.

POSITION IN THE WORLD: Egypt has the largest population in the Arab world and. vulnerable to political events. controlling about 2/3 of all seats.5% ECONOMIC STRUCTURE: The economy of Egypt is comprised of following main sectors: SERVICES: The economy is dominated by services. although the ruling party remained in full control of the People's Assembly. after Saudi Arabia. the strong progress by the Muslim Brotherhood sent a signal of a people increasingly in the mood for political change.4%).) with a growth rate of 4. Still.9 billion (2005 est. has become increasingly resilient and has recovered 32 . ECONOMY OF EGYPT ECONOMIC OVERVIEW Lack of substantial progress on economic reform since the mid 1990s has limited foreign direct investment in Egypt and kept annual GDP growth in the range of 2%-3% in 200103.Tourism and the Suez Canal are important service sectors.e. The development of an export market for natural gas is a bright spot for future growth prospects. $337. Tourism. the largest GDP i. in 2004 Egypt implemented several measures to boost foreign direct investment. but improvement in the capital-intensive hydrocarbons sector does little to reduce Egypt's persistent unemployment. including public administration. However.The 2005 elections represented a little earthquake to Egyptian politics. in part as a result of these reforms. account for onehalf of GDP(48. The budget deficit rose to an estimated 8% of GDP in 2004 compared to 6.1% of GDP the previous year.

but it is still an important activity. chemicals. cement. fruits. metals . and are heavily concentrated in Cairo and the Nile Delta.Manufacturing industries are also important. The Suez Canal has performed strongly in recent years as high fuel prices have made the longer trip around Africa more expensive for ships traveling between Europe and Asia. MINING: Mining (while includes petroleum and natural gas) is also a mainstay of the economy. water buffalo. wheat. Even though only 3% of total land area is cultivable land. agriculture accounted for 15% of GDP in fiscal 2005. food processing.8% of GDP in fiscal year 2005. vegetables. The major agricultural products are cotton. sheep and goats. 33 . rice. construction.strongly from the effects of both the September 11. AGRICULTURE: Agriculture’s contribution to GDP is gradually diminishing. and 38% of the merchandise exports. INDUSTRIES: Overall contribution of the industries in the GDP is 37%. 2001 suicide attacks in the US and the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. Major industries are textiles.2% of GDP in fiscal 2005. beans. tourism. accounting (including oil refining) for 18.2%. hydrocarbons. accounting for 14. corn. The industrial production growth rate is 3. cattle.

4 -9.ECONOMIC FORECAST / MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS: Factors Real GDP Industrial production growth Gross agricultural production growth Unemployment rate (average) Consumer price inflation (av) Lending rate Government Balance(% of GDP) Exports of goods fob (US $ bn ) Imports of goods fob (US $ bn ) External debt(year end .4 -10.9 5. growth is expected to strengthen to 5.5 10 4.1 9 5.0 2006 5.1 13.1 3.3 15.5 37.0 4. INFLATION Average consumer price inflation in 2006 is expected to rise to 5.2 3.There is an attempt to constrain by the stability of the Egyptian pound against the US $ as well as by a decline in average world non-oil commodity prices. POVERTY The population living below the poverty line is 16.70 Egypt has raised its forecast for real GDP growth in fiscal 2006 to 5%.3 26.1%.8 5.9 29.7%. ECONOMIC GROWTH: 2005 4.78 74.US $ bn ) Exchange rate E :US $ (av) Population (m) Source: Economic intelligence unit.0 37.3% in fiscal 2007.2 17.9 13. BUDGET 34 .2 3.

ECONOMIC POLICY: There were few new economic policy initiatives during the cabinet interregnum.6% of GDP. EXCHANGE SECTOR: In calendar 2006 trade deficit will be little changed. FISCAL POLICY: The fiscal year starts and ends at 1 July .03 billion expenditures: $24. outweighing export growth. which will be dragged down by a sharp decline in oil prices. strengthening economic growth and a depreciation of the US dollar.30 June.55 billion. The Central Bank has lowered interest rates.4% to 9. the Egyptian pound strengthened on the official market in late 2004---for the first time since its ten years. bolstered by tariff cuts.The budget details of Egypt lie at revenues: $18. As a result of strengthening foreign currency inflows and major improvements in the policy framework. The budget (central government) deficit widened markedly in fiscal 2005 from 6. but banking sector consolidation and privatization have continued to make rapid progress. 35 .78. The trade deficit will widen markedly as imports continue to rise strongly. The exchange rates are Egyptian pounds per US dollar . EXCANGE RATES The currency of Egypt is Egyptian Pound (EGP). as a rise in gas exports offsets strong growth in import spending.5.

FOREIGN TRADE AND PAYMENTS The current account returned to surplus in the third quarter of calendar 2005 and the capital account registered a surplus equivalent to 7% of GDP on an annualized basis. under the govern ship of Farouk -al-Okdah. Italy and France. and European nations. US. has introduced more coherence into monetary management by raising interest rates on Treasury bills and other saving instruments to counter inflation and support the Egyptian pound. However. appear to be having a positive effect on the country's overall economy. the country's inefficient state-run industries. the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE). Suez Canal receipts reached another record in 2005. and heavy public debt. Arab neighbors. with support from the International Monetary Fund. Foreign reserves reached almost US $20bn by end-September.MONETARY POLICY: After years of poorly focused monetary policy. and its large investments in warfare resulted in inflation. The second phase of pipeline to export gas to Arab countries has been completed. unemployment. its bloated public sector. EXPORTS AND IMPORTS Main destinations for exports for Egypt are Italy. 36 . a severe trade deficit. The tourism sector broke records in 2005 despite a renewal of attacks. THE DOMESTIC ECONOMY: Since the 1970s billions of dollars in economic aid have poured into Egypt from the United States. Germany. UK and France while main origins of imports are US. Inflation has continued to fall. A series of economic and fiscal reforms undertaken in the 1990s. The domestic economy of Egypt has progressed a lot in the recent years.

000 km and waterways of 3. There are 98 TV broadcast systems.4% of the GDP. Alexandria. Internet access and cellular service are available commonly.6 million telephone users. The internet code of the country is . the merchant marine has total 77 ships.063 km. Zeit are some of the important ports and terminals. Air Force. Around 90% of Egypt trade is with WTO member states. It also imports fruits like oranges from Egypt. MILITARY The military of the Egypt has major branches of Army. The imports and exports between the two countries are increasing. Navy. Damietta. and it has a longer period in which to adapt to WTO rules. There are 50 ISPs with 4. The annual expenditure on military is $2. The government has prescribed 18 years of age for conscript military service in which 3-year service is obligatory.THE IMPACT OF THE WTO In June 1995. Suez. Pakistan is the second country of the world to import cotton from Egypt. Port Said.2 million internet users. Egypt acceded the World Trade Organization (WTO). INFRASTRUCTURE The transportation services consist of railways total 5. Air Defense Command. Egypt benefits from several concessions.44 billion that makes 3. including better access to markets in developing countries. Egypt has 87 airports and 2 heliports. Egypt imports surgical tools 37 . it is acknowledged that some negative effects are likely to arise. Egypt has a large communication system.500 km. There are 9. RELATIONS WITH PAKISTAN Egypt is developing relations with Pakistan.eg . Nevertheless. El Dekheila. roadways total 64.

The Egyptian Prime Minister and his ministers are soon going to visit Pakistan and Prime Minister Shoukat Aziz is also reciprocating the good will visit in order to increase the bilateral relations and cross cultural communication. Goal of intercultural communication can 38 . We learnt a lot about cultural differences while doing this report. CONCLUSION In the report different aspects of Egypt are discussed in a brief but comprehensive manner. Investment in the cement industry of Pakistan is also in the pipeline.from Pakistan and is also negotiating to import wheat. Having considerable knowledge of each others culture will create an ideal communication environment to conduct a business successfully.

concepts of space and rules of social behavior to conduct a business. as both countries are tied in golden thread of Islam. Egypt is blend of vast historic. modern and Islamic traditions.only be successfully achieved by knowing cultural differences. Kegan Paul. The Path to Tutankhamun . Anatomy of a Civilization.Thames and Hudson. Pakistan and Egypt have good bilateral relationship in the fields of economy and trade but these need to develop more in order to increase cross cultural communication between the two countries. James TGH. (1992) . The Great Discoveries. The ancient and modern Egypt is enriched in its cultural heritage and traditions. Reeves N . Facts on File Inc. Howard Carter. Ancient Egypt is perhaps the most fascinating of the ancient civilizations. Chronicle of the Pharaohs. (1994) . (2001). Rout ledge.P. 39 . (1989). REFERENCES Clayton. The people have respectable social relations with each other. Ancient Egypt. Kemp BJ. Ancient Egypt.

(2004). Wilkinson RH.Reeves N. Rutherford Press. Tales from Ancient Egypt . Tyldesley JA . Michael O'Mara Books. Valley of the Kings . Romer J . (2000). Oxford University Press. Shaw I . The Complete Valley of the Kings. 40 . (1988) . (2000) .Thames and Hudson. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt .

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