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GEOGRAPHICAL RESULTS
OF THE GREAT WAR

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AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY


GEOGRAPHICAL RESULTS
OF THE GREAT WAR
BY

STILES A. TORRANCE

MAPS BY

EDWARD Y. FARgUHAR

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY


NEW YORK CINCINNATI CHICAGO
BOSTON ATLANTA
^i
b

NOTE
This pamphlet is intended as a forerunner, pending a more formal and
authentic account of the important changes resulting from the Great War,
such as can be prepared only when the changes are completed. This is a
temporary document, and makes no pretense to being final or authoritative.
The hxing of new boundaries and the establishment of new countries are
contingent upon the acceptation and enforcement of the Treaty of Peace
with Germany which was signed June 28, 1919, upon subsequent treaties
with other Central Powers which are not yet completed, and upon the out-
come of wars still being waged in and near Russia. Besides, the treaties
themselves are purposely indefinite, from the geographer's standpoint.
They leave much to be determined later by commissions, or by the "princi-
pal Allied and Associated powers," or by the proposed League of Nations.
The future nationality of certain areas is to be decided through plebiscites.
Other areas are to be governed or protected by mandatory nations yet to be
assigned.
In view of these unsettled conditions, the maps and statements in this
little book must be understood But up-to-date informa-
as only tentative.
tion concerning the lands speciallv affected by the Great War is so urgently
needed, and so vital to the student's interest in geography, that a booklet
of this character needs no defense. Its publishers are confident that it
will prove a valuable adjunct in studying the ethnic, commercial, political,
and historical problems that are comprehended in our present world
geography.
American Book Company
September i, 1919.

CopvRiGH't,*igig, BY

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY.

Geog. Results Obeat War.

Q^f-^^ 1^1^

©CI.A5354(37
GEOGRAPHICAL RESULTS OF
THE GREAT WAR
One result of the Great
War was the enormous
amount of

^Fl
destruction,
— the loss or wrecking of
millions of lives and bil-
lions of dollars worth of
property, the devastation
of large areas in France,
Belgium, Poland, and
other mvaded lands. In
Europe the victorious
Allied nations as well
as the defeated Central
Powers were almost
ruined financially by the
terrific burdens of the
long war. Production
and commerce were
greatly impaired. But
these results of the war,
believed, will be only
it IS

temporary.
On the other hand, it
is hoped most of
that
the new and new boundaries result-
states
ing from the war will be permanent. The
boundaries are fixed, in general, with due re-
gard to the wishes of the people in the ceded
areas. The Conference of Versailles, which signed and ratified the treaty of June 28, 1919,
began in January, 191 9, not only gave the was much changed from the German Empire
most careful study to the proposed boundaries of 1871-1918. One result of her deteat in
and to the financial and other details of the the Great War was a German revolution,
peace treaties, but also framed a constitution Not only the emperor but also the monarchs
3
GERMANY
of the various German
were deposed, states Nations which was planned to prevent future
and repubhcan governments were set up. wars if possible. The countries joining the

The voters men and women o\er twenty — proposed League agree to make no war on
were divided into manv one another without first
political parties but in ; giving opportunity for
the central German gov- arbitration, and to join
ernment and also in in resisting the aggression
Prussia, Bavaria, and of any country that shall
most of the other states, make an unwarranted
the moderate socialists attack on any member of
and democrats came into the League.
power. The League is to have

By the treaty of 1919, a permanent secretary's


Germany loses about one office, where all future
sixth or one eighth of her treaties of member na-
area, depending on the tions must be registered
result of plebiscites (votes and made public in order
of the people) in several to be binding. In meet-
districts. Nearly all the ings of the League As-
territorial cessions are sembly, each member
taken from Prussia, which nation has one vote. An
thus loses a still larger advisory Council is to
proportion of her area. consist of ninemembers
Part of Prussia is sepa-
commander
— one representative
Marshal Joffre, of the French armies,
rated from the rest of 1914-1917 each from the United
German}^ (as it was a States, British Empire,
hundred and fifty years ago) by territory France, Italy, Japan, and four other nations
ceded to Poland but Poland must allow free selected by the League Assembly from time
;

railroad traffic between them. to time. In both the Council and the As-
By other provisions of the treaty, Germany sembly, most questions of importance are
gives up all her colonies and special conces- to be decided by unanimous vote ot the
sions outside of Europe. Her army and members present.
navy are restricted to small forces. Most of The countries whose representatives signed
her ships are taken to replace those she the treaty with Germiny, and which become
destroyed in the war. Her industries are members of the League of Nations it and
handicapped not only by the losses of territory when they ratify that treaty, are, besides the

and population, but also by the loss of much five named above, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil,
foreign trade, and by treaty agreements to Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zea-
pay money and goods for part of the damage land, India, Cuba, Ecuador, Greece, Guate-
she wrought in the war. mala, Haiti, Hedjaz, Honduras, Liberia,
League of Nations. Germany thus weak- — Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Poland, Portugal,
ened, however, was still a power that might Roumania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State,
again threaten the peace of the world, espe- Siam, Czechoslovakia, and LTruguay. In
cially the security of new, weak states. In addition, China, Argentina, Chile, Colombia,
the treaty with Germany, therefore, was Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, Paraguay,
included the constitution of a League of Persia, Salvador, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
GEOGRAPHICAL RESULTS OF THE GREAT WAR
but they were separated
from France in 1871
against their will, and
it is believed that most
of them are now glad
to be again under the
French flag.

Alsace-Lorraine is a
prosperous region of
farms, mines, and fac-
tories. Without it, in
1871-1918, France was
hopelessly outrivaled
by Germany in the pro-
duction of iron and of
manufactures of iron,
both of which she im-
ported in large quanti-
ties, besides much coal.
Now as a result of the
war, France becomes a
very important iron-
manufacturing country,
and has secured favor-
able terms for the impor-
tation of coal and other
articles; the Rhine,
moreover, is open to the
ships of all nations.
and Venezuela were invited to join the League. Strasbourg (German Strassburg), very near
It is planned that other nations will be ad- the Rhine, is the chief city of Alsace-Lorraine ;

mitted when they have established stable it is nearly as large as Lille, the great manu-
governments and have shown themselves facturing city of northern France.
to be in sympathy with the aims of the During the war, the and mines
factories
League. Any independent country or fully of northern France, together with many
self-governing colony may be admitted, on houses and farms, were thoroughly wrecked
certain conditions, by a two-thirds vote of or destroyed by the German invaders. In
the League Assembly. wealth and population lost by France
fact, the
Alsace-Lorraine. —
Under the treaty with during the war were far greater than those of
Germany, Alsace-Lorraine is reunited with Alsace-Lorraine.
France. This territory is a little larger than Sarre Basin. —As compensation for the
the state of Connecticut, and is very impor- destruction of coal mines near Lille, and other
tant because of its coal and iron mines and damages, Germany cedes to France the
its frontage on the river Rhine. The people, excellent coal mines of the Sarre (German
about 5 per cent of the population of France, Saar) Basin, just north of Lorraine. This
are largely of the German race and language. region, peopled almost entirely by Germans,
FRANCE, BELGIUM, DENMARK
isseparated from Ger- near Denmark) and
many and given a gov- partly Germans (in the
ernment of its own, south, near Germany).
under the control of the It happened that the
Leagueof Nations. After king of Denmark was
fifteen years, the people also the duke of Schles-
of the Sarre Basin are wig, and presently he
to vote, by districts, m tried to unite the duchy
favor of union with with Denmark. Prussia
France, union with
or and other German states
Germany, or remaining interfered. In the end
as before, under the con- by making wars
Prussia,
trol of the League ot against Denmark and
Nations. against Austria (1863-
The Sarre Basin is 1866), seized the whole
about two thirds the size of Schleswig for herself.
of Rhode Island. It is Many of the Danes there
nearly as large as Lux- were oppressed and un-
emburg, another small happy under Prussian
country on the borders rule.

of France and Germany, The treaty of 1919


which was made nearlv provides that the people
independent about fifty Marshal Foch, commander of the Allied armies, of north Schleswig may
years ago. 1918-1919 decide by vote whether
Luxemburg, however, now
that region shall be
had by 1914 fallen largely under German in- added to Denmark. The new boundary is to
fluence and control. The treaties securing be based on the vote by districts in a border
this control are now renounced by Germany, zone. The whole land whose fate is thus in
and Germany accepts in advance whatever
arrangements the Allies may make concerning
Luxemburg. The Luxemburgers are mostly
of the German race, and speak a German dia-
lect mixed with French words.
Additions to Belgium. To Belgium Ger- —
many cedes three small frontier districts
(Malmedy, Eupen, and Neutral Moresnet),
which together are about one fourth as large
as Rhode Island. They have important
mines and metal-working plants. Their
people are partly German and partly of the
same races (Flemish and French) as the
Belgians.
Additions to Denmark. —A hundred years
ago Germany and Denmark were separated
bv the duchy of Schleswig (Danish Slesvig),
whose people were partly Danes (in the north,
GEOGRAPHICAL RESULTS OF THE GREAT WAR
15

POLAND
SC^LE OF MILES
25 5(j 7i iiy^ 133 100
!••• BouuJsr^ cf Poland before 1772
.^H Boundarln or GenuaDj, AuEtrla and !!u£Eia

Id 1914
^ New DouDdories by Treaty of 1010 with Gennan,
l:^y-^1 German or Polisb aceordlng H> Plebiseite

f +4 + Approximate Linguistic BounJarr uf Pules

>o Approximate Lin^islic Boundary of Leila

nnd Lllhuaniana

Lonijitnde

question is somewhat
than Delaware in less of her border lands and finally of her inde-
area and population. Like Denmark, it is a pendence ;all her territory was annexed, and

lowland plain where dairying and farming the Poles became subjects of the Russian,
are the chief industries. (Map, page 4.) Prussian, and Austrian monarchs. But in

Poland. A hundred and fifty years ago spite of all oppression, most of them clung to
Poland was one of the largest countries in their language and their hope of freedom.
Europe. It included the great mass of the Oneof the important results of the Great War
Polish people, also the Lithuanians and some is the setting up of an independent Poland.

of the Russians. But the government of It is planned to include all the lands where
Poland was weak, and attempts to strengthen the majority of the people are Poles mingled
;

it were defeated by the Polish nobles and by with them are some Germans, Jews, Russians,
the jealous neighboring powers Russia, — and other people. Germany cedes to Poland
Prussia, and Austria. In a series of wars territory twice as large as Massachusetts
(1772-1795) those three powers robbed Poland (map, page 4), and agrees to the cession of
POLAND, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
other areas larger than Massachusetts, de- Most of them are Roman CathoHcs. Ameri-
pending on the vote of the people in those can history tells of the aid given by Poles
areas. The limits of the cessions to come in the Revolutionary War. On the roll of
from Austria and Russia are not yet deter- famous Polish names are those of several
mined. The Poles have already established great musicians. One of them, Ignace Pa-
a strong republican government, and their derewski, after long residence in the United
armies, including one recruited in the United States, returned to Poland and early in igig
States durmg the Great War, have taken became premier of the Polish Republic,
possession of nearly all the lands claimed by —
Danzig. The city of Danzig, near the
them. These lands include large areas in mouth of the Vistula, was part of the old
Austria (Galicia) and Russia beyond the Poland, but during a century and a half of
linguistic boundary shown on the map. Prussian rule many Germans settled there.
That boundary is only approximate; in a The German treaty of 1919 makes Danzig a
wide zone beyond it the population is mi.xed, free city under the protection of the League of
including some Poles as well as Lithuanians, Nations. With surrounding territory nearly
Russians, and others. Danzig is to have
as large as the Sarre Basin,
The new Poland claims possession of a government of its own, independent of
territory more than half as large as France, both Germany and Poland,
in area and in population. The chief in- This city is important chiefly as the seaport
dustry is agriculture, but there are mines of ol the Vistula basin. Therefore the treaty
coal, iron, zinc, and salt, and extensive manu- carefully secures to Poland the use of railroads
factures of many kinds, including sugar, and docks in Danzig, to provide a free exit
cotton and other textiles leather, iron and tor Polish foreign commerce.
steel. The leading crops Break-up of Austria-
are rye, oats, wheat, po- —
Hungary. Another very
tatoes, and sugar beets. important result of the
Fine horses, cattle, and Cheat War was the long-
sheep are raised. expected dissolution of
The Vistula River is the Dual Monarchy.
an important water way; Revolutions took place
nearlv all of its basin is in in the different parts
Poland. of Austria-Hungary, and
Warsaw, on the Vis- several independent re-
is the capital, by far
tula, publics were established,
the largest city (about — Czechoslovakia, Aus-
900,000), and the chief Hungary, — while on
tria,

railroad center; here are the borders the people of


tanneries, sugar refin- the Polish, Jugoslav, Ital-
eries,and many factories. ian, and Roumanian races
At Lodz are large cot- hastened to unite with
ton mills. Near Cracow, their kin in outside na-
the ancient capital of tions.
Poland, are wonderful Even before the com-
old salt mines. pletion of the treaties
The Poles are a peo- Marshal Haig, commander of the British armies
under negotiation, the
ple of the Slavic race. in France, 1915-1919 general outlines of the
CZECHOSLOVAKIA, AUSTRIA. HUNGARY II

new order, based on independent nationalities, than Czechoslovakia, and has a smaller pop-
can plainly be seen as described in the follow- ulation —
between 6,000,000 and 8,000,000.
ing pages. Its capital is Vienna, the chief city of the
Czechoslovakia. —The Czechoslovak Re- old Austria-Hungary and one of the very
public was established by the Czechs or large cities of Europe.
Slavic people of Bohemia and the neighboring The land produces grapes, grain, potatoes,
provinces of Austria, together with the Slo- and other crops. There are mines of iron,
vaks to the east of them, in what was north- coal, and other minerals, and some manu-
western Hungary. The Slovaks are a Slavic factures. The Tyrol, near Switzerland, is
people whose language is much like the Czech. famous for its summer resorts.
Near the boundary with Germany, which Some of the Austrian people, after the war,
mountain ranges for the most part,
follows wished to unite with Germany. The treaties
some Germans are included in Czechoslo- of 1919, however, provide that Austria shall
vakia. The boundaries with Austria, with be an independent country.
Hungary, and with Poland will probably be Hungary. — East of Austria is Hungary, —
drawn to include the districts where the the part of the old Hungary where the ma-
majority are Czechs and Slovaks ; that is, jority of the people are Hungarians. Most
they will be not far from the linguistic of it is a fertile plain which produces large
boundaries shown on the map. crops of wheat and corn and affords good
The Czechoslovak Republic thus claims an pasturage for sheep and cattle.
area one fourth the size of France, and a popu- The Danube River, crossing Austria and
lation nearly one third as large as the French. Hungary, is a great highway of commerce
Most of the people are Roman Catholics. forboth countries, neither of which now has
The Czechs are among the best-educated any seacoast. Budapest, on the Danube, is
people in Europe. the capital, chief railroad center, and largest
Czechoslovakia takes in about one fifth city of Hungary.
of the area and about one fourth of the popu- The
Hungarians, or Magyars, are de-
lation of the old Austria-Hungary. It in- scended from an Asiatic people who came
cludes most of the coal mines of the former to the Danubian plains about a thousand
Austria-Hungary, and the chief manufactur- years ago. Throughout the old Hungary
ing regions, where iron and steel, textiles, before the Great War they were the ruling
glass, and beer are made. But many Czechs race, though less than half the total popu-
and Germans and most of the Slovaks are lation. Some are Protestants, but most
farmers, and the country produces nearly all are Roman Catholics.
the food it consumes. In the Carpathian The boundaries of the new Hungary are
Mountains are valuable forests. very uncertain, especially on the east, where
Although the country has no seacoast, it lies in large areas Hungarians and Roumanians

in the basins of the Elbe, Oder, and Danube, are in nearly equal numbers, and on the
which are now opened to the shipping of all south, where there is much mingling with
nations. the Jugoslavs. however,
It is probable,
Prague, on the river Elbe, is the capital that Hungary, like Austria, will have a
and an important center of trade and manu- smaller area and a smaller population than
facture. Czechoslovakia.
Austria. —The new republic of Austria Eastern Galicia. —
One part of the old
is that part of the old empire where most Austria-Hungary whose destiny is most un-
of the people are Germans. It is smaller certain is the land of the Ruthenians, com-
12 GEOGRAPHICAL RESULTS OF THE GREAT WAR
prising and small adjacent
eastern Galicia Jugoslavia is much larger than Czecho-
areas in Bukowina and the
old Hungary. slovakia, the new Slavic country in the
The Ruthenians, about 4,000,000 in num- north, but it probably has a smaller popu-
ber, are a branch of the Little Russians. lation. Much of the country is mountainous,
Hence the larger body of Little Russians, and it has few railroads. Excepting the
or Ukrainians (page 15), would like to anne.K port of Fiume (claimed by Jugoslavia and
the whole area. by Italy), the frontage of Jugoslavia on the
But Ruthenians have long been a
the Adriatic Sea has small value because of high
subject people —
mostly peasants and la- mountain ranges near the coast. The chief
borers owning little property. Mingled with industry is farming.
them in various parts of the land are middle Cessions to Italy. —On the borders of
and upper class Poles, Germans, and Hun- Italy the old Austria included two districts
garians in Lemberg and other cities, there
;
peopled chiefly by Italians, one about the —
are more Poles than Ruthenians. Hungary city of Trent in the Alps, and the other about
claims to its old boundary along the Car- the large and important seaport Trieste at
pathians, and Poland claims at least all of the head of the Adriatic Sea. Both these
Galicia, which was part of the old Polish districts are to be ceded by Austria to Italy,

kingdom for several hundred years before with mountain boundaries that include
1772. On the east and west, also, Roumania many Germans and Jugoslavs besides the
and Czechoslovakia would like to e.xtend Italians.

their borders. Farther southeast, along the coast of the


The land of the Ruthenians is a land of Adriatic, are towns and seaports with popu-
farms and forests. Eastern Galicia also lations chiefly Italian, though the country
yieldsmuch petroleum. back of them is almost solidly Jugoslav.
Jugoslavia. —
The southern part of the old Therefore a long, narrow strip of the coast,
Austria-Hungary is the home of the Slovenes, with many ofF-lying islands, is claimed not
the Croats, and many Serbs. Near the end only by Jugoslavia but also by Italy, which
of the Great War a union was arranged be- took possession at the end of the war.
tween them and the Serbs of Serbia and In the case of Fium;, by far the most im-
Montenegro, for the formation of the Serb- portant of these ports, several compromises
Croat-Slovene state. The three peoples are have been suggested. One of them is similar
of the Slavic race and speak similar lan- to the plan followed with Danzig, namely,
guages. They are called Jugoslavs, which to make it an independent free city; for
means South Slavs, and hence their country its relation commerce of
to the foreign
is commonly known as Jugoslavia. Jugoslavia (and Hungary) is somewhat like
For the most part, the Serbs (in the east) the relation of Danzig to the foreign com-
are of the Orthodo.x Greek faith, while the merce of Poland.
Croats and Slovenes (in the west) are Roman During the war Italy occupied much of
Catholics. The Jugoslavs have political dif- Albania and she lays claim to the perma-
;

ferences, also some favor a republic, some


; nent possession of Avlona, a port at the mouth
a kingdom under the royal house of Serbia, of the Adriatic Sea, just opposite the " heel "
while some are opposed to the union in of the Italian peninsula.
either form. In the first half of 1919 the All together, these European territories

kingdom came into the control of nearly all annexed or claimed by Italy have an area
the country, in spite of some opposition in and a population greater than those of
Montenegro and Croatia. Maryland.
JUGOSLAVIA, ITALY, ROUMANIA, BULGARIA 13

Bessarabia, the Rus-


TEERITORIAL ADDITIONS sian between
province
TO
the Pruth
and the
ITALY Dniester, was annexed
SCALE OF MILES
50 luu 150 i]uO
by Roumania before
1 ) Ceded by Austria to Italy
the end of the Great
I
,:-
I Claimed by Italy
War. It is a farming
land twice as large as
Massachusetts. The
population, numbering
about 2,500,000, is

largely Roumanian, but


contains also many di-
verse elements — Great
Russians, Little Rus-
sians, Poles, Bulgarians,
Greeks, and Jews.
If the final treaties
confirm these additions
west and northeast,
Roumania will be
doubled in area and
population, and thus
made greater than any
other country that is

shown fully on the map,


page 10.


Cessions to Roumania. The eastern parts Bulgaria. —Though defeated in the war,
of the old Austria-Hungary are claimed and Bulgaria is not to lose much territory,

occupied by Roumania. The boundary is This because nearly


is all the land within
uncertain, but this addition to Roumania her boundaries of 1914 is the home of Bul-
seems likely to be as large and populous as garians The most important excep-
only.
the southern part of the old Austria-Hungary tion Western Thrace, which Bulgaria
is in

transferred to Jugoslavia. It thus forms won from Turkey in 1912-13. This region
one of the five or six very large pieces into is now claimed by Greece because the pop-

which most of the old Dual Monarchy is ulation in 191 2 was more Greek than Bul-
now broken. (Map, page 10.) garian. A suggested compromise is that part
The population is very mixed, but Rou- of it be kept by Bulgaria, part be given to
manians form the most numerous element, Greece, and part be made an international
with many Hungarians and some Germans, zone or independent district like Danzig, so
Ruthenians, Serbs, and others. Much of that through it Bulgaria can have access
the land is forest-covered mountains, but to the Aegean Sea. (Map, page 10.)
in the valleys and plains there are excellent On the other hand, Bulgaria claims parts
farms and pastures. Some coal, gold, and of southern northern Greece
Serbia and
silver are mined. Transylvania is noted for (that is, parts of ancient Macedonia), and
its scenery. the whole of the Dobrudja the part of —
H GEOGRAPHICAL RESULTS OF THE GREAT WAR
southern Albania and
part of western Asia
Minor, including the
great seaport Smyrna.
She asks Great Britain
to cede Cyprus to her.
She also lays claim to
Rhodes and neighbor-
ing islands, which Italy
took from Turkey in
191 1 and she opposes
;

Italian claims to part


of Asia
Minor. All
the lands claimed by
Greece were Greek in
ancient times and now
have a population
partly Greek. (Maps,
pages 10 and 17.)
As already stated,
however, the treaties
affecting Bulgaria and
Turkey were still under
negotiation in August,
1919; not till they are
completed and ratified
can the final disposi-
Lniiffitiije tion of these territories
be definitely known.
Roumania between the Danube and the Break-up of —
Turkey. The fate of Turkey
Black Sea —on the ground that their popu- is like that of Austria-Hungary the dis-—
lation is mostly Bulgarian. The area for ruption of an empire held together by force.
which her claim has the best foundation is Most of Asia Minor, or Anatolia, where the
the little strip that was taken from Bulgaria majority of the people are Turks, may (or
by Roumania in 1913. In the Dobrudja may not) remain an independent Turkey of
proper, north of that strip, the people include perhaps 6,000,000 population. But it has
many Roumanians and Turks as well as been announced by Allied statesmen that
Bulgarians, and Roumania needs the terri- the rest of the empire is to be set free from
tory to secure her access to the Black Sea. Turkish rule.
The Dobrudja is larger than the state of Constantinople, with part (or perhaps all)
Connecticut, but has a population only a of Eastern Thrace and a corner of Asia
third as great. Minor, is to be put under international con-
Greece. — Besides
asking for Western trol, in order to keep the outlet of the Black

Thrace from Bulgaria, Greece would like to Sea open to the ships of all nations. The
annex most of Eastern Thrace from Turkey. United States, it is said, may be requested to
Moreover, she claims and occupies part of take charge of it.
GREECE, TURKEY, EGYPT, RUSSIA 15

The western coast of Asia Minor is claimed Russia. —


Not only in Austria-Hungary
by Greece, as we have seen, because of its and Turkey, but to some extent in Russia,
many Greek inhabitants. To the south is a war and revolution have brought about the
region claimed by Italy. disruption of an old empire. Various border
Armenia, it is said, is to be made inde- lands, where the Russian people are in a
pendent of Turkey, but aided for a time by minority, have broken away and have set
the advice and assistance of some more ad- up independent governments. Political and
vanced power. It is understood that the linguistic differences among the Russians
United States may be requested to undertake themselves have led to civil wars that are
this guardianship of Armenia. The Arme- still raging, threatening the possibility of
nians are a Christian (Orthodox Greek) further disruption. (Map, page 17.)
people of the white race whose language is The largest part of the Russian people,
akin to those of Europe. more numerous than any other European
Syria, likewise, is to be freed from Turkey, nation, are the Great Russians. Their ter-
and there is an understanding that it may be ritory in centraland eastern Russia is larger
placed under the guardianship of France. than any other country in Europe. Most
Mesopotamia and Palestine were taken of it in August, 1919, was under the rule of
from Turkey by British expeditions during the Bolshevik or extreme socialist party.
the war, and it is understood that they may The Bolshevik leaders seized control late in
remain under British protection. Their 1917, and held it by a reign of terror. They
population is largely Arab, but it is planned tried to stir up workmen's revolutions in all
to make Palestine the home of many Jews. countries, and they made war to extend their
The kingdom of Hedjaz, with British aid, influence over neighboring lands.
threw off the Turkish yoke in 1916 and, near The Great Russians are the dominant
the end of the war, helped in the conquest of people also in Siberia, in much of southeastern
Palestine. This little nation of Arabs, it is Russia, and in parts of northern Russia about
believed, may form the nucleus of a greater the towns of Archangel and Murmansk, the
Arabia. seaport terminals of Russian railroads. But
All these regions separated from Turkey those four parts of the old empire were (in
have suffered much in the past from Turkish August, 1919) under the control of men who
misrule and oppression. All are in a back- were fighting to overthrow Bolshevik rule
ward state of development almost the only
; and to establish, they said, a democratic
industries are farming (by primitive methods) all-Russian government.
and grazing. By irrigation and other im- The White Russians, numbering about
provements, the production of these regions 10,000,000, speak a Great Russian dialect
can be greatly increased. somewhat resembling Polish. Their land
Egypt. —
Before the war Egypt was nomi- was a battle ground in the war between the
nally subject to Turkey, and British control Poles and the Bolshevik Russians.
there was sometimes objected to by other Ukrainia. — The Little Russians, or Ukrai-
powers. Since 1914, however, it has been a nians, about 25,000,000 in number exclusive of
sultanate under British protection, and this the Ruthenians (page 12), differ slightly from
arrangement is confirmed in the treaty with the Great Russians in race and language.
Germany. Hence one result of the war, if They set up an independent government in

that treaty becomes effective, is to make 191 7, but fell under German in-
for a time
Egypt formally and definitely a part of the fluence and control. Later they were de-
British Empire. feated and plundered by Bolshevik Russians,
;

i6 GEOGRAPHICAL RESULTS OF THE GREAT WAR


but in the middle of 1919 were apparently In all three of the Baltic States the land
recovering their independence. is low and some of it marshy. The chief
Inside the linguistic boundary shown on industries are farming, lumbering, and fishing.
the map there is a wide strip where the mid- The large land owners, before the war, were
dle and upper classes of the population are mostly Germans. A German army, in con-
largely Polish (in the west) or Great Russian trol of the Baltic States at the end of the

(in the east). Hence the boundaries of war, was left there for a time to aid in de-
Ukrainia, if it maintains its independence, fending the country from the Bolshevik
are very doubtful. Russians.
Ukrainia is a rich farming land, the most Finla.nd. —
The grand duchy of Finland
fertile part of the old Russia. It also con- was taken from Sweden by the czar of
tains the best coal and iron mines and many Russia more than a hundred years ago. It
manufactures. Two of its cities have a suffered much under Russian
oppression
population of over 600,000 each : the capital, rule, and in independence.
1917 declared its

Kief, and the chief seaport, Odessa. A con- It accepted German aid in defending itself

siderable part of the people in these and other against the Bolshevik Russians, and even
cities are Jews. chose a German monarch but after the
;

Baltic States. — In this


study of new states victory of the Allies it adopted a republican
and new boundaries, we have read about government instead.
many Slavic peoples Poles, Czechoslovaks, — Finland is more than half as large as
Jugoslavs, Bulgarians (partly Slavic), and France, but has a population of only about
several kinds of Russians. We now come to 3,000,000. The people are well educated,
some peoples of the old Russian Empire and very nearly all are Protestants. About
who are not Slavs. one eighth of them are Swedes and seven
The Lithuanians and the Letts have eighths are Finns, a people descended partly
languages much alike together they con- ; from the yellow race, whose language is much
stitute the Baltic group of the white race like the Esthonian.
in Europe ; the other groups being Greek, The country low plateau, with many
is a
Albanian, Celtic, Latin, Teutonic, and Slavic. lakes and streams. Farming, dairying, and
Lithuania has a population of perhaps lumbering are the chief industries, and there
3,000,000, mostly Lithuanians, who have set is water power for some manufacturing, es-

up an independent republic. This land (with pecially wood working and paper making.
part of Letvia) was included in the old Po- The capital and chief city is Helsingfors.
land, and the new Poland would like to annex East of Finland are some Finns and related
it. The small area between the Niemen River peoples, and therefore Finland would like
and the old northeast German boundary is to extend her boundaries to the White Sea
ceded by Germany to the principal powers and the Arctic Ocean.
it will probably be added to Lithuania, as its Other Russian Border Lands. The Lapps, —
population is largely Lithuanian. Samoyeds, and other yellow peoples of
numbers about 1,000,-
Letvia, or Lettland, northern Russia are few in number, and
000 Letts, mingled with some other people, their home lands are dreary wastes.
especially in the towns. The Caucasus is the home of many greatly
Esthonia the home of nearly
is 1,000,000 varying peoples, among whom the Georgians
Esthonians, who speak a Mongolian language, and others claim independence. Both there
together with some Russians and others. and in the other Asiatic possessions of Russia,
Nearly all the Esthonians are Protestants. the future is still most uncertain.
gM»i>
Yaroslavl

^ci/:^
ll^//>
J
'iv-A
— '-v °°:i^ »*
I r^^*->

"tome

c^katennoslaf • '^
-V^

te^d^ %M
V \ ;aterinoaar^

'^a'on/Jc E
SBatijn"
-.?-4

R
•__• Boundary of Europeun Russia iu 1914
Aleppo ( Political bouiniaries o£ Finland and
Russian Poland in 1914
PEOPLES AND BORDERLANDS ^^^B Aiiproxiinute boundury between ^Yhite
OF and Yellow Races
RUSSIA Damascus
5O00OOO Approximate linguistic

Letts nnd Lithuanians


boundary of the

SCALE OF MILES
^^^^ Approximate lini;uistic boundary of the
Little Russians
, 1

LougitiiJt
-

GEOGRAPHICAL RESULTS OF THE GREAT WAR


Shantung. —About twenty years ago Ger-
many forced China to give her the colony
of Kiaochow, with control of railroads and
mines in the province of Shantung. Early
in the war, Japan ousted the Germans and
took possession in their stead. By the treaty
of 1919 with Germany she takes over all

German rights there ; but it is understood


that she is later to hand over the political
control to China.
German Colonies in the Pacific. — Early
in the war the German possessions in the
Pacific Ocean were seized by the naval forces
of Japan, Great Britain, Australia, and New
Zealand. the treaty of 1919 Germany By
renounces her claim to them, leaving it to
the principal powers (United States, British
Empire, France, Italy, Japan) to dispose of
them. It is understood, however, that those
l^oiiU'itiidt 118 Kiibt
south of the equator are to be governed by

H I. N A
/C/foRMOSA 1
Tropic ot Cancer
Hongk6ng '^J
Jfv.e^'?... <
'LUZON •
MARIANAS w-^y
1 A U \lN&0- South (Tu Japan)
Maiillli^^,
|V=S PHILIPPINE
PI #
J
j 'GUAM I, MARSHALL 1

f iJ-'^l C It ' n a >S-S"-


»Nj"«t?SLANDS M r : ,v •
iUltr"U PALAS C R ISLANDS
!

Sea Jst
1

CAROLINC ISLANDS. -

{ To Japan

M
Equator ^GrLBEBT- s. k£» i.-""*"'"
'

\. E A S T tfrN D I E S
<f^.- '.^Hl'^OLOMON
^---- - —
IS. ELLjCE IS.
...... . UNION IS.
.^(Br.) . {Br.) -.1 ••.-.
(Br.)

' A N 'd is' CP.Iork *>


"^.c.*"".

P O L Y
I
N SAM^OA
E S I;A ••/
^Br^)

_ i NEWOjHEBRIDES
y c3t 'J" ;^"j< ("•«.)
Coral ^ea ,
leAiFr.) cfT'i' ^"'"i^
I X\D I A Jf lioRTHEBN ^, L. '''
.
(Br. i Fr.)
&')
SOCIETY IS.
;
!- .. .; ,\ 4^K, — ^? Tt,
NEW ^vTtoNGA OR
COOK IS./-:. ffV.)

\
SjC~^
[1"^-^.
Norihwett Cape (^r^
Ncrthweat — ^^ ]
(TERRiTOBf "?;

,'Jv,
LOYALTY
CAlioONIA^-^"',";;','
"^iN *, IS
'=•
/
1
FRIENDLY IS.
(Br.)

X — ^-i''^''^ .,,.t=.,
/ ,."
\ 9''EE»'*'-*''°

LI
1

K A .U S f R "Ji. A VSa^rfv <*)"• T'OP''^ of 7 Capricorn 7 l^-'

o c A y V^'^-. *
souTHfr-ir } >.: T

Cape ieeuu'/n^ A-T-//uatr<.;iun i.'iy/.fy'f'JIf^- WALES /^,,ln..J' I JiOrth Coae


'^\ AdelaiJ^yi; i^a, •fimlx-rra
ISLAND POSSESSIONS ItSTrt
#Mtlbourne
//>r.,««i,J..I.<./™p.l»I'
north
W
Vfi,„.iM,„l
c! ,r;
i.) '^^''"
-'

.aS.^Srra.r Taarri'aB .Sea c/j'^lSEW


CEDED BY GERMANY *^ J." >ii ^n/ollliii-t
^WelUugrtou
SCALE OF MILES
jth i./L/''""' f'- pCMATHAM IS.

^/^'ZEALXND ""•'

BTfWAHT I.P
SoutA Cope I

100 I-oniriiude 120 Enst HO from JfiO Gre.>nwi.Ii 180 Lomritude lUO "W,".! 140
GERMAN COLONIES 19

Australia and New Zealand


under the general oversight of
the League of Nations, while
those north of the equator
are likewise to be assigned to
Japan, with the exception of
some island, probably ^ ap,
which will be occupied by the
United States as a cable sta-
tion.
These islands north of the
equator have a small area
and about 75,000 inhabitants,
nearly all Malayan natives.
They include Mariana,
the
Marshall, Caroline, and Pelew
groups.
The possessions south of the
equator are more important.
They include the Bismarck Ar-
chipelago, part of New Guinea
(Kaiser Wilhelms Land), and 20

part of the Samoa group. All


together they have about as
much land and about as many
people (mostly natives) as the
state of T 'tah.
German Colonies in Africa.
— The German colonies in
Africa had, in 1914, an area ot over 1,000,000 ownership. Part of Togo also was placed
square miles and a population of more than under French control, and the remainder of
11,000,000. By the treaty of 1919 their dis- these two colonies under British control,
position, like that of the Pacific colonies, is awaiting their final disposition by the prin-
left to the principal powers. cipal powers.
It is however, that German
understood, German East Africa is the largest, most
Southwest Africa, which was conquered by populous, and most valuable of all these
(British) South Africa, will remain under the colonies. Most of it is a fertile plateau, with
government of that country. It is the least a climate suitable for white men. It was
valuable of the German colonies in Africa, stubbornly defended by the German colo-
because the climate is so very dry. nists and some of the natives, but was finally
Togo and Kamerun were conquered by taken by the British (including South Afri-
Britishand French troops. They are fertile, cans), with the cooperation of Belgian and
but too hot and wet for the homes of white Portuguese forces.
men. Part of Kamerun, transferred to Ger- No matter how the principal powers
many from French Equatorial Africa in finally dispose of this colony, it seems cer-

191 1, was promptly restored to French tain that there will no longer be any political
20 GEOGRAPHICAL RESULTS OF THE GREAT WAR
obstacle to the completion of the " Cape to partly because of it, that we purchased the
Cairo " railroad, under British control, from Danish West Indies (for $25,000,000). Our
one end of Africa to the other. share in the war, however, resulted in win-
The United States. Our country is not — ning for us the friendship of the Allied powers
directly affected by any of the important and the respect of all nations. Thus the
territorial changes resulting from the Great United States has gained a more influential
War, although it was during the war, and position in the world than ever before.

PRONUNCIATIONS
MARKINGS : a in late, a in senate, a in fat, « in «ccouiit. a in far, a in last, « in sofn e in me, e
; in return,
e in met, bgrry, e in term ; i in fine, in tin ; K = German ch o; in note, 6 in obey, 6 in not, 6 in f6r, oo in school,
ob in wool ; 5 in tune, u in unite, tl in nut, ii in clrcSs, u in burn.

Albania (Sl-ba'm-d) CypriLS (si'priis) Kamerun (ka-ma-robn') Rhodes (rodz)


Alsace-Lorraine (3,l-sas'l6- Czechoslovak (chek'S-slo- Kiaochow (kyou'cho') Roumania (roo-ma'nl-d)
ran') vak') Kief (ke'yef) RiUhenians (roo-the'ni-anz)
Anatolia (3,n-a-to'li-a) Czechoslovakia (chek'6-.sl6- Lemberg (Ifm'berK) Saar (ziir)
Arabia (a-ra'bl-u) vSk'i-d) Lille (lei) Salvador (sal-va-dor')
Arabs (Sr'abz) Czechs (chfks) Lithuania (lith-ii-a'ni-d) Samoyeds (s5m-6-yedz')
Archangel (ark'an'jel) Danzig (dau'tsiiv) Lodz (16dz) Sarre (sar)
Argentina (ar-jen-te'na) Dniester (nes'tSr) Lorraine (lo-riln') Schleswig (shlas'viK)
Armenia (iir-me'ni-a) Dobrudja (do-bro6'ja) Macedonia (mjs-e-do'ni-d) Shantung (shan't<56ng')
Avlona (av-lo'nii) Egypt (e'jipt) Magyars (niod'yorz) Slesvig (sla.s'vig)
Baltic (b61'tlk) Elbe (61'b6) Malmedy (mal'ma-de) Slovaks (sl6-vaks')
Bavaria (ba-va'ri-d) Esthonia (es-tho'ni-d) Mariana (ma-r^-a'na) Slovenes (slo-venz')
Bessarabia (b6s-a-ra'bi-d) Eupen (oi'pen) Me.sopotamia (me.s-6-p6-ta' Strasbourg (straz-boor')
Bismarck (bis'mark) Flume (fyoo'ma) ml-d) Stras.sburg (shtras'boorii)
Bolshevik (boUshe-vek') ; plu- Foch (fosh) Moresnet (mo-ra-ng') Togo (to'go)
ral, Bolsheviki (bol-she-ve- Galicia (gd-lish'I-d) Murmansk (moor-mansk') Tran.sylvania(triln-.sil-va'ni-d)
ke') Guatemala (gwa-tS-ma'ld) Nicaragua (nlk-d-ra'gwd) Trie.ste (tre-esf or tr^-gs'ta)
Budapest (boo'da-pest; Haig (hag) Niemen (ne'men) Tyrol (tlr'61)
Bukowina (b6o-kf>-ve'na) Haiti (ha'ti; Oder (o'der) Ukrainia (u-kriln'i-d)
Bulgaria (bo61-ga'ri-d) Hedjaz (hej-az') Odessa (o-des'd) L^ruguay (ii'roo-gwa)
Cairo (ki'ro) Helsingfors (hel-sing-fors') Paderewski (pa-df-r6f'sk^) Venezuela (ven-J-zwe'ld)
Chile (che'la) Joffre (zhftf'fr') Palestine (pal'es-tin) Versailles (v6r-sii'y' or ver-
Colombia (k6-l6m'b^-a) Jugoslavia (yoo-go-sla'vl-d) Paraguay (par'd-gwa) salz')
Cracow (kra'ko) Jugoslavs fyoo'go-slavz') Pelew (pe-loo') Vistula (vTs'tii-ld)
Croatia (kro-a'.shl-d) Kaiser Wilhelnis Land (ki'zer plebiscite (plfb'i-sit) Yap (yap)
Croats (kro'ats) vil'helms lanl) Pruth (prooth)