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January 2007 “Citizenship” Covering the Monthly Theme for February:
January 2007 “Citizenship” Covering the Monthly Theme for February:
January 2007 “Citizenship” Covering the Monthly Theme for February:
January 2007 “Citizenship” Covering the Monthly Theme for February:
January 2007 “Citizenship” Covering the Monthly Theme for February:

January 2007 “Citizenship”

Covering the Monthly Theme for February:

District/Council Calendar for January, February, and March

Jan 4

Recharter Information Meeting, 7:30pm Virginia UMC Conference Center, 10300 Staples Mill Road in Glen Allen

Jan 6

FOS Unit Captain Training Breakfast, 8:30am Richmond Elks Lodge #45, 10022 Elks Pass Lane in Innsbrook

Jan 16

Cardinal District Committee Meeting, 7:00pm to 9:00pm with light dinner at 6:30pm Salon B, Markel Building, 4600 Cox Road in Innsbrook

Jan 27

Patrick Henry Public Speaking and Communications, 8:00am to 12:00pm, Short Pump MS

Feb 3

Recharter Day for Cardinal District units

Feb 3

Patrick Henry Public Speaking and Communications, 8:00am to 12:00pm, Short Pump MS

Feb 6

Cardinal District Boy Scout Leader Roundtable, 7:30pm at Virginia UMC Center

Feb 8

Scout Anniversary Day

Feb 10

Patrick Henry Communications ONLY, 8:00am to 12:00pm, Short Pump Middle School

Feb 20

Cardinal District Committee Meeting, 7:00pm to 9:00pm with light dinner at 6:30pm Salon B, Markel Building, 4600 Cox Road in Innsbrook

Feb 23-25

Cardinal District Merit Badge Weekend, Camp T. Brady Saunders

Feb 28

New Leader Essentials, 7:00pm to 9:30pm, location TBA

Mar 3

Scoutmaster Leader Specific Training (Indoors), time and location TBA

Mar 6

Cardinal District Boy Scout Leader Roundtable, 7:30pm at Virginia UMC Center

Mar 10

College of Commissioner Science, University of Richmond, 8:30am to 4:30pm $25 if signed up by Feb 8 th , $30 if by March 7 th , $35 after March 7 th

Mar 15-17

Order of the Arrow Spring Ordeal, Camp T. Brady Saunders

Mar 20

Cardinal District Committee Meeting, 7:00pm to 9:00pm with light dinner at 6:30pm Salon B, Markel Building, 4600 Cox Road in Innsbrook

Mar 23-25

Introduction to Outdoor Leader Skills, 6:30pm Fri to 4:30pm Sun, Camp T. Brady Saunders

Cardinal District Jason Smith (804) 204-2648

Battlefield District Brett Smiley (804) 204-2620

Northern Neck/ Rappahannock Districts Phillip Mumford (804) 204-2620

Capitol District Phillip Duggins (804) 204-2616

Huguenot Trail District David Tate (804) 204-2626

Meherrin/Weyanoke Districts Geoffrey Angle (434) 390-0466

Crater District Marcus Ragland (804) 204-2623

Arrohattoc District Josiah Leonard (804) 204-2632

Saluting the Life of a Great American

President Gerald R. Ford

the Life of a Great American President Gerald R. Ford The nation’s first and only Eagle

The nation’s first and only Eagle Scout to become President of the United States

only Eagle Scout to become President of the United States The Boy Scouts in this 1929

The Boy Scouts in this 1929 photo are Joe McIntosh (left) and future president Gerald R. Ford.

Joe McIntosh (left) and future president Gerald R. Ford. Gerald Ford with the Eagle Scout Guard

Gerald Ford with the Eagle Scout Guard of Honor at Mackinac Island State Park, MI. The troop guided visitors around Mackinac Island and raised and lowered the flag each day. August, 1929

and raised and lowered the flag each day. August, 1929 This group of scouts in 1929

This group of scouts in 1929 include Gerald R. Ford (front row, left of center).

in 1929 include Gerald R. Ford (front row, left of center). Gerald R. Ford, Jr. poses

Gerald R. Ford, Jr. poses with other Eagle Scouts and Michigan Governor Fred Green during a photo opportunity on Mackinac Island, MI. August 1929.

Cardinal District Merit Badge Weekend

Merit Badge Weekend will be held on February 23-25, 2007, at Camp Brady Saunders. Participants may arrive Friday evening to set up campsites after checking in at the Welcome Center at the Cub Camp. Campsite areas will be assigned at that time.

Check-in Procedures: Upon entering the reservation from Maidens Road, troops will proceed to the right towards the Cub Camp parking lot. Only one vehicle per troop will be permitted to continue to Douglas Fleet to off load equipment. One vehicle pass per troop will be issued. The vehicle is to be returned to the parking lot at the Cub Camp for the duration of the weekend in order to keep the road clear for emergency vehicle access (and to prevent confrontations between vehicles and youth!). For the safety of participants, your cooperation is greatly appreciated.

Registration: The registration fee for adult leaders is $5.00. The registration fee is $12.00 per Scout for all units registering by February 16, 2007, at the Council Service Center. The late registration fee is $18.00 per Scout after February 16, 2007. An additional fee of $12.00 per Scout is required for the Space Exploration merit badge; an additional fee of $10.00 per Scout is

required for the Leatherworking merit badge and an additional fee of $15.00 for the Woodcarving Merit Badge.

also be an additional charge for Shotgun similar to the charge at summer camp payable to the counselor at the time of class.

There will

Class Size: In order to provide quality instruction, merit badge class sizes will be limited. Every effort will be made to accommodate merit badge requests, which are turned in by the deadline. Merit badge classes will be filled in the order in which registrations are received. Late registrants may have to select from merit badge classes with space available.

Special Note: Due to the high demand and limited resources for merit badge classes for First Aid, Emergency Preparedness, Citizenship in the Community, Citizenship in the Nation, and Citizenship in the World, only those Scouts registered by February 16, 2007, will be considered for these classes and will be placed on a first registered-first placed system. The Scout’s name must be on the registration form to be considered; no blank registrations will be considered. The Scoutmaster will be notified via e-mail (if the e-mail address is included on the registration form) for those Scouts not placed in the above listed merit badge classes.

Prerequisites: Please pay careful attention to the merit badge list and the prerequisites and try to match Scouts with the type of merit badge for which they are best qualified. And please provide prerequisite information to the Scout to enable him to prepare for the class. Merit badge counselors have requested that each Scout has obtained and has read the merit badge book before Merit Badge Weekend. Since there will be a large number of Scouts in need of books, please contact the Scout Shop as early as possible to arrange for the manuals for your troop's needs. All Scouts must bring their merit badge pamphlet and an Application for Merit Badge (blue card) that has been signed by their Scoutmaster when they go to their class at 8:30 AM on Saturday.

Forms and Information: Registration forms and further details will be available soon in downloadable format on the Cardinal website, and to pick up at the council service center.

New Scouts/New Venturers: New Scouts who have recently crossed over from Webelos patrols are encouraged to attend. Suitable merit badges are available for all ages of Scouts. If you would like to add Scouts who joined your troop after you have sent your registration, contact Matt Nixon at 337-1014 or e-mail The fees for these Scouts may be paid at camp during check-in. (No late fee for Scouts who “crossed over” after the registration deadline.) The Pamunkey chapter of the Order of the Arrow will again sponsor the “Scout Fundamentals” program for new Scouts and new Venturers.

Health Forms: Each unit must have with it the health forms of all its campers in camp at all times. If there are special health requirements for any Scout or adult leader, please notify the Business Manager, Matt Nixon.

Order of the Arrow: The Order of the Arrow will perform a call out ceremony at the campfire Saturday night. Please note that this will be a call-out ceremony for newly elected candidates. Any units that wish to hold O.A. elections should submit their requests to the OA Chapter through the chapter’s website at Please note: elections will not be performed during the event.

Leader Briefing: Scoutmasters and Senior Patrol Leaders are invited to a cracker barrel and fellowship at 10:00 p.m. on Friday night in the dining hall! Any unresolved issues can be addressed at this time.

Please complete the registration form and return it to the Scout Service Center by Friday, February 16, 2007. Please forward any questions to Business Manager, Matt Nixon at 337-1014 or e-mail

Webelos to Scout Transition Helpful Hints January 2007

At Webelos II crossover, introduce Webelos I Leader to Scoutmasters

Boy Scout leaders will be busy handling last minute arrangements for the crossover at hand, but will appreciate the opportunity to meet and exchange contact information with the person who will most likely be in charge of the next year’s transition

After crossover, have Webelos I leader begin discussions with Scoutmasters about a troop meeting visit or even campout during the late spring or early summer

Let’s face it, the Fall is a very busy time for everyone. It is difficult to squeeze in a reasonable number of troop visits and campouts during the fall, particularly while the weather is hospitable, so why not get started in the late Spring or early summer? Troops typically meet all year round and will have activities planned that may provide perfect opportunities for the Webelos to get involved.

Set expectation that not every troop is right for every boy

Every Boy Scout troop has a unique personality. It sometimes takes a few tries to find the right one. Just because a troop is right for some of the Scouts in the den does not necessarily mean that it will be the right fit for all the boys. The boys, leaders, and the parents need to understand this up front and realize that once they select a unit to join,

it does not have to be a permanent decision. Hopefully, they resolve any issues with

the Scoutmaster, but if not, they can join any other troop at any time. MANY BOYS QUIT SCOUTING BECAUSE THIS WAS NEVER UNDERSTOOD.

Join the new Webelos Transition Discussion List

Encourage Webelos Leaders and Webelos parents to join the list by Emailing to District volunteers and Scoutmasters will be posting information relevant to Webelos to Scout transition and it will come right to your Email box. Open Houses, special events, and helpful information from around the Cardinal District will be posted throughout the transition year to help the boys and their parents find and select the troop that is right for them.

Visit multiple troops and for multiple activities

The best way to find the right troop is to see them in action. Open houses are great. The Boy Scouts get a chance to show off their skills and leadership and the Webelos get

a chance to learn some new skills first hand, but these opportunities should also exist at regular troop meetings and on campouts. (Make sure to contact Scoutmaster before visiting any event as meeting time and place may be changed unexpectedly.)

Backpacking Outing of the Month

Big Schloss

In German, schloss means "castle." In Virginia, schloss can only refer to one geologic wonder, a towering outcrop of sandstone on Mill Mountain. Big Schloss is a popular day trip from Wolf Gap Recreation Area, a primitive camping site two miles south. A more strenuous trip begins far to the north, in a quiet river valley better known by hunters than hikers. The hike begins at Wilson Cove Wildlife Management Area, a 5,200-acre piece of the national forest designated for muzzleloader buck hunting only, in late November and early December. Along Pond Run, old- growth hemlocks stand out from the smaller trees growing thick along this stream. Rock slides, steep inclines, overlooks, and quiet views off Mill Mountain follow in succession.

Start: From the bridge over Waites Run on Waites Run Road (West Virginia Route 5/West Virginia Route 1).

Distance: 19.5 miles, loop

Difficulty: Moderate due to the length, sections of rocky and uneven trail, and steep climbs

Trail surface: Dirt forest paths and old logging roads lead through rock formations and cove forests along Pond Run and Little Stony Creek.

Nearest town: Wardensville, WV

Finding the trailhead: From Strasburg: Follow Virginia Route 55 (also called Wardensville Pike) west for 20 miles, crossing into West Virginia en route. In Wardensville, bear left at the Virginia Route 55/Virginia Route 259 junction. In 0.5 mile, turn left onto Carpenters Avenue, at the 7-Eleven store. In 0.8 mile, turn right onto Waites Run Road (WV 5/WV 1). Pass a community park on the left. Enter George Washington National Forest in 1.3 miles. In 5.3 miles, reach a concrete bridge spanning Waites Run. Across the bridge a sign indicates the boundary of Wilson Cove Wildlife Management Area (WMA). There are pull-offs for cars on either side of the stream and campsites for late-day arrivals.

Deiorme: Virginia Atlas & Gazetteer: Page 73, A6.

The Native American phrase for Appalachia translates roughly as "endless mountain." That seems an apt description standing atop one of Mill Mountains many outcrops. The view west is of one mountain rippling onto another and another, each one dissected by a narrow, wooded valley. Trees drape the entire landscape — a rare scene in these otherwise well-developed hills.

Mill Mountain attracts hikers just for these kinds of panoramas. The trail is well marked and the views easy to find. It's hard to imagine that this same trip, if undertaken 300 years ago, would be considered folly. On the whole, early settlers avoided steep uphill routes across mountains. Huge oaks and chestnut trees made passage difficult; a frustrating undergrowth of laurel, creeper, and shrubs reduced their pace to a crawl. Instead, settlers stuck to roads through the valleys, routes first blazed by Native Americans. The most famous, the Great Warriors Path, became the Great Wagon Road as settlers replaced indigenous populations. So numerous were the Scotch-Irish, German, and English migrants moving south on the Great Wagon Road from Pennsylvania, it has been said travelers numbered in the tens of thousands up to the Revolutionary War.

Before settlers, Iroquois Indians had used the north-south route for hundreds of years. Virginia Governor Alexander Spotswood and his companion explorers found the route when they reached the shores of the Shenandoah River. Marked by hatchet notches in trees, the Great Warriors Path aided Iroquois travel from Canada into southern regions for war and trade. It -was on one such trip that a band of Iroquois stayed south and settled in villages on the Neuse and Pamlico Rivers in northeastern North Carolina, which is where European traders and explorers encountered these "mild" and "gentle" people. Their name, from the Iroquoian word for "hemp gatherers," was Tuscarora.

and "gentle" people. Their name, from the Iroquoian word for "hemp gatherers," was Tuscarora.
Whatever the English's first impression, relations between the Tuscaroras and settlers turned ugly. Broken treaties

Whatever the English's first impression, relations between the Tuscaroras and settlers turned ugly. Broken treaties and a rash of kidnappings of Indian children contributed to a Tuscarora-led massacre in 1711, at New Bern in North Carolina. (English settlers had built New Bern on the site of a Native American town, Chattoka.) The killings were unusually brutal. Women were pinned to the floor and staked through, children killed, and homes burned. A two-year war ensued. By 1713, the Tuscaroras were defeated. Chieftains sent word north along the Great Warrior Path to the League of Five Nations, in upstate New York, asking for help. In 1714, the Tuscaroras began migrating up the Appalachians into Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and, finally. New York. A Virginian settler in the 1750s and 1760s might see groups of these Indians, their worldly possessions piled on horseback, traveling in small bands, sometimes settling in an area for years, then moving north again. Officially, the Tuscaroras were accepted into the League of Five Nations (now Six Nations) in 1722. Their migration lasted at least another half century beyond this date. Today, their tribe numbers 600 people on reservation land near Niagara Falls.

In name and spirit, the Tuscaroras remain in Virginia to this day. At Waites Run, a hiker who steps onto Tuscarora Trail enters a forest world of mountain streams and hemlock groves. The wide-trunked evergreens show black, gnarled roots, some reaching into Pond Run, soaking in the water. Along this stream, Tuscarora Trail shares the path with Pond Run Trail. In a gap between Half Moon and Mill Mountains, Tuscarora Trail branches east. Uphill from a good spring at the headwaters of Half Moon Run, the blue-blazed route plunges left into heavy woods. The grade steepens. Boulders and small rocks make walking difficult. The fractured gray rock underfoot shows a quartz-pebble conglomerate. In these stones, the Tuscarora name crops up again as Tuscarora sandstone, a type found at the core of mountains from Virginia to Pennsylvania. (Admittedly, the term sandstone gives reason to pause. This is, after all, one of the most erosion-resistant rocks in the Appalachians, a fact at odds with the idea of sand, which is easily eroded. The key here is metamorphism — a change in which a rock, subjected to intense, volcanolike heat and pressure, changes and becomes a new rock. So the chief ingredient of sandstone is recrystallized sand — sand subjected to so much heat and pressure it turned to quartzite, which is one of the most resistant rocks around.)

The hiker and Tuscarora Trail part on Mill Mountain, where the latter turns east and heads for the Shenandoah National Park while the Mill Mountain Trail follows the ridgeline south. From Waites Run, the trail has climbed 1,500 feet; the next 4 miles undulate more gently on a slope leading south to Big Schloss. It's a dry hike. Except for water at Sandstone Spring, there are no reliable sources on the ridge. There are, however, views. Short branch trails end at rough-textured rocks that will skin knees and elbows if you scramble up for a view. Finally, there is Big Schloss (German for "castle") visible above tree line, accessible by boardwalks over crevices and steep rock faces. Free-fall views surround the high point on this rock formation — there's nothing but blue sky east-west-north-south and straight up.

From the high-and-dry altitude of Mill Mountain, Big Schloss Cut-off Trail descends through a sea of mountain laurel (peak blooms in June) to reach Little Stony Creek.Where the trail on Mill Mountain is bedded with sand and stone flints, the route up Stony Creek Trail is muddy, lined with ferns, and full of chirping birds. There are red-eyed vireos, Acadian fly catchers, and oven birds rustling about the brush. Scarlet tanager roost on treetops, then swoop in a flash of red to feed on insects in the brush. Also present are warblers, although hardly in numbers they once were. This songbird's decline in the Southern Appalachians is an alarm for naturalists. The decline rate varies by species, but as a whole, nearly three-quarters of the fifty warbler species known to inhabit the southern forests are in decline. For an explanation, look no further than the burned and clear-cut forest along Little Stoney Creek below Forest Road 92. Habitat loss and fragmentation, whether caused by logging, development, or natural events, has impacted warblers to a degree that has made it an issue of study by the Forest Service.

Past Sugar Knob Cabin, Stony Creek Trail intersects the Tuscarora Trail and the return to Waites Run begins. Just when it feels the hike won't end, reach the gap between Half Moon and Mill Mountains.The route downhill along Pond Run leads to the trailhead, but consider shedding the pack here for one final viewpoint. Follow white blazes out of the campground to a rock outcrop on the edge of the mountain. The view from here is endless. The Indians had an apt description for this kind of view: Appalachian.

Miles and Directions

Miles and Directions 0.0 START from a signboard for Pond Run Trail. (Note: The Pond Run


START from a signboard for Pond Run Trail. (Note: The Pond Run Trai! is also known as the Tuscarora Trail) Standing on the concrete bridge spanning Waites Run, looking upstream, the signboard is on the right stream bank. From it, a blue-blazed dirt footpath climbs over a small hill and drops back to water and follows Waites Run upstream.


Veer right to follow the trail up Pond Run. Prior to this, there are campsites under hemlocks on your left. (Note: Green paint slashes on trees alongside the trail designate the wildlife management area, not the trail.)


Make the first of eight stream crossings on Pond Run as you walk up a cove past fine specimens of old-growth hemlock.


After crossing Pond Run once again, the trail passes a thick-trunked hemlock and climbs a rocky route up the right hillside, (FYI: Berry bushes crop up in the understory, signaling passage from the moist environment of the stream to drier slope environs.)


A glade of waist-high ferns heralds the approaching gap in Great North Mountain between Mill Mountain and Half Moon Mountain.


Reach a grassy junction. Turn left and immediately pass a campsite on the right. (An unmarked footpath, marked with white "i" blazes, descends from this campsite to a rock outcrop with a beautiful view of unspoiled forest land.) (Note: One-tenth of a mile past the campsite is a spring, the last reliable water source for 3 miles.)


Bear left onto a narrow, rocky, blue-blazed footpath. Avoid the old road that climbs the hill to the right. A sign states this road is closed for re-seed ing. The footpath is a newly constructed leg of the Tuscarora Trail and covers some rugged ground as it bends around Mill Mountain to a bluff overlooking Wilson Cove and Paddy Mountain, before cutting southeast to meet Mill Mountain Trail.


Tuscarora Trail empties into a grassy clearing. Walk straight through the clearing and onto Mill Mountain Trail, a dirt road overgrown with grass. (A right turn leads along a now-abandoned section of Tuscarora/Big Blue. A left turn is the return trail from Sugar Knob Shelter.)


A trail branches off to the right to a now-destroyed air beacon site and a metal shed. Past this Junction, the trail threads a set of concrete posts and reverts to a singletrack woods path. (FYI: The trail to the old air beacon is crowded with huckleberry, which bloom in early June.)


After a steep, rocky decline, reach Sandstone Spring, shaded by hemlocks. (FYI: This is a good water source and campsite.)


An unmarked trail to the right reaches an overlook west to Long Mountain. From here, you also get a nice view south along the spine of Great North Mountain, a range once called Devil’s Backbone


Reach the Big Schloss Cut-off Trail branching left off Mill Mountain Trail. From here, the Big Schloss rock formation is 1.2 miles straight ahead on Mill Mountain Trail. Continue straight.


Reach Big Schloss. Views span 360 degrees east across the Great Valley and west into West Virginia. To continue this loop hike, return to Mill Mountain Trail and the Big Schloss Cut-off.


Back at the junction of Mill Mountain Trail and Big Schloss Cut-off Trail, descend the east slope of Mill Mountain on the Cut-offTrail on steep switchbacks amid slicks of mountain laurel.


Pass a signboard inviting hikers to join the Stonewall Brigade, a trail maintenance group. The trail drops to Forest Road 92. Turn left and follow the gravel road downhill.


An unmarked logging road drops off the right side of FR 92. This marks a bushwhack to Little Stony Creek that takes you through landscape scarred by clear-cutting and fire. After descending on the logging road and passing through a clearing, find any one of a number of animal paths through the entanglement of vines and briars. Past this thick undergrowth is a dirt logging road. At this point, Little Stony Creek is audible, but obscured by a fringe of woods. Turn left and follow the logging road. There are several large blowdowns that force detours into the brush, but this logging road remains the main trail to FR 92.


Pass a dirt road leading to campsites on Little Stony Creek. Two more roads leading to Little Stony and good campsites follow in quick succession.


Reach FR 92. Cross the gravel road and re-enter the woods. Little Stony Creek Trail is a narrow yellow-blazed path that follows the stream, crosses several times, then climbs with alternating steep pitches and level stretches.


Reach Sugar Knob Cabin, a PATC-sponsored hut. There is a spring in the vicinity and several fire rings. (FYI: The PATC cabin is locked and for use through reservations only. Call (703) 242-0693.)


Turn left onto the Tuscarora/Big Blue Trail, a wide road overgrown with grass. (FYI: As you climb, look off to the sides for knee-high ant mounds.)


Turn right at the junction with Mill Mountain Trail. This spot completes the Mill Moutain/Little Stony Creek loop.


Turn right onto Pond Run Trail and head down the shaded mountain stream valley. (FYI: Take time as you descend to notice how different the trees and terrain seem. You climbed this trail at the start of the hike, but it seems a different trail altogether as you descend.)

Trail contacts: Lee Ranger District, Edinburg, VA, (540) 984-4101, Schedule: Open

Trail contacts: Lee Ranger District, Edinburg, VA, (540) 984-4101,

Schedule: Open year-round. Hunting is permitted in national forests. Wilson Cove WMA hosts a special muzzle-loading season in December. Deer season lasts from November to early January

Fees/permits: No fees or permits required

Leave No Trace Features of the Month

Items fromThe Backcountry Hiker used with permission from Robert Lord

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Leave No Trace Winter Use Principles

Winter is upon us and we all want to get out and continue our adventures. Skiing, snowshoeing, and other winter sports. We also still like our hiking and camping. Here are the winter use principles. Let’s all have a wonderful winter and please be safe.

Plan Ahead and Prepare

Know the area and what to expect; ALWAYS check avalanche and weather reports prior to departure.

Consult maps and local authorities about high danger areas, safety information, and regulations for the area you plan to visit.

Prepare for extreme weather, hazards and emergencies.

Monitor snow conditions frequently. Carry and use an avalanche beacon, probe and shovel, if appropriate.

Educate yourself by taking a winter backcountry travel course.

Visit the backcountry in small groups, but never alone. Leave your itinerary with family or friends.

Repackage food into reusable containers.

Use a map and compass to eliminate the need for tree markings, rock cairns or flagging.

Travel and Camp on Safe, Durable Surfaces

On the trail

Stay on deep snow cover whenever possible; in muddy spring conditions, stay on snow or walk in the middle of the trail to avoid creating new trails and damaging trailside plants.

Travel and camp away from avalanche paths, cornices, steep slopes and unstable snow.

At camp

Choose a site on durable surfaces (snow, rock or mineral soil) not tundra or other fragile vegetation.

Camp at a safe, stable site out of view of heavily traveled routes and trails.

Keep pollutants out of water sources by camping at least 200 feet (~70 adult steps) from recognizable lakes and streams - consult your map.

Dispose of Waste Properly

Pack It In, Pack It Out. Pack out everything you bring with you. Burying trash and litter in the snow or ground is unacceptable.

Pick up all food scraps, wax shavings and pieces of litter. Pack out all trash: yours and others.

Pack out solid human waste. In lieu of packing it out, cover and disguise human waste deep in snow away from travel routes and at least 200 feet (70 adult steps) from water sources.

Use toilet paper or wipes sparingly. Pack them out.

If necessary, use small amounts of biodegradable soaps for dishes and widely distribute dishwater.

Inspect your campsite for trash and evidence of your stay. Dismantle all snow shelters, igloos or wind breaks. Naturalize the area before you leave.

Leave What You Find

Leave all plants, rocks, animals and historical or cultural artifacts as you find them.

Let nature’s sounds prevail. Keep loud voices and noises to a minimum.

Minimize Campfire Impacts

Campfires cause lasting impacts in the backcountry. Always carry a lightweight camp stove for cooking.

Use dead downed wood if you can find it. Put out all fires completely. Widely scatter cool ashes.

Do not cut or break limbs off live, dead or downed trees.

Respect Wildlife

Winter is an especially vulnerable time for animals. Observe wildlife from a distance. Do not follow or approach them.

Never feed wildlife or leave food behind to be eaten.

Protect wildlife and your food by storing rations and trash securely.

Be Considerate of Other Visitors

Be respectful of other users. Share the trail and be courteous.

Yield to downhill and faster traffic. Prepare for blind corners.

When stopped, move off the trail.

Separate ski and snowshoe tracks where possible. Avoid hiking on ski or snowshoe tracks.

Learn and follow local regulations regarding pets. Control dogs. Pack out or bury all dog feces.

Real Outdoor People

Today we salute you Mr. Christmas Outdoor Equipment Delivery Guy (Mr. Christmas Outdoor Equipment Delivery Guy)

We wake up Christmas morning and much to our surprise, right under our tree, the equipment pile rises high. (Equipment pile rises high)

We see backpacks, GPS ‘s, and water bottles to spare, enough LNT Ethics Reference cards to share. (Lots of cards to pass around)

Even the stockings on the fireplace are seen, filled with stuff for all of our gear junky dreams. (Gear junkie's love their gifts)

So crack open an ice cold refreshing milk with your chocolate chip cookies, Oh Great Christmas Outdoor Delivery Guy. Nobody else has the best ride in the sky.

Delivery Guy. Nobody else has the best ride in the sky. Used with permission from Rich

Used with permission from Rich Diesslin

Leave No Trace Happenings in Scouting Nationwide

David Dietz and Paul Gittler had the privilege of passing on some of their newly acquired knowledge of Leave No Trace to a group of about 50 - 60 Webelos. The Michigami District from Detroit Area Council recently held their annual Webelos Woods event, demonstrating many of the Boy Scout skills to the prospective new Scouts. They set up a display of Leave No Trace Principles, and taught the boys about camping without anyone knowing you were there. They had a trail made up that included many items that should never be seen on a trail, or anywhere for that matter, and the boys had to remember what was out of place. They passed out the Front Trail cards to everyone and went over all the major points. They enjoyed the display of items that should be left where they are so that everyone else can see them and be amazed at nature (take only pictures and leave only footprints). Some of them were also surprised at the harm that can be caused by disturbing wildlife.

What can YOU do to promote LNT in YOUR district?

wildlife. What can YOU do to promote LNT in YOUR district? Kaitlyn Lord, Carl Eckert II,

Kaitlyn Lord, Carl Eckert II, and Jeannette Ursem from Venture Crew 2211 in Clinton Valley Council were awarded their Outdoor Bronze Award on December 7, 2007. All three are certified Leave No Trace Trainers.

Everybody needs beauty as well as bread, places to play in and pray in, where nature may heal and give strength to body and soul.

~John Muir

Outdoor Cooking Recipes of the Month

Selected recipes from “Freezer Bag Cooking” by Sarah

Many of Sarah’s recipes from her site refer to placing the freezer bag in a cozy after adding the hot water. What’s a cozy, you ask? A cozy is just a pouch or wrap to keep the heat from escaping, allowing your food to cook more quickly. There are commercially made cozies available but Sarah notes:

“You can use a number of items to make a cozy. You can use a fleece jacket, a hat, or whatever extra clothing you have laying around (though, if you are a true light packer, you don't have a lot of extra clothing laying around!, and in bear country, do NOT use your clothing. Eventually you might think, I want something only for my food. You can do anything from sewing two potholders together, sewing a fleece pouch, taking a pipe insulator (the ones you use outside on your hose faucet). These work great actually. The main point of a cozy is to keep the heat in your freezer bag, so that your food doesn't cool too fast, and it rehydrates properly The outside faucet cover is one the best cozy's you can make for winter & cold temperature use. It is bulky, but it is worth the space taking, you can fit your gear into it in your backpack, and it holds a quart freezer bag perfectly, and holds it upright, so you have a "bowl" for eating. This makes for less mess, and easier eating ”

Some of the recipes also call for dried fruits and vegetables. You can increasingly find these in local grocery stores but are also available in specialty shops or on the web at Just Tomatoes, etc! at

Breakfast: Couscous and Fruit


1½ cups couscous

½ cup ground dried berries of choice

¼ cup ground dried bananas

½ cup dried pineapple bits

¼ cup raw sugar

½ tsp cinnamon

1 Tbl or 1 packet olive oil

At home place all ingredients in a quart freezer bag. When ready to prepare at camp, pour 3 cups boiling water into the freezer bag. Stir well and put in a cozy for 5 minutes. Fluff the couscous and eat. Serves 2-3.

Lunch: Cold Ramen Salad


1 package Ramen noodles (discard flavor packet)

2 Tbl dried veggie flakes or Just Veggie freeze-dried veggies

1 packet salad dressing of choice (shelf stable, find at fast food places, delis or use 2 tubs of Ranch dip/dressing)

Put Ramen and veggies in a quart freezer bag. In camp add 1½ cups water (room temp), and seal. Let sit for 30 minutes to 1 hour. Drain well. Add dressing and toss well. Great with cubed cheese and or pepperoni slices.

Soup: Salmon Chowder


3 oz pouch of salmon

½ cup instant mashed potatoes

½ cup dried powdered milk

1 tsp Old Bay seasoning

1 tsp dried chives

2 Tbl dried veggie flakes or Just Veggie freeze-dried veggies

½ tsp granulated garlic

½ tsp salt

Put all items except salmon in a quart freezer bag. In camp put the salmon in the freezer bag, and add 2 cups boiling water. Stir well, pop in a cozy and let sit for 10 minutes. Great with 2 or 3 packets of parmesan cheese (available at Pizza Hut).

Main Dish: Creole Albacore


1 pouch albacore fillets

¼ tsp mesquite seasoning

1 dash ea garlic powder and black pepper

1 tsp dried onion

2 Tbl dried bell pepper

1 pouch spaghetti sauce powder (found in the packet aisle)

1 packet soy sauce

1 packet lemon juice

1 packet hot sauce

2 cups instant white rice, uncooked

At home, combine all dry ingredients in a quart freezer bag. Put the rice in another quart freezer bag w/unopened sauce packets. In camp, combine sauce packets, dry spices and ½ cup hot water and mix well. Add the fillets and place in the

bottom of a cozy.

for15 minutes. Divide fish, sauce and rice between the two bags and enjoy! Serves 2.

Add 2 cups of boiling water to rice and place in the cozy on top of the fillets. Leave the bags in the cozy

Main Dish: Perk’s Beef Stroganoff


2 Tbl powdered milk

1 Tbl butter buds (or use fresh butter/margarine, 1 Tbl)

1 Tbl tomato powder (or soup mix)

1 Tbl flour

Dash of pepper

2 Tbl dried onion

1 cube beef bullion (crushed) (or use low sodium no MSG Herb Ox Beef bouillon)

¼ cup dried mushroom slices (or freeze-dried mushrooms)

1 cup cooked & dried noodles (egg noodles, etc)

½ cup dried hamburger

At home, combine all ingredients in a quart freezer bag. In camp, simply top with boiling water and place in a cozy for about 10 minutes.

NOTE: You can buy commercially-made dried hamburger but it’s easy to make your own. Simply cook ground beef in a skillet until well done. You want to ground the beef down into as small pieces as possible while cooking. Drain off the fat and spread the beef out onto paper towels to soak up the rest of the fat. Place the beef on a cookie sheet and put it in a 150 degree oven with the door slightly ajar for 6 hours. The dried beef should resemble small rocks and can be put in a freezer bag and stored in the freezer until ready to use. Will last for a couple of weeks on the trail without spoiling.

Dessert: S’Mores in a Freezer Bag


1 cup graham crackers, broken into small squares

½ cup chocolate chips

½ cup toasted chopped walnuts

some shredded coconut coffee liqueur (optional but the liquid helps it melt better)

At home, combine all ingredients and then divide into two ziplock freezer bags. In camp, drop the sealed bags in hot water (not boiling!), until the chocolate melts. Remove from water and eat out of the bags. Serves: 2

Cool and Possibly Useful Camping Gear

and GearFlogger a t GSI’s Camp Gourmet Telescoping Spatula About $3 at most
and GearFlogger a t GSI’s Camp Gourmet Telescoping Spatula About $3 at most

GSI’s Camp Gourmet Telescoping Spatula

About $3 at most stores and online retailers

Maybe I’ve spent too many afternoons bent over a camp stove trying scramble eggs with a flattened beer can, but the GSI Outdoor Telescoping Spatula sounds great. GSI made it out of nylon clean up won’t be too bad after it melts to your camp stove. The best part is that it only costs $3, so you can just skip Starbucks for a day and break even.

Earbag Ear Warmers

About $15 at REI

Earbags sounds like either (1) airbags for your ears or (2) an act of indeterminate but undoubtedly disgusting nature required to get patched in with an outlaw motorcycle gang. In this case the truth is somewhat more pedestrian; we're talking fleece covers for your ears.

I saw my buddy wearing a pair while cross-country skiing and I gave him a ration about how dorky they looked. Once I had milked the topic to my own childish satisfaction I realized that yes, frequently it was only my ears that were cold, but in the same situation a hat or even a headband might be overkill.

So I bought a pair and I confess I was wrong. They are actually quite clever and useful and cool people do indeed wear them, as I myself prove. They keep ears warm during cold weather aerobic activity like skiing. For getting patched in with the Mongols, not so much.

For getting patched in with the Mongols, not so much. Dryzone Boot Dryer $19.95 at most
For getting patched in with the Mongols, not so much. Dryzone Boot Dryer $19.95 at most

Dryzone Boot Dryer

$19.95 at most stores and online retailers

I’m going to let you in on a little secret; the Dryzone Boot Dryer is exactly the same as the Dryzone Wader Dryer. These chemical beanbags get stuffed into your sweaty gear where they soak up moisture to dry your ski boots or waders without heat. I’m going to let you in on another little secret — balled-up newspaper gets rid of moisture just as well as the Dryzone. Of course, then you’ll have to deal with newspaper ink all over the inside of your stuff.

Micro Solar LED Light

About $21 from Compact Impact and other online retailers

Days after your food runs out, the Micro Solar LED Light will still have juice for you to check your pack for crumbs every few minutes. It won’t have enough power to signal to the planes flying overhead that you need rescue, but it will be a nice comfort in your last few hours. Remember to leave it on top of your body so the hikers who find you in spring will get it with a full charge.

ThunderBolt PRO Lightening Detector Personal Unit Between $409-459 at Ambient Weather ( A

ThunderBolt PRO Lightening Detector Personal Unit

Between $409-459 at Ambient Weather (

A guy I know in Salt Lake says he’s been struck by lightning six times. I tried telling him that the center of a lightning strike is hotter than the surface of the sun — didn’t faze him. Maybe he got the ThunderBolt Pro Lightning Detector Personal Unit in his stocking this year, then he can bring me some proof next time he gets struck.

The ThunderBolt storm and lightning detection system uses several warning and message screens. The display continually provides updated information about detected storm and lightning activity (range, approach speed, estimated time of arrival, and severity) as well as communicating status of the ThunderBolt itself (low-battery warning, tone on/off). Because the on-board computer controls all functions, all you have to do is turn the ThunderBolt on. It will even handle the job of turning itself off when operating on 9-volt battery power.

turning itself off when operating on 9-volt battery power . Teva Men’s Dozer About $60 from

Teva Men’s Dozer

About $60 from most online retailers

Sandal companies must go a little batty during the winter. Their employees all trying to wear river shoes to work, marching through snow banks in the parking lot to space heaters hidden under their desks. Teva’s employees’ madness has manifested itself in the Dozer. It’s a synthetic shoe/sandal made to fill the niche between hiking sandal and shoe.

made to fill the nich e between hiking sandal and shoe. LuxuryLite UltraLite Pillow $29.50 from

LuxuryLite UltraLite Pillow

$29.50 from LuxuryLite Gear (

Carrying a lightweight backpack is nice, but I have a hard time sleeping without a pillow. The 4oz LuxuryLite Ultralight Pillow folds to the size of a soda can but fills out to 19×15in. It uses an outer layer of foam with an air bag in the center.

The breathable cover and open cell foam layer provide great circulation (no sweaty spot like ordinary plastic inflatable pillows) and soft conformance to your face and head. You inflate and deflate the air bag with an ordinary soda straw or any smooth stick (like a pencil). Inflate to any thickness from 1" to 6" to fit your camping situation. Experience shows that 2" is optimum for maximum comfort for any type of pillow for most sleepers. If you need a really thick pillow, stack two LuxuryLite® Pillows for a perfect 4" thick pillow. This works great with the Cot-EL where the Pillows are on the tent floor. No matter how much you inflate the LuxuryLite® Pillow, the surface never gets tight and hard like an air mattress because the foam layer provides softness. If the air bag does get punctured on a thorn, you can fold the pillow in half and still sleep great on the 1.5 inch thick foam.

in half and still sleep great on the 1.5 inch thick foam. Nalgene Tumblers About $8

Nalgene Tumblers

About $8 from most stores and online retailers

Nalgene has a sweet new product that’s more than just a sippy cup for adults. The Tumbler by Nalgene is a cup, shaker, mixer, measurer, and a way to share drinks if you’re not a hog. Getting ice into the backcountry is the hard part — dry ice works okay, be careful not to put it in an airtight container.

One tip: When you buy the tumbler, the cups can be tricky to pull apart. The key is to push the inner cup towards the outer cup until you hear a click, and repeat every 90 degrees, then pull the two apart. Don't worry, you only have to do that once.

Ultra-Cool Wilderness Survival Skills

At risk of posting something of actual use to actual hikers we present:

How to Use a Signal Mirror

From Equipped to Survive at

Equipped to Survive a t http :// Reflections Of Light The signal mirror is the most

Reflections Of Light

The signal mirror is the most basic and best all-around signaling device. Compact and simple to operate, it has been successfully used for many rescues. While any shiny object can and has been used for signaling (see illustration for how to do so), a purpose made signal mirror is generally brighter and the best are much easier to aim.

In normal sunlight, the flash from a good signal mirror can easily be seen for 10 miles and generally the flash will be visible up to 50 miles, depending upon atmospheric conditions. The record rescue from one is 105 miles, at sea. A mirror will even work on bright overcast days and with moonlight, though with much reduced range. Many experts recommend carrying two as you can then more easily signal in a 360 degree sweep with a little practice. An experienced user can signal up to 270 degrees, sometimes even a full 360 degrees if the sun is high, with a single mirror, but that is pushing it for most users. One mirror per person isn't such a bad idea.


mirror 4 inches by 5 inches (standard United States Coast Guard size) or 3 inches by 5 inches (standard large mil-spec size)


ideal. Anything much larger gets to be unwieldy and can be difficult to use for extended periods or to aim accurately. Even

the USCG size can be awkward for those with smaller hands, especially if it is made of heavy material. The smaller 2 inch by 3 inch size (standard small mil-spec size) work adequately and the convenient size is an asset. There are also a few manufacturers that make mirrors even smaller than this. Generally, the bigger the better, since brightness is partly a function of the reflective area. The other determinations of brightness is just how reflective the mirror actually is and how uniform and

consistent the reflected beam is, which is determined by its design, the materials used and its condition.

NOTE: We are often asked about, or see the recommendation online and elsewhere, the use of a CD-ROM as signal mirror. It is shinny, reflects light, has a hole in the center, and thus looks somewhat like a signal mirror. Moreover, many of us have lots of useless CDs around, AOL continues to send many of more of them, thus its appeal.

In tests a CD proved to be only about 20%-25% as effective (distance and brightness at distance, judged subjectively) as a 3 x 5 mil-spec plastic signal mirror, a bit more effective, but not even 50% compared to a small 2 x 3 mil-spec plastic signal mirror. It would compare worse against higher quality mirrors.

From an operational persepctive, in an After-Action Report of a major SAREX (Search and Rescue Training Exercise) conducted in 2001 by the Colorado Wing of the Civil Air Patrol, the conclusions were, "that "victims" who had never used a signal mirror (with the aiming hole in the middle) were able to use them effectively, while CD's (AOL etc.) are useless as signal mirrors."

It also has the disadvantage of requiring two hands to aim it as compared to a signal mirror with an integrated aiming device, the hole is not an aiming device. The mil-spec plastic mirrors also float, the CD may or may not, and certainly not as well. Given that a good signal mirror is not very expensive and is the most effective daytime (sunlight) signaling device, using a CD hardly seems worth the savings.

Not to say you couldn't be rescued using a CD. People have been rescued using the hologram on a credit card to signal with and the CD is far superior to that small reflective surface. A CD makes a decent improvised signal mirror compared to many other options and since they are essentially free, it may be worth carrying some for other members of your crew or party to use, multiplying your signaling capability. However, we cannot recommend a CD as a primary survival signaling device.

For decades the double layered glass military signal mirror has been the standard against which all others are judged. While they work exceptionally well, the heavy weight of the glass, coupled with its relative fragility are definite drawbacks. They are constructed of two pieces of glass, one mirrored, glued back to back (these days using two strips of double-sided tape), with a clear aiming "spot" in the middle. Instructions for use are visible through the back piece of glass. A metal grommet in one corner is provided for attaching a lanyard or tether. The edges are not sealed and they do degrade or delaminate after a time if subject to water immersion, as might occur in a water survival situation.

Commercially available ones are imported from Japan by Vector 1, Inc. (these are the same mirrors that were formerly imported by Safesport, now out of business). These glass signal mirrors are available in three sizes: 2 x 3 inches ($8.95 MSRP), 3 x 5 inches ($10.95 MSRP), and 4 x 5 inches ($11.95 MSRP). The mirrors are readily available from most outdoor sports retailers (Coghlan's Ltd. also markets them under their own brand name.)

The brilliant "fireball" presented through the aiming spot makes aiming the reflected fireball easy. The fireball is produced by retrodirective reflection from small metalized glass spheres adhered to a mesh grid or cloth disk with a center hole. This disk is in the clear spot between the two pieces of laminated materials, glass in this case, used to make up the mirror. It is possible to signal without such an aiming device, and necessary at highly oblique angles, but it can be more difficult, especially without training or clear instructions.

Rescue Reflectors offers superior glass signal mirrors, though for almost double the cost of the Japanese made units.

Another traditional mirror material has been steel, either stainless, highly polished, or chrome plated. The steel mirrors certainly aren't fragile and will withstand considerable abuse, but they also have their weaknesses.

At best they are considerably less bright than the glass mirror in part because they simply are not as inherently reflective and also because they tend to have a lot of distortion. The most effective metal mirrors also are a bit on the heavy side, equalling or exceeding the weight of equivalent sized glass mirrors in some instances. Those that aren't heavy usually have tremendous amounts of distortion, further reducing their effectiveness. Even the stainless mirrors are subject to corrosion and rust (stainless steel just resists rusting, it cannot prevent it) and the plated ones will rust very quickly in a salt water environment.

Both types are easily scratched and dulled. To maintain optimum effectiveness they must be kept wrapped in their sealed protective wrapping. That effectively precludes practicing with these mirrors, unless you have a spare.

These mirrors do not have the reflective aiming spot, simply a hole or cross in the center. Depending upon the design, they may have some aiming capability which creates a somewhat bright ring around the hole when aimed properly, but this is not as easy to use, nor as effective at higher angles as the reflective grid style. As a result, they are much more difficult to aim, especially for the untrained, and require the use of both hands to shade the back so you can easily see the ring. You cannot always count on having both hands free or usable.

In the past decade, lightweight plastic signal mirrors have become commonplace. Being less cumbersome, the lightweight mirrors are more likely to be carried and weight is always a consideration for pilots. The small ones will easily fit in your pocket and are so light as to be virtually unnoticeable. Most will also float if dropped into the water, a consideration for life raft use.

The earliest ones were not very good and there are still plenty available that are no better. Typically, these are single layer acrylic mirrors, as used on many consumer products. The reflective backing is not very good and both it and the mirror's the face is easily scratched, potentially diminishing the reflectivity of these mirrors and their effectiveness. Sometimes they come with a very thin semi-opaque plastic cover on the face which offers some protection while packed, but which cannot be put back on. They may have a hole drilled in the center, but have no reflective aiming spot. Considering how inexpensive better quality one are, there's no reason to purchase any of these.

The 2 x 3 inch "10 Mile Signal Mirror" from Skyblazer ($9.45), is an evolution of this basic design. A backing label with instructions protects most of the reflective coating. A center insert with a grid in the aiming hole is claimed to create a "glow" with which to aim. In my tests no "glow" was evident and it was no easier to aim than designs without this insert.

The best mass-produced plastic signal mirrors is a mil. spec. design offered by Survival, Inc. (formally S.O.S. Survival Life Support) and at retail under the Ultimate Survival brand. It represents the best value and most compact, lightweight and easily carried package, so in that respects it is the best for a large majority of users. The reflective backing is protected, sandwiched between a pair of polycarbonate surfaces ultrasonically welded together and hermetically sealed. An integral molded rim protects the mirror, makes it easy to grip and provides a lanyard hole. The reflective aiming star is locked into the center.

Though not included on the Ultimate Survival versions, they also make a peel off, reusable heavy plastic cover that protects the mil-spec mirror's surface from damage and can be reinstalled after use (provided you either kept a small corner attached or were careful to keep it from getting dirty). It's actual design use is to prevent an inadvertent flash from giving away a combatant in hiding. If your mirror is not so equipped, likely the case, care should be taken to prevent the mirror from being scratched in storage.

Instructions are on a label which covers the back side of the mirror. The aiming hole presents a fireball, which though it isn't quite as bright as the glass mirrors, is more than adequate. While not as reflective as the glass mirrors, they are the bright enough to pass military specifications and quite adequate. The 2 x 3 inch model ($8) weighs only .75 oz, the 3 x 5 inch model ($10) is 2 oz. The smaller mirror was sold under the "Gerber" brand name for a few years. Given the low cost, light weight and excellent performance of the Survival, Inc. mirrors, there is no excuse for anyone to be without one in their pocket.

Local Eagle Scout Project of the Month

Parker Vacik – Cave Springs, VA

Eagle Scout's work gives zoo a facelift

It's the season for makeover magic, and new Mill Mountain Zoo director Sean Greene isn't short on fix- 'em-up plans.

Bo the wolverine is getting upgrades to his spacious bachelor pad. The neighboring prairie dogs are getting an Old West theme for their home. And the porcupines have moved in next door to the colorful wrinkled hornbill. Those are a few of the changes visitors can expect to see in coming weeks on the mountain.

So why all the fuss and changes, especially when Greene has only been on the job for less than a month?

Greene has only been on the job for less than a month? Parker Vacik works on

Parker Vacik works on the Bald Eagle habitat at the Mill Mountain Zoo.

"It's like an old piece of nice jewelry," he said

recently as he took a visitor on a morning tour of the public and staff areas of the zoo. "It just needs to be polished up and let that true beauty shine through."

More important, he said, the zoo wants to retain its accreditation through the America Zoo and Aquarium Association, as it has done for the past 10 years.

To get there, a phase of the makeover will start this weekend when Greene and a crew of volunteers including the Jaycees, the Roanoke organization that once ran the zoo, ready the Zoo Choo for the new season.

Sherwin-Williams' district office in Roanoke will supply paint, and Cave Spring High School students will paint murals in the Zoo Choo tunnel later this spring.

While they appear to be cosmetic changes, the upgrades, including painting many fixtures and buildings green and adding bamboo to the outside of exhibits, are necessary if the zoo wants to be one of three AZA-accredited facilities in Virginia.

The new look was made possible thanks to Parker Vacik, a Cave Spring High School student, who decided to take on the zoo as his Eagle Scout Project.

With the help of his fellow boy scouts, Parker spent several days this week completely remodeling the Bald Eagle Exhibit.

The entire project came up to $1200. Parker was able however to get all the materials donated.

While the work was going on, the bald eagle was moved to Ruby the tiger's old exhibit.

Eagle Scout Projects from Around the Country

Google News search on ("boy scouts" OR "boy scout") AND eagle AND project

Scouting Around the Web

Gear Thanks to Two-Heel Drive, I just found out about Jason

Thanks to Two-Heel Drive, I just found out about Jason Klass’s Homemade Backpacking Gear site. His Gear Laboratory features articles and experiments on making your own hiking gear at home. He’s got some nice links for building alcohol stoves, but I really enjoyed the Kitchenware section. This part of the site has some great ideas, such as the Heinekin Pot Grip.

I highly recommend you check out the site. Jason provides some useful tips and is obviously dedicated to making his own gear.

gear. Freezer Bag Cooking Spend any amount of time in the outdoors and you have

Spend any amount of time in the outdoors and you have probably found that mealtime is full of trade- offs. Do you choose foods that fuel your body or foods that satisfy your taste buds? Do you spend the extra time to prepare a real meal or grab a protein bar on the go?

Freezer Bag Cooking TM minimizes these trade-offs by changing the concepts of traditional outdoor food. It offers simplicity, convenience and variety, then whirls them together with the philosophies of lightweight outdoor adventuring. The cooking gear needed is minimal, lightweight and can be bought, found or even made. Meals are prepared at home and put into zip top freezer bags. When ready to eat, the meal is prepared in and eaten out of the freezer bag. Mealtime becomes fast, effortless and cleanup is as easy as licking your utensil and sealing the zip top bag. Also, with meals portioned into individual freezer bags, making meals for multi-day trips, families or a group is painless.

So whether you like to be fancy with your food or keep it simple, Freezer Bag Cooking TM can be your ticket to better eating and enjoyment of your outdoor experience.

outdoor experience. The Goat Yes … it’s another gear review site. However, the Goat

Yes … it’s another gear review site. However, the Goat at provides both praise and snarky comments in equal amounts. If they don’t like something, they’ll tell you why and even offer better alternatives. Informative and humorous. What more could you ask for?

more could you ask for? No … I’ll probably never hike glaciers in Alaska,

No … I’ll probably never hike glaciers in Alaska, kayak the rivers of Patagonia, or walk along the Great Wall of China. However, it is fun to read about those who do and to look at the incredible pictures that these adventurers share at

The site is a day-to-day update on what’s happening with the site. And what’s happening around the world. Their stated mission is simply to list the best, most memorable hikes, long & short, in the world. Hikes that can change your life. Most are challenging, multi-day adventures. But they also include the very best day hikes. They do not (yet) include off-trail scrambles or climbs.

This site helps you get started organizing the trek of a lifetime. Do you spend most of your life in the woods? Would you rather be

Do you spend most of your life in the woods? Would you rather be in the mountains than staring at this computer screen? Maybe you are in the mountains right now staring at this computer screen? If you love the outdoors and are always looking for ways to make things easier then this site is for you. focuses on advice, tips, tricks, and gadgets for your outdoor lifestyle.

So what the heck is a hack anyways? The term “Hack” as used on this site is derived from the term lifehack. A lifehack can generally be described as a clever solution to a problem. brings you useful lifehacks focused on improving your outdoor activities. is brought to you buy outdoor geeks and freaks that would rather be outside fishing, kayaking, hiking, or hunting then updating this site.

this site. Steep and Cheap is the reason that closeout gear sites is the reason that closeout gear sites don’t have anything left to sell. The two-year-old site began by selling one piece of outdoor gear at more than 50% off, every midnight (MST) until it sold out. Now loads a new piece of gear or outdoor clothing immediately after the prior item sells out. Most weekdays they roll through 10 to 15 listings of Arc’teryx jackets, Mountain Hardwear tents, and The North Face fleeces while over 600,000 unique visitors check the site daily with devotion usually reserved for religious fanatics.

On Wednesday, December 20th, SteepandCheap tested its full potential by rolling through at least 100 listings of gear and outdoor apparel with some deals the devoted wouldn’t hesitate to call “insane.” The timing couldn’t have been more perfect for frenzied last-minute holiday shoppers.

Because SteepandCheap can buy and move such large quantities of products in such a short amount of time, they can offer prices that no other retailer can touch. Besides saving gear-addicts thousands of dollars each year, has become a saving grace for gear manufacturers—including big names like Burton, Arc’teryx, Oakley, The North Face, and Helly Hansen to name a few—who in the past had very few viable options to move costly excess inventory.

Trailcraft Another blog all about backpacking & hiking gear, ideas

Another blog all about backpacking & hiking gear, ideas and techniques.

Games from Troop Program Resources

referenced in the Troop Meeting Plans for February 2007: “Citizenship”


Equipment: For each patrol, a grocery bag, compass, and a card with degree readings, one written at the top, one at the bottom

Procedure: Form partner patrols. Have each patrol line up in relay formation in a corner opposite from the other patrol on its team. The first Scout on each team is given the bag, the compass, and the card. The top degree reading on the card, if followed correctly, will lead him toward the other patrol on his team. On signal, he puts the bag over his head and is turned around three times. He then uses the compass and the top degree reading to find his way to the other patrol. There he gives the equipment to the first Scout in the other patrol, who repeats the procedure, using the lower degree reading (which is 180 degrees opposite from the top reading) on the card to find his way to the opposite corner. Continue until the partner patrols have exchanged places.

Scoring: The first team to finish wins.


Equipment: A United States flag for each patrol

Procedure: Line up the patrols in relay formation. Place a table or a chair with a folded flag on it about 40 feet in front of each patrol. On signal, the first two Scouts in each patrol run to the flag, unfold it completely, refold it, place it back on the table or chair, and return to their patrol to tag the next pair in line. They repeat the procedure until all pairs have run. The flag may not touch the ground at any time. If it does, the patrol will be disqualified.

Scoring: Give 100 points to the first patrol to complete the run, 80 points to the second patrol, and 60 points to the third patrol. Deduct 10 points for each flag that is folded incorrectly.

Variation: Instead of unfolding and folding, have the patrols display the flag for various prearranged occasions.


Equipment: For each patrol, five Scout staves, one patrol flag, eight pieces of sash cord, three wooden stakes, one mallet for driving stakes, and three guylines about 18 feet long

Procedure: The patrols line up, each with four Scout staves and their patrol flag attached to the fifth stave. On signal, the Scouts use the sash cord to lash the five staves together with four double lashings, omitting frappings. Next, they attach the three guylines about twothirds of the way to the top, raise the pole, and stake down the guylines so that the pole stands vertically. When finished, the patrol forms a single line at the base of the pole and stands at attention.

Scoring: The first patrol finished wins. Give extra points for the tallest pole.


Have patrols stand in line with patrol members shoulder to shoulder. Tell them they are to arrange themselves from high to low, or from most to least. For example, you might tell them to arrange themselves by age, from oldest to youngest. Or, choose from the list below:


Occurrence of birthday (not age)

Alphabet—last name

Distance from home

Number of brothers and sisters

Number of merit badges earned

Number of pets

When they have completed the task, they should give the Scout sign and shout their patrol yell.


Equipment: Two Scout staves or 5-foot poles, a beanbag (the “bacon”)

Procedure: This game is a variation of “Steal-the-Bacon.” In this game, however, the bacon is a beanbag. Divide the group into two teams and have them line up facing each other. Each team counts off with the same set of numbers, so that each player will share a number with a player from the other team. When the leader calls a number, the players from both teams who share that number grab their team’s stave, race to the bacon, and try to sweep it back to their goal line.

Scoring: Award 1 point for each goal.


Equipment: One neckerchief (the “bacon”)

Procedure: Two teams line up facing each other, and count off, as above. The leader calls out two numbers. The two smaller boys of the four whose numbers were called jump on the backs of the other two, who then gallop for the bacon.

Scoring: Same as above. If a “horse” touches the bacon, the opposite team scores 1 point.


Procedure: Each player grasps one leg by the ankle to hold it off the floor, and moves about by hopping on one foot. To start the game, two players face each other. On signal, each tries to knock the other off balance by shoulder blocking. Using elbows is not permitted.

Scoring: The first Scout to knock his opponent off balance so that he touches the floor with both feet scores 1 point. Two out of three wins the game.

Variation: Rooster Pull. Each “rooster’s tail” is a 2-foot length of rope tucked under the Scout’s belt at the back. Each rooster tries to pull out his opponent’s tail and at the same time tries to protect his own. A tail pulled out scores 1 point. Knocking one’s opponent off balance does not score any points.


Equipment: A buzzer or signal flag for each team, a neckerchief (the “bacon”)

Procedure: Half-troop teams line up in facing lines 15 feet apart. The bacon is placed halfway between the two lines. The captain of each team is at one end of his line with a signal flag or buzzer. Each Scout is assigned a letter. Both teams must use the same set of letters, so that each Scout on a team will share his letter with a Scout on the other team. Each captain signals a letter to his team. The two Scouts who share that letter run out to the center and try to steal the bacon. If a player is able to steal the bacon, he races back to his team with it. At the end of each round, the Scouts rotate so that they have a different letter each time.

Scoring: If a player makes it back to his team with the bacon and without being tagged by the opposing player, he scores 1 point. If he is tagged before reaching his goal, 1 point goes to the other side. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins.


Equipment: Two rags—one red, one green (the “bacon”)

Procedure: This is a variation of “Steal-the-Bacon” with two exceptions: first, two “slabs” of bacon are used, each a different color; second, before calling a number, the leader makes a statement about sports. If the statement is true, the players should try to steal the green bacon; if false, the red one.

Scoring: Award 1 point for stealing the appropriate bacon or tagging an opponent who tries to steal it. Deduct 2 points for stealing the wrong bacon or for chasing an opponent who is trying to steal the wrong bacon.

United States Code Title 4 Chapter 1 – The Flag

also known as the United States Flag Code

Previous to Flag Day, June 14, 1923 there were no federal or state regulations governing display of the United States Flag. It was on this date that the National Flag Code was adopted by the National Flag Conference which was attended by representatives of the Army and Navy which had evolved their own procedures, and some 66 other national groups. This purpose of providing guidance based on the Army and Navy procedures relating to display and associated questions about the U. S. Flag was adopted by all organizations in attendance.

A few minor changes were made a year later during the Flag Day 1924 Conference, It was not until June 22, 1942 that Congress passed a joint resolution which was amended on December 22, 1942 to become Public Law 829; Chapter 806, 77th Congress, 2nd session. Exact rules for use and display of the flag (36 U.S.C. 173-178) as well as associated sections (36 U.S.C. 171) Conduct during Playing of the National Anthem, (36 U.S.C. 172) the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag, and Manner of Delivery were included.

This code is the guide for all handling and display of the Stars and Stripes. It does not impose penalties for misuse of the United States Flag. That is left to the states and to the federal government for the District of Columbia. Each state has its own flag law.

Criminal penalties for certain acts of desecration to the flag were contained in Title 18 of the United States Code prior to 1989. The Supreme Court decision in Texas v. Johnson; June 21, 1989, held the statute unconstitutional. This statute was amended when the Flag Protection Act of 1989 (Oct. 28, 1989) imposed a fine and/or up to I year in prison for knowingly mutilating, defacing, physically defiling, maintaining on the floor or trampling upon any flag of the United States. The Flag Protection Act of 1989 was struck down by the Supreme Court decision, United States vs. Eichman, decided on June 11, 1990.

While the Code empowers the President of the United States to alter, modify, repeal or prescribe additional rules regarding the Flag, no federal agency has the authority to issue 'official' rulings legally binding on civilians or civilian groups.

Consequently, different interpretations of various provisions of the Code may continue to be made. The Flag Code may be fairly tested: 'No disrespect should be shown to the Flag of the United States of America.' Therefore, actions not specifically included in the Code may be deemed acceptable as long as proper respect is shown.

1. Flag; stripes and stars on

The flag of the United States shall be thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white; and the union of the flag shall be forty-eight stars [Note that sec. 2 which follows provides for additional stars. Today the flag has fifty stars representing the fifty states — Webmaster], white in a blue field

2. Same; additional stars

On the admission of a new State into the Union one star shall be added to the union of the flag; and such addition shall take effect on the fourth day of July then next succeeding such admission

3. Use of flag for advertising purposes; mutilation of flag

Any person who, within the District of Columbia, in any manner, for exhibition or display, shall place or cause to be placed any word, figure, mark, picture, design, drawing, or any advertisement of any nature upon any flag, standard, colors, or ensign of the United States of America; or shall expose or cause to be exposed to public view any such flag, standard, colors, or ensign upon which shall have been printed, painted, or otherwise placed, or to which shall be attached, appended, affixed, or annexed any word, figure, mark, picture, design, or drawing, or any advertisement of any nature; or who, within the District of Columbia, shall manufacture, sell, expose for sale, or to public view, or give away or have in possession for sale, or to be given away or for use for any purpose, any article or substance being an article of merchandise, or a receptacle for merchandise or article or thing for carrying or transporting merchandise, upon which shall have been printed, painted, attached, or otherwise placed a representation of any such flag, standard, colors, or ensign, to advertise, call attention to, decorate, mark, or distinguish the article or substance on which so placed shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be

punished by a fine not exceeding $100 or by imprisonment for not more than thirty days, or both, in the discretion of

the court.

ensign, or any picture or representation of either, or of any part or parts of either, made of any substance or represented on any substance, of any size evidently purporting to be either of said flag, standard, colors, or ensign of the United States of America or a picture or a representation of either, upon which shall be shown the colors, the stars and the stripes, in any number of either thereof, or of any part or parts of either, by which the average person seeing the same without deliberation may believe the same to represent the flag, colors, standard, or ensign of the United States of America.

The words "flag, standard, colors, or ensign", as used herein, shall include any flag, standard, colors,

4. Pledge of allegiance to the flag; manner of delivery

The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag: "I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.", should be rendered by standing at attention facing the flag with the right hand over the heart. When not in uniform men should remove any non-religious headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform should remain silent, face the flag, and render the military salute. [See Congressional Notes re use of "under God."]

5. Display and use of flag by civilians; codification of rules and customs; definition

The following codification of existing rules and customs pertaining to the display and use of the flag of the United States of America be, and it is hereby, established for the use of such civilians or civilian groups or organizations as may not be required to conform with regulations promulgated by one or more executive departments of the Government of the United States. The flag of the United States for the purpose of this chapter shall be defined according to title 4, United States Code, Chapter 1, Section 1 and Section 2 and Executive Order 10834 issued pursuant thereto.

6. Time and occasions for display

a. It is the universal custom to display the flag only from sunrise to sunset on buildings and on stationary flagstaffs in the open. However, when a patriotic effect is desired, the flag may be displayed twenty-four hours a day if properly illuminated during the hours of darkness.

b. The flag should be hoisted briskly and lowered ceremoniously.

c. The flag should not be displayed on days when the weather is inclement, except when an all-weather flag is displayed.

d. The flag should be displayed on all days, especially on


New Year's Day, January 1


Inauguration Day, January 20


Martin Luther King Jr.'s birthday, third Monday in January


Lincoln's Birthday, February 12


Washington's Birthday, third Monday in February


Easter Sunday (variable)


Mother's Day, second Sunday in May


Armed Forces Day, third Saturday in May


Memorial Day (half-staff until noon), the last Monday in May


Flag Day, June 14


Independence Day, July 4


Labor Day, first Monday in September


Constitution Day, September 17


Columbus Day, second Monday in October


Navy Day, October 27


Veterans Day, November 11


Thanksgiving Day, fourth Thursday in November


Christmas Day, December 25


and such other days as may be proclaimed by the President of the United States


the birthdays of States (date of admission)


and on State holidays.

e. The flag should be displayed daily on or near the main administration building of every public institution.

f. The flag should be displayed in or near every polling place on election days.

g. The flag should be displayed during school days in or near every schoolhouse.

7. Position and manner of display

The flag, when carried in a procession with another flag or flags, should be either on the marching right; that is, the flag's own right, or, if there is a line of other flags, in front of the center of that line.

a. The flag should not be displayed on a float in a parade except from a staff, or as provided in subsection (i) of this section.

b. The flag should not be draped over the hood, top, sides, or back of a vehicle or of a railroad train or a boat. When the flag is displayed on a motorcar, the staff shall be fixed firmly to the chassis or clamped to the right fender.

c. No other flag or pennant should be placed above or, if on the same level, to the right of the flag of the United States of America, except during church services conducted by naval chaplains at sea, when the church pennant may be flown above the flag during church services for the personnel of the Navy. No person shall display the flag of the United Nations or any other national or international flag equal, above, or in a position of superior prominence or honor to, or in place of, the flag of the United States at any place within the United States or any Territory or possession thereof: Provided, That nothing in this section shall make unlawful the continuance of the practice heretofore followed of displaying the flag of the United Nations in a position of superior prominence or honor, and other national flags in positions of equal prominence or honor, with that of the flag of the United States at the headquarters of the United Nations.

d. The flag of the United States of America, when it is displayed with another flag against a wall from crossed staffs, should be on the right, the flag's own right, and its staff should be in front of the staff of the other flag.

e. The flag of the United States of America should be at the center and at the highest point of the group when a number of flags of States or localities or pennants of societies are grouped and displayed from staffs.

f. When flags of States, cities, or localities, or pennants of societies are flown on the same halyard with the flag of the United States, the latter should always be at the peak. When the flags are flown from adjacent staffs, the flag of the United States should be hoisted first and lowered last. No such flag or pennant may be placed above the flag of the United States or to the United States flag's right.

g. When flags of two or more nations are displayed, they are to be flown from separate staffs of the same height. The flags should be of approximately equal size. International usage forbids the display of the flag of one nation above that of another nation in time of peace.

h. When the flag of the United States is displayed from a staff projecting horizontally or at an angle from the window sill, balcony, or front of a building, the union of the flag should be placed at the peak of the staff unless the flag is at half-staff. When the flag is suspended over a sidewalk from a rope extending from a house to a pole at the edge of the sidewalk, the flag should be hoisted out, union first, from the building.

i. When displayed either horizontally or vertically against a wall, the union should be uppermost and to the flag's own right, that is, to the observer's left. When displayed in a window, the flag should be displayed in the same way, with the union or blue field to the left of the observer in the street.

j. When the flag is displayed over the middle of the street, it should be suspended vertically with the union to the north in an east and west street or to the east in a north and south street.

k. When used on a speaker's platform, the flag, if displayed flat, should be displayed above and behind the speaker. When displayed from a staff in a church or public auditorium, the flag of the United States of America should hold the position of superior prominence, in advance of the audience, and in the position of honor at the clergyman's or speaker's right as he faces the audience. Any other flag so displayed should be placed on the left of the clergyman or speaker or to the right of the audience.

l. The flag should form a distinctive feature of the ceremony of unveiling a statue or monument, but it should never be used as the covering for the statue or monument.

m. The flag, when flown at half-staff, should be first hoisted to the peak for an instant and then lowered to the half- staff position. The flag should be again raised to the peak before it is lowered for the day. On Memorial Day the flag should be displayed at half-staff until noon only, then raised to the top of the staff. By order of the President, the flag shall be flown at half-staff upon the death of principal figures of the United States Government and the Governor of a State, territory, or possession, as a mark of respect to their memory. In the event of the death of other officials or foreign dignitaries, the flag is to be displayed at half-staff according to Presidential instructions or orders, or in accordance with recognized customs or practices not inconsistent with law. In the event of the death of a present or former official of the government of any State, territory, or possession of the United States, the Governor of that State, territory, or possession may proclaim that the National flag shall be flown at half-staff. The flag shall be flown at half-staff 30 days from the death of the President or a former President; 10 days from the day of death of the Vice President, the Chief Justice or a retired Chief Justice of the United States, or the Speaker of the House of Representatives; from the day of death until interment of an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, a Secretary of an executive or military department, a former Vice President, or the Governor of a State, territory, or possession; and on the day of death and the following day for a Member of Congress. The flag shall be flown at half-staff on Peace Officers Memorial Day, unless that day is also Armed Forces Day. As used in this subsection —

1. the term "half-staff" means the position of the flag when it is one-half the distance between the top and bottom of the staff;

2. the term "executive or military department" means any agency listed under sections 101 and 102 of title 5, United States Code; and

3. the term "Member of Congress" means a Senator, a Representative, a Delegate, or the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico.

n. When the flag is used to cover a casket, it should be so placed that the union is at the head and over the left shoulder. The flag should not be lowered into the grave or allowed to touch the ground.

o. When the flag is suspended across a corridor or lobby in a building with only one main entrance, it should be suspended vertically with the union of the flag to the observer's left upon entering. If the building has more than one main entrance, the flag should be suspended vertically near the center of the corridor or lobby with the union to the north, when entrances are to the east and west or to the east when entrances are to the north and south. If there are entrances in more than two directions, the union should be to the east.

8. Respect for flag

No disrespect should be shown to the flag of the United States of America; the flag should not be dipped to any person or thing. Regimental colors, State flags, and organization or institutional flags are to be dipped as a mark of honor.

a. The flag should never be displayed with the union down, except as a signal of dire distress in instances of extreme danger to life or property.

b. The flag should never touch anything beneath it, such as the ground, the floor, water, or merchandise.

c. The flag should never be carried flat or horizontally, but always aloft and free.

d. The flag should never be used as wearing apparel, bedding, or drapery. It should never be festooned, drawn back, nor up, in folds, but always allowed to fall free. Bunting of blue, white, and red, always arranged with the blue above, the white in the middle, and the red below, should be used for covering a speaker's desk, draping the front of the platform, and for decoration in general.

e. The flag should never be fastened, displayed, used, or stored in such a manner as to permit it to be easily torn, soiled, or damaged in any way.

f. The flag should never be used as a covering for a ceiling.

g. The flag should never have placed upon it, nor on any part of it, nor attached to it any mark, insignia, letter, word, figure, design, picture, or drawing of any nature.

h. The flag should never be used as a receptacle for receiving, holding, carrying, or delivering anything.

i. The flag should never be used for advertising purposes in any manner whatsoever. It should not be embroidered on such articles as cushions or handkerchiefs and the like, printed or otherwise impressed on paper napkins or boxes or anything that is designed for temporary use and discard. Advertising signs should not be fastened to a staff or halyard from which the flag is flown.

j. No part of the flag should ever be used as a costume or athletic uniform. However, a flag patch may be affixed to the uniform of military personnel, firemen, policemen, and members of patriotic organizations. The flag represents a living country and is itself considered a living thing. Therefore, the lapel flag pin being a replica, should be worn on the left lapel near the heart.

k. The flag, when it is in such condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem for display, should be destroyed in a dignified way, preferably by burning

9. Conduct during hoisting, lowering or passing of flag

During the ceremony of hoisting or lowering the flag or when the flag is passing in a parade or in review, all persons present except those in uniform should face the flag and stand at attention with the right hand over the heart. Those present in uniform should render the military salute. When not in uniform, men should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. Aliens should stand at attention. The salute to the flag in a moving column should be rendered at the moment the flag passes

10. Modification of rules and customs by President

Any rule or custom pertaining to the display of the flag of the United States of America, set forth herein, may be altered, modified, or repealed, or additional rules with respect thereto may be prescribed, by the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States, whenever he deems it to be appropriate or desirable; and any such alteration or additional rule shall be set forth in a proclamation

Displaying the United States Flag

From Army Regulation 840–10, Heraldic Activities

“Flags, Guidons, Streamers, Tabards, and Automobile and Aircraft Plates”

Army Regulation 840–10, Heraldic Activities “Flags, Guidons, Streamers, Tabards, and Automobile and Aircraft Plates”

Names and Places in Henrico

From the Henrico County Division of Recreation and Parks website


"(name now obsolete) on the eastern side of the James River ten miles downstream from the falls (Henrico County); 30 men (Smith) or 60 men (Strachey)" [The Powhatan Indians of Virginia, Helen C. Rountree, Univ. of Oklahoma Press, Norman


"Arrahattock Town Site (43-52 - Dutch Gap Quad) Arrahattock was an important Indian town when the first Englishmen sailed up the James River in 1607. Here, in May of 1607, Captain Christopher Newport was kindly received by the werowance, or chief, of the town.

John Smith writes: "We found here a wer-o-wance, for so they call their Kings, who sat upon a mat of reeds, with his people about him. He caused one to be laid for Captain Newport; gave us a deer roasted, which according to their custom they seethed (boiled) again. His people gave us mulberries, sod wheat, and beans; and he caused his women to make cakes for us. He gave our Captain (Newport) his crown, which was of deer's hair, dyed red. Certifying him our intention (to proceed) up the river, he was willing to send guides with us."

Arrahattock is noted on the Fry-Jefferson Map of 1751. This Contact Period site may be of considerable archeological significance. [ Inventory of Early Architecture and Historic/Archeological Sites. J.M. O'Dell C 1976 rev 1978, County of Henrico, VA.]


This dam is located on the James River, eight miles above the City of Richmond. It is named for the Bosher family and was once part of the James River-Kanawha Canal system. Its present use is to divert water into the remains of the old canal system to be used as a source of drinking water for the City of Richmond and portions of Henrico County.


An extension of Broad Street. Broad Street in the City of Richmond was named because of the unusual width of the street. It was designed in this manner because the railroad tracks ran down one side of the street. Travelers needed a broad roadway to keep their horses as far away from the steam engines as possible.

On an 1819 map of the county, Broad Street and Broad Street Road were called Richmond Turnpike Road. On an 1853 map of the county, the road was named Deep Run Turnpike.


One of the first toll roads in Virginia, this road has been called Brook Turnpike, Brook Avenue and Brook Road. It was chartered as Brook Turnpike in 1812 and became the first avenue in the state in 1815 when it was dedicated Brook Avenue. The road was built and improved in an effort to improve travel between the City of Richmond and the northern area of the state.

By this road, Lafayette set out to oppose the British troops under Cornwallis in April of 1781. Sheridan entered the outer defense of Richmond on the Brook Road during the War Between the States. The derivation of Brook Road could be from the fact that a man named Thomas Williamson lived on a plantation on what is now Brook Road, named "The Brook", or " Brook Hill." Vestrymen of Curles Church (Williamson's father had served as a vestryman for over 20 years) wanted to build another church and Williamson offered some land on his farm on which to build the church. After much discussion the men of the vestry decided to build the church on Indian Hill in Henrico County. This church became St. John's Church and Indian Hill became known as Church Hill and is now in the City of Richmond.


It is quite possible that the district gets its name from the fact that there are many brooks coursing the area. It is also possible that the district was named for Upham Brook which runs through most of this area. The exact derivation of the name is unknown.


To reach the Springfield and Deep Run Coal Pits, which were located about 10 miles northwest of Richmond, a branch line of the railroad approximately 3½ miles long was needed. The owners of the coal mines, Duval, Burton & Company advanced the money to build the track. The money was returned to them by the R.F. & P. Railroad.

In 1867, the Springfield and Deep Run Coal Mining operation rebuilt the Branch Line at Hungary (Laurel) and contracted with the R.F. & P. for the transportation of coal from the pits to a coal yard at 5th and Byrd Streets in Richmond.


The name derivation comes from the "curles" in the James River. Curles Neck Farm is one of the oldest estates in Virginia, having been patented in 1617. Different portions of the tract of land have been known by various names which have been recorded in the records such as Curles, Woodsons, Barley, Tillmans, Bremo, and many others. Curles Neck Farm was the home of the rebel Nathaniel Bacon in 1670. Some references to the name Curles say it derives its name from the Curl family, however, there is no evidence that any member of the family of Curl lived in Henrico County before the land and the name "curles" had been established from the river's meandering curves. Today it is one of the largest working dairy farms east of the Mississippi.


This road derives its name from the Darby family. The area around the road was peopled almost exclusively by the Darby and the Enroughty families. To other people in this section, the two names were almost synonymous and interchangeable. Darby obtained preference because of its easier pronunciation and brevity.

An early map of the eastern part of Henrico County shows that this road was previously named Central Road.


This road derives its name from Deep Run Creek in the vicinity of this road.


Named for the Dickens family who lived on the tract of land that this road now runs through. The Dicken's home, Brookfield, lends its name to the Brookfield complex located on Broad Street Road at the I-64 Intersection.


The community of Dumbarton began many years ago as Staples Plantation or Staples Mill. On this land, the Staple family owned and operated a large mill for grinding corn on a nearby pond. After the War Between the States, a man by the name of Major Courtney bought the estate and changed the name from Staples Mill or Staples Plantation to Dumbarton Grange. He chose this name because his uncle, who had raised him, once owned an estate in Scotland named Dumbarton. The road that ran through the estate to the main road, which is now Broad Street, was at that time and is still referred to as Staples Mill Road.

James Branch Cabell made the little mill pond famous by choosing this site as a location to write one of his novels. Later, the estate was purchased by Mrs. Cabell and remained in her possession until 1929, when the land was sold at auction.


There are three assumptions as to how this area was named. Dutch settlers living in Sir Thomas Dale's City of Henricus had begun to dig a ditch or channel much in the design of their ancestors. The project is said to have been abandoned after about 60 yards because the Dutch Americans were afraid they might damage the river bed. Another assumption is that when Sir Thomas Dale was called upon by Prince Henry to come to the colonies of Virginia, he was serving in Holland. When he was establishing the city of Henricus he had his colonists/workmen dig a ditch similar to the one he had seen made in Holland to open up this little channel. His plan was to separate this narrow neck of land from the mainland, but the massacre of 1622 ended his plans. Finally, another assumption is that in 1864, General "Dutch" Butler ordered his soldiers to open the gap to secure a shorter route by which to carry his gunboats to Richmond and avoid Confederate Forts on the river banks. He succeeded in open ordered to retreat. The gap was not opened for transportation purposes until 1878.


Fairfield was a favorite name for large colonial estates in Virginia. In 1870, when Henrico County was divided into four townships, the name Fairfield was chosen because of the level fields characteristic of the area.


Named for the Francis family who lived along this road. In Francistown there were coal fields owned by Thomas Burton. The coal was brought to Richmond on carts before the railroad was built.


Named for the Gaskin family who once owned the property near the James River in the vicinity of what is now the James River Country Club.


The mining village of Gayton developed around the coal mine in the area of the western part of the county. The road and now non-existent village derived their name from the Gayton Coal mines originally owned by DuVal Coal interests.


This area was once known as Mountain Road Crossing. It was comprised of a few obscure dwellings and broad stretches of forest interspersed with patches of Indian corn and tobacco. Earlier, before it was settled by the colonists, it was the "happy hunting ground" of the Chickahominy Indians. It was not until the War Between the States that the area was referred to as Glen Allen. The name came from the homestead of the widow, Mrs. Benjamin Allen, who operated a small post office for her neighbors in her home. In military dispatches, the area was called "Allen's Crossing" because the Allen property served as a landmark to the soldiers who were fighting in the area. Mrs. Allen became the wife of a confederate scout and Captain, John Cussons, who built Forest Lodge.


Legend has it that an early settler of Henrico County named Glen or Glenn, enjoyed yelling out into the open countryside and hearing his echo.


This road is named after Jacquelin B. Harvie, who married Mary Marshall, the daughter of Chief Justice John Marshall. John Marshall's farm, the Chickahominy, was not far from the present Harvie Road.


This name was chosen in honor of the son of King James 1, Henry Frederick Prince of Wales. Sir Thomas Dale was asked by Prince Henry, a patron of the Virginia Company, to correct the starving and pitiful conditions of the colonists at Jamestown. He selected a new location for a town on what is now known as Farrar's Island and named the city Henricus. The city, founded in 1611, consisted of three streets, about 1000 houses, a hospital, a church, and the foundation for the first college in Virginia. The massacre of 1622, ended the life of the little town. The name Henricopolis was coined about 1890 in reference to the city from which Henrico County derived its name.


Mr. Edmund Sewell Read founded the community of Highland Springs in the 1890's. He migrated to this area from Boston in hopes of finding a suitable climate for his ailing wife. The high altitude in the fall zone and the natural springs in the area made it a suitable choice for the Read family. Read bought a 1000 acre tract of land and divided it into lots. He laid out streets and named them after plants such as Ash, Beech, Cedar, Daisy, Elm, Fern, Grove, Holly, Ivy, Juniper, Kalmia, Linden, Maple, Oak, Pine, Quince, Rose, and Spruce. Read Street was named for its founder - Edmund Sewell Read.

The area of Highland Springs was known as Highland Springs Park on a map of 1893.


During the Revolutionary War, horses were purchased for use in the army. All of these horses were kept in a large pen. The road leading to the pen came to be known as the Horsepen Road.


The Indians called the river, "Powhatan's River" in honor of their chief. Captain John Smith renamed the river, "The James", in honor of the King of England, James I.

The Kanawha Canal, also derived its name from the Indians. Kanawha meant "river of the woods."


This area has developed over the years into a community. Major Lewis Ginter built a amusement park here by the lake and named it Lakeside. The park had a small zoo, games were played for adults and children, and the lake was used for winter and summer water sports. The first actual golf course in Richmond was constructed at Lakeside. The game had been played before in the open fields that once surrounded the Lee Monument, but the first formal course was at Lakeside. The area is now privately owned by the Lakeside Country Club.


This locality, in the north western part of the county was once called Hungry. Hungary was the site of a water station for the R.F. & P. Railroad. Maps of the area indicate that Hungary was either a crossroads or a small community that grew up around the tracks. Hungary Spring Road derives its name from the settlement of Hungary - supposedly the road ran to a small spring in the area. Deep Run Baptist Church was originally called Hungary Baptist Church that had been re-organized from Chickahominy Baptist Church which was established as far back as 1792.

Hungary came to be known as Laurel sometime around the Civil War.


Named for Libbie Freeman Thompson by her husband, Mark Thomas Thompson, who settled in an area called Rio Vista, around the year 1890. Thompson published the "American' Farm and Horticulture". It was the first horticultural paper published in this country.


Longdale is an area in Henrico County between Mountain Road and U.S. Route 1. Longdale was named for E. T. Long, who moved into the area around 1924. He built, rented, and sold more homes than anyone else in the area had prior to this time.


This road is a very old road that dates back to a 1751 map. A map of Henrico County dated 1853, shows that at one time, Meadow Bridge Road was a much longer and more of a main road than it is today. The name origin is unknown.


This home, built in the late eighteenth century, has remained in the same family for almost two hundred years. In August of 1800, Mosby Sheppard, owner of Meadow Farm, was warned by two of his slaves that an insurrection was being planned by a slave on a neighboring farm. This was the first anyone in the area had heard of the rebellion whose aim was to murder white slave owners and to capture Richmond. Sheppard immediately informed Governor James Monroe, who took steps to halt the rebellion before any lives were lost. The two slaves on the Sheppard farm who had warned of the danger, were purchased by the state and given their freedom. But fear had been planted in the minds of the people of Virginia and the South, and by the end of the investigation, forty-one slaves had been executed.


This road is very old and historic. In early times, it was an Indian trail. During the Revolutionary War and the War Between the States, it was well known. Lafayette passed over this road on his way to Yorktown. In the official records of "The War of Rebellion", it states that General Sheridan proceeded down Mountain Road to Allen's Crossing where they tore up the tracks of the R.F. & P. Railroad.


The original tobacco market for the colonists was in Williamsburg and tobacco growers in Henrico County decided they needed another market. Richmond was the most likely candidate. They began to call Richmond "New Market" and the road that led to

it from the eastern part of the county, the New Market Road.

New Market Road was once named River Road. A map of the county, dated 1819, shows an area off of River Road (Route 5 and later New Market Road) and Turner Road going north, called New Market. On a map of the county dated 1853, the little village of New Market is situated at the intersection of Kingsland Road and what is now New Market Road.


This name is based on the distance between the terminal points of the road in Richmond and Seven Pines. Old deeds and maps indicate this road was once known as the New Bridge Road.


This road, in the eastern end of the county, was influenced by the act of some roadway engineer as is evident by its straightness. It was at Osborne's that a ferry operated between Henrico and Chesterfield. On the Henrico side, the highway leading to the ferry was called Osborne Turnpike. The little village of Osborne was at the mouth of Proctor's Creek and part of the original colonial glebe land. It was not particularly suited to farming, so the House of Burgesses, in 1761, approved the motion that the land be sold. The site was divided into 120 lots. The project was not a huge success and died a natural death. The area eventually became known as Osbornes, named in honor of one of the colonists, and became a busy port.

Thomas Jefferson's father, Peter Jefferson was born and later married at the little settlement of Osbornes.


"Parham Road, one of metropolitan Richmond's most heavily traveled roads, was named for a lifelong resident of Montgomery County, Tennessee, whose only connection with the Richmond area was through his wife.

Junius S. Parham, for whom the road is named, acquired the land afterwards known as "the Parham tract" through his

marriage to Mary E. Smith. She had inherited the property from her grandfather, John Hill, a substantial landowner in Henrico County during the middle of the nineteenth century. Most of the tract was concentrated in a vast area along the eastern side

of what was then called New County Road and is now Broad Street Road.

About 1860 Parham apparently decided to begin liquidating his wife's land. This he did through a series of transactions spanning two decades, throughout which he and his wife continued to maintain their residence in Tennessee. The process had been completed by July, 1879. Nevertheless, by 1900, New County Road had become known as Parham Road from Three Chopt Road to Broad Street Road. Gradually the name Parham was extended to include the road that covers the lengthy semi- circle of today."


Named for Dr. Richard Archibald Patterson, tobacco manufacturer and medical doctor who served the Confederacy as. a surgeon. Before the war, Patterson and Thomas C. Williams began a modest tobacco business that failed, as many other businesses did, with the onslaught of the war. Patterson became a surgeon for the Confederacy and as he tended troops during the bloody battle of Malvern Hill, his wife gave birth to a son. She named him Malvern, after the battle of Malvern Hill. He later became one of the first Vice-Presidents of the American Tobacco Company.

After the war, Dr. Patterson operated a small farm in Henrico County and practiced medicine in the neighborhood, but his life took a turn for the better when one day he received word that a tobacco shipment made by his now defunct tobacco company had made it through the wartime blockade. During the war, the money from the sale of the tobacco had been kept for him until after the fighting to insure that he received it. The amount was around $9,000.00, a fortune in those postwar days. Patterson re-opened his tobacco business under the name of R. A. Patterson & Company. He became a wealthy man. A road was cut through the property and named Patterson Avenue after this gentleman. The Patterson Tobacco Company was bought out by the American Tobacco Company, which kept the Lucky Strike Brand, which was an original brand of the Patterson Company.


A map of Henrico County dated 1819 shows this road as Pounce's Tract. It is quite possible that the road derived its name

from a family named Pounce or Pouncey who owned the land through which the road was cut.


This road was used as an access road to the Short Pump Tavern and was shortened to Pump Road simply by usage.


This road derives its name from Indian usage. The name could evolve from the Indian name, Quiasosough, meaning a lesser

deity of the Indians. Another possibility is that the name comes from the Indian word translating into a temple or meeting

place, a gathering spot. A paragraph from a work dated 1705, concerning the Virginia Indians and their life style says

Indians have posts fix'd around their Quioccasin which have men's faces carved upon them and are painted. They are likewise

set up round some of their other celebrated places and make a circle for them to dance about on certain solemn occasions.”



This was formally a railroad stop that gave its name to the third battle of the Seven Days Campaign. An 1819 map of the county, shows that a Savage Family lived near the location of the station.


Seven Pines was a battle site of one of the Seven Days Battles in 1862. The location was so named because of the unusual growth of seven pine trees in the area.


A tavern and stage coach stop on the road to mountains and western settlements had a well in the yard with an unusually

short pump handle. The name Short Pump thus came about as a popular designation for the establishment and now is applied to a considerable area in the vicinity of the intersection of Broad Street Road (Rt. 250) and Three Chopt Road.


This road was named for the Skipwith family who owned the property on the road where the Three Chopt Elementary School

is now located.


This road is shown on an 1853 map as Springfield Pit Road, named for the Springfield Coal Pits in the area.


South of Mountain Road was Springfield Farm containing mineral and sulfur springs of great medicinal value. About 100 years ago, a resort was built here and this is where the wealthy and fashionable Richmonders spent their summer.


This road is a historic route from Richmond to Washington. It was replaced by U.S. Route 1 when this road was constructed. The name comes from the fact that it was located along the telegraph line connecting Richmond and Washington.

Just off Old Telegraph Road, one half mile to the east, is a monument marking the field where General J.E.B. Stuart was mortally wounded May 11, 1864. (See Yellow Tavern).


This road was cut through the property of Mrs. H.O. Arnold, who was a seamstress by trade. When the road was completed the engineer asked her what she thought the road ought to be called. She replied that Thimble Lane might be a nice name due to her trade. The house on the farm became known as Thimble Lane House.


This district was created by court order in 1969. Because a considerable portion of its boundary was delineated by Three Chopt Road, it was given this name.


Three Chopt Road began as an Old Indian Trail that was marked by making three notches on the trees. As the English colonists moved into the area, the road was called the King's Highway. Because there were so few roads at this time, it was not uncommon for a road to be referred to by local residents as the King's Highway. More often than not, however, the road was called the Three Notched Road. A map of Henrico County dated 1819, shows the road marked as Three Chopped Road. Years later the spelling of the road changed from Three Chopped to Three Chopt, as the latter spelling is used on Smith's map of 1853. Such notables as Lafayette, Cornwallis, Washington, Jefferson and Robert E. Lee have traveled down this ancient roadway that began at Powhatan's Village, a few miles east of Richmond, and ran westward into the mountains.


A center of horse racing in the post-Revolutionary War period, the original house was built about 1775. It was the site of the

surrender of Richmond by Mayor Joseph Mayo in 1865.

The United States Department of the Interior has placed Tree Hill on the National Register of Historic Places.


A word used by the Indians to denote a plant whose root was edible and served as a nutritional food source. From New Jersey

to Virginia the tribes fed upon these plants and often named the waterways on whose banks they abundantly grew, Tuckahoe. There is a Tuckahoe River in New Jersey, a town named Tuckahoe in New York, a Tuckahoe Creek in Maryland as well as the Tuckahoe Creek and District in Henrico, all having the same Indian origin. In the 17th Century, near where the Tuckahoe Creek flows into the James River, William Randolph of Turkey Island granted a tract of land to his son Thomas Randolph. The estate became known as Tuckahoe, taking its name from the creek and a nearby Indian town. The Randolph home on the estate was built around 1698 and its boxwood garden is one of the most interesting in Virginia.


In 1610, John Rolfe came to America and settled on what is now known as Varina Farm. In route to Virginia, Rolfe had landed on the Bermuda Island and took great interest in the type of tobacco grown there. When he arrived in Virginia, he began cultivating a type of tobacco that was a cross between Indian tobacco and Bermuda tobacco. The end result was a tobacco crop that was very similar to tobacco being grown in the Spanish Varinas. Rolfe named his tobacco plantation Varina, because of this similarity. It was there that he lived with his wife Pocahontas, the Indian Princess. The Indian Massacre of 1622 ended the settlement of Henricus and a tiny village grew up on Rolfe's Plantation called Varina or Henrico Parish. Varina was the first County seat of Henrico and the first courthouse was built there. Originally the name Varina denoted an area of some 18 by 25 miles in measurement. Later, when this area became known simply as Henrico, Varina usually referred to the farm. General "Dutch" Butler, a Union commander during the Civil War, set up his headquarters in Varina while he tried to cut a canal through Dutch Gap. Varina was also a place for prisoner exchange between the North and the South during the war, but then it was called Aiken's Landing.


Four miles from the Old Henrico County Court House at the northeast intersection of Harvie Road and Laburnum Avenue, is the site of what was once the Vinegar Hill Tavern. The tavern got its name because of a large apple orchard behind it whose apples made cider and, when allowed to turn to vinegar, was used in Richmond for all pickling purposes. The story is told that during the Seven Days battles during the Civil War, all the young ladies in the county who lived near the tavern, sat out in front and sang songs to the young Confederate soldiers marching to meet the Federal troops.


Among the oldest original homes in Henrico County, Walkerton was built by an Englishman named John Walker, who came to the colonies (date unknown), and acquired a large tract of land on both sides of Mountain Road. Walkerton served as a tavern and was the twin of Walker's residence across the road. The tavern was equipped with a wine cellar, three ice houses, and a 20 horse stable to accommodate its guests.


Westham was a small trading town in western Henrico County. In 1752, the town was laid off into 150 lots with streets. The village of Westham appears on a map dated 1755. The main road through Westham was Westham Plank Road, which is now Cary Street Road. There were tobacco warehouses in the village and there are references to Westham in connection with events during the Revolutionary War. The land on which Westham was built was originally owned by the Randolph family. The village must have disappeared around 1800, because it no longer appears on maps dated after that time. It is logical to assume that many areas in western Henrico bearing the name Westham derived it from the 18th Century town.


The present Williamsburg Road is said to have been a trail used by the Indians before this country was settled. It was called the "Pocohontas Trail". There were once two toll gates on the. road, one of them being where Darbytown Road intersected Williamsburg Road. The road in early days was the major road to the town of Williamsburg.


This road was originally called Quaker Road because in Pre-Revolutionary War days, there was a Quaker settlement in the area and they used this road to get to their church at Curies in Varina. Smith's map of 1853, has this road marked as Quaker Road. The road was renamed for Willis Church which was used as a field hospital during the War Between the States. During the battle of Frasier's farm, the church caught on fire. General Robert E. Lee ordered his men to put the fire out and save the church.


This home was built between 1750 and 1753 by William Randolph, son of William Randolph of Turkey Island, who had a daughter named Anne. A problem arose because there was another Anne Randolph in the family, and to distinguish one from another, William Randolph's daughter came to be known as Nancy Wilton Randolph or simply, "Nancy Wilton". She had many suitors. One of them, Benjamin Harrison of Brandon, became her husband. Thomas Jefferson, a contemporary of hers, referred to her home as "Wilton" in letters, saying, "I hear that Ben Harrison has been at Wilton, let me know his success." Early records refer to the property as "Worlds End", because of its once remote location. It was Lafayette's Headquarters in May of 1781 while Cornwallis was in the Richmond area.

The home has been moved from its original location in Varina and is owned by and used as the Headquarters of the National Society of the Colonial Dames in the Commonwealth of Virginia.


An old tavern that gave its name to the cavalry engagement in which General J.E.B. Stuart was mortally wounded May 11, 1864. The Battle of Yellow Tavern was fought between Sheridan's Cavalry and the Confederates Cavalry under Stuart. The famous opera star of that period, Jenny Lind, spent the night at Yellow Tavern when caught in a violent snowstorm while making an appearance in Richmond.

An 1853 map of the county shows that a J. Hill was the proprietor at the tavern at this time.

The “New” Old Dominion Trail

The Heart of Virginia’s historic trail is getting a modern day facelift

If you’ve been in Boy Scouts for a while you’ve probably hiked our council’s Old Dominion Trail. For those of you who haven’t, the trail begins at St. John’s Church on Church Hill and meanders 11 miles through Richmond until reaching the endpoint at Maymont. Along the hike the trail points out 17 historic sites such as the Capitol, Governor’s Mansion, John Marshall House, Maggie Walker House, and Hollywood Cemetery.

However, the trail is showing its age and has a couple of logistical problems. The most noticeable is that the trail is not a loop but ends many miles from where it begins. This means cars and drivers have to be shuttled before the hike begins and after it ends.

The trail was also designed in the 50s before much of the development had taken place along the riverfront and in Shockoe Bottom. Consequently, the trail ignores the new Canal Walk, Tredegar Iron Works, Belle Isle, and the historic warehouse district. It does do an admirable job to cover African American history by incorporating the Jackson Ward area but does not include any of the sites along the “Slave Trail” in the Bottom.

In March of 2006 a couple of Cardinal district leaders got approval from the council to evaluate the existing Old Dominion Trail and to design a new trail built for the 21 st century.

The new trail is an 11.5-mile loop incorporates much of the old trail. It begins and ends at Great Shiplock Park which is not only a wonderful historic site but also provides a parking area for Scouters. It then proceeds through 12 different historic areas: Rockett’s Landing & Church Hill, Shockoe Valley, Finance District, Capitol Square, Court End, Jackson Ward, Monroe Ward, Hollywood Cemetery, Oregon Hill, Belle Isle, Canal Walk, and Tobacco Row. The trail will lead Scouts past over 100 historic sites that are listed on the next page.

over 100 historic sites that are listed on the next page. The group is currently collecting

The group is currently collecting information on all the sites to put in the trail guide that is being presented to the Council for approval at the beginning of March. The guide will be complete with trail maps and site descriptions (including contact information if tours are desired), and even suggestions for lunch. Together, we are also producing a "podcast" of the tour that can be downloaded and used by leaders to provide a 'professional' narrative to go along with hike. I think the end product we are developing will be one of the best historic trails in Scouting. If you would like to help, contact Steve Hutchinson at

Rocket's Landing:

Great Shiplock Park Woodward House (view from Libby Hill) Libby Hill Park Soldiers and Sailors Monument William Byrd names Richmond

Church Hill:

Church Hill homes Luther Libby House 2617 East Franklin Turner-Reed House Adams Double House Morris Cottage St. Patrick's Cathedral St. John's Church St. John's Mews City Overlook Monte Maria Convent Pilot Block Bellevue School (Elizabeth Van Lew)

Shockoe Valley:

Pohlig Brothers Building – 2 nd Alabama Hospital Poe Museum – Old Stone House Masons Hall 17 th Street Farmers Market Main Street Station Lumpkins Jail or "Devil's Half-Acre"

Shockoe Slip & Finance District:

Original Capitol building (Jefferson's religious freedom


"The Slip" and Great Turning Basin Shockoe Slip fountain Original Christopher Newport Cross site James Center First National Bank building

Capitol Square US Customs House Bell Tower St. Paul's Church Zero Mile Marker Washington monument Capitol building Old City Hall Capitol statuary Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. William "Extra Billy" Smith Dr. Hunter Holmes McGuire General Stonewall Jackson Executive Mansion Morson's Row

Court End Monumental Church Egyptian Building White House of the Confederacy Valentine Richmond History Center John Marshall House City Hall State Library of Virginia Festival Park Police Commerative Statue Richmond Coliseum

Jackson Ward Oliver Hill bust Eggleston Hotel Hippodrome Theater Maggie L. Walker House Bonjangles Statue Leigh Street Armory building Police & Fire Museum Richmond Dairy Building Empire Theater

Monroe Ward Linden Row Jefferson Hotel Monroe Park Cathedral of the Sacred Heart Richmond Landmark Theater

Hollywood Cemetery Confederate Pyramid General George Pickett Black Iron Dog J.E.B. Stuart First burial in cemetery John Tyler James Monroe Palmer Mausoleum Lewis Ginter Jefferson Davis Palmer Chapel

Oregon Hill St. Andrew's Episcopal Church John Miller House Parson's Row Virginia War Memorial

Belle Isle Civil War Prison Hollywood Rapids Quarry Gun Emplacements Hydroelectric Plant Iron Foundry

Canal Walk Tredegar Iron Works Brown's Island Haxall Canal Manchester & Free Bridges Federal Reserve Building Christopher Newport Cross Tidewater Connection Locks Lock Model Turning Basin Kanahwa Canal Triple Crossing Henry "Box" Brown Flood Wall (high water marks)

Tobacco Row Tobacco commerce Libbie Prison Virginia Holocaust Museum Chappel Island Shipyard

Jack Cox’s February Ideas for Scout Troops

from Ideas for Scout Troops by Jack Cox, first printed in 1954

From digital scans produced by Scouting in Canada

The reader is reminded that these texts have been written a long time ago. Consequently, they may use some terms or express sentiments which were current at the time, regardless of what we may think of them at the beginning of the 21 st century. For reasons of historical accuracy they have been preserved in their original form.


WE start preparing for troop summer camp in the first week of February. It's exciting in winter for the Court of Honour to meet and consider suggestions from the patrols for the biggest event in the whole Scout year — the annual summer camp.

Some troops like to go to the same place year after year. Others prefer a different spot each year, returning in some years to old and favourite haunts. Most troops prefer "somewhere by the sea"; that is not difficult when we remember that in Britain no one has to travel more than a hundred miles to reach the sea.

Let's suppose our troop wants to go to a completely new site. The Scouters will have to write many letters and make many enquiries, following up the original suggestion that may have come from one patrol. This early spade- work is done now so that an inspection visit" can be made at Easter. This visit is very important. In some troops the Patrol Leaders go with the Scouters on this trip. The idea is to get an idea of the site layout, the surrounding country and to meet the host, usually a farmer. Then troop camp can be planned in detail between Easter and August.

Other jobs for summer camp are started now. Parents must be visited; school and family holidays are important dates; and a good P.L. makes notes about all patrol members and hands them to Skipper. The troop starts a weekly "camp bank", so that the cost of fares, food and so on can be paid for well in advance. (The Troop Leader makes a good treasurer for camp subs and a special bank or Post Office account is opened.)

The troop expert on maps starts to make his collection for summer camp now. I would recommend the Ordnance Survey one-inch and Bartholomew s quarter-inch as essential—the one-inch for general use and the quarter-inch for getting a sound idea of the country around the site. Most troops have wide games and exploring trips at summer camp. A six-inch map is useful for the actual layout of the camp site, place names, and so on.

Between February and summer we shall have lots of time to renovate tents and cooking gear. But it's not too soon to start talking and thinking summer camp tonight. Let's get our Scouts keen, enthusiastic and interested. The success of summer camp depends on the solid work which goes into its planning in those early months before spring is here.


IF we get any snow either now or in the next few weeks there is a wonderful reason for taking the entire troop out. We must all be warmly clad, yet not so bundled up with scarves and pullovers that we find it difficult to move about. There'll be lots of fun snowballing and sledding, but we don't neglect a visit to that spinney on the hill. If we are quiet and keep our eyes open we shall find all manner of bird tracks—large and small—and what fun will be trying to identify those tracks.

We may find rabbit, squirrel. Cat and dog tracks quickly.

When the snow has gone away let's go down to the farm and have a look at some tracks; in the muddy lanes and about the farmyard. We can soon recognise some of the bird tracks that we saw in the snow and can compare them with the farmyard rooster, and perhaps the turkey if there are any left.

The cat and dog tracks will be easy to spot, just as they were in the snow. Then we can search for the deep

tracks made by the cows, pigs and horses, and if the mud is not too wet we can start making a few plaster casts.

Let's start with a good specimen of a Jersey cow — or any sort of cow. Look for a firm print on the verge of the farm lane where the mud is not slushy. Any Scout knows the difference between mud and slush! First of all we

put a "collar" of thin but tough cardboard round the print. We make these collard in advance from lengths of

cardboard about nine to twelve inches long and four inches wide, gluing the edges carefully.

Now we mix some plaster of Paris to a smooth paste with water – neither too thick nor too thin. We can buy this

at any builders merchants or decorators' supply stores. But if we wan: to make a specially good plaster cast we

buy some dental plaster at a chemists shop. It is more expensive but very much finer in texture and gives better

casts. Carry this plaster around in a tin with a tight-fitting lid and don't let it get damp. Whatever we do we don't

mix it up with our food, especially if we are going camping or cycling or picnicking. We can also carry a suitable

tin to mix the plaster paste in, and water is available in the nearest stream or house, or we can carry some in a bottle. When we have mixed our paste really well so that there are no lumps in it, we tap the sides of the tin to

get rid of bubbles. Use plaster as fresh as possible because air spoils it.

Don't make too much, either — just enough to fill our cardboard collar.

Just before we pour the plaster into the collar we remove any leaves or twigs from the print — they will spoil it

otherwise. Then we pour on the plaster carefully. Let the plaster set as hard as possible. It will do so in a very

short space of time. Then we gently remove the collar and any adhering earth, and take the cast home. Let it remain a day or so, when we can wash it and find the track or print in permanent form.

It is real fun to make a collection of such casts to decorate the walls of the troop-room or patrol-den. The Scout

who makes the cast can write the date on the back of the cast in pencil or Indian ink, or scratch it on with a pin

just before the plaster sets in the collar. He can paint it with a hard-gloss paint, decorate it in any way he likes, or

he can just paint it with shellac to make a permanent decoration for the home. Plaster casts can be given away as presents, or made into bookends, using a wooden mounting, or wall plaques with very little trouble.

Soon the troop will want to do something better than taking casts and tracks made by the commoner birds and cows, horses, ponies and pigs. It is more exciting to search for fox and deer and badger tracks, and the boys can search for lesser known birds along the banks of streams and the seashore.


quality of the casts will improve as we make many more of them. Sometimes the plaster cracks or breaks


each patrol will have to judge by practice the right texture of the plaster mix. To strengthen the cast, and

make it more permanent, put some hair or fine wire or string, or even matchsticks, into the mix. Some cast- makers use powdered alum or mercerised wax as "strengtheners", but whatever we do we don't put salt into the

mix — it makes the cast brittle.

All this casting of tracks can be done on fine days in winter and early spring (February-March) so that in late spring and summer we know the technique really well—those are the best outdoor times. Then we can collect leaves for pressing and mounting with cellophane protection in a loose-leaf photo album Has the troop ever tried mounting a spray of leaves? Put a spray of thin twigs and leaves between sheets of newspaper carefully and then

put it between, say, the carpet and under felt in a place where people will walk on it. Leave it a week or a

fortnight and the spray will be pressed beautifully.

These are simple outdoor hobbies for the troop, but they lead on quite naturally to more exciting things — photographing wild birds and animals by day and night; sketching and painting landscapes; camping or cycling with a purpose, such as "collecting" old and interesting stiles or bridges or church-towers or windmills, or bringing old maps up to date by our own field observations and study.

The troop can "adopt" a stream or pond and get to know it at all seasons of the year, and the wild life connected

with it.

Outdoor hobbies are always fun if the troop is prepared to work hard on them, and is ready to go out of doors in every month of the year, not just spring and summer. That is the standard to aim at in the troop — to get out in every week and month of the year.

WEEK 20 – FEBRUARY (iii)

THE most impromptu programmes often give most fun. here's one the Peewits and Seagulls tried out. Saturday afternoon was spent on bikes, spinning through the woods on a cold but sunny day, ending up with an inspection of a favourite patrol camp site some miles away. Then back to Troop H.Q. in record time, with the wind behind them and a warm glow in every boy's cheeks.

The patrols shared tea round a roaring log fire in the troop-den and then thought out ideas for the evening. The Peewits wanted a table-tennis tournament, but it was young Tiny of the Seagulls who won the day. "Let's have some stump speeches!" he said, with a cheerful grin. "And I'll bet the Seagulls are better at it than the Peewits.

So the P.L.s let young Tiny organise it all himself. First of all Tiny put the name of every Scout there on a slip of paper and put those slips into a Scout hat. Then he asked every chap to think of any subject he liked and to keep the idea to himself, but to write it down on a slip of paper. These slips were all put into a separate Scout hat. You could tell by the grins that some chaps had some rattling good ideas up their sleeve.

Then Tiny shook both hats up and finally took a name out of one hat and a subject out of the other. The "victim" had to speak on the impromptu subject for three minutes or longer.

First name out of the hat was Joe, P.L. of the Peewits, and he had to speak on "My Favourite Book". He made a very good job of that, because he could talk all night about Treasure Island. It led on to quite a discussion, and young Tiny found that half an hour had slipped away just like that. Then Tiny had the tables turned on him, for he was the next name out of the hat and he found himself down to speak on "Girl Guides"! And so it went on, until it was time for a mug of steaming cocoa round the dying embers, and then home.

When Skipper asked Tiny what they did on Saturday night in the den he said with an infectious grin, "We had two hours of stump speeches, Skip — and, golly, they were fun, too. I remember that wet day in camp last year when

they filled an evening up

chaps are feeling like a lazy evening

they're just as good for a winter Saturday night when you've had a bike trip and the "

Let's try it again for ourselves and just see.

We can try out another idea at this time of the year. To train a boy's sense of observation properly we should train him in a sense and appreciation of shape and design and pattern, as well as visual observation of tracks and signs and so on. We can try it very simply in this way, and soon spot the boys with talent in this direction. Draw the outline in Indian ink on a drawing- block of a number of islands around Britain — the Isle of White the Isle of Man, Arran, Anglesey, and so on. The boys will spot them reasonably quickly. But supposing we forget all about scale and produce a second set of island shapes on differing scales such as Holy Island, Anglesey, drawn twice as large as Ireland itself the Isle of Wight drawn upside down; Iceland half its normal size, and so on. That might keep the patrols very busy for some time, and it can be as original and full of fun as we can make it.

Then try it in a different way. So far we have dealt only with outlines of islands drawn in black on a white, or possibly buff or yellow, background Try the reverse. Cut out islands in thin black tissue-paper and lightly tack them on white backgrounds. If we have the time, patience and ingenuity we can try the effect of differing colours and backgrounds.

A shape or design or pattern — it doesn't have to be an island every time — is done in many colours on many coloured backgrounds. Don't go in for elaborate designs but simple squares, circles, figures of eight lozenges, diamonds, hearts, spades, clubs, and so on, with differing backgrounds. How easy it is to identify a black shape on a white background! But how difficult to identify black shape on a dark-green background, or even red or blue. The variations on this theme are delightful and will keep an intelligent troop going for weeks.

Stump speeches and "shape, design, pattern" observation Not a bad evening at all.

WEEKS 21 & 22 – FEBRUARY (iv) & MARCH (i)

AN emergency situation has developed in the troop. Skipper has been taken away for an emergency operation (fortunately not serious!) or has gone north on business for a fortnight at short notice. No one is very sure at the moment. And Andy the A.S.M. has at last gone into the R.A.F. for his National Service.

Skipper has merely sent a note to each P.L. saying, "Please carry on until I return "

certainly will not be less. Good luck and Good Scouting


it may be a fortnight and

So the next bit is addressed to the boys who are carrying on in Skipper's absence.

So you've got to run your troop meetings now! Well, yours isn't the only troop with an S.M. in hospital and an A.S.M. doing National Service. Nor is it the only troop being run by three or four Patrol Leaders. I know how you feel when you say it's a tough job being "S.M."

You say you feel short of experience, that things don't always pan out quite like you intended, that you feel pretty sore over those youngsters in the Peewits messing up your Kirn's Game stunt, that you feel a bit self conscious taking prayers like Skipper always does. Yes. it's true, no doubt But let's try and sort out the next troop meeting, shall we? It's Weeks 21 and 22 we have to keep going. Put yourself in the place of one of those "ornery" youngsters. Would you like to come into the troop-room ten minutes before troop meeting, on a starving cold night in February, and find just nothing doing. No! You know the difference a smart duty patrol makes. Suppose you came and found a really good fire going, a duty patrol working high pressure to get the place spick and span before seven-thirty, you'd soon feel like being cheerful with members of your patrol. If there's snarling and shivery misery around the patrol comers at seven-twenty-five you're going to find it tough to run any kind of meeting.

So there's the duty patrol to get onto hard. They've got to get down early enough to make a good job of the duty. Let's put one patrol on duty for a month at a time. Give them points for the Patrol Competition. While you inspect patrols let the other Patrol Leaders inspect the duty. See there's no dust on shelves and books; that the floor's really clean: that the fireplace looks respectable and has a decent fire going; that there's coal and logs in the buckets. Skipper marks each patrol each week out of 20, giving a possible 80 (or 100 if there's five Fridays in the month) for the patrol.

You've got to start meetings promptly at 7.30 p.m. If you can, kick off at 7 p.m. so as to get the youngsters home earlier. See you get everyone off home at 9 or 9.15 p.m. at the latest. Let's suppose you begin at 7.30 p.m.

You plan the meeting out with the other Patrol Leaders two or three nights ahead. Meet at each other's houses in turn for this special secret meeting. (Mums and dads are glad to see you doing it.) Keep a stunt or two up your sleeve to keep your patrols up to scratch.

At the monthly Court of Honour you decided to keep normal training going. That's grand. Don't forget the spring and summer are just around the comer. You must keep that Court of Honour going through thick and thin. Why, it's genuine self-government! And Skipper might be away for months.

See your programme is elastic. You mould it to suit what you think Friday night will require. When Friday night comes you are not afraid to adapt if you find it necessary.

One thing: you must keep a troop programme notebook. On one side put down your programme with times and notes of games and gear required. Make certain that you have all the gear you need on Friday night. Then you don't waste time chasing round for balls and chalk and cooking gear and rope. On the other side put down notes after the meeting. Put down the games that went down well, those that weren't so good and why, your views on the Peewit patrol work, things that want tightening up, a note about the defective light at the north end of the troop-room, and so on. It'll be a mine of usefulness to you, and shows you where you're going.

We were about to start on our fifteen-minute team game. We'll go for floor-ball. There are two painted lines at either end of the troop-room about two feet from the wall. Put a couple of logs on each line about six feet apart. These are your goals A paint spot marks the centre of the room. Split your fellows into two equal sides for weight and size and line them on their own lines. One is goalie. All the rest forwards. The soft ball (good red rubber ball) you put on the centre-spot. Now each side bounds for me ball and tries to score by shooting at and through the other goal. Each player may use one hand only. The ball must not travel higher than one foot off the ground. Keep it on the floor. Encourage slick quiet passing. The goalie can stop the ball with both hands. Have a bounce- up for fouls (kicking, high and reckless passing, and so on). The best players at floor ball get a drop-kick effect by hitting the ball accurately and hard as it comes bouncing to them. A grand game and the fellows like it. Have two halves, seven and a half minutes each way.

You ref.

Send the fellows right off to patrol comers for twenty-five minutes. You've decided what to do at your meeting with the Patrol Leaders. So Old Tub and Ginger and Eddie get on with the job right away. They're going to finish those Second Class badges off, get recruits through Tenderfoot and start talking about First Class Journey reports. This gives you a breather to prepare the rest of the meeting, using the Scouter's roam or the kitchen. Ten minutes later you stick a head round the troop-room door and see how things are going. Yes, the "ornery" Peewits are signalling under Ginger. Old Tub is showing a couple of Seagulls how to deal with someone suffering from shock, while the Woodpigeons are doing all sorts of mysterious things with rope. Good work.

You do something entirely different. You go round to Mr. Gee (who's the Troop Treasurer) and arrange "something awful".

What happens? Well. at almost 8.20 p.m. the Patrol Leaders suddenly tell their patrols that a man leapt out of the darkness in the High Street at 8 p.m., smashed the plate-glass of Johnson's the Jewellers and was oft' like wild fire with a load of real "jools". His only refuge is the troop-room (don't ask why!); He tried to phone a



Smashed plate-glass window, jools, a bleeding hand, a slinking thief in the night trying to phone. So Old Tubs patrol are the first to find the bloodstained handkerchief in the call-box at Edwards Avenue — they trail that slinking figure in the snow, see the bloodstains (no fainting in Old Tub's patrol, please!) And it's Old Tub's patrol who have a free fight with him near the troop-room. When the Peewits and Seagulls find the trail Old Tub's crowd are calmly eating "jools" and sitting on your head. Marvellous what you can do with three bottles of ink, a quarter of a pound of liquorice allsorts, an old trilby and Joe's old mackintosh.

To clinch matters, you have your ten minutes' snow fight outside the troop-room (providing there's snow!). Old Tub's Patrol v. The Rest. The Rest get their own back and win hands down — five heads buried in snow to two snowballs stuffed down neck.

Crumbs! That's nearly 8.45

pressure stove on the stone hearth because you want the fire for cocoa) how to make a flapjack. You take three

quick-fire ideas for three patrols instead. Each patrol under its patrol second while the three Patrol Leaders make

the cocoa. Quick, quick, three ideas! First patrol. Know it? First patrol oft' the floor, first patrol on it

glass, paper, wood, aluminium, green curtains (careful!) First patrol right round the troop-room outside and back at the alert in its own patrol comer. Watch them pant!

! We'll have to cut out the cooking practice. You meant to show them (on a

to touch

And you're still ready! Three patrols spaced out in lines. (You've got a sign for doing that.) The troop knows true north in the troop-room. Right across the Seagull's corner. "Face north", you shout They do. "Northeast", "Southwest" and so you go on. Last three in get points for their patrols. Grand fun.

As Old Tub signals that the cocoa's going great guns you put three Scouts blindfold with legs wide apart in the centre of the room. Put the rest of the troop at the south end. See how many can get through the Scouts' legs and safely to the north wall. It only takes three and a half minutes. But only four of the gang get through. Don't they love it!

Then you have the cocoa, the troop chatter and Old Tub's Pride (Madeira cake, numb one!). Notices and prayers follow. Yes, they're quiet and they'll like your idea of Lord's Prayer together with hats off, then a different fellow each week reading a prayer from The Scout Prayer Book, a silent prayer (especially for your absent Scouters) and the benediction "Teach us. Good Lord, to serve Thee as Thou deservest.

Flag-down. Troop dismiss. And inside six minutes everyone, including the duty patrol, are gone. If you are lucky, that is!

That leaves you and Old Tub and Ginger and Eddie round the fire for fifteen minutes or so, to talk of old times with a second cup of cocoa and a second piece of Old Tub's Pride.

H'm! You were twelve and a half minutes late on that troop meeting — according to your schedule! You wish you had as many shillings. Well, that's not so dusty, son. Make up for it next week!

LONDON: HERBERT JENKINS First published by Herbert Jenkins Ltd. 3 Duke of York Street London,


First published by Herbert Jenkins Ltd. 3 Duke of York Street London, S.W.I.


Second Printing September 1955 Third Printing October 1961

This and other traditional Scouting texts can be downloaded from “The Dump” at

traditional Scouting texts can be downloaded from “The Dum p ” at
CITIZENSHIP IN THE COMMUNITY This Merit Badge is Required to earn the Eagle Scout Rank


CITIZENSHIP IN THE COMMUNITY This Merit Badge is Required to earn the Eagle Scout Rank REQUIREMENTS

This Merit Badge is Required to earn the Eagle Scout Rank

REQUIREMENTS were REWRITTEN as of January 1, 2005.

1. Discuss with your counselor what citizenship in the community means and what it takes to be a good citizen in your community. Discuss the rights, duties, and obligations of citizenship, and explain how you can demonstrate good citizenship in your community, Scouting unit, place of worship, or school.

2. Do the following:

a. on a map of your community, locate and point out the following:

1. Chief government buildings such as your city hall, county courthouse, and public works/services facility

2. Fire station, police station, and hospital nearest your home

3. Historical or other interesting points

b. Chart the organization of your local or state government. Show the top offices and tell whether they are elected or appointed.

3. Do the following:

a. Attend a city or town council or school board meeting, or a municipal; county, or state court session.

b. Choose one of the issues discussed at the meeting where a difference of opinions was expressed, and explain to your counselor why you agree with one opinion more than you do another one.

4. Choose an issue that is important to the citizens of your community; then do the following:

a. Find out which branch of local government is responsible for this issue.

b. With your counselor's and a parent's approval, interview one person from the branch of government you

identified in requirement 4a. Ask what is being done about this issue and how young people can help.

c. Share what you have learned with your counselor.

5. With the approval of your counselor and a parent, watch a movie that shows how the actions of one individual or group of individuals can have a positive effect on a community. Discuss with your counselor what you learned from the movie about what it means to be a valuable and concerned member of the community.

6. List some of the services (such as the library, recreation center, public transportation, and public safety) your community provides that are funded by taxpayers. Tell your counselor why these services are important to your


7. Do the following:

a. Choose a charitable organization outside of Scouting that interests you and brings people in your community together to work for the good of your community.

b. Using a variety of resources (including newspapers, fliers and other literature, the Internet, volunteers, and employees of the organization), find out more about this organization.

c. With your counselor's and your parent's approval, contact the organization and find out what young people

can do to help. While working on this merit badge, volunteer at least eight hours of your time for the organization. After your volunteer experience is over, discuss what you have learned with your counselor.

8. Develop a public presentation (such as a video, slide show, speech, digital presentation, or photo exhibit) about important and unique aspects of your community. Include information about the history, cultures, and ethnic groups of your community; its best features and popular places where people gather; and the challenges it faces. Stage your