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Systems Analysis & Design

Phase Description
5th Edition
● Systems Design is the third of five
phases in the systems development life
cycle (SDLC)
Chapter 6 ● Now you are ready to begin the physical
design of the system that will meet the
Data Design specifications described in the system
requirements document
● Systems design tasks include data
design, user interface design, and
system architecture

Chapter Objectives Chapter Objectives

● Explain data design concepts and data ● Explain data design terminology,
structures including entities, fields, common fields,
● Describe file processing systems and records, files, tables, and key fields
various types of files ● Describe data relationships, draw an
● Understand database systems and define entity-relationship diagram, define
the components of a database cardinality and use cardinality notation
management system (DBMS) ● Explain the concept of normalization
● Describe Web-based data design and ● Understand the steps in database
characteristics design

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Chapter Objectives Introduction

● Describe hierarchical, network, ● You will develop a physical plan for data
relational, and object-oriented database organization, storage, and retrieval
models ● Begins with a review of data design
● Explain data warehousing/data mining concepts and terminology, then discusses
file-based systems and database systems,
● Differentiate between logical and including Web-based databases
physical storage and records ● Concludes with a discussion of data
● Explain data control measures mining, data warehousing, physical
design issues, logical and physical
records, data storage formats, and data
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Data Design Concepts Data Design Concepts
● Before constructing an information ● Data Structures
system, a systems analyst must –A file or table contains data about people, places or
understand basic design concepts, events that interact with the system
including data structures and the –File-oriented system
characteristics of file-oriented and –File processing
database systems, including Web-based –Database system
database design

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Data Design Concepts Data Design Concepts

● Overview of File Processing ● Overview of File Processing
–Some companies use file processing to handle – Potential problems
large volumes of structured data • Data redundancy
• Data integrity
–Although less common today, file processing can be • Rigid data structure
more efficient and cost less than a DBMS in certain
– Uses various types of files
situations • Master file
• Table file
• Transaction file
• Work file – scratch file
• Security file
• History file

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Data Design Concepts Data Design Concepts

● Overview of Database Systems ● Overview of Database Systems

– A properly designed database system offers a
solution to the problems of file processing
– Provides an overall framework that avoids data
redundancy and supports a real-time, dynamic

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Data Design Concepts Data Design Concepts
● Overview of Database Systems ● Overview of Database Systems
– A database management system (DBMS) is a – Advantages
collection of tools, features, and interfaces that • Scalability
enables users to add, update, manage, access, • Better support for client/server systems
• Economy of scale
and analyze the contents of a database
• Flexible data sharing
– The main advantage of a DBMS is that it offers • Enterprise-wide application – database administrator
timely, interactive, and flexible data access (DBA)
• Stronger standards
• Controlled redundancy
• Better security
• Increased programmer productivity
• Data independence

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Data Design Concepts DBMS Components

● Database Tradeoffs ● A DBMS provides an interface between a
– Because DBMSs are powerful, they require database and users who need to access the
more expensive hardware, software, and data data
networks capable of supporting a multiuser
– More complex than a file processing system
– Procedures for security, backup, and recovery
are more complicated and critical

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DBMS Components DBMS Components

● Interfaces for Users, Database ● Interfaces for Users, Database

Administrators, and Related Systems Administrators, and Related Systems
– Users – Related information systems
• Query language • A DBMS can support several related information
• Query by example (QBE) systems that provide input to, and require specific
• SQL (structured query language) data from, the DBMS

– Database Administrators ● Data Manipulation Language

• A DBA is responsible for DBMS management and – A data manipulation language (DML) controls
support database operations, including storing,
retrieving, updating, and deleting data

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DBMS Components Web-Based Database Design
● Schema ● Characteristics of Web-Based Design
– The complete definition of a database, – In a Web-based design, the Internet serves as the
including descriptions of all fields, tables, and front end, or interface for the database
relationships, is called a schema
management system. Internet technology
– You also can define one or more subschemas provides enormous power and flexibility
● Physical Data Repository – Web-based systems are popular because they
– The data dictionary is transformed into a offer ease of access, cost-effectiveness, and
physical data repository, which also contains worldwide connectivity
the schema and subschemas
– The physical repository might be centralized, or
distributed at several locations

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Web-Based Database Design Web-Based Database Design

● Internet Terminology ● Internet Terminology
– Web browser – Extranet
– Web page – Protocols
– HTML – Hypertext Markup Language – Web-centric
– Web server – Clients
– Web site – Servers
– Intranet

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Web-Based Database Design Web-Based Database Design

● Connecting a Database to the Web ● Data Security

– Database must be connected to the Internet or – Web-based data must be totally secure, yet
intranet easily accessible to authorized users
• Middleware – To achieve this goal, well-designed systems
• Macromedia’s ColdFusion provide security at three levels: the database
itself, the Web server, and the
telecommunication links that connect the
components of the system

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Data Design Terminology Data Design Terminology
● Definitions ● Key Fields
–Entity – Primary key
–Table or file • Combination key
• Composite key
• Concatenated key
• Attribute - Common field • Multi-valued key
–Record – Candidate key
• Tuple • Nonkey field
– Foreign key
– Secondary key

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Data Design Terminology Data Relationships

● Referential Integrity ● A relationship is a logical link between
– Validity checks can help avoid data input errors entities based on how they interact
– In a relational database, referential integrity ● Entity-Relationship Diagrams
means that a foreign key value cannot be – One-to-one relationship (1:1)
entered in one table unless it matches an
– One-to-many relationship (1:M)
existing primary key in another table
– Many-to-many relationship (M:N)
– Cardinality
• Cardinality notation
• Crow’s foot notation
• Unified Modeling Language (UML)

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Data Relationships Normalization

● Entity-Relationship Diagrams ● Normalization

● Table design
● Involves four stages: unnormalized
design, first normal form, second
normal form, and third normal form
● Most business-related databases must
be designed in third normal form

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Normalization Normalization
● Standard Notation Format ● Repeating Groups and Unnormalized
– Designing tables is easier if you use a standard Design
notation format to show a table’s structure, –Repeating group
fields, and primary key • Often occur in manual documents prepared by users
–Unnormalized design
Example: NAME (FIELD 1, FIELD 2, FIELD 3)

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Normalization Normalization
● First Normal Form ● Second Normal Form
–A table is in first normal form (1NF) if it does not – To understand second normal form (2NF), you
contain a repeating group must understand the concept of functional
–To convert, you must expand the table’s primary key dependence
to include the primary key of the repeating group – Field X is functionally dependent on field Y if
the value of field X depends on the value of
field Y

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Normalization Normalization

● Second Normal Form ● Second Normal Form

– A standard process exists for converting a – Four kinds of problems are found with 1NF
table from 1NF to 2NF description that do not exist with 2NF
1. Create and name a separate table for each field in • Consider the work necessary to change a particular
the existing primary key product’s description
2. Create a new table for each possible combination • 1NF tables can contain inconsistent data
of the original primary key fields • Adding a new product is a problem
3. Study the three tables and place each field with its • Deleting a product is a problem
appropriate primary key

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Normalization Normalization
● Third Normal Form ● Third Normal Form
–3NF design avoids redundancy and data integrity – To convert the table to 3NF, you must remove
problems that still can exist in 2NF designs all fields from the 2NF table that depend on
–A table design is in third normal form (3NF) if it is in another nonkey field and place them in a new
2NF and if no nonkey field is dependent on another table that uses the nonkey field as a primary
nonkey field key

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Normalization Steps in Database Design

● A Normalization Example 1. Create the initial ERD
– To show the normalization process, consider the 2. Assign all data elements to entities
familiar situation in Figure 6-24 which might depict
several entities in a school advising system:
3. Create 3NF designs for all tables, taking
ADVISOR, COURSE, and STUDENT care to identify all primary, secondary,
– The relationships among the three entities are and foreign keys
shown in the ERD in Figure 6-25 4. Verify all data dictionary entries
● After creating your final ERD and
normalized table designs, you can
transform them into a database

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Database Models Database Models

● Hierarchical and Network Databases ● Relational Databases

– In a hierarchical database, data is organized – The relational model was introduced during the
like a family tree or organization chart, with 1970s and became popular because it was
branches representing parent records and child flexible and powerful
records – Because all the tables are linked, a user can
request data that meets specific conditions
– A network database resembles a hierarchical
– New entities and attributes can be added at any
design, but provides somewhat more flexibility time without restructuring the entire database

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Database Models Data Storage
● Object-Oriented Databases ● Data Warehousing
–Many systems developers are using object-oriented – Data warehouse - dimensions
database (OODB) design as a natural extension of – Without a data warehouse it would be difficult for a
the object-oriented analysis process user to extract data that spans several information
• Object Data Standard systems and time frames
• Object Database Management Group (ODMG)
– Allows users to retrieve and analyze the data
• Each object has a unique object identifier

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Data Storage Data Storage

● Data Mining ● Logical and Physical Storage
– Works best when you have clear, measurable – Logical storage
goals • As seen through a user’s eyes
• Characters
• Increase average pages viewed per session
• Date element or data item
• Increase number of referred customers
• Logical record
• Reduce clicks to close
– Physical storage
• Increase checkouts per visit
• Hardware-related
• Increase average profit per checkout
• Physical record or block
• Blocking factor

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Data Storage Data Storage

● Data Storage Formats ● Data Storage Formats

– Binary digits – Binary
– Bit • Binary storage format
• Integer format
– Byte
• Long integer format
– EBCDIC and ASCII • Other binary formats exist for efficient storage of
– Unicode exceedingly long numbers

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Data Storage Data Storage
● Selecting a Data Storage Format ● Date Fields
– In many cases, a user can select a specific data – Most date formats now are based on the model
storage format established by the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO)
– For example, when using Microsoft Office, you
– Can be sorted easily and used in comparisons
can store documents, spreadsheets, and
– Absolute date
databases in Unicode-compatible form by using
the font called Arial Unicode MS – Best method for storing date fields depends on
how the specific date will be printed, displayed or
– Selecting the right data storage format depends used in a calculation
on the situation

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Data Control Data Control

● File and database control must include all ● User ID
measures necessary to ensure that data ● Password
storage is correct, complete, and secure ● Backup
● A well-designed DBMS must provide built- ● Recovery procedures
in control and security features, including
subschemas, passwords, encryption, audit ● Audit log files
trail files, and backup and recovery ● Audit fields
procedures to maintain data ● Encryption

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Chapter Summary Chapter Summary

● Files and tables contain data about people, ● Data design tasks include creating an
places, things, or events that affect the initial ERD; assigning data elements to an
information system entity; normalizing all table designs; and
● DBMS designs are more powerful and completing the data dictionary entries for
flexible than traditional file-oriented files, records, and data elements
systems ● The four basic database models are
hierarchical, network, relational, and

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Systems Analysis & Design
Chapter Summary
5th Edition
● Logical storage is information seen
through a user’s eyes, regardless of how
or where that information actually is
organized or stored Chapter 6 Complete
● Physical storage is hardware-related and
involves reading and writing blocks of
binary data to physical media
● File and database control measures
include limiting access to the data, data
encryption, backup/recovery procedures,
audit-trail files, and internal audit fields