1

HANDFUL OF LEAVES
Volume Three

HANDFUL

OF
LEAVES
Volume Three:

An Anthology
from
the

Anguttara Nikaya

Translated by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu
(Geoffrey DeGraff)

Printed for free distribution by The Sati Center for Buddhist Studies

&
Metta Forest Monastery

Copyright

Thanissaro Bhikkhu 2003

This book

may be copied or reprinted for free distribution

without permission from the publisher. Otherwise all rights reserved.

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Once

the Blessed

One was

staying at Kosambi in the

simsapa forest. Then, picking up a few simsapa leaves with his hand, he asked the monks, "What do you
think,

simsapa leaves in simsapa forest?"
"The

monks: Which are more numerous, the few my hand or those overhead in the
leaves in the
"

hand of the Blessed One are few

number, lord. Those overhead in the forest are far more numerous. the same way, monks, those things that I have known with direct knowledge but haven t taught are far more numerous [than what I have taught]. And why haven t I taught them? Because they aren t con nected with the goal, don t relate to the rudiments of the holy life, and don t lead to disenchantment, to disin
"In

passion, to cessation, to calm, to direct knowledge, to
self-awakening, to

Unbinding. That
I

s

why
stress

I

haven
This

t

taught them.
"And

what have

taught? This

is

...

is

the origination of stress ... This is the cessation of stress ... This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of
stress
:

This

is

what

I

have taught.

And why

have

I

taught these things? Because they are connected with
the goal, relate to the rudiments of the holy life, and lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to

calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding. This is why I have taught them."

SNLVL31

Contents

ONES
1.49-52

Luminous I

1

TWOS
II.9

Guardians of the World / 3 11.19 Skillful & Unskillful / 3
11.21 Fools

& Wise People

/ 4 / 4

11.23

What Was Not Said

11.25

A Meaning to be Inferred / 11.29 A Share in Clear Knowing
11.30 Release /

4

5

11.31-32 Gratitude I 5
11.92 Fools I 6

11.118

Hard

to

Find I 6

THREES
1112 Characterized (by Action) / 7
III.

15 The Chariot Maker / 7

11122 Sick People / 9
111.35

Hatthaka (On Sleeping Well) I 11 111.39 Refinement / 13
111.

40 Governing Principles / 15

Contents

IIL47 Fabricated / 19
III.48
111.52

A Mountain

/ 19

Two People IIL53 Two People
111.58

(1) /
(2)

20

/ 21

Vaccha (On Giving) / 22

111.62 Sectarians /

24

111.66
111.71

Kalamas I 29
The Roots of the Uposatha / 35 Channa the Wanderer / 43

111.72

111.73 111.74

The

fatalists Student /

46

111.90

The Sakyan / 48 Trainings (1) / 49
/ 50

111.91 Trainings (2)

111.93

Urgent / 52

111.101

A Salt Crystal
Themes / 59

/ 53

111.102

The Dirt-washer / 56

111.103 III.110

The Peak of the Roof / 61 111123 Sagacity / 62
111.126

At Gotamaka Shrine / 63
64

111.129 Putrid /

111.133 Inscriptions /

65

111.137

The Orderliness of the

Dhamma

/ 66

FOURS
Understanding / 67 1V.5 With the Flow / 68
IV.l

IV.10 Yokes I 70 1V.19 Off Course / 72
IV.24

At Kalaka s Park / 73

1V.28 The Traditions of the Noble Ones / 74 1V.32 The Bonds of Fellowship / 76

Contents

in

IV.37

No Falling Away

/ 77

IV.41 Concentration / 78

IV.42 Questions / 80

IV.45 Rohitassa / 81
IV.49 Perversions / 82

IV.55 Living in Tune / 84
IV.62 Debtless / 85

IV.67 (Bitten) by a Snake / 86
IV.73

A Person of Integrity

/ 89

IV.77 Inconceivable / 90
IV.79 Trade / 91
IV.85 Darkness I 92 IV.94 Concentration (Tranquility IV.95 The Firebrand / 95 IV.96 The Subduing of Passion / 96

& Insight)

/ 93

IV.102 Thunderheads / 97
IV.lll Kesin the Horse Trainer / 98

IV.113 The Goad-stick / 100

IV.115 Courses of Action / 103

IV.159TheNun

/ 104

IV.170 In Tandem / 106
IV.173 Kotthita / 107

IV.178 The Waste-water Pool I 108
IV.181 The Warrior / 110

IV.183

On What is Heard

/ 111

IV.184 Fearless / 112
IV.192 Traits / 115

IV.199 Craving / 118

IV.200 Affection I 120 IV.237 The Noble Path / 123
IV.252 Searches / 125

IV.255 Families / 125
IV.263

A

Wilderness Dweller / 126

iv

Contents

FIVES
V.2 (Strengths) In Detail / 127

V.20 Benefit / 128 V.25 Supported / 128

V.27 (Immeasurable) Concentration / 129
V.28 The Factors of Concentration / 129 V.34 General Siha

(On Giving) / 134

V.36 Seasonable Gifts / 136

V.37AMeal

/ 137

V.38 Conviction / 137
V.41 Benefits to be Obtained (from Wealth) / 139

V.43

What

is

Welcome / 140

V.49 The Kosalan

(On

Grief) /

142

V.51 Obstacles / 145

V.53 Factors (for Exertion) / 147 V.57 Subjects for Contemplation I 147

V.64 Growth / 150
V.73

One Who Dwells

in the

Dhamma

/ 151

V.75 The Warrior (1) / 152
V.76 The Warrior (2) / 157

V.77 Future Dangers (1) / 163 V.78 Future Dangers (2) / 164
V.79 Future Dangers (3) / 166
V.80 Future Dangers (4) / 168 V.96

One Who Retains What He Has Heard

/ 170

V.97Talk / 170
V.98 Wilderness / 171

V.114 At Andhakavinda / 171

V.UlToaSickMan
V.129 In

/ 172

Agony

/ 173

V.139 Not Resiliant / 173

V.140 The Listener / 177
V.159 Udayin (On Teaching the

Dhamma)

/ 179

Contents

V.175 The Outcaste

/ISO V.17 6 Rapture /ISO
V.177 Business (Wrong Livelihood) I 181 V.179 The Householder / 182

V.lSOGavesin / 185
V.196 Dreams / 188

V.198

A Statement
to

/ 190

V.200 Leading

Escape / 191

V.202 Listening

to the

Dhamma

/ 192

SIXES
VI.12 Conducive to Amiability / 193

VL13 Means of Escape I 194 VL16 Nakula s Parents I 196
VI.19Mindfulness of Death
(1) I

199

VI.20MindfulnessofDeath(2) / 200 VI.45 Debt / 202

VL55 Sona

/ 206

VI.63 Penetrative / 210 VI.86 Obstructions / 217

VI.87

Kamma

Obstructions / 217

VI.88 Listening Well / 218

SEVENS
VII.6 Treasure

/ 219

VIM Ugga

I 220

VII.ll Obsessions (1) I 221

Vll.11 Obsessions (2) / 222
VII.21 Conditions for

No

Decline

among

the

Monks

I 222

VII.48 Bondage / 223

VIIA9 Giving / 224

vi

C ontents
VII.56 To Kimila / 228

VII.58 Nodding / 228

VII.60
VII.64

An Angry Person
One with
a Sense

I 231

ofDhamma

/ 235

VII.80 The Teacher s Instruction / 238

EIGHTS
VIIL2 Discernment / 239
VIII.6

The Failings of the World / 242
Follower) / 244

VIII.26 Jivaka

(On Being a Lay VIII.30 Anuruddha / 245
VIII.39

Rewards / 251

VIII.4G Results / 253

VIIL53 Gotami / 254

VIIL54 Dighajanu / 255
VIII.63 In Brief (Good Will Mindfulness,

& Concentration)

/ 258
/ 260

VIIL80 The Grounds for Laziness

& the Arousal of Energy

NINES
/X.I Self-awakening / 264

IXJSutavant / 266
IX.34 Unbinding / 268 IX.35 The Cow / 270

IX.36Jhana / 274
IX.41 Tapussa

(On Renunciation)

/ 276

IX.43 Bodily Witness / 282 IX. 44 Released through Discernment / 284

IX.45 (Released) Both Ways / 285 IX.62 Capable / 285
IX.63 Things That Weaken the Training / 286

IX.64 Hindrances / 286

Contents

vii

TENS
X.13 Fetters / 287

X.15 Heedfulness / 287 X.I 7 Protectors / 288
X.24 Cunda / 290
293

X.47 To the Sakyans (On X.48 Ten Things I 294
X.51

the Uposatha) /

One s Own Mind

/ 295

X.60 Girimananda / 296 X.69 Topics of Conversation / 300 X.71 Wishes / 301

X.80 Hatred / 303
X.81 Bahuna / 304

X.92 Animosity / 304 X.93 Views I 306

X.94 Vajjiya / 310 X.95 Uttiya / 312
X.96 Kokanuda (On Viewpoints) / 314 X.108 A Purgative / 316
X.I 76 Cunda the Silversmith / 316

ELEVENS
XII What
is

the Purpose? I

322

XL2AnActofWill / 324 XI.12 Mahanama (1) / 326 XI.13 Mahanama (2) / 330 XL16 Good Will / 331

Glossary / 333

Index / 341

VIII

Abbreviations

AN
Cv

Ariguttara Nikaya

DN
Dhp
Iti

Cullavagga Digha Nikaya

Dhammapada
Itivuttaka

MN
Mv
SN
Sn

Khp

Khuddakapatha Majjhima Nikaya Mahavagga Samyutta Nikaya
Sutta Nipata

Thag
Thig

Theragatha Therigatha

Ud
References to

Udana

DN,

Those

to

Dhp

are to

and MN are to discourse (sutta). verse. Those to Cv and Mv are to
Iti,

chapter, section, and sub-section. References to other texts are to section (samyutta, nipata, or vagga) and discourse.
All translations are based

on the Royal Thai Edition

of

the Pali

Canon (Bangkok: Mahamakut Rajavidyalaya,

1982).

The Anguttara Nikaya, a collec tion of short to medium-length discourses, takes its name from the

way
the

the discourses are

grouped by

number of their parts (anga), with the number growing progres
each sively higher (uttara) with
group.

No

convey the full

single English term can meaning of this

name, although the translation Numerical Collection gives a workable idea of the principle
behind
it.

The complete
all its

collection,

counting formulaic expan sions, contains more than 9,500
discourses.

When

these expansions

are not counted, the total comes to

approximately 2,300 discourses, of

which 194 are translated

here.

Ones
1.49-52

Luminous
monks, monks,
is

"Luminous,

the mind. 1

And

it is

defiled

by incoming

defilements."

"Luminous,

is

the mind.

And

it is

freed from incoming

defilements."

"Luminous, monks, is the mind. And it is defiled by incoming defilements. The ordinary uninstructed person doesn t discern that as it actually is present, which is why I tell you that for the ordinary uninstructed person there is no development of the mind." "Luminous, monks, is the mind. And it is freed from incoming defilements. The well-instructed disciple of the noble ones dis cerns that as it actually is present, which is why I tell you that for the well-instructed disciple of the noble ones there is development of the mind."

NOTE: 1. Over the centuries, this statement has engendered a great deal of controversy. The commentary maintains that "mind" here refers to the bhavanga-citta, the momentary mental state between periods when the mental stream adverts to objects, but this statement raises more questions than it answers. There is no reference to the bhavanga-citta or the mental stream in any of the suttas (they appear first in an Abhidhamma treatise, the Patthana); and because the commen taries compare the bhavanga-citta to deep sleep, why is it called luminous? And why would the perception of its luminosity be a prerequisite for developing the mind? And further, if "mind" in
this discourse

means bhavanga-citta, what would

it

mean

to

develop the bhavanga-citta? Another interpretation equates the luminosity of the mind with the "consciousness without feature," described as "lumi nous" in 49 and 11, but this interpretation also has to 49, that consciousness partakes of problems. According

MN

DN

MN

Ones
nothing in the describable world, not even the "Allness of the All/ so how could it possibly be defiled? And, because it is not
realized until the goal of the practice is reached, why would the perception of its luminosity be a prerequisite for developing the

mind? And

again,

if

"mind"

here

means consciousness without

A more reasonable approach to understanding the statement can be derived from taking it in context: the luminous mind is the mind that the meditator is trying to develop. To perceive its luminosity means understanding that defilements such as greed, aversion, or delusion are not intrinsic to its nature, are not a necessary part of awareness. Without this understanding, it would be impossible to practice. With this understanding, one can make an effort to cut away existing defile however, 24 calls "purity in ments, leaving the mind in the stage that terms of mind." This would correspond to the luminous level of concentration described in the standard simile for the fourth jhana: "And furthermore, with the abandoning of pleasure & pain as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. He sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright awareness. Just as if a man were sitting covered from head to foot with a white cloth so that there would be no part of his body to which the white cloth did not extend; even so, the monk sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright awareness. There is nothing of his entire body

feature, how could these discourses talk of its development?

MN

unpervaded by pure, bright
possible to

awareness."

From

this state

it is

develop the discernment that not only cuts away defilements but also uproots any potential for them to existing ever arise again. Only in the stages of awakening that follow on those acts of discernment would "consciousness without fea
ture"

be realized.

Twos

119 Guardians of the World
"Monks,

these

two bright

qualities

two? Conscience

& concern (for the results of unskillful actions).

guard the world. Which

If these two bright qualities did not guard the world, there would be no recognition of mother here, no recognition of

mother
those

s sister,

who

uncle s wife, teacher s wife, or wives of deserve respect/ The world would be immersed in

promiscuity, like rams with goats, roosters with pigs, or dogs with jackals. But because these two bright qualities guard the world, there is recognition of mother, mother s sister, uncle s wife, teacher s wife/ & wives of those who deserve respect/"
See also:

AN VIL6; W 34

11.19 Skillful
"Abandon
is

& Unskillful

what

what is unskillful, monks. It is possible to abandon unskillful. If it were not possible to abandon what is unskillful, I would not say to you, Abandon what is unskillful/ But because it is possible to abandon what is unskillful, I say to
you,
is unskillful/ If this abandoning of what is were conducive to harm and pain, I would not say to you, Abandon what is unskillful/ But because this abandoning of what is unskillful is conducive to benefit and pleasure, I say to you, Abandon what is unskillful/ "Develop what is skillful, monks. It is possible to develop what is skillful. If it were not possible to develop what is skill ful, I would not say to you, Develop what is skillful. But because it is possible to develop what is skillful, I say to you, Develop what is skillful/ If this development of what is skillful were conducive to harm and pain, I would not say to you, Develop what is skillful/ But because this development of what

Abandon what

unskillful

Iwos

is skillful is

conducive to benefit and pleasure,
is skillful/"

I

say to you,

Develop what
See also:

DN 12; SN VI.l; SN XXII.2; AN 111.66; AN X.94

11.21 Fools

& Wise People

"Monks, these two are fools. Which two? The one who doesn t see his transgression as a transgression, and the one who doesn t rightfully pardon another who has confessed his transgression.

These two are
"These

fools.

two

are wise people.

Which two? The one who
and the one who

sees

his transgression as a transgression,

rightfully

pardons another who has confessed his transgression. These two are wise people."

11.23

What Was Not Said

these two slander the Tathagata. Which two? He who what was not said or spoken by the Tathagata as said explains or spoken by the Tathagata. And he who explains what was said or spoken by the Tathagata as not said or spoken by the Tathagata. These are the two who slander the Tathagata."
"Monks,

11.25

A Meaning to be Inferred

these two slander the Tathagata. Which two? He who a discourse whose meaning needs to be inferred as one explains
"Monks,

whose meaning has already been fully drawn out. And he who explains a discourse whose meaning has already been fully drawn out as one whose meaning needs to be inferred. These are the two who slander the Tathagata."

11.29

A Share in Clear Knowing
qualities

"These

two

have a share in

clear

knowing. Which two?

Tranquility (samatha)

& insight (vipassana).

Twos

developed, what purpose does it serve? is developed, what developed. does it serve? Passion is abandoned. purpose "When insight is developed, what purpose does it serve? Discernment is developed. And when discernment is developed, what purpose does it serve? Ignorance is abandoned/
"When

tranquility

is

The mind

is

And when the mind

See also:

MN 149; SN XXXV.204; AN IV.94; AN IV.170; AN X.71

11.30 Release
"Defiled by passion, the mind is not released. Defiled by igno rance, discernment doesn t develop. Thus from the fading of passion is there awareness-release. From the fading of ignorance is there discernment-release/

See also:

SN XII 70; SN XX.4-5; AN IX.43-45

11.31-32 Gratitude
"Monks, I

will teach

you the

level of a

person of no integrity

and the
tion.
I
"As

level of a
speak."

person of

integrity. Listen

&

pay

close atten

will

you say, lord," the monks responded. The Blessed One said: "Now what is the level of a person of no integrity? A person of no integrity is ungrateful, doesn t acknowledge the help given to him. This ingratitude, this lack of acknowledgment is second nature among rude people. It is entirely on the level of a person of no integrity.
person of integrity is grateful & acknowledges the help given to him. This gratitude, this acknowledgment is second nature among fine people. It is entirely on the level of a person
"A

of

integrity."

"I

tell

repay.

carry your mother on one shoulder & your father on the other shoulder for 100 years, and were to look after them by anoint ing, massaging, bathing, & rubbing their limbs, and they were
to defecate

you, monks, there are two people who are not easy Which two? Your mother & father. Even if you were

to
to

& urinate right there [on your shoulders], you would

Iwos

way pay or repay your parents. If you were to estab mother & father in absolute sovereignty over this great your earth, abounding in the seven treasures, you would not in that way pay or repay your parents. Why is that? Mother & father do much for their children. They care for them, they nourish them, they introduce them to this world. But anyone who rouses his unbelieving mother & father, settles & establishes them in conviction; rouses his unvirtuous mother & father, set tles & establishes them in virtue; rouses his stingy mother & father, settles & establishes them in generosity; rouses his fool ish mother & father, settles & establishes them in discernment: To this extent one pays & repays one s mother & father/
not in that
lish

See also:

MN 110; SN VII.14; AN IV.73;

Iti

106

11.92 Fools

these two are fools. Which two? The one who takes burden that hasn t fallen to him, and the one who doesn t up take up a burden that has. These two are fools."
"Monks,

a

11.118

Hard to Find

"Monks, these two people are hard to find in the world. Which two? The one who is first to do a kindness, and the one

who
it.

is grateful for a kindness done and feels obligated These two people are hard to find in the world."

to

repay

Threes

111.2

Characterized (by Action)

wise a fool is characterized by his/her actions. characterized by his/her actions. It is through the person activities of one s life that one s discernment shines. person endowed with three things is to be recognized as a fool. Which three? Bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct. person endowed with these three things is to be recognized as a fool. person endowed with three things is to be recognized as a wise person. Which three? Good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, good mental conduct. person endowed with these three things is to be recognized as a wise person.
"Monks,

A

is

"A

A

"A

A

We will avoid "Thus, monks, you should train yourselves: the three things that, endowed with which, one is to be recog nized as a fool. We will undertake & maintain the three things that, endowed with which, one is to be recognized as a wise
person/ That
See also:
s

how you should train yourselves."

AN IV.115; AN X.176; Dhp 60-75

111.15

The Chariot Maker

On one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Varanasi in the
Deer Park at Isipatana. There he addressed the monks:
"Yes, lord,"

"Monks!"

monks responded. The Blessed One said: "Once, monks, there was a king named Pacetana. One day King Pacetana said to his chariot maker, My
the

good chariot maker, in six months time from now a battle will take place. Can you make me a new pair of chariot wheels? "Yes, your majesty, I can/ the chariot maker replied to the king.

8

Threes

Then

in six

months minus

six

days the chariot maker

fin

ished one wheel. King Pacetana said to him, In six days time from now the battle will take place. Will the pair of chariot

wheels be finished?
"Your majesty, in these six months minus six days, I have finished one wheel/ But can you finish the second wheel in these six days? "Yes, your majesty, I can/ the chariot maker replied to the king. Then, after finishing the second wheel in six days, the char iot maker took the pair of wheels to the king and, on arrival, said to him, Here is your new pair of chariot wheels all fin
"

ished,
six

your majesty/

what is the difference between your wheel that took months minus six days to finish, and your wheel that took six days to finish? I don t see any difference between them at all/ "There is a difference between them, your majesty. Look at the difference/ Then the chariot maker took the chariot wheel finished in six days and set it rolling. Going as far as its momen tum carried it, it twirled around and around and fell to the ground. But then he took the chariot wheel finished in six months minus six days to finish and set it rolling. Going as far as its momentum carried it, it stood still as if fixed on an axle. Now what is the reason, my good chariot maker, what is the cause, why the chariot wheel finished in ,six days, when set rolling, goes as far as its momentum carries it and then, twirling around and around, falls to the ground? And what is the reason, what is the cause, why the chariot wheel finished in six months minus six days, when set rolling, goes as far as its momentum carries it and then stands still as if fixed on an axle? "Your majesty, as for the wheel finished in six days, its rim is crooked, with faults & flaws. Its spokes are crooked, with faults & flaws. Its hub is crooked, with faults & flaws. Because its rim [&] hub are crooked, with faults & flaws, spokes when set rolling it goes as far as its momentum carries it and then, twirling around and around, falls to the ground. But as for the wheel finished in six months minus six days, its rim is not crooked, with no faults or flaws. Its spokes are not crooked, with no faults or flaws. Its hub is not crooked, with no faults or flaws. Because its rim [&] hub are not crooked, with spokes no faults or flaws, when set rolling it goes as far as its momen tum carries it and then stands still as if fixed on an axle/
"And
"

...

...

...

...

Threes

"Now,

monks, the thought
that occasion
I

maker on
sion.
I

seen in that way.

may occur to you that the chariot was someone else, but it shouldn t be myself was the chariot maker on that occa

ened, skilled in dealing with the crookedness, faults, & flaws of bodily action; skilled in dealing with the crookedness, faults, & flaws of verbal action; skilled in dealing with the crookedness, faults, & flaws of mental action. monk or nun in whom the crookedness, faults, & flaws "Any of bodily action are not abandoned; the crookedness, faults, & flaws of verbal action are not abandoned; the crookedness, faults, & flaws of mental action are not abandoned has fallen away from
this

skilled in dealing with the crookedness, the faults, I a worthy one, rightly self-awak the flaws of wood.

was

Now am

Dhamma &

bodily action are abandoned; the crookedness, faults, & flaws of verbal action are abandoned; the crookedness, faults, & flaws of mental action are abandoned stands firm in this Dhamma &
Vinaya, just like the wheel finished in six months minus six days. "Thus you should train yourselves: We will abandon crookedness, faults, & flaws in bodily action. We will abandon crookedness, faults, & flaws in verbal action. We will abandon crookedness, faults, & flaws in mental action/ That s how you

But any

monk or nun in whom the crookedness, faults, & flaws of

Vinaya, just like the wheel finished in six days.

should train
See also:

yourselves."

AN IIL110; AN 111129; Ud V.5; AN 111129; Sn IVA; Sn IV.7

111.22 Sick People
"There

in the world.

are these three types of sick people to be Which three?

found existing

"There is the case of the sick person who regardless of whether he does or does not receive amenable food, regardless of whether he does or does not receive amenable medicine, regardless of whether he does or does not receive proper nurs ing will not recover from that illness. There is the case of the sick person who regardless of whether he does or does not receive amenable food, regardless of whether he does or does not receive amenable medicine, regardless of whether he does or does not receive proper nursing will recover from that ill-

10

Threes

the case of the sick person who will recover from he receives amenable food, amenable medicine, & proper nursing, but not if he doesn t. "Now, it is because of the sick person who will recover from that illness if he receives amenable food, amenable medicine, & proper nursing but not if he doesn t that food for the sick has been allowed, medicine for the sick has been allowed, nursing for the sick has been allowed. And it is because there is this sort of sick person that the other sorts of sick persons are to be nursed as well [on the chance that they may actually turn out to need and benefit from such nursing]. "These are the three types of sick people to be found existing
ness. There
is

that illness

if

in the world.

the same way, these three types of people, like the three of sick people, are to be found existing in the world. types Which three? "There is the case of the person who regardless of whether he does or doesn t get to see the Tathagata, regardless of whether he does or doesn t get to hear the Dhamma & Vinaya proclaimed by the Tathagata will not alight on the lawfulness, the Tightness of skillful mental qualities. There is the case of the person who regardless of whether he does or doesn t get to see the Tathagata, regardless of whether he does or doesn t get to hear the Dhamma & Vinaya proclaimed by the Tathagata will alight on the lawfulness, the Tightness of skillful mental qualities. There is the case of the person who will alight on the
"In

lawfulness, the Tightness of skillful mental qualities if he gets to see the Tathagata and gets to hear the Dhamma & Vinaya pro claimed by the Tathagata, but not if he doesn t. "Now, it is because of the person who will alight on the law fulness, the Tightness of skillful mental qualities if he gets to see the Tathagata and gets to hear the Dhamma & Vinaya pro claimed by the Tathagata but not if he doesn t that the teaching of the Dhamma has been allowed. And it is because there is this sort of person that the other sorts of persons are to be taught the Dhamma as well [on the chance that they may actually turn out to need and benefit from the teaching]. "These are the three types of people, like the three types of sick people, to be found existing in the world."
See also:
Iti

DN 12; MN 63; MN 75; MN 105; SN VI.l; AN X.108;

WO

Threes

111.35

Hatthaka (On Sleeping Well)

On

one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Alavi on a spread of leaves by a cattle track in a simsapa forest. Then Hatthaka of Alavi, out roaming & rambling for exercise, saw the Blessed One sitting on a spread of leaves by the cattle track in the sirhsapa forest. On seeing him, he went to him and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One, "Lord, I hope the
Blessed

One has slept in
young man.
I

ease."

"Yes,

have
one."

slept in ease.

Of those

in the

world

who sleep in ease, I am
"But

cold, lord, is the winter night.

is a time of snowfall. Hard is hooves. Thin is the spread of leaves. Sparse are the leaves in the trees. Thin are your ochre robes. And cold blows the Veramba wind. Yet still the Blessed One says, Yes, young man. I have slept in ease. Of those in the world who sleep in ease, I am one/" that case, young man, I will question you in return. Answer as you see fit. Now, what do you think: Suppose a householder or householder s son has a house with a gabled
"In

The Between-the-Eights 1 the ground trampled by cattle

roof, plastered inside

&

out, draft-free,

with

close-fitting

door

&

windows shut

against the wind. Inside he has a horse-hair couch spread with a long-fleeced coverlet, a white wool cover let, an embroidered coverlet, a rug of kadali-deer hide, with a canopy above, & red cushions on either side. And there a lamp would be burning, and his four wives, with their many charms, would be attending to him. Would he sleep in ease, or not? Or

how does this strike you?"
"Yes,

lord,

he would sleep in

ease.

Of those

in the

world

who sleep in ease, he would be

one."

"But what do you think, young man. Might there arise in that householder or householder s son any bodily fevers or fevers of mind born of passion so that burned with those pas sion-born fevers he would sleep miserably?" "Yes, lord." "As for those fevers burned with which the passion-born householder or householder s son would sleep miserably that passion has been abandoned by the Tathagata, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of exis tence, not destined for future arising. Therefore he sleeps in ease.

Th rees

Now, what do you think, young man. Might there arise in that householder or householder s son any bodily fevers or fevers of mind born of aversion so that burned with those aver sion-born fevers he would sleep miserably?" "Yes, lord." "As for those aversion-born fevers burned with which the householder or householder s son would sleep miserably that
aversion has been abandoned by the Tathagata, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the condi tions of existence, not destined for future arising. Therefore he
sleeps in ease.

what do you think, young man. Might there arise in that householder or householder s son any bodily fevers or fevers of mind born of delusion so that burned with those delu lord." sion-born fevers he would sleep miserably?" for those delusion-born fevers burned with which the householder or householder s son would sleep miserably that delusion has been abandoned by the Tathagata, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the condi
"Now,
"Yes,
"As

tions of existence, not destined for future arising. Therefore sleeps in ease.
"Always,

he

always,
ease:
totally

he sleeps in
the

brahman

unbound,

who doesn t adhere
to sensual pleasures,

who

s

without acquisitions

& cooled.
Having
calmed,
cut
all ties

& subdued fear in the heart,

he sleeps in ease, having reached peace
of
awareness."

a period in February, regarded in northern India as the coldest part of the year.
1.
"Between-the-Eights" is

NOTE:

The

See also:

SN X.8; Ud 11.10; Thag

VI.2

Threes

111.39

Refinement

lived in refinement, utmost refinement, total refine ment. father even had lotus ponds made in our palace: one where red-lotuses bloomed, one where white lotuses bloomed, one where blue lotuses bloomed, all for sake. I used no santurban was from dalwood that was not from Varanasi.
"Monks, I

My

my

lower garments, & my outer cloak. A white sunshade was held over me day & night to pro tect me from cold, heat, dust, dirt, & dew. had three palaces: one for the cold season, one for the hot season, one for the rainy season. During the four months of the rainy season I was entertained in the rainy-season palace by minstrels without a single man among them, and I did not once come down from the palace. Whereas the servants, workers, & retainers in other people s homes are fed meals of lentil soup & broken rice, in my father s home the servants, workers, & retainers were fed wheat, rice, and meat. "Even though I was endowed with such fortune, such total refinement, the thought occurred to me: When an ordinary
Varanasi, as were

My

my

tunic,

my

"I

uninstructed person, himself subject to aging, not beyond aging, sees another who is aged, he is horrified, humiliated, & dis gusted, oblivious to himself that he too is subject to aging, not

beyond aging.
aging another person

If I

who am
is

were

to

be horrified, humiliated,

who

subject to aging, not beyond & disgusted on seeing that would not be fitting for me. aged,

As

I

noticed

this, the [typical]

young person

s intoxication

with

youth entirely dropped away. "Even though I was endowed with such fortune, such total refinement, the thought occurred to me: When an ordinary
uninstructed person, himself subject to illness, not beyond ill ness, sees another who is ill, he is horrified, humiliated, & disgusted, oblivious to himself that he too is subject to illness,
subject to illness, not & disgusted beyond on seeing another person who is ill, that would not be fitting for me. As I noticed this, the healthy person s intoxication with health entirely dropped away.
illness.
if I

not beyond

And
to

who am

illness

were

be horrified, humiliated,

though I was endowed with such fortune, such total refinement, the thought occurred to me: When an ordinary
"Even

Threes

uninstructed person, himself subject to death, not beyond death, sees another who is dead, he is horrified, humiliated, & disgusted, oblivious to himself that he too is subject to death, not beyond death. And if I who am subject to death, not beyond death were to be horrified, humiliated, & disgusted on seeing another person who is dead, that would not be fitting for me/ As I noticed this, the
1 living person s intoxication with life entirely dropped away. "Monks, there are these three forms of intoxication. Which

three? Intoxication with youth, intoxication with health, intoxica tion with life.
"Drunk with the intoxication of youth, an ordinary unin structed person engages in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct. Having engaged in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct, he on the break-up of the body, after death reappears in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. "Drunk with the intoxication of health, an ordinary unin structed person engages in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct. Having engaged in bodily misconduct,

&

&

verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct, he on the break-up of the body, after death reappears in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. "Drunk with the intoxication of life, an ordinary uninstructed

person engages in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct. Having engaged in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct, he on the break-up of the body, after death reappears in the plane of deprivation, the bad
destination, the lower realms, in hell.
"Drunk

with the intoxication of youth, a monk leaves the and returns to the lower life. Drunk with the intoxication training of health, a monk leaves the training and returns to the lower life. Drunk with the intoxication of life, a monk leaves the training and
returns to the lower
life."

Subject to birth, subject to aging, subject to death,

ordinary people
are repelled

from that

to

by those who suffer which they are subject.

And if I were to be repelled
by beings subject to these things, it would not be fitting for me, living as they do/

Threes

As I maintained this attitude knowing the Dhamma
without acquisitions
I

overcame

all

intoxication

with health, youth, & life, as one who sees
renunciation as security,
rest.

For me, energy arose, Unbinding was clearly There s now no way
I

seen.

could partake of sensuality.
celibate
life,
I

Having followed the

will not return.

NOTE: 1. The PTS edition treats this discourse as two, divided at this point. Asian traditions, however, treat it as one. The autobiographical verse at the conclusion of the second half fits neatly with the autobiographical first half, which suggests that the two halves were originally meant to go together.
See also:

MN 36; MN 82; AN V.57; Sn

III.1;

Sn

1112;

Sn IV.15

IIIAO Governing Principles
are these three governing principles. Which three? The a governing principle, the cosmos as a governing principle, and the Dhamma as a governing principle. "And what is the self as a governing principle? There is the case where a monk, having gone to a wilderness, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty dwelling, reflects on this: It is not for the sake of robes that I have gone forth from the home life into homelessness; it is not for the sake of almsfood, for the sake of lodgings, or for the sake of this or that state of [future] becom ing that I have gone forth from the home life into homelessness. Simply that I am beset by birth, aging, & death; by sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, despairs; beset by stress, over come with stress, [and I hope,] "Perhaps the end of this entire
"There

self as

&

16

Threes

mass of suffering

&

stress

might be known!

"

Now,

if I

were

to

& unified/ Having made himself his governing princi he abandons what is unskillful, develops what is skillful, ple, abandons what is blameworthy, develops what is unblameworthy, and looks after himself in a pure way. This is called the self
centered
as a governing principle. "And what is the cosmos as a governing principle? There is the case where a monk, having gone to a wilderness, to the foot

seek the same sort of sensual pleasures that I abandoned in going forth from home into homelessness or a worse sort that would not be fitting for me/ So he reflects on this: My persistence will be aroused & not lax; my mindfulness estab lished & not confused; my body calm & not aroused; my mind

of a tree, or to an empty dwelling, reflects on this: It s not for the sake of robes that I have gone forth from the home life into homelessness; it s not for the sake of almsfood, for the sake of lodgings, or for the sake of this or that state of [future] becom

ing that

I

have gone forth from the home
I

life

into homelessness.

death; by sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, & despairs; beset by stress, over come with stress, [and I hope,] "Perhaps the end of this entire

Simply

that

am

beset by birth, aging,

&

mass gone

of suffering
forth,

&

stress

might be

known!"

Now

if I,

having

were

will, or

thoughts

to think thoughts of sensuality, thoughts of ill of harmfulness: great is the community of this

cosmos.
priests

And

&

community of this cosmos there are endowed with psychic power, clair contemplatives
in the great

voyant, skilled

[in reading] the minds of others. They can see even from afar. Even up close, they are invisible. With their awareness they know the minds of others. They would know this of me: "Look, my friends, at this clansman who though he in good faith gone forth from the home life into homelesshas ness remains overcome with evil, unskillful mental qualities."

There are also devas endowed with psychic power, clairvoyant, skilled [in reading] the minds of others. They can see even from afar. Even up close, they are invisible. With their awareness they know the minds of others. They would know this of me: "Look, my friends, at this clansman who though he has in good faith gone forth from the home life into homelessness remains over come with evil, unskillful mental qualities/" So he reflects on this: My persistence will be aroused & not lax; my mindfulness established & not confused; my body calm & not aroused; my

Threes

7

mind centered
skillful,

& unified/ Having made the cosmos his govern
is

is unskillful, develops what abandons what is blameworthy, develops what unblameworthy, and looks after himself in a pure way. This

ing principle, he abandons what

is
is

cosmos as a governing principle. "And what is the Dhamma as a governing principle? There is the case where a monk, having gone to a wilderness, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty dwelling, reflects on this: Tt is not for the sake of robes that I have gone forth from the home life
called the into homelessness; it is not for the sake of almsfood, for the sake of lodgings, or for the sake of this or that state of [future] becoming that I have gone forth from the home life into home

of suffering & stress might be known!" Now, well-taught by the Blessed One, to be seen here & now, timeless, inviting all to come & see, pertinent, to be seen by the wise for themselves. There are fellow practitioners of the chaste life who dwell knowing & seeing it. If I having gone
this entire

Simply that I am beset by birth, aging, & death; by sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, & despairs; beset by stress, overcome with stress, [and I hope,] "Perhaps the end of
lessness.

mass
is

the

Dhamma

lazy

forth in this well-taught Dhamma Vinaya were to remain heedless, that would not be fitting for me/ So he reflects on this: not lax; mindfulpersistence will be aroused

&

&

ness established & not confused; my body calm & not aroused; my mind centered & unified/ Having made the Dhamma his

My

&

my

what

governing principle, he abandons what is unskillful, develops is skillful, abandons what is blameworthy, develops what is unblameworthy, and looks after himself in a pure way. This is called the Dhamma as a governing principle. "These are the three governing principles."
There
in the
is

cosmos

no
secret

place
for

one

who has done
an
evil

deed.

i8

Threes

Your own self knows, whether you are true

my good man,

You underestimate
that
is

or false. the fine witness

yourself,

you with evil
that then in yourself you hide.

The devas

& Tathagatas see the fool

who goes about
out of tune with the cosmos.

Thus you should go about
self-governed,

mindful;

governed by

the cosmos, masterful,

absorbed in jhana;

governed by

the

Dhamma,
acting in line

with the

Dhamma.

The sage who makes an effort
in truth

doesn

t

fall

back.

Whoever through striving
overpowering Mara, 1 conquering the Ender touches the stopping of birth,
is

Such,
a wise,

2

knower

of the cosmos,

a sage

unfashioned

by anything

at

all.

NOTES
The Ender: an epithet for Mara, who as repeated mortality keeps putting an end to things. 2. Such (tadin): An adjective applied to the mind of one who has attained the goal. It indicates that the mind what it
1.
"is is"

indescribable but not subject to change or alteration.

Threes

19

111.47 Fabricated

ricated.

these three are fabricated characteristics of what is fab three? Arising is discernable, passing away is discernable, alteration while staying is discernable.
"Monks,

Which

"These

are three fabricated characteristics of what

is

fabricated.

these three are unfabricated characteristics of what is unfabricated. Which three? No arising is discernable, no passing away is discernable, no alteration while staying is discernable. "These are three unfabricated characteristics of what is
"Now

unfabricated."

Alternative translation:

ricated.

these three are fabricated characteristics of what is fab three? Arising is discernable, passing away is discernable, alteration of what stays is discernable. "These are three fabricated characteristics of what is fabricated. "Now these three are unfabricated characteristics of what is unfabricated. Which three? No arising is discernable, no passing away is discernable, no alteration of what stays is discernable. "These are three unfabricated characteristics of what is
"Monks,

Which

unfabricated."

See also:

Ud

VIII.3; Iti

43

111.48

A Mountain

the great sal trees that live in dependence on the Himalayas, the king of mountains, prosper in terms of three kinds of prosperity. Which three? They prosper in terms of branches, leaves, & foliage. They prosper in terms of bark & shoots. They prosper in terms of softwood and heartwood. The great sal trees that grow in dependence on the Himalayas, the king of moun tains, prosper in terms of these three kinds of prosperity. the same way, the descendents who live in dependence on a clansman of conviction prosper in terms of three kinds of pros perity. Which three? They prosper in terms of conviction. They prosper in terms of virtue. They prosper in terms of discernment. The descendents who live in dependence on a clansman of con viction prosper in terms of these three kinds of prosperity.
"Monks,
"In

io

Threes

Like a mountain of rock in the wilderness, in a mighty grove, dependent on which there prosper
lords of the forest, great trees in the same way,

those who here live dependent on a clansman of conviction

consummate
prosper:

in virtue

& children, friends, dependents, & kin.
wife

Seeing the virtue of that virtuous one,
his liberality good conduct, those who are perceptive

&

follow

suit.

Having, here in this world, followed the Dhamma,
the path to a

good

destination,

they delight in the world of the devas, enjoying the pleasures they desire.
See also:

AN VIII.54
People (1)

111.52

Two

On

one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi in

Jeta s Grove, Anathapindika s monastery. Then two brahmans feeble old men, aged, advanced in years, having come to the last

went to the Blessed One. On arrival, courteous greetings with him and, after an they exchanged exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, sat to one side. As they were sitting there, they said to him: "Master Gotama, we are brahmans feeble old men, aged, advanced in years, having come to the last stage of life, 120 years old. And we have done no admirable deeds, no skillful deeds, no deeds that allay our fears. Teach us, Master Gotama. Instruct us, Master Gotama, for our long-term benefit & happiness/ "Indeed, brahmans, you are feeble old men, aged, advanced in
stage of
life,

120 years old

having come to the last stage of life, 120 years old. And you have done no admirable deeds, no skillful deeds, no deeds that allay your fears. This world is swept away by aging, by illness, by
years,

Threes

death.

With the world thus swept away by aging,

any

restraint of body, speech,

shelter, cave, island,
It s

& refuge after death in the world beyond."
next-to-nothing span.

illness, & death, & intellect practiced here will be one s

swept along:
life, its

For one swept on by aging

no shelters exist. Keeping sight of this danger do meritorious deeds
that bring bliss.

in death,

When you re restrained here
in body, speech,

& awareness,
after death.

when you merit while still alive:
that will be for

your bliss

711.53

Two People

(2)

one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi in Jeta s Grove, Anathapindika s monastery. Then two brahmans feeble old men, aged, advanced in years, having come to the last stage of life, 120 years old went to the Blessed One. On arrival, they exchanged courteous greetings with him and, after an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, sat to one side. As they were sitting there, they said to him: "Master Gotama, we are brahmans feeble old men, aged, advanced in years, having come to the last stage of life, 120 years old. And we have done no admirable deeds, no skillful deeds, no deeds that allay our fears. Teach us, Master Gotama. Instruct us, Master Gotama, for our long-term benefit & happiness." "Indeed, brahmans, you are feeble old men, aged, advanced in years, having come to the last stage of life, 120 years old. And you have done no admirable deeds, no skillful deeds, no deeds that allay your fears. This world is on fire with aging, illness, & death. With the world thus on fire with aging, illness, & death, any restraint of body, speech, & intellect practiced here will be one s shelter, cave, island, & refuge after death in the world beyond."

On

When a house is aflame,
the vessel salvaged

2.1

Threes

is

the one that will be of use, not the one left there to burn.

So when the world is on fire with aging & death, you should salvage [your wealth] by giving: what s given is well salvaged.

When you re restrained here
in body, speech,

& awareness;
after death.

when you merit while still alive:
that will be for

your bliss

See also:

SN 1.41; SN III. 19-20; AN VII. 6-7; Khp 8; Iti 22; Hi 60

11158 Vaccha (On Giving)

exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he said to the Blessed One: "Master Gotama, I have heard that Gotama the contemplative says this: a gift be given, and not to others. Only to "Only to me should my disciples should a gift be given, and not to others. Only what
is

Then Vacchagotta the wanderer went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an

given to me bears great fruit, and not what is given to others. Only what is given to my disciples bears great fruit, and not what is given to the disciples of others." Now those who report this: Are they reporting the Master Gotama s actual words, are they not misrepresenting him with what is unfactual, are they answering in line with the Dhamma, so that no one whose think
ing
is

in line with the

Dhamma will have
this:

grounds

for criticizing

them? For
this:

we don t want to misrepresent the Master Gotama."
whoever says

"Vaccha,
"Only

Gotama
be given

the contemplative says

.... gift Only what is given bears great fruit, and not what is given to the my disciples disciples of others," is not reporting my actual words, is misrep resenting me with what is unfactual & untrue. "Vaccha, whoever prevents another from giving a gift cre ates three obstructions, three impediments. Which three? He creates an obstruction to the merit of the giver, an obstruction to

to

me

should a

to

the recipient s gains,

and prior

to that

he undermines and harms

Th rees

his

own
"I

self.

Whoever prevents another from giving

a gift cre

ates these three obstructions, these three impediments. tell you, Vaccha, even if a person throws the rinsings of a

bowl

or a cup into a village pool or pond, thinking, May what ever animals live here feed on this/ that would be a source of
merit, to say nothing of what is given to human beings. But I do say that what is given to a virtuous person is of great fruit, and not

given to an unvirtuous person. And the virtuous has abandoned five factors and is endowed with five. person "Which five has he abandoned? He has abandoned sensual desire ... ill will ... sloth & drowsiness ... restlessness & anxiety ... uncertainty. These are the five factors he has abandoned. And with which five is he endowed? He is endowed with the aggre gate of virtue of one beyond training ... the aggregate of concentration of one beyond training ... the aggregate of dis
so

much what is

cernment of one beyond training ... the aggregate of release of one beyond training ... the aggregate of knowledge & vision of release of one beyond training. These are the five factors with which he is endowed. tell you: What is given to one who has abandoned these five factors and is endowed with these five, bears great fruit.
"I

a herd of cattle, whether black, white, ruddy, brown,
"In

dappled, uniform, or pigeon gray:
if

a bull

is

born
in strength,

tame, enduring,

consummate

& swiftpeople yoke him to burdens,
regardless of his color. In the same way,

wherever one

is

born

among human beings
noble warriors, priests, merchants, workers, outcastes, or scavengers one is tame, with good practices,

if

righteous, consummate in virtue, a speaker of truth, with conscience at heart,

Threes

one

who s abandoned
completed put down

birth

done

death, the celibate life the burden, the task
all

&

fermentation-free,

gone beyond through lack of clinging

dhammas,

unbound:

offerings to this spotless field

bear an abundance of

fruit.

But

fools,

unknowing,
uninformed,

dull,

give gifts outside and don t come near the good. While those who do come near the good regarded as enlightened,

wise

whose

trust in the

One Well-gone

has taken root,
is

established

& firm:

they go or are reborn here in good family. Step by step they reach

to the

world of the devas

Unbinding
:

they

who are wise/
See also:

SN 111.24; AN V.34; AN V.179; AN VII.49; Ud 1117

111.62 Sectarians

"Monks,

there are these three sectarian guilds that

when cross[a

examined, pressed for reasons, & rebuked by wise people even though they may explain otherwise, remain stuck in

doctrine of] inaction. Which three? "There are priests & contemplatives who hold this teaching, hold this view: Whatever a person experiences pleasant, is all caused by what painful, or neither pleasant nor painful

Threes

was done
hold
ences

in the past/ There are priests

&

contemplatives

who

this teaching,

hold

this view:

Whatever a person experi

caused by a supreme being

pleasant, painful, or neither pleasant nor painful is all s act of creation. There are priests

&

is all without cause & without condition. approached the priests & contemplatives who hold whatever a person experiences ... is all caused by what that was done in the past/ I said to them: Is it true that you hold that whatever a person experiences ... is all caused by what was done in the past? Thus asked by me, they admitted, Yes/ Then I said to them, Then in that case, a person is a killer of living beings because of what was done in the past. A person is a thief a harsh speaker a liar a divisive speaker an unchaste ... a holder of malicious idle chatterer greedy wrong views because of what was done in the past/ When one falls back on what was done in the past as being essential, monks, there is no desire, no effort [at the thought], This should be done. This shouldn t be done/ When one can t pin down as a truth or real ity what should & shouldn t be done, one dwells bewildered & unprotected. One cannot righteously refer to oneself as a con templative. This was my first righteous refutation of those priests & contemplative who hold to such teachings, such views. "Having approached the priests & contemplatives who hold that ... whatever a person experiences ... is all caused by a

contemplatives who hold this teaching, hold this view: Whatever a person experiences pleasant, painful, or neither
"Having
...

pleasant nor painful

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

supreme being s act of creation, I said to them: Is it true that is all caused whatever a person experiences you hold that by a supreme being s act of creation? Thus asked by me, they admitted, Yes/ Then I said to them, Then in that case, a person is a killer of living beings because of a supreme being s act of
...
...

creation.

A

person

is

a thief

...

unchaste

...

a liar

...

a divisive

a harsh speaker ... an idle chatterer ... greedy ... mali cious ... a holder of wrong views because of a supreme being s act of creation/ When one falls back on a supreme being s act of creation as being essential, monks, there is no desire, no effort

speaker

...

[at

When

shouldn t be done, one dwells bewildered & unprotected. One cannot righteously refer to oneself as a contemplative. This was

the thought], This should be done. This shouldn t be done/ one can t pin down as a truth or reality what should &

z6

Threes

my second righteous refutation of those priests & contemplative
who hold to such teachings, such views.
"Having

that

...

approached the priests & contemplatives who hold whatever a person experiences ... is all without cause,

without condition/ I said to them: Is it true that you hold that ... whatever a person experiences ... is all without cause, without condition? Thus asked by me, they admitted, Yes/ Then I said to them, Then in that case, a person is a killer of living beings without cause, without condition. A person is a thief ... unchaste ... a liar ... a divisive speaker ... a harsh speaker ... an idle chat terer ... greedy ... malicious ... a holder of wrong views without cause, without condition/ When one falls back on lack of cause and lack of condition as being essential, monks, there is no desire, no effort [at the thought], This should be done. This shouldn t be done/ When one can t pin down as a truth or real ity what should & shouldn t be done, one dwells bewildered & unprotected. One cannot righteously refer to oneself as a con templative. This was my third righteous refutation of those priests & contemplative who hold to such teachings, such views. "These are the three sectarian guilds that when cross-exam ined, pressed for reasons, & rebuked by wise people even though they may explain otherwise, remain stuck in inaction. "But this Dhamma taught by me is unrefuted, undefiled, blameless, not faulted by knowledgeable priests & contempla

tives. And which taught by me is unrefuted, undefiled, blameless, not faulted by knowledgeable priests & contemplatives? There are these six properties is a Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted, undefiled, blameless, not faulted by knowledgeable priests & contemplatives. There are these six media of sensory contact is a Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted, undefiled, blameless, not faulted by knowledgeable priests & contemplatives. There are these eighteen explorations for the intellect is a Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted, undefiled, blameless, not faulted by knowledgeable priests & contemplatives. There are these four noble truths is a Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted, undefiled, blameless, not faulted

Dhamma

by knowledgeable priests
"

& contemplatives.
:

Dhamma taught by me properties" is a unrefuted, undefiled, blameless, not faulted by knowledge able priests contemplatives Thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? These are the six properties: earth-property,
"There

are these six

that

is

&

Th rees

zy

liquid-property, fire-property, wind-property, space-property,7 con There are these six properties is a sciousness-property.
"

Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted, undefiled, blameless, not
faulted
said.
"

by knowledgeable
are these six
that
is

priests

&

contemplatives

:

Thus was

it

And in reference to this was it said.
"There

taught by me

media of sensory contact" is a Dhamma unrefuted, undefiled, blameless, not faulted

by knowledgeable

priests

&

And

in reference to

what was

contemplatives Thus was it said. it said? These are the six media of
:

sensory contact: the eye as a medium of sensory contact, the ear as a medium of sensory contact, the nose as a medium of sensory contact, the tongue as a medium of sensory contact, the body as a medium of sensory contact, the intellect as a medium of sensory contact. "There are these six media of sensory contact" is a

taught by me that is unrefuted, undefiled, blameless, not faulted by knowledgeable priests & contemplatives Thus

Dhamma
was
a
it
"

:

said.

And in reference to this was it said.
are these eighteen explorations for the
intellect"

"There

is

Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted, undefiled, blameless, not faulted by knowledgeable priests & contemplatives Thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? Seeing a form
:

via the eye, one explores a form that can act as the basis for hap piness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for equanimity. Hearing a sound via the ear ... Smelling an aroma via the nose ... Tasting a flavor via the tongue ... Feeling a tactile sensation via the body ... Cognizing an idea via the intellect, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for equanimity. "There are these eighteen explorations for the intellect" is a Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted, undefiled, blameless, not faulted

by knowledgeable
""

priests

&

contemplatives

:

Thus was

it

said.

And in reference to this was it said.

me

There are these four noble truths" is a Dhamma taught by is unrefuted, undefiled, blameless, not faulted by knowledgeable priests & contemplatives Thus was it said. And
that
:

in reference to

what was it said? "Sustained by /clinging to the

six properties, there is

alighting of

an embryo. There being an

Alighting, there is

an name-

&-form. From name-&-form as a requisite condition come the

Th rees
media. From the six sense media as a requisite condi comes contact. From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling. To one experiencing feeling I declare, This is stress/ I
six sense

tion

declare, This is the origination of stress/ I declare, This is the cessation of stress/ I declare, This is the path of practice leading
to the cessation of stress/
is stress, aging sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair are stress; association with what is not loved is stress, separation from what is loved is stress, not getting what is wanted is stress. In short, the five clinging-aggregates are stress. This is called the noble truth of stress. "And what is the noble truth of the origination of stress? From ignorance as a requisite condition come fabrications. From fabrications as a requisite condition comes consciousness. From consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-&-form. From name-&-form as a requisite condition come the six sense media. From the six sense media as a requisite condition comes contact. From contact as a requisite condition comes feeling. From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving.
"And

what

is

the noble truth of stress? Birth

is stress,

death

is stress;

From craving as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance. From clinging /sustenance as a requisite condition comes
becoming.

From becoming as a requisite condition comes birth. From birth as a requisite condition, then old age & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair come into play.
Such

is the origination of this entire mass of stress & suffering. This is called the noble truth of the origination of stress. "And what is the noble truth of the cessation of stress? From the remainderless fading & cessation of that very igno rance comes the cessation of fabrications. From the cessation of fabrications comes the cessation of consciousness. From the cessation of consciousness comes the cessation of

name-&-form.

From the cessation of name-&-form comes the cessation of the six sense media. From the cessation of the six sense media comes the cessa tion of contact. From the cessation of contact comes the cessation of feeling.

Threes

2,9

From the cessation of feeling comes the cessation of craving. From the cessation of craving comes the cessation of cling
ing/sustenance.

From

the cessation of clinging /sustenance

comes the cessa

tion of becoming. From the cessation of

becoming comes the cessation of birth. From the cessation of birth, then old age & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair all cease. Such is the ces sation of this entire mass of stress & suffering.
"This

is

"And

called the noble truth of the cessation of stress. what is the noble truth of the path of practice leading to

the cessation of stress? Just this noble eightfold path: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is called the noble truth of the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress. "There are these four noble truths" is a Dhamma taught by
"

me

unrefuted, undefiled, blameless, not faulted by knowledgeable priests & contemplatives Thus was it said. And
that
is
:

in reference to this

was

it

said."

See also:

DN 2; SN XL1I.8; AN III 101; Ud VI.5-6

III.

66 Kalamas
this discourse is often cited as the
s

Although

Buddha

s

carte

sense of right and wrong, it actually blanche for following one sets a standard much more rigorous than that. Traditions are not to be

own

followed simply because they are traditions. Reports (such as historical accounts or news) are not to be followed simply because the source seems reliable. One s own preferences are not to be followed simply
because they seem logical or resonate with one s feelings. Instead, any view or belief must be tested by the results it yields when put into to guard against the possibility of any bias or limita practice; and
tions in one s understanding of those results they must further be the experience of people who are wise. The ability to checked against

question and test one s beliefs in an appropriate way is called appropri ate attention. The ability to recognize and chose wise people as

mentors

is called having admirable friends. According to Iti 16-17, these are, respectively, the most important internal and external fac tors for attaining the goal of the practice. For further thoughts on how

p
to test

Threes

a belief in practice, see

MN 61, MN 95, AN VII.80, and AN
judge whether another person
is

VIII.53.

see

MN 110, AN IV.192, and AN VIII.54.

For thoughts on how

to

wise,

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One, on a wander ing tour among the Kosalans with a large community of monks, arrived at Kesaputta, a town of the Kalamas. The Kalamas of Kesaputta heard it said, "Gotama the contemplative the son of the Sakyans, having gone forth from the Sakyan clan has arrived at Kesaputta. And of that Master Gotama this fine repu tation has spread: He is indeed a Blessed One, worthy, &
I

conduct, rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge well-gone, a knower of the cosmos, an unexcelled trainer of those persons ready to be tamed, teacher of human divine beings, awakened, blessed. He has made known having real

&

&

through direct knowledge this world with its devas, Maras, & Brahmas, its generations with their contemplatives & priests, their rulers & common people. He has explained the Dhamma admirable in the beginning, admirable in the middle, admirable in the end; has expounded the celibate life both in its
ized
it

particulars
It is

&

in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure. to the Blessed

such a worthy one/" good So the Kalamas of Kesaputta went
to see

One.

On

them bowed down to the Blessed One and sat arrival, to one side. Some of them exchanged courteous greetings with him and, after an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, sat to one side. Some of them sat to one side having saluted him with their hands palm-to-palm over their hearts. Some of them sat to one side having announced their name & clan. Some of them sat to one side in silence. As they were sitting there, the Kalamas of Kesaputta said to the Blessed One, "Lord, there are some priests & contemplatives who come to Kesaputta. They expound & glorify their own doc

some

of

but as for the doctrines of others, they deprecate them, disparage them, show contempt for them, & pull them to pieces. And then other priests & contemplatives come to Kesaputta. They expound & glorify their own doctrines, but as for the doctrines of
trines,

others, they deprecate them, disparage them, show contempt for them, pull them to pieces. They leave us absolutely uncertain

&

&

Which of these venerable priests contemplatives are speaking the truth, and which ones are lying?"
in doubt:

&

Threes

"Of

course you re uncertain, Kalamas. Of course you re in

doubt. When there are reasons for doubt, uncertainty is born.
in this case, Kalamas,

So

don t go by reports, by legends, by tradi tions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probabil This contemplative is our teacher. When ity, or by the thought, know for yourselves that, These qualities are unskillful; you these qualities are blameworthy; these qualities are criticized by

the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to & to suffering then you should abandon them. "What do you think, Kalamas? When greed arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

harm

harm, lord." this greedy person, overcome by greed, his mind pos sessed by greed, kills living beings, takes what is not given, goes after another person s wife, tells lies, and induces others to do
"For

"And

likewise, all of

which

is

for long-term

harm &

suffering."

"Yes, lord."

"Now,

what do you
it
lord."

in a person, does
"For

think, Kalamas? arise for welfare or for

When

aversion arises

harm?"

harm,

"And

this aversive person,

possessed by aversion, kills living beings, takes goes after another person s wife, tells lies, and

overcome by aversion, his mind what is not given,
induces others to
suffering."

do likewise,
"Now,

all

of

which is for long-term harm
think, Kalamas? arise for welfare or for

&

"Yes, lord."

what do you
it

When

delusion arises

in a person, does
"For

harm?"

"And

harm, lord." this deluded person, overcome by delusion, his mind

possessed by delusion, kills living beings, takes what is not given, goes after another person s wife, tells lies, and induces others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term harm & suffering."
"Yes, lord."
"So

what do you

think, Kalamas:

Are these

qualities skillful

or

unskillful?"
"Unskillful,
lord."

"Blameworthy or blameless?"
"Blameworthy,
"Criticized
"Criticized
lord."

by by

the wise or praised the wise, lord."

by the wise?"

Threes

"When

adopted
not?"

&

carried out,

do they lead

to

harm &

to

suffering, or
"When

That

is

how

"So,

adopted & carried out, they lead to harm & to suffering. it appears to as I said, Kalamas: Don t go by reports, by legends, by
us."

traditions,

analogies,
ity,

by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by by agreement through pondering views, by probabil
"This

or

When you know

by the thought,

contemplative

is

our

teacher."

for yourselves that, "These qualities are unskillful; these qualities are blameworthy; these qualities are criticized by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried then you should abandon out, lead to harm & to suffering"

them/ Thus was
"Now,

it

said.

And in reference to this was it said.
t

by legends, by tradi by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probabil ity, or by the thought, This contemplative is our teacher/ When you know for yourselves that, These qualities are skillful; these qualities are blameless; these qualities are praised by the wise;
go by
reports,

Kalamas, don

tions,

these qualities,
to happiness

when adopted &

then you should enter

carried out, lead to welfare remain in them.

&

&

"What do you think, Kalamas? When lack of greed arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?" "For welfare, lord." "And this ungreedy person, not overcome by greed, his

mind not possessed by greed, doesn t kill living beings, take what is not given, go after another person s wife, tell lies, or
induce others to do likewise,
fare
all

of

which

is

for long-term

wel

& happiness."
"Yes, lord."

"What

do you

in a person, does "For welfare,
"And

it

think, Kalamas? When lack of aversion arises arise for welfare or for harm?"

lord."

unaversive person, not overcome by aversion, his mind not possessed by aversion, doesn t kill living beings, take what is not given, go after another person s wife, tell lies, or induce others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term wel
this

fare

& happiness."
"Yes, lord."

"What

do you
does

in a person,

it

think, Kalamas? When lack of delusion arises arise for welfare or for harm?"

Threes

"For

welfare, lord/

7

"And this undeluded person, not overcome by delusion, his mind not possessed by delusion, doesn t kill living beings, take what is not given, go after another person s wife, tell lies, or

induce others to do likewise,
fare

all

of

which

is

for long-term

wel

& happiness."
"Yes, lord."
"So

what do you

think, Kalamas:

Are these

qualities skillful

or

unskillful?"
"Skillful, lord."

"Blameworthy or blameless?"
"Blameless,
"Criticized
lord."

by the wise or praised by the wise?" "Praised by the wise, lord." "When adopted & carried out, do they lead to welfare
not?"

&

to

happiness, or
"When

adopted
is

&

carried out, they lead to welfare
us."

&

to

happiness. That
"So,

as

traditions,

analogies,
ity,

I said, reports, by legends, by by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by by agreement through pondering views, by probabil
"This

how it appears to Kalamas: Don t go by

or

by the thought,

contemplative
"These

is

our

teacher."

When you know
ful;

for yourselves that,

qualities are skill

these qualities are blameless; these qualities are praised by carried out, lead to the wise; these qualities, when adopted remain in welfare & to happiness" then you should enter them. Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said. thus "Now, Kalamas, one who is a disciple of the noble ones

&

&

devoid of greed, devoid of ill will, undeluded, alert, & resolute keeps pervading the first direction [the east] as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth with an awareness imbued with good will. Thus he keeps pervading above, below,

& all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompass ing world with an awareness imbued with good will: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will. "He keeps pervading the first direction as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth with an awareness imbued with
compassion. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing world with an awareness imbued with compassion: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

Threes

"He

keeps pervading the

second direction, the third,

&

first direction as well as the the fourth with an awareness

Thus he keeps pervading above, around, everywhere & in every respect the allbelow, encompassing world with an awareness imbued with

imbued with

&

appreciation.

all

appreciation: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from
hostility, free
"He

from

ill

will.
first

as well as the second with an awareness imbued with equanimity. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing world with an awareness imbued with equanimity: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will. his "Now, Kalamas, one who is a disciple of the noble ones mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure acquires four assurances in the here-&-now: If there is a world after death, if there is the fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then this is the basis by which, with the break-up of the body, after death, I will reappear in a good desti nation, the heavenly world/ This is the first assurance he acquires. But if there is no world after death, if there is no fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then here in the present life I look after myself with ease free from hostility, free from ill will, free from trouble/ This is the second assurance he acquires.

keeps pervading the

direction

direction, the third,

& the fourth

"

"

done through acting, still I have willed no evil for anyone. Having done no evil action, from where will suffering touch me? This is the third assurance he acquires. "But if no evil is done through acting, then I can assume myself
"

If evil is

pure in both respects/ This

the fourth assurance he acquires. his mind thus free "One who is a disciple of the noble ones & pure acquires from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, these four assurances in the here-&-now."
is

One Well-gone. One who is Blessed One. So it is, mind thus free from hostility, a disciple of the noble ones his free from ill will, undefiled, & pure acquires four assurances in the here-&-now:
"So

it is,

O

"

If

there

is

a world after death,

if

there

is

rightly & wrongly done, then break-up of the body, after death, I will reappear in a good desti nation, the heavenly world/ This is the first assurance he acquires.
this is the basis

the fruit of actions by which, with the

Threes

no world after death, if there is no fruit of wrongly done, then here in the present life I look after myself with ease free from hostility, free from ill will, free from trouble/ This is the second assurance he acquires. If evil is done through acting, still I have willed no evil for anyone. Having done no evil action, from where will suffering
"

But

if

there

is

actions rightly

&

"

touch me? This is the third assurance he acquires. But if no evil is done through acting, then I can assume myself pure in both ways/ This is the fourth assurance he acquires. his mind thus free "One who is a disciple of the noble ones
"

pure acquires hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, these four assurances in the here-&-now. "Magnificent, lord! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has the Blessed One through many lines of reasoning made the Dhamma clear. We go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Community of monks. May the Blessed One remember us as lay followers who have gone to him for

from

&

refuge,

from

this

day forward,

for

life."

See also:

SN XX.4; SN XL/I. ft AN III.101; AN XI. 16; Hi 22; Hi 27

11171 The Roots of the Uposatha
I

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in Savatthi at the Eastern Monastery, the palace of Migara s it being the uposatha day at that time mother. Visakha, s mother, went to the Blessed One in the middle of the Migara

Now

day and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As she was sitting there the Blessed One said to her, "Well now, Visakha, why are you coming in the middle of the day?"
"Today

I

am observing the uposatha,

lord."

there are these three uposathas. Which three? The of a cowherd, the uposatha of the Jains, and the uposatha uposatha of the noble ones. "And what is the uposatha of a cowherd? Just as when a
"Visakha,

cowherd returns the
reflects:

cattle to their

owners

in the evening,

Today

the cattle

wandered

to that spot

and

this,

he drank

Th rees
at this spot and that; tomorrow they will wander to that spot and this, will drink at this spot and that ; in the same way, there
is

the case

reflects,

staple this sort of staple food/ He spends the day with an awareness imbued with that covetousness, with that greed. Such is the this uposatha of a uposatha of a cowherd, Visakha. cowherd is undertaken, it is not of great fruit or great benefit, not of great glory or great radiance.

where a certain person observing the uposatha Today I ate this sort of non-staple food and that sort of food. Tomorrow I will eat that sort of non-staple food and

When

the rod with regard to beings who live more than 100 leagues to the east ... more than 100 leagues to the west ... more than 100 leagues to the north ... more than 100 leagues to the south/ Thus they get the disciple to undertake kindness & sym pathy to some beings, but not to others. "On the uposatha day, they get their disciple to undertake the following practice: Here, my good man. Having stripped
off all

is the uposatha of the Jains? There are the concalled the Niganthas (Jains). They get their disciple templatives to undertake the following practice: Here, good man. Lay
"And

what

down

my

your clothing, say
is

anything. Thus there
is mine/"
is

nothing by anything or of nothing by anything or of anything that
this:
"I

am

Yet in spite of that, his parents

know

of

him

that This

our child/ And he knows of them that These are my parents/ His wives & children know of him that This is our husband & father/ And he knows of them that These are my wives & chil
master/

When

dren/ His workers & slaves know of him that This is our And he knows of them that These are my workers & slaves/ Thus at a time when he should be persuaded to under take truthfulness, he is persuaded to undertake falsehood. At the end of the night, he resumes the consumption of his belong ings, even though they aren t given back to him. This counts as stealing, I tell you. Such is the uposatha of the Jains, Visakha.
this
fruit or great benefit,
"And

uposatha of the Jains is undertaken, it is not of great not of great glory or great radiance. what is the uposatha of the noble ones? It is the cleans

ing of the defiled mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? "There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones recol lects the Tathagata, thus: Indeed, the Blessed One is pure and
rightly self-awakened,

consummate

in

knowledge

&

conduct,

Threes

well-gone, an expert with regard to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of divine & human beings, awakened, blessed/ As he is recollecting the Tathagata, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when the head is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the head cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of cosmetic paste & clay & the appropriate human effort. This is how the head is cleansed through the proper technique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Tathagata .... As he is recollecting the Tathagata, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are aban doned. He is thus called a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the Brahma-uposatha. He lives with Brahma [= the Buddha]. It is

owing

to

Brahma

that his

mind

is

calmed, that joy

arises,

and

that whatever defilements there are in his mind are abandoned. This is how the mind is cleansed through the proper technique.

Again, the uposatha of the noble ones] is the cleansing of the mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? "There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recol
"[

lects the

Dhamma, thus: The Dhamma is well-expounded by the Blessed One, to be seen here & now, timeless, inviting verifi cation, pertinent, to be realized by the wise for themselves/ As he is recollecting the Dhamma, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when the body is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the body cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of scouring balls bath powder & the appropriate human how the body is cleansed through the proper tech effort. This is nique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is the case where the disci .... As he is ple of the noble ones recollects the the Dhamma, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; recollecting the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the Dhamma-uposatha. He lives with Dhamma. It is owing to Dhamma that his mind is calmed, that joy arises, and that whatever defilements there are

&

Dhamma

Threes

in his

mind

are abandoned. This

is

how

the

mind

is

cleansed

through the proper technique. Again, the uposatha of the noble ones] is the cleansing of the mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? "There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recol
"[

Sahgha, thus: The Sarigha of the Blessed One s disciples practiced well... who have practiced straight-forwardly...who have practiced methodically... who have practiced masterfully in other words, the four types [of noble disciples] when taken as pairs, the eight when taken as individual types they are the Sahgha of the Blessed One s disciples: worthy of
lects the

who have

gifts,

worthy of

hospitality,

worthy

of offerings,

worthy

of

incomparable field of merit for the world. As he is recollecting the Sahgha, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when clothing is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is clothing cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of salt
respect, the

how

& lye & cow dung & the appropriate human effort. This is clothing is cleansed through the proper technique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper tech nique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the Sarigha .... As he is recollecting the Sahgha, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of the noble ones under taking the Sahgha-uposatha. He lives with the Sahgha. It is owing to the Sahgha that his mind is calmed, that joy arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are abandoned. This is how the mind is cleansed through the proper technique. the cleansing of "[Again, the uposatha of the noble ones] is the mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? "There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recol lects his own virtues, thus: [They are] untorn, unbroken, unspotted, unsplattered, liberating, praised by the wise, untar
earth

nished, conducive to concentration.
his

As he

is

recollecting virtue,

defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when a mirror is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is a mirror cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of oil & ashes & chamois &

mind

is

calmed, and joy

arises; the

Threes

the appropriate human effort. This is how a mirror is cleansed through the proper technique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects his own virtues .... As he is recollecting virtue, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the virtueuposatha. He lives with virtue. It is owing to virtue that his mind is calmed, that joy arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are abandoned. This is how the mind is cleansed through the proper technique. Again, the uposatha of the noble ones] is the cleansing of the mind through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the proper technique? "There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recol lects the devas, thus: There are the Devas of the Four Great Kings, the Devas of the Thirty-three, the Yama Devas, the Contented Devas, the Devas who Delight in Creation, the Devas Who Have Power over the Creations of Others, the Devas of Brahma s retinue, the devas beyond them. Whatever conviction they were endowed with that when falling away from this life they re-arose there, the same sort of conviction is present in me as well. Whatever virtue they were endowed with that when falling away from this life they re-arose there, the same sort of virtue is present in me as well. Whatever learning they
"[

were endowed with that when falling away from this life they re-arose there, the same sort of learning is present in me as well. Whatever generosity they were endowed with that when falling away from this life they re-arose there, the same sort of generos ity is present in me as well. Whatever discernment they were endowed with that when falling away from this life they rearose there, the same sort of discernment is present in me as well/ As he is recollecting the devas, his mind is calmed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned, just as when a gold is
cleansed through the proper technique. And how is gold cleansed through the proper technique? Through the use of a furnace, salt earth, red chalk, a blow-pipe, tongs, & the appropriate human effort. This is how gold is cleansed through the proper technique. In the same way, the defiled mind is cleansed through the proper technique. And how is the defiled mind cleansed through the

Threes

proper technique? There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones recollects the devas .... As he is recollecting the devas, his mind is cleansed, and joy arises; the defilements of his mind are abandoned. He is thus called a disciple of the noble ones undertaking the Deva-uposatha. He lives with the devas. It is owing to the devas that his mind is calmed, that joy arises, and that whatever defilements there are in his mind are abandoned. This is how the mind is cleansed through the proper technique. "Furthermore, the disciple of the noble ones reflects thus: As long as they live, the arahants abandoning the taking of life abstain from the taking of life. They dwell with their rod
laid

down, their knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compas sionate for the welfare of all living beings. Today I too, for this day night abandoning the taking of life abstain from the rod laid down, knife laid taking of life. I dwell with

&

my

my

down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings. By means of this factor I emulate the arahants, and my uposatha will be observed. long as they live, the arahants abandoning the taking of what is not given abstain from taking what is not given. They take only what is given, accept only what is given, live not by stealing but by means of a self that has become pure. Today I too, for this day & night abandoning the taking of what is not abstain from taking what is not given. I take only what given is given, accept only what is given, live not by stealing but by means of a self that has become pure. By means of this factor I emulate the arahants, and my uposatha will be observed. As long as they live, the arahants abandoning
"As
"

uncelibacy

act that is the villager s

live a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual way. Today I too, for this day night

&

abandoning uncelibacy live a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual act that is the villager s way. By means of this
factor

emulate the arahants, and my uposatha will be observed. long as they live, the arahants abandoning false abstain from false speech. They speak the truth, hold to speech the truth, are firm, reliable, no deceivers of the world. Today I
I
"As

too, for this day from false speech.

&
I

night

abandoning

false

speech

abstain

speak the truth, hold to the truth, am firm, no deceiver of the world. By means of this factor I emu reliable, late the arahants, and uposatha will be observed.

my

Thre es

41

"

As long

as they live, the arahants

abstain from fer distilled liquors that cause heedlessness distilled liquors that cause heedlessness. Today I too, mented distilled liquors for this day night abandoning fermented

&

abandoning fermented

&

&

&

abstain from fermented that cause heedlessness distilled that cause heedlessness. By means of this factor I emu liquors late the arahants, and my uposatha will be observed.
as they live, the arahants live on one meal a day, from food at night, refraining from food at the wrong abstaining time of day [from noon until dawn]. Today I too, for this day & night, live on one meal, abstaining from food at night, refraining from food at the wrong time of day. By means of this factor I emulate the arahants, and my uposatha will be observed. As long as they live, the arahants abstain from dancing, singing, music, watching shows, wearing garlands, beautifying themselves with perfumes & cosmetics. Today I too, for this day & night, abstain from dancing, singing, music, watching shows, wearing garlands, beautifying myself with perfumes & cosmet ics. By means of this factor I emulate the arahants, and my uposatha will be observed.
" "

&

As long

"

As long
They
I

imposing
beds.

seats

Today
seats

day & night abandoning high & imposing beds abstain from high & imposing seats & beds. I make a low bed, on a pallet or a spread of straw/
too, for this

as they live, the arahants abandoning high & & beds abstain from high & imposing seats make low beds, on a pallet or a spread of straw.

&

&

is the uposatha of the noble ones, Visakha. When this of the noble ones is undertaken, it is of great fruit uposatha great benefit, of great glory great radiance. And how is it of fruit benefit, of great glory great great great radiance? that one were to exercise kingship, rule, sover "Suppose
"Such

&

&

&

&

&

eignty over these sixteen great lands replete with the seven treasures, i.e., over the Angas, Maghadans, Kasis, Kosalans, Vajjians, Mallas, Cetis, Vamsans, Kurus, Pancalas, Macchas, Surasenas, Assakas, Avantis, Gandharans, & Kambojans: It would not be worth one-sixteenth of this uposatha endowed with eight factors. Why is that? Kingship over human beings is a meager thing when compared with heavenly bliss. human years are equal to one day & night among the "Fifty Devas of the Four Great Kings. Thirty such days & nights make a month. Twelve such months make a year. Five hundred such

42.

Threes

heavenly years constitute the life-span among the Devas of the Four Great Kings. Now, it is possible that a certain man or woman from having observed this uposatha endowed with eight factors on the break-up of the body, after death, might be reborn among the Devas of the Four Great Kings. It was in refer ence to this that it was said, Kingship over human beings is a meager thing when compared with heavenly bliss/ human century is equal to one day & night among the Devas of the Thirty-Three. Thirty such days & nights make a One thousand such heavenly years constitute the lifemonth
"A

...

span among the Devas of the Thirty-three. Now, it is possible that a certain man or woman from having observed this uposatha endowed with eight factors on the break-up of the body, after death, might be reborn among the Devas of the Thirty-three. It

was

in reference to this that
is

it

was

said,

Kingship over

human

beings

meager thing when compared with heavenly bliss/ Two human centuries are equal to one day & night among Two thousand such heavenly years consti the Yama Devas tute the life-span among the Yama Devas "Four human centuries are equal to one day & night among Four thousand such heavenly years con the Contented Devas stitute the life-span among the Contented Devas Eight human centuries is equal to one day & night among the Devas who Delight in Creation Eight thousand such heav constitute the life-span among the Devas who Delight enly years
a
... ...
... ... ...

in Creation

...

Sixteen
the Devas

human centuries are equal to one day & night among

such days

Who Have Power over the Creations of Others. Thirty & nights make a month. Twelve such months make a
the

year. Sixteen

thousand such heavenly years constitute the lifeDevas Who Have Power over the Creations of span among Others. Now, it is possible that a certain man or woman from having observed this uposatha endowed with eight factors on the break-up of the body, after death, might be reborn among the Devas Who Have Power over the Creations of Others. It was in reference to this that it was said, Kingship over human beings is a meager thing when compared with heavenly bliss/"

One should not kill
or take

what

a being is not given;

should not tell a lie or be a drinker of strong drink;

Threes

should should should should

abstain from uncelibacy, the sexual act; not eat at night, the wrong time of day; not wear a garland or use a scent;
sleep

on a

pallet, a

mat spread on

the ground

uposatha has been proclaimed by the Awakened
to lead to the

for this eight-factored

One

end

of suffering

& stress.

& sun, both fair to see, radiance wherever they go, shedding & scattering darkness as they move through space, brighten the sky, illumining the quarters. Within their range is found wealth:
The moon
pearl, crystal, beryl,

lucky-gem, platinum, nugget-gold, & the refined gold called Hataka/ Yet they
like the light of all stars

when compared with the moon
aren
t

worth one sixteenth

of the eight-factored uposatha.

So whoever
is

man or woman

endowed with the virtues

of the eight-factored uposatha,

having done meritorious deeds,
productive of bliss, beyond reproach, goes to the heavenly state.
See also:

AN

III. 2 02;

AN VIL49; AN X.47; AN XL 22

171.72

Channa

the

Wanderer

one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi at Jeta s Grove, Anathapindika s monastery. Then Channa the wan derer 1 went to Ven. Ananda and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he said to Ven. Ananda, "Do you, too, friend Ananda, advocate

On

44

Threes

the abandoning of passion? Do you advocate the abandoning of aversion? Do you advocate the abandoning of delusion?" "Yes, friend, we advocate the abandoning of passion, the the abandoning of delusion." abandoning of aversion, "But, friend Ananda, seeing what drawbacks in passion do you advocate the abandoning of passion? Seeing what draw backs in aversion do you advocate the abandoning of aversion?

&

Seeing what drawbacks in delusion do you advocate the aban

doning of delusion?" person impassioned, his mind bound up, overcome with
"A

passion, wills for his own detriment, wills for the detriment of others, wills for the detriment of both. He also experiences sorrow. But having abandoned passion, he mental stress doesn t will for his own detriment, doesn t will for the detri ment of others, doesn t will for the detriment of both. He doesn t experience mental stress or sorrow.

&

person impassioned, his mind bound up, overcome with passion, engages in bodily misconduct, in verbal misconduct, in mental misconduct. But having abandoned passion, he doesn t engage in bodily misconduct, in verbal misconduct, or in mental
"A

misconduct.
"A

person impassioned, his mind bound up, overcome with

passion, doesn t discern, as it actually is, what is of profit to him self, what is of profit to others, what is of profit to bom. But having

abandoned passion, he discerns, as it actually is, what is of profit to himself, what is of profit to others, what is of profit to both. "Passion, my friend, makes you blind, makes you sightless, makes you ignorant. It brings about the cessation of discern ment, is conducive to trouble, and does not lead to Unbinding. "An aversive person, his mind bound up, overcome with
aversion, wills for his own detriment, wills for the detriment of others, wills for the detriment of both. He also experiences mental stress & sorrow. But having abandoned aversion, he doesn t will for his own detriment, doesn t will for the detri ment of others, doesn t will for the detriment of both. He doesn t experience mental stress or sorrow. "An aversive person, his mind bound up, overcome with aversion, engages in bodily misconduct, in verbal misconduct, in mental misconduct. But having abandoned aversion, he doesn t engage in bodily misconduct, in verbal misconduct, or
in

mental misconduct.

Threes

aversive person, his aversion, doesn t discern, as
"An

it

mind bound up, overcome with actually is, what is of profit to
what

what is of profit to others, what is of profit to both. But abandoned aversion, he discerns, as it actually is, what having
himself,
is

of profit to himself, profit to both.
"Aversion,

what

is

of profit to others,

is

of

my friend, makes you blind, makes you sightless,

makes you
is
"A

ignorant. It brings about the cessation of discern conducive to trouble, and does not lead to Unbinding. ment, deluded person, his mind bound up, overcome with delusion, wills for his own detriment, wills for the detriment of others, wills for the detriment of both. He also experiences mental stress & sorrow. But having abandoned delusion, he doesn t will for his own detriment, doesn t will for the detri ment of others, doesn t will for the detriment of both. He doesn t experience mental stress or sorrow. deluded person, his mind bound up, overcome with delusion, engages in bodily misconduct, in verbal misconduct, in mental misconduct. But having abandoned delusion, he doesn t engage in bodily misconduct, in verbal misconduct, or in mental misconduct. deluded person, his mind bound up, overcome with delusion, doesn t discern, as it actually is, what is of profit to himself, what is of profit to others, what is of profit to both. But having abandoned delusion, he discerns, as it actually is, what
"A

"A

of profit to himself, profit to both.
is
"Delusion,

what

is

of profit to others,
blind,

what

is

of

my
is

friend,

makes you
It

makes you

sight

less,

makes you ignorant.

discernment, Unbinding.
"Seeing

brings about the cessation of conducive to trouble, and does not lead to

these drawbacks in passion we advocate the aban of passion. Seeing these drawbacks in aversion we doning advocate the abandoning of aversion. Seeing these drawbacks in delusion we advocate the abandoning of delusion." "But is there, my friend, a path, is there a way to the aban

doning of that passion, aversion,

& delusion?" &

"Yes, friend, there is a path, there is a way to the aban of that passion, aversion, delusion." doning "And what is that friend, what is that way to the path, of that passion, aversion, delusion?" abandoning

my

my

&

46

Threes

"Just

this

noble eightfold path: right view, right resolve,

right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is the path, this is the 7 way to the abandoning of that passion, aversion, delusion/

&

"It

is

an auspicious path,

my

cious way to the abandoning delusion enough for the sake of needfulness/

friend Ananda, it is an auspi of that passion, aversion,
7

&

NOTE:
in

1.

This

is

not the same Channa as the one mentioned

DN 16 and SN XXII.90.
See also:

SN XXIL2; AN 111.73
fatalists Student

111.73

The

I

have heard that on one occasion Yen. Ananda was staying
at

in

monastery. Then a certain householder, a of the Fatalists (Ajivakas), went to him and, on arrival, disciple having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to Ven. Ananda, "Among us, sir, whose Dhamma

Kosambi

Ghosita

s

well-taught? Who has practiced well in this world? Who in the world is well-gone?" that case, householder, I will question you in return. Answer as you see fit. Now, what do you think: those who teach a Dhamma for the abandoning of passion, for the abandoning of aversion, for the abandoning of delusion is their Dhamma well- taught or not? Or how does this strike you?" those who teach a Dhamma for the abandoning of pas for the abandoning of aversion, for the abandoning of sion,
is
"In

"Sir,

delusion
"And

Dhamma is well-taught. That s how it strikes me/ what do you think, householder: those who have
their

7

practiced for the abandoning of passion, for the abandoning of aversion, for the abandoning of delusion have they practiced well in this world or not? Or how does this strike you?" those who have practiced for the abandoning of passion, for the abandoning of aversion, for the abandoning of delusion they have practiced well in this world. That s how it strikes me." "And what do you think, householder: those whose passion is abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future
"Sir,

Threes

47

arising; those
is

whose aversion
its

is

abandoned

...

whose delusion

root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, of the conditions of existence, not destined for future deprived arising: are they, in this world, well-gone or not? Or how does

abandoned,

this strike
"Sir,

you?"

those whose passion ... aversion ... delusion is aban doned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising:
they, in this world, are well-gone. That s "In this way, householder, you have

how it strikes me/
answered yourself:

abandoning of passion, for the abandoning of aversion, for the abandoning of delusion their Dhamma is well-taught. Those who have practiced for the abandoning of passion, for the abandoning of aversion, for the abandoning of delusion they have practiced well in this
world. Those whose passion ... aversion ... delusion is aban doned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising:
they, in this world, are well-gone/"

Those

who

teach a

Dhamma

for the

amazing, sir. astounding, that there is neither of one s own Dhamma nor deprecation of another s, extolling but just the teaching of the Dhamma in its proper sphere, speak
"How

How

ing to the point without mentioning oneself. "You, venerable sir, teach the Dhamma for the abandoning of passion ... aversion ... delusion. Your Dhamma is well-taught. You have practiced for the abandoning of passion aversion delusion. You have practiced well in this world. Your passion aversion delusion is abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising. You, in this world, are well-gone. "Magnificent, Master Ananda! Magnificent! Just as if he
.

. .

.

.

.

.

. .

. . .

to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has Master Ananda through many lines of reason

were

made the Dhamma clear. I go to the Buddha for refuge, to Dhamma, & to the Community of monks. May Master Ananda remember me as a lay follower who has gone for refuge
ing the

from

this

day forward,

for

life."

See also:

DN 16; AN X.94

48

Threes

III.74TheSakyan

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying among the Sakyans at Kapilavatthu in the Banyan Park. Now at that time the Blessed One had just recovered from being ill, was not long recovered from his illness. Then Mahanama the Sakyan went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: "For a long time I have known the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One that There is knowledge for one who is concen trated, not for one who is not concentrated/ Now, does concentration come first, and knowledge after, or does knowl edge come first, and concentration after? Then the thought occurred to Ven. Ananda, "Here the Blessed One has just recovered from being ill, is not long recov ered from his illness, and yet Mahanama the Sakyan asks him this very deep question. What if I were to take Mahanama the Sakyan to one side and teach him the Dhamma?" So Ven. Ananda, taking Mahanama the Sakyan by the arm, led him to one side and said to him, "Mahanama, the Blessed One has talked both of the virtue of one who is in training [a streamwinner, a once-returner, or a non-returner] and of the virtue of one whose training is complete [an arahant]. He has talked both of the concentration of one who is in training and of the concen tration of one whose training is complete. He has talked both of the discernment of one who is in training and of the discern ment of one whose training is complete. "And what is the virtue of one who is in training? There is the case where a monk is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the
I
7

training rules, seeing danger in the slightest fault. This the virtue of one who is in training.
"And

is

called

is

the case

enters & remains in the & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. With the stilling of directed thought & evaluation, he enters & remains in the second jhana: rap ture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free

what is the concentration of one who is in training? There where a monk quite withdrawn from sensuality, 1 with
unskillful [mental] qualities

drawn from
first

jhana: rapture

Threes

49

from directed thought & evaluation internal assurance. With the fading of rapture he remains in equanimity, mindful & alert, and physically sensitive of pleasure. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding/ With the abandoning of pleasure & pain as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This is called the concentration of one who is in training. "And what is the discernment of one who is in training? There is the case where a monk discerns as it actually is that This
This is the origination of stress ... This is the cessation This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress/ This is called the discernment of one who is in training. "Then there is the disciple of the noble ones thus consum mate in virtue, thus consummate in concentration, thus consummate in discernment who, through the ending of the mental fermentations, enters & remains in the fermentation-free
is stress
...

of stress

...

awareness-release
"In

&

made them manifest for himself right in the here & now. this way, Mahanama, the Blessed One has talked both
the virtue of one

discernment-release, having

known &

of in training and of the virtue of one whose training is complete. He has talked both of the concentra tion of one who is in training and of the concentration of one

who

is

whose training is complete. He has talked both of the discern ment of one who is in training and of the discernment of one whose training is complete/

NOTE:
See also:

1.

For the meaning of sensuality here, see

AN VI.63.

SN XXXV.99; AN V.28; AN IX.36

111.90 Trainings (1)

are these three trainings. Which three? The training in heightened virtue, the training in heightened mind, the training in heightened discernment.
"There

case

what is the training in heightened virtue? There is the where a monk is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accor dance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the
"And

Threes

training rules, seeing danger in the slightest fault. This is called the training in heightened virtue. "And what is the training in heightened mind? There is the where a monk quite withdrawn from sensuality, with case

drawn from

unskillful [mental] qualities

enters

&

remains in

pleasure born from withdrawal, directed thought & evaluation. With the stilling accompanied by
the first jhana: rapture
of directed thought

&

& evaluation, he enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation internal

assurance. With the fading of rapture he remains in equanimity, mindful & alert, and physically sensitive of pleasure. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding/ With the abandoning of pleasure & pain as with the earlier disappear ance of elation & distress he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This is called the training in heightened mind. "And what is the training in heightened discernment? There
is is that This is the cessation of stress ... This is the origination of stress stress ... This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress/ This is called the training in heightened discernment.

the case

where a monk discerns as

it

actually

...

This

is

"These

are the three trainings/

111.91 Trainings
"There

(2)

are these three trainings. Which three? The training in heightened virtue, the training in heightened mind, the training in heightened discernment. "And what is the training in heightened virtue? There is the case where a monk is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accor dance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest fault. This is called

&

the training in heightened virtue. "And what is the training in heightened mind? There is the case where a monk quite withdrawn from sensuality, with drawn from unskillful [mental] qualities enters & remains in

the first jhana: rapture

&

pleasure born from withdrawal,

Threes

accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. With the stilling of directed thought & evaluation, he enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation internal assurance. With the fading of rapture he remains in equanimity, mindful & alert, and physically sensitive of pleasure. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding/ With the abandoning of pleasure & pain as with the earlier disappear ance of elation & distress he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This is called the training in heightened mind.

what is the training in heightened discernment? There where a monk, through the ending of the mental fer mentations, enters & remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release & discernment-release, having known & made them manifest for himself right in the here & now. This is
"And

is

the case

called the training in heightened discernment. "These are the three trainings."

Heightened virtue, heightened mind, heightened discernment:
persistent, firm,
steadfast,

absorbed in jhana,
mindful,

with guarded faculties

you should

practice

them

as in front, so behind; as behind, so in front; as below,

so above; as above, so below; as by day, so by night; as by night, so by day; 1

Th rees

conquering all the directions with limitless concentration.
This is called the practice of training, as well as the pure way of
it,]

life.

[Following you self-awakened in the world,
enlightened,

re called

one

who

s

taken the path
to its end.

With the cessation of sensory consciousness of one released in the stopping of craving, the liberation of awareness of one released in the stopping of craving, is like the unbinding
of a flame. 2

NOTES 1. See SN LI.20
2.

For a discussion of this image, see The Mind Like Fire Unbound.

111.93

Urgent

"There

are these three urgent duties of a farming householder.

Which three? There is the

case

his field well-plowed his field well-plowed

where a farming householder quickly gets & well-harrowed. Having quickly gotten

&

well-harrowed, he quickly plants the
lets in the

seed.

Having quickly planted the seed, he quickly

water

& then lets it out.

Now,

are the three urgent duties of a farming householder. that farming householder doesn t have the power or might [to say:] May my crops spring up today, may the grains appear tomorrow, and may they ripen the next day. But when the time has come, the farming householder s crops spring up, the grains appear, and they ripen. the same way, there are these three urgent duties of a monk. Which three? The undertaking of heightened virtue, the undertaking of heightened mind, the undertaking of heightened
"These
"In

Threes

discernment. These are the three urgent duties of a monk.
that

Now,

power or might [to say:] May my mind be released from fermentations through lack of clinging/ sustenance today or tomorrow or the next day/ But when the time has come, his mind is released from fermentations through lack of clinging /sustenance.
the

monk doesn t have

Thus, monks, you should train yourselves: Strong will be our desire for the undertaking of heightened virtue. Strong will be our desire for the undertaking of heightened mind. Strong will be our desire for the undertaking of heightened discern ment/ That s how you should train yourselves/

III.101

A Salt Crystal
in the general context of the

For a discussion of this discourse

Buddha s

teaching on kamma, see The Wings to Awakening, Section

I/B.

"Monks, for anyone who says, In whatever way a person makes kamma, that is how it is experienced, there is no living of the celibate life, there is no opportunity for the right ending of stress. But for anyone who says, When a person makes

kamma

such such a way, that is how its result is there is the living of the celibate life, there is the experienced, opportunity for the right ending of stress. "There is the case where a trifling evil deed done by a cer tain individual takes him to hell. There is the case where the very same sort of trifling deed done by another individual is experienced in the here & now, and for the most part barely
to

be

felt in

&

appears for a moment.
a trifling evil deed done by what sort of individual him to hell? There is the case where a certain individual is undeveloped in [contemplating] the body, undeveloped in virtue, undeveloped in mind, undeveloped in discernment:
"Now,

takes

restricted, small-hearted, dwelling with suffering. trifling evil deed done by this sort of individual takes him to hell.

A

a trifling evil deed done by what sort of individual is experienced in the here & now, and for the most part barely appears for a moment? There is the case where a certain individual is devel oped in [contemplating] the body, developed in virtue, developed in mind, developed in discernment: unrestricted, large-hearted,
"Now,

Threes

1 dwelling with the immeasurable. A trifling evil deed done by this sort of individual is experienced in the here & now, and for the most part barely appears for a moment. "Suppose that a man were to drop a salt crystal into a small amount of water in a cup. What do you think? Would the water in the cup become salty because of the salt crystal, and unfit to drink?" "Yes, lord. Why is that? There being only a small amount of water in the cup, it would become salty because of the salt crys

tal,

and

unfit to

drink."

suppose that a man were to drop a salt crystal into the River Ganges. What do you think? Would the water in the River Ganges become salty because of the salt crystal, and unfit
"Now

to

drink?"

"No, lord. Why is that? There being a great mass of water in the River Ganges, it would not become salty because of the salt crystal or unfit to drink." the same way, there is the case where a trifling evil deed done by one individual [the first] takes him to hell; and there is the case where the very same sort of trifling deed done by the other individual is experienced in the here now, and for the most part barely appears for a moment. "Now, a trifling evil deed done by what sort of individual takes him to hell? There is the case where a certain individual is undeveloped in [contemplating] the body, undeveloped in virtue, undeveloped in mind, undeveloped in discernment:
"In

&

restricted, small-hearted, dwelling with suffering. trifling evil deed done by this sort of individual takes him to hell.

A

a trifling evil deed done by what sort of individual is experienced in the here & now, and for the most part barely appears for a moment? There is the case where a certain individual is developed in [contemplating] the body, developed in virtue, developed in mind, developed in discernment: unrestricted,
"Now,

trifling evil large-hearted, dwelling with the immeasurable. deed done by this sort of individual is experienced in the here & now, and for the most part barely appears for a moment. "There is the case where a certain person is thrown into jail for half a kahapana, is thrown into jail for a kahapana, is thrown into jail for one hundred kahapanas. And there is the case where another person is not thrown into jail for half a kahapana, is not thrown into jail for a kahapana, is not thrown into jail for one what sort of person is thrown into jail hundred kahapanas.

A

Now

Threes

for half a kahapana ... for one hundred kahapanas? There is the case where a person is poor, of little wealth, of few possessions. This is the sort of person who is thrown into jail for half a kahapana ... for one hundred kahapanas. And what sort of person is not thrown into jail for half a kahapana ... for one hun dred kahapanas? There is the case where a person is wealthy, with many belongings, many possessions. This is the sort of person who is not thrown into jail for half a kahapana ... for one

hundred kahapanas. the same way, there is the case where a trifling evil deed done by one individual takes him to hell; and there is the case where the very same sort of trifling deed done by the other indi vidual is experienced in the here & now, and for the most part barely appears for a moment. "Now, a trifling evil deed done by what sort of individual takes him to hell? There is the case where a certain individual is undeveloped in [contemplating] the body, undeveloped in virtue, undeveloped in mind, undeveloped in discernment:
"In

restricted, small-hearted, dwelling with suffering. trifling evil deed done by this sort of individual takes him to hell.

A

a trifling evil deed done by what sort of individual is experienced in the here & now, and for the most part barely appears for a moment? There is the case where a certain individual is developed in [contemplating] the body, developed in virtue, in mind, developed in discernment: unrestricted, developed large-hearted, dwelling with the immeasurable. trifling evil deed done by this sort of individual is experienced in the here & now, and for the most part barely appears for a moment. s just as when a goat butcher is empowered to beat or bind or slay or treat as he likes a certain person who steals a goat, but is not empowered to beat or bind or slay or treat as he likes another person who steals a goat. Now, when what sort of person has stolen a goat is the goat butcher empowered to beat him or bind him or slay him or treat him as he likes? There is the case where a person is poor, of little wealth, of few possessions. This is the sort of person who, when he has stolen a goat, the goat butcher is empowered to beat or bind or slay or treat as he likes. And when what sort of person has stolen a goat is the goat butcher not empowered to beat him or bind him or slay him or treat him as he likes? There is the case where a person is wealthy, with many belongings, many possessions; a king or a king s minister. This is
"Now,

A

"It

Threes

the sort of person who, when he has stolen a goat, the goat butcher is not empowered to beat or bind or slay or treat as he likes. All he can do is go with his hands clasped before his heart and beg: Please, dear sir, give me a goat or the price of a goat/ the same way, there is the case where a trifling evil deed done by one individual takes him to hell; and there is the case where the very same sort of trifling deed done by the other indi vidual is experienced in the here & now, and for the most part
"In

barely appears for a moment. "Now, a trifling evil deed done by what sort of individual takes him to hell? There is the case where a certain individual is undeveloped in [contemplating] the body, undeveloped in virtue, undeveloped in mind, undeveloped in discernment:
restricted, small-hearted, dwelling with suffering. trifling evil deed done by this sort of individual takes him to hell.

A

a trifling evil deed done by what sort of individual is now, and for the most part barely experienced in the here
"Now,

&

appears for a
is

moment? There

is

the case

where a

certain individual

developed in [contemplating] the body, developed in virtue, developed in mind, developed in discernment: unrestricted,

trifling evil large-hearted, dwelling with the immeasurable. deed done by this sort of individual is experienced in the here & now, and for the most part barely appears for a moment. "Monks, for anyone who says, In whatever way a person

A

makes kamma,
of the celibate

that

is

how
is

it is

experienced/ there
says,

is

no

living

life,

there

no opportunity

for the right

ending

of stress. But for

anyone who
such

When
is

a

person makes
its

kamma

to

be

felt in

&

such a way, that

how
life,

result is
is

experienced/ there is the living of the celibate opportunity for the right ending of stress."

there

the

NOTE:
ANV.27.
See also:

1.

Immeasurable concentration. See

AN

111.66

and

SN XX.4; SN XLII.8; AN XI. 16

111102 The Dirt-washer
"There

grit.

are these gross impurities in gold: dirty sand, gravel, The dirt-washer or his apprentice, having placed [the gold]

&

in a vat,

washes

it

again

& again until he has washed them away.

Threes

"When

he

is

& & again until he has washed them away. again
ties in the gold:

rid of them, there remain the moderate impuri coarse sand fine grit. He washes the gold

"When he is rid of them, there remain the fine impurities in the gold: fine sand black dust. The dirt-washer or his apprentice washes the gold again again until he has washed them away. "When he is rid of them, there remains just the gold dust.

&

&

The goldsmith or his apprentice, having placed it in a crucible, blows on it again & again to blow away the dross. The gold, as long as it has not been blown on again & again to the point where the impurities are blown away, as long as it is not refined & free from dross, is not pliant, malleable, or luminous. It is brit tle and not ready to be worked. But there comes a time when the goldsmith or his apprentice has blown on the gold again & again until the dross is blown away. The gold, having been blown on again & again to the point where the impurities are blown away, is then refined, free from dross, plaint, malleable, & luminous. It is not brittle, and is ready to be worked. Then whatever sort of ornament he has in mind whether a belt, an earring, a necklace,
or a gold chain the gold would serve his purpose. the same way, there are these gross impurities in a
"In

monk

on heightened mind: misconduct in body, speech, & mind. These the monk aware & able by nature abandons, destroys, dispels, wipes out of existence. When he is rid of them, there remain in him the moderate impurities: thoughts of sensuality, ill
intent
will,

& harmfulness. These he abandons, destroys, dispels, wipes out of existence. When he is rid of them there remain in him the

fine impurities: thoughts of his caste, thoughts of his home dis trict, thoughts related to not wanting to be despised. These he

abandons, destroys, dispels, wipes out of existence. "When he is rid of them, there remain only thoughts of the Dhamma. His concentration is neither calm nor refined, it has not yet attained serenity or unity, and is kept in place by the fab rication of forceful restraint. But there comes a time when his

mind grows steady inwardly,
serenity unity, and is tion of forceful restraint.
"And

settles
is

down, grows unified

&

concentrated. His concentration

calm

&

refined, has attained

&

no longer kept

in place

by

the fabrica

mind

to

know &
is

then whichever of the higher knowledges he turns his realize, he can witness them for himself when

ever there

an opening.

Threes

"If

he wants, he wields manifold supranormal powers.

Having been one he becomes many; having been many he becomes one. He appears. He vanishes. He goes unimpeded
through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space. He dives in and out of the earth as if it were water. He walks on water without sinking as if it were dry land. Sitting cross-legged he flies through the air like a winged bird. With his hand he touches and strokes even the sun and moon, so mighty and powerful. He exer cises influence with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening. he wants, he hears by means of the divine ear-element, purified and surpassing the human both kinds of sounds: divine and human, whether near or far. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening. he wants, he knows the awareness of other beings, other individuals, having encompassed it with his own awareness. He discerns a mind with passion as a mind with passion, and a mind without passion as a mind without passion. He discerns a mind with aversion as a mind with aversion, and a mind with out aversion as a mind without aversion. He discerns a mind with delusion as a mind with delusion, and a mind without delusion as a mind without delusion. He discerns a restricted mind as a restricted mind, and a scattered mind as a scattered mind. He discerns an enlarged mind as an enlarged mind, and an unenlarged mind as an unenlarged mind. He discerns an excelled mind [one that is not at the most excellent level] as an excelled mind, and an unexcelled mind as an unexcelled mind. He discerns a concentrated mind as a concentrated mind, and an unconcentrated mind as an unconcentrated mind. He dis cerns a released mind as a released mind, and an unreleased mind as an unreleased mind. He can witness this for himself
"If
"If

whenever there
"If

is an opening. he wants, he recollects his manifold past lives (lit: previous homes), i.e., one birth, two births, three births, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, one hundred, one thousand, one hun dred thousand, many aeons of cosmic contraction, many aeons of cosmic expansion, many aeons of cosmic contraction and expan sion, [recollecting], There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my expe rience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my

Threes

experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of Passing away from that state, I re-arose here/ Thus he my remembers his manifold past lives in their modes and details. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening. he wants, he sees by means of the divine eye, purified
food, such
life.

my

"If

and surpassing the human beings passing away and re-appear ing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma: These beings who were endowed with bad conduct of body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views with the break-up of the body, after death, have re appeared in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. But these beings who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under
the influence of right views with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the good destinations, in the heavenly world/ Thus by means of the divine eye, purified and surpass

ing the

human he sees beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening. he wants, then through the ending of the mental fermen tations, he enters & remains in the fermentation-free awarenessrelease & discernment-release, having known and made them manifest for himself right in the here & now. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening."
"If

See also:

MN 19; Sn LI.20; AN 111.71

III.103

Themes

on heightened mind should attend periodically he should attend periodically to the theme of concentration; he should attend periodically to the theme of uplifted energy; he should attend periodically to the theme of equanimity. If the monk intent on heightened mind were to attend solely to the theme of concentration, it is possible that his mind would tend to laziness. If he were to attend solely to the theme of uplifted energy, it is possible that his mind would tend
"A

monk

intent

to three themes:

60
he were

Threes

to attend solely to the theme of equa that his mind would not be rightly centered nimity, possible for the stopping of the fermentations. But when he attends peri to restlessness. If
it is

odically to the theme of concentration, attends periodically to the theme of uplifted energy, attends periodically to the theme of

equanimity, his mind is pliant, malleable, luminous, & not brit tle. It is rightly centered for the stopping of the fermentations. as if a goldsmith or goldsmith s apprentice were to set "Just a smelter. Having set up the smelter, he would fire the recep up tacle. Having fired the receptacle, he would take hold of some

gold with his tongs and place it in the receptacle. Periodically he would blow on it, periodically sprinkle it with water, periodi cally examine it closely. If he were solely to blow on it, it is possible that the gold would burn up. If he were solely to sprin kle it with water, it is possible that the gold would grow cold. If

he were solely to examine it closely, it is possible that the gold would not come to full perfection. But when he periodically blows on it, periodically sprinkles it with water, periodically examines it closely, the gold becomes pliant, malleable, & lumi nous. It is not brittle, and is ready to be worked. Then whatever sort of ornament he has in mind whether a belt, an earring, a
necklace, or a gold chain the gold would serve his purpose. the same way, a monk intent on heightened mind should attend periodically to three themes: he should attend periodi cally to the theme of concentration; he should attend periodically to the theme of uplifted energy; he should attend periodically to the theme of equanimity. If the monk intent on heightened mind were to attend solely to the theme of concen
"In

tration, it is possible that his mind would tend to laziness. If he were to attend solely to the theme of uplifted energy, it is possi ble that his mind would tend to restlessness. If he were to attend

solely to the theme of equanimity, it is possible that his mind would not be rightly centered for the stopping of the fermenta tions. But when he attends periodically to the theme of concentration, attends periodically to the theme of uplifted energy, attends periodically to the theme of equanimity, his mind is pliant, malleable, luminous, and not brittle. It is rightly

centered for the stopping of the fermentations. "And then whichever of the higher knowledges he turns his mind to know & realize, he can witness them for himself when ever there is an opening.

Threes

he wants, he wields manifold supranormal powers (as in the preceding discourse) .... If he wants, he hears by means of the divine ear-element, purified and surpassing the human both kinds of sounds: divine and human, whether near or far .... If he wants, he knows the awareness of other beings, other it with his own awareness.... individuals, having encompassed If he wants, he recollects his manifold past lives .... If he wants, he sees by means of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the human beings passing away and re-appearing, and he dis cerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma .... If he wants, then through the ending of the mental fermentations, he enters & remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release
"If

for himself right in the here
self

& discernment-release, having known and made them manifest & now. He can witness this for him
whenever there
See also:
is

an opening."

MN 118; MN 140; SN XLVII.8

III.110

The Peak of the Roof

Then Anathapindika the householder went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed to him, sat to one side. As he was
said to him: "Householder, when unprotected, bodily actions are unprotected as well, verbal actions are unprotected as well, mental actions are unprotected as well. When one s bodily actions, verbal actions, mental actions are unprotected, one s bodily actions get soggy, one s verbal actions get soggy, one s mental actions get
sitting there, the Blessed

One

the

mind

is

&

soggy. When one s bodily actions, verbal actions, & mental actions are soggy, one s bodily actions ... verbal actions ... mental actions rot. When one s bodily actions, verbal actions, & mental actions rot, one s death is not auspicious, the mode of one s dying not good. "Just as when a peak-roofed house is poorly roofed: The peak of the roof is unprotected, the roof beams are unprotected, the walls are unprotected. The peak of the roof ... the roof beams ... the walls get soggy. The peak of the roof ... the roof beams the walls then rot. the same way, when the mind is unprotected, bodily actions verbal actions mental actions are unprotected as well
.

. .

"In

. . .

. . .

Threes

.... One s bodily ... verbal ... mental actions get soggy .... One s verbal mental actions rot. When one s bodily actions, bodily verbal actions, & mental actions rot, one s death is not auspicious, the mode of one s dying not good. "Now, when the mind is protected, bodily actions are pro tected as well, verbal actions are protected as well, mental actions are protected as well. When one s bodily actions, verbal actions, & mental actions are protected, one s bodily actions ... verbal actions ... mental actions don t get soggy. When one s bodily actions, verbal actions, & mental actions aren t soggy, one s verbal actions mental actions don t rot. When bodily actions one s bodily actions, verbal actions, & mental actions don t rot, one s death is auspicious, the mode of one s dying is good. as when a peak-roofed house is well roofed: The peak "Just of the roof is protected, the roof beams are protected, the walls are protected. The peak of the roof ... the roof beams ... the the roof beams walls don t get soggy. The peak of the roof the walls don t rot. the same way, when the mind is protected, bodily actions ... verbal actions ... mental actions are protected as well .... One s bodily ... verbal ... mental actions don t get soggy .... verbal mental actions don t rot. When one s One s bodily bodily actions, verbal actions, & mental actions don t rot, one s death is auspicious, the mode of one s dying is good."
. . .
. . . .

. .

.

.

.

. .

.

.

. .

"In

.

.

.

.

.

.

See also:

SN 1115; AN 111.129; Khp 5; Thag LI

III.123 Sagacity
"Monks, there are these three forms of sagacity. Which three? Bodily sagacity, verbal sagacity, & mental sagacity. "And what is bodily sagacity? There is the case where a monk abstains from taking life, from theft, from non-celibacy. This is called bodily sagacity. "And what is verbal sagacity? There is the case where a monk abstains from lying, from divisive tale-bearing, from harsh language, from idle chatter. This is called verbal sagacity. "And what is mental sagacity? There is the case where a monk who with the ending of fermentations enters & remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release & discernment-release,

Threes

having directly known & realized it for himself right in the here & now. This is called mental sagacity. "These, monks, are the three forms of sagacity."

A sage in body, a sage in speech,
a sage in mind, fermentation-free: a sage consummate in sagacity is said to have abandoned

everything
the All.l

NOTE:

1.

See

SN XXXV.23.
Sn 11; Sn
1.3;

See also: Hi 67-68;

Sn

1.12;

Sn

III.ll;

Sn

IV.16;

Sn VJ;

SnV.9

111.126

At Gotamaka Shrine

On one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Vesali at Gotamaka Shrine. There he addressed the monks, "Monks!" lord," the monks responded. The Blessed One said, s through direct knowledge that I
"Yes,
"It

teach the Dhamma, not without direct knowledge. It s with a cause that I teach the Dhamma, not without a cause. It s with miracles that I teach the Dhamma, not without miracles. 1 Because I teach the Dhamma through direct knowledge and not without direct knowledge, because I teach the Dhamma with a cause and not without a cause, because I teach the Dhamma with miracles and not without miracles, there is good reason for

my

enough enough
the

good reason for my admonition. And it is you to be content, enough for you to be gratified, for you to take joy, that the Blessed One is rightly selfawakened, the Dhamma is well-taught by the Blessed One, and
instruction,
for

Community has practiced rightly." That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One s words. And while this explana tion was being given, the ten-thousand fold cosmos quaked.

NOTE:
See also:

1.

See
1

DN 11.

MN

64

Threes

111129 Putrid

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying Varanasi in the Game Refuge at Isipatana. Then early in the morning the Blessed One, having put on his robes and carrying his bowl & outer robe, went into Varanasi for alms. As he was walking for alms near the fig-tree at the cattle yoke, he saw a certain monk whose delight was in what is vain & empty, whose delight was in exterior things, his mindfulness muddled, his alertness lacking, his concentration lacking, his mind gone astray, his faculties uncontrolled. On seeing him, the Blessed One said to him: "Monk, monk, don t let yourself putrefy! On one who lets himself putrefy & stink with the stench of carrion, there s no way that flies won t swarm & attack!" Then the monk admonished with this, the Blessed One s
I

at

admonishment

came

to his senses.

So the Blessed One, having gone for alms in Varanasi, after the meal, returning from his alms round, addressed the monks
[and told them what had happened].

When this was
"What,

said, a certain

What

lord, is putrefaction? are flies?"

monk said What is the

to the Blessed

One, stench of carrion?

"Greed,

rion. Evil, unskillful

putrefy
flies

&

putrefaction. Ill will is the stench of car thoughts are flies. On one who lets himself stink with the stench of carrion, there s no way that

monk,

is

won t swarm & attack.
"On

one whose eyes

& ears

are unguarded,

whose senses
are unrestrained,
flies

resolves

swarm: dependent on passion.
is

The monk who
is far

putrid,

who stinks of the stench of carrion,
from Unbinding.
is

His share

vexation.

Whether he

stays in village or wilderness,

Threes

having gained for himself no
tranquility,

he s surrounded by flies. But those who are consummate
in virtue,

who delight
in discernment
pacified, they sleep in ease.

& calm,

No flies settle on them/
See also:

SN IX. 1; SN IX.11; AN III. 15; Ud

V.5;

Sn IV.7

III.

133 Inscriptions

"Monks, there are these three types of individuals to be found existing in the world. Which three? An individual like an inscription in rock, an individual like an inscription in soil, and an individual like an inscription in water. "And how is an individual like an inscription in rock? There is the case where a certain individual is often angered and his anger stays with him a long time. Just as an inscription in rock is not quickly effaced by wind or water and lasts a long time, in the same way a certain individual is often angered, and his anger stays with him a long time. This is called an individual

like

an inscription in rock. "And how is an individual like an inscription in soil? There is the case where a certain individual is often angered, but his anger doesn t stay with him a long time. Just as an inscription in soil is quickly effaced by wind or water and doesn t last a long
time, in the same way a certain individual is often angered, but his anger doesn t stay with him a long time. This is called an

individual like an inscription in
"And

soil.

an individual like an inscription in water? There is the case where a certain individual when spoken to roughly, spoken to harshly, spoken to in an unpleasing way is nevertheless congenial, companionable, & courteous. Just as an inscription in water immediately disappears and doesn t last a long time, in the same way a certain individual when spoken to roughly, spoken to harshly, spoken to in an unpleasing way
is
is

how

called

nevertheless congenial, companionable, & courteous. This an individual like an inscription in water.

is

66

Threes

"These

are the three types of individuals to be found exist

ing in the

world."

III.

137 The Orderliness of the
or not there
is

Dhamma

"Whether

stands
the
"The

this steadfastness of the

Dhamma:

the arising of Tathagatas, this property Dhamma, this orderliness of All fabrications are inconstant.

that. Directly
it,

Tathagata directly awakens to that, breaks through to awakening & breaking through to that, he declares teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it,
it

makes

plain: All fabrications are inconstant.

"Whether

or not there

erty stands of the
"The

this steadfastness of the

Dhamma:

the arising of Tathagatas, this prop Dhamma, this orderliness All fabrications are stressful.
is

that. Directly
it,

Tathagata directly awakens to that, breaks through to awakening & breaking through to that, he declares teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it,
it

makes

plain: All fabrications are stressful.

"Whether

or not there

erty stands

this steadfastness of the

of the

Dhamma:

the arising of Tathagatas, this prop Dhamma, this orderliness All phenomena are not-self. 1
is

that. Directly
it,

Tathagata directly awakens to that, breaks through to awakening & breaking through to that, he declares teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it,
"The

makes

it

plain: All

phenomena

are

not-self."

NOTE:

1.

The

suttas are inconsistent

on the question

of

whether Unbinding counts as a phenomenon (dhamma). Iti 90, among others, states clearly that it is. Sn V.6 quotes the Buddha as
calling the attainment of the goal the transcending of all phenomena, just as Sn IV.6 and Sn IV.10 state that the arahant has transcended dispassion, said to be the highest phenomenon. If the former defi

nition applies here,

word phenomenon
nor

not-self. If the latter, the inclusive than fabrication) would apply to the non-returner s experience of the Deathless (see IX.36). The arahant s experience of Unbinding would be neither

Unbinding would be
(as

more

AN

self

not-self, as

it

lies

beyond

all

designations (see

DN 15).

See also:

SN XXII.23; SN XXXV.23-24; AN VII.58; Dhp 277-279

Fours

IV.l

Understanding

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying among the Vajjians at Bhanda Village. There he addressed the monks, "Monks!"
I
"Yes, lord,"

the

monks responded.
"It

s because of not understanding The Blessed One said: and not penetrating four things that we have wandered & trans migrated on such a long, long time, you & I. Which four? s because of not understanding and not penetrating noble virtue that we have wandered & transmigrated on such a long, long time, you & I. s because of not understanding and not penetrating noble concentration that we have wandered & transmigrated on such a long, long time, you & I. s because of not understanding and not penetrating noble discernment that we have wandered & transmigrated on such a long, long time, you & I. s because of not understanding and not penetrating noble release that we have wandered & transmigrated on such a long, long time, you & I.
"It
"It "It "It

"But when noble virtue is understood & penetrated, when noble concentration ... noble discernment ... noble release is under stood & penetrated, then craving for becoming is destroyed, the guide to becoming (craving & clinging) is ended, there is now

no

further

becoming."

That

is

what the Blessed One
the Teacher

said.

When the One Well-gone

had

said that, he

said further:

Unexcelled virtue, concentration, discernment, & release: have been understood by Gotama of glorious stature.

Having known them
he taught the

directly,

Dhamma to the monks

68

Fours

the Awakened One, the Teacher who has put an end to suffering & stress, the One with Eyes, 1
totally

unbound.

NOTE:

1.

See

DN 16, note 2.

IV.5 With the Flow
"These four types of people are to be found existing in the world. Which four? The person who goes with the flow, the

person

who

and the one who has crossed firm ground: a brahman.

goes against the flow, the person who stands fast, over, gone beyond, who stands on

"And who is the person who goes with the flow? There is the case where a person indulges in sensuality and does evil deeds. This is called the person who goes with the flow. "And who is the person who goes against the flow? There is the case where a person doesn t indulge in sensuality and doesn t do evil deeds. Even though it may be with pain, even

though

it

may be

with sorrow, even though he

may be
is

his face in tears, he lives the celibate life that is perfect This is called the person who goes against the flow.
"And

& pure.

crying,

who

is

the person

who

stands fast? There

the case

where
ters, is

a person, with the total ending of the first set of five fet due to be reborn [in the Pure Abodes], there to be totally
to return

unbound, never again
the person

from that world. This

is

called

who stands fast. "And who is the person who has crossed over, gone beyond, who stands on firm ground: a brahman? There is the case where

a person, through the ending of fermentations, enters & remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release release of discern known & realized them for himself right ment, having directly in the here & now. This is called the person who has crossed over, gone beyond, who stands on firm ground: a brahman. "These are four types of people to be found existing in the

&

world."

People unrestrained
in sensual passions,

Fours

69

not devoid
of passion,

indulging
they return to birth & aging, again & again seized by craving, going with the flow.
in sensuality:

Thus the enlightened one,
with mindfulness here established,
not indulging
in sensuality

& evil,

though

it

may be with pain,

would abandon sensuality. They call him
one

who goes
against the flow.

Whoever, having abandoned
the five defilements,
is

perfect in training, not destined to fall back, skilled in awareness,

with

faculties

composed:
one

he
In one

s called

who stands fast.

qualities

who, having known, high & low have been destroyed, have gone to their end, do not exist:
a master of knowledge,

He

s called

one

who has

fulfilled the celibate life,

gone

to the

world

s

end, gone

beyond.
See also:

SN XXIL93; Iti 109; Sn 111.12; Sn V

yo

Fours

IV.10 Yokes
there are these four yokes. Which four? The yoke of the yoke sensuality, the yoke of becoming, the yoke of views, of ignorance.
"Monks,

&

"And what is the yoke of sensuality? There is the case where a certain person doesn t discern, as it actually is present, the origi the escape nation, the passing away, the allure, the drawbacks,

&

from

sensuality. When he doesn t discern, as it actually is present,

the origination, the passing away, the allure, the drawbacks, & the escape from sensuality, then with regard to sensual objectshe is obsessed with sensual passion, sensual delight, sensual attraction, sensual infatuation, sensual thirst, sensual fever, sen sual fascination, sensual craving. This is the yoke of sensuality. "And how is there the yoke of becoming? There is the case where a certain person doesn t discern, as it actually is present, the origination, the passing away, the allure, the drawbacks, & the escape from becoming. When he doesn t discern, as it actually is present, the origination, the passing away, the allure, the draw backs, & the escape from becoming, then with regard to states of

becoming

obsessed with becoming-passion, becomingdelight, becoming-attraction, becoming-infatuation, becomingthirst, becoming-fever, becoming-fascination, becoming-craving. This is the yoke of sensuality & the yoke of becoming. "And how is there the yoke of views? There is the case
is

he

certain person doesn t discern, as it actually is present, the origination, the passing away, the allure, the drawbacks, the escape from views. When he doesn t discern, as it actually is present, the origination, the passing away, the allure, the draw backs, & the escape from views, then with regard to views

where a

&

he

is obsessed with view-passion, view-delight, view-attraction, view-infatuation, view-thirst, view-fever, view-fascination, view-craving. This is the yoke of sensuality, the yoke of becoming, & the yoke of views. "And how is there the yoke of ignorance? There is the case

where a

certain person doesn t discern, as it actually is present, the origination, the passing away, the allure, the drawbacks, & the escape from the six sense media. When he doesn t discern, as it actually is present, the origination, the passing away, the allure, the drawbacks, & the escape from the six sense media,

Fours

7

then

he

is

with regard to ignorance concerning the six sense media obsessed with not-knowing. This is the yoke of sensuality,

the yoke of ignorance. the yoke of becoming, the yoke of views, with evil, unskillful mental qualities defiling, "Conjoined leading to further becoming, unhappy, resulting in suffering death one is said not to be stress, and in future birth, aging, at rest from the yoke. "These are the four yokes. "Now, there are these four unyokings. Which four? Unyoking

&

&

&

from sensuality, unyoking from becoming, unyoking from
views,

& unyoking from ignorance.
what
is

the case the origi actually present, the escape nation, the passing away, the allure, the drawbacks, from sensuality. When he discerns, as it actually is present, the the origination, the passing away, the allure, the drawbacks,
"And

unyoking from sensuality? There
it

is

where a

certain person discerns, as

is

&

&

escape from sensuality, then with regard to sensual objects he isn t obsessed with sensual passion, sensual delight, sensual
attraction, sensual infatuation, sensual thirst, sensual fever,

sen

sual fascination, sensual craving. This is unyoking from sensuality. "And how is there unyoking from becoming? There is the

case

certain person discerns, as it actually is present, the the passing away, the allure, the drawbacks, and the origination, escape from becoming. When he discerns, as it actually is present,

where a

the origination, the passing away, the allure, the drawbacks, and the escape from becoming, then with regard to states of becom ing he isn t obsessed with becoming-passion, becoming-delight,

becoming-attraction, becoming-infatuation, becoming-thirst, becoming-fever, becoming-fascination, becoming-craving. This is unyoking from sensuality & unyoking from becoming. "And how is there unyoking from views? There is the case

where a

certain person discerns, as it actually is present, the the origination, the passing away, the allure, the drawbacks, from views. When he discerns, as it actually is present, escape the origination, the passing away, the allure, the drawbacks, the escape from views, then with regard to views he isn t

&

&

obsessed with view-passion, view-delight, view-attraction, view-infatuation, view-thirst, view-fever, view-fascination, view-craving. This is unyoking from sensuality, unyoking from becoming, & unyoking from views.

yz

Fours

"And how is there unyoking from ignorance? There is the case where a certain person discerns, as it actually is present, the origination, the passing away, the allure, the drawbacks, & the escape from the six sense media. When he discerns, as it actually is present, the origination, the passing away, the allure, the drawbacks, and the escape from the six sense media, then with regard to ignorance concerning the six sense media he isn t obsessed with not-knowing This is unyoking from sensu
.

ality,

unyoking from becoming, unyoking from views,

&

unyoking from ignorance. "Disjoined from evil, unskillful mental qualities defiling, leading to further becoming, unhappy, resulting in suffering & one is said to be at stress, and in future birth, aging, & death rest from the yoke.
"These

are the four unyokings.

"Joined

& the yoke of becoming,

with the yoke of sensuality

joined with the yoke of views, surrounded by ignorance, beings go to the wandering-on,

heading
But those

to birth

& death.
entirely

& the yoke of becoming
and are dispassionate toward ignorance, disjoined from all yokes: they their yokes overcome
are sages
indeed."

who comprehend sensuality

who have thrown off the yoke of views

See also:

MN 72; MN 75; AN VI.63; AN X.93; SN XLV.171

IV.19 Off Course

ways of going off course. Which four? One course through desire. One goes off course through aver goes sion. One goes off course through delusion. One goes off course through fear. These are the four ways of going off course."
"There

are these four

off

Fours

75

If

you
aversion, delusion,
fear

through desire,

transgress the

Dhamma,

your honor wanes, as in the dark fortnight, the moon.
"There are these four ways of not going off course. Which four? One doesn t go off course through desire. One doesn t go off course through aversion. One doesn t go off course through delusion. One doesn t go off course through fear. These are the four ways of not going off course."

If

you don

t

through desire,
aversion, delusion, fear the Dhamma, transgress

your honor waxes,
as in the bright fortnight, the moon.

IV.24AtKalaka sPark

On

Kalaka

one occasion the Blessed One was staying in Saketa s park. There he addressed the monks: "Monks!"
the

at

"Yes, lord,"

monks responded.
said:
"Monks,

The Blessed One

whatever in the cosmos

with

its

devas, Maras, & Brahmas, its generations with their contemplatives & is seen, heard, sensed, cog priests, their royalty & common people
nized, attained, sought after, pondered by the intellect That do I know. Whatever in the cosmos with its devas, Maras, Brahmas, its gener

&

ations with their contemplatives common priests, their royalty people is seen, heard, sensed, cognized, attained, sought after, pon dered by the intellect: That I directly know. That has been realized

&

&

by the Tathagata, but in the Tathagata 1 it has not been established. I were to say, I don t know whatever in the cosmos ... is seen, heard, sensed, cognized pondered by the intellect, that
"If
. . .

74

Fours

would be a falsehood in me. If I were to say, I both know and don t know whatever in the cosmos ... is seen, heard, sensed, cog nized pondered by the intellect/ that would be just the same. If I were to say, I neither know nor don t know whatever in the cosmos ... is seen, heard, sensed, cognized pondered by the that would be a fault in me. intellect, "Thus the Tathagata, when seeing what is to be seen, doesn t
.

. .

.

.

.

construe an [object as] seen, doesn t construe an unseen, doesn construe an [object] to-be-seen, doesn t construe a seer.
"When
"When
.

t

When sensing. hearing. what is to be cognized, he doesn t construe an cognizing [object as] cognized, doesn t construe an uncognized, doesn t con strue an [object] to-be-cognized, doesn t construe a cognizer. Thus the Tathagata being the same with regard to all phe nomena that can be seen, heard, sensed, & cognized is Such. And I tell you: There s no other Such higher or more sublime.
. . . . .

"Whatever is

seen or heard or sensed

and fastened onto as true by others, One who is Such among the self-fettered wouldn t further claim to be true or even false.
"Having

where generations
I

seen well in advance that arrow are fastened & hung
I see, that s just

know,

how

it is!

there s nothing of the Tathagata

fastened."

NOTE: 1. Reading tathagate with the Thai edition. See MN 58, note 2.
See also:

MN MN 72; SN XXU.85-86; AN X.81; AN X.93-96;
1;

Ud 1.10; Ud

VIII.l; Iti 112;

Sn

11112;

Sn

IV.3;

Sn

IV.8;

Sn

IV.13;

Sn

V.6

IV.28 The Traditions of the Noble Ones
"These four traditions of the noble ones original, long-stand ing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulterated from the beginning are not open to suspicion, will never be open to sus

picion,

priests.

and are unfaulted by knowledgeable contemplatives & Which four? "There is the case where a monk is content with any old robe cloth at all. He speaks in praise of being content with any old robe cloth at all. He doesn t, for the sake of robe cloth, do anything

Fours

unseemly or inappropriate. Not getting
he uses
it

cloth,

he isn

t

agitated.

unattached to it, uninfatuated, guiltless, Getting cloth, the drawbacks (of attachment to it), and discerning the seeing escape from them. He doesn t, on account of his contentment with any old robe cloth at all, exalt himself or disparage others. In this he is diligent, deft, alert, & mindful. This is said to be a monk standing firm in the ancient, original traditions of the noble ones. "Furthermore, the monk is content with any old almsfood at all. He speaks in praise of being content with any old almsfood at all. He doesn t, for the sake of almsfood, do anything unseemly

Not getting almsfood, he isn t agitated. Getting he uses it unattached to it, uninfatuated, guiltless, almsfood, seeing the drawbacks (of attachment to it), and discerning the escape from them. He doesn t, on account of his contentment with any old almsfood at all, exalt himself or disparage others. In this he is diligent, deft, alert, & mindful. This is said to be a monk
or inappropriate.

standing firm in the ancient, original traditions of the noble ones. "Furthermore, the monk is content with any old lodging at all. He speaks in praise of being content with any old lodging at all. He doesn t, for the sake of lodging, do anything unseemly or
inappropriate. Not getting lodging, he isn t agitated. Getting lodging, he uses it unattached to it, uninfatuated, guiltless, seeing the drawbacks (of attachment to it), and discerning the escape from them. He doesn t, on account of his contentment with any old lodging at all, exalt himself or disparage others. In this he is diligent, deft, alert, & mindful. This is said to be a monk standing firm in the ancient, original traditions of the noble ones. "Furthermore, the monk finds pleasure & delight in devel oping [skillful mental qualities], finds pleasure & delight in

abandoning

[unskillful

mental

qualities].

He doesn

t,

on account

of his pleasure abandoning, exalt delight in developing himself or disparage others. In this he is diligent, deft, alert, mindful. This is said to be a monk standing firm in the ancient,

&

&

&

original traditions of the noble ones. "These are the four traditions of the noble ones

original,

long-standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulter ated from the beginning which are not open to suspicion, will never be open to suspicion, and are unfaulted by knowledge
able contemplatives priests. "And furthermore, a monk endowed with these four traditions of the noble ones, if he lives in the east, conquers displeasure and

&

76

Fours

conquered by displeasure. If he lives in the west ... the north ... the south, he conquers displeasure and isn t conquered by dis pleasure. Why is that? Because the enlightened one endures both
isn
t

pleasure

& displeasure."

This is what the Blessed One said. Having said this, he said further:

Displeasure doesn t conquer the enlightened one. Displeasure doesn t suppress the enlightened one. The enlightened one conquers displeasure because the enlightened one endures it. Having cast away all deeds: Who could obstruct him? Like an ornament of finest gold:

Who is fit to find fault with him?
Even the devas praise him. Even by Brahma he s praised.
See also:

SN XVI.5; AN V.80; AN X.17; Khp 5; Ud 11.10; Thag XVIII

IV.32 The Bonds of Fellowship
are these four grounds for the bonds of fellowship. four? Giving, kind words, beneficial help, consistency. These are the four grounds for the bonds of fellowship."
"There

Which

Giving, kind words, beneficial help, & consistency in the face of events, in line with what s appropriate
in each case, each case. These bonds of fellowship [function] in the world

moving cart. bonds of fellowship were lacking, Now, a mother would not receive the honor & respect owed by her child, nor would a father receive what his child owes him.
if

like the linchpin in a

these

But because the wise show regard
for these

bonds of fellowship,
are praised.

they achieve greatness

and
See also:

AN 11.31-32; AN 11.118; AN VI.12

Fours

77

IV.37

No Falling Away
with four
is

away and

qualities, a monk is incapable of falling right in the presence of Unbinding. Which four? "There is the case where a monk is consummate in virtue, guards the doors to his sense faculties, knows moderation in
"Endowed

eating,

& is devoted to wakefulness.
how
is

"And

a

monk consummate

in virtue? There

is

the

case

where a monk is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accor dance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the
training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults. This monk is consummate in virtue.
"And

is

how a

how does a monk guard the doors to his sense facul There is the case where a monk, on seeing a form with the eye, doesn t grasp at any theme or variations by which if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. He practices with restraint. He guards the faculty of the eye. He achieves restraint with regard to the faculty of the eye. "On hearing a sound with the ear .... "On smelling an aroma with the nose .... "On tasting a flavor with the tongue .... "On feeling a tactile sensation with the body .... "On cognizing an idea with the intellect, he doesn t grasp at theme or variations by which if he were to dwell without any restraint over the faculty of the intellect evil, unskillful quali ties such as greed or distress might assail him. He practices with restraint. He guards the faculty of the intellect. He achieves restraint with regard to the faculty of the intellect. This is how a monk guards the doors to his sense faculties. "And how does a monk know moderation in eating? There
ties?
is

the case

where a monk, considering

it

appropriately, takes his

food not playfully, nor for intoxication, nor for putting on bulk, nor for beautification, but simply for the survival & continuance
of this body, for ending its afflictions, for the support of the celi bate life, thinking, T will destroy old feelings [of hunger] & not create new feelings [from overeating]. Thus I will maintain myself, be blameless, & live in comfort. This is how a monk

knows moderation in

eating.

78

Fours

"And how is a monk devoted to wakefulness? There is the case where a monk during the day, sitting & pacing back & forth, cleanses his mind of any qualities that would hold the mind in check. During the first watch of the night [dusk to 10 p.m.], sitting & pacing back & forth, he cleanses his mind of any

qualities that would hold the mind in check. During the second watch of the night [10 p.m. to 2 a.m.], reclining on his right side, he takes up the lion s posture, one foot placed on top of the other, mindful, alert, with his mind set on getting up [either as soon as he awakens or at a particular time]. During the last watch of the night [2 a.m. to dawn], sitting & pacing back & forth, he cleanses his mind of any qualities that would hold the

mind

in check. This

is

"Endowed

with these four
is

how a monk is devoted to wakefulness. qualities, a monk is incapable of
in virtue,

falling

away and

right in the presence of Unbinding."

The monk established

restrained with regard to the sense faculties, knowing moderation in food,

& devoted to wakefulness:

day & night, untiring, he develops skillful qualities for the attainment of rest from the yoke.

dwelling thus ardently,

The monk delighting in needfulness and seeing danger in heedlessness
is is

incapable of falling away, right in the presence of Unbinding.

See also:

AN IV.113; AN VII.58

IV.41 Concentration
"Monks,

these are the four developments of concentration.

Which four? There is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in the
here

&

now. There

is

when developed &

the development of concentration that,

pursued, leads to the attainment of knowl edge & vision. There is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to mindfulness & alertness. There is the development of concentration that, when developed

& pursued, leads to the ending of the fermentations.

Fours

79

the development of concentration that, when developed pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in the here & now? There is the case where a monk quite withdrawn from enters remains sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities born from withdrawal, in the first jhana: rapture pleasure evaluation. With the stilling accompanied by directed thought of directed thought remains in the evaluation, he enters born of composure, unification second jhana: rapture pleasure of awareness free from directed thought evaluation internal assurance. With the fading of rapture he remains in equanimity,
"And

what

is

&

&

&

&

& &

&

&

mindful & alert, and physically sensitive to pleasure. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding/ With the abandoning of pleasure & pain as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain.
This
is

the development of concentration that, when developed now. pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in the here "And what is the of concentration that, when development

&

&

developed pursued, leads to the attainment of knowledge vision? There is the case where a monk attends to the perception of light and is resolved on the perception of daytime [at any

&

&

hour of the day]. Day

[for him] is the same as night, night is the as day. By means of an awareness open unhampered, he a brightened mind. This is the development of concen develops

same

&

tration that, when developed of knowledge vision.

&

& pursued, leads to the attainment

the development of concentration that, when developed pursued, leads to mindfulness & alertness? There is the case where feelings are known to the monk as they arise, known as they persist, known as they subside. Perceptions are known to him as they arise, known as they persist, known as they subside. Thoughts are known to him as they arise, known as they persist, known as they subside. This is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to
"And

what

is

&

mindfulness
"And

& alertness.

is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the ending of the fermentations? There is the case where a monk remains focused on arising & falling away with reference to the five clinging-aggregates: Such is form, such its origination, such its passing away. Such is

what

8o

Fours

feeling,

such

its

origination, such

its

passing away. Such

is

per

ception, such its origination, such its passing away. Such are fabrications, such their origination, such their passing away. Such is consciousness, such its origination, such its passing away/ This is the development of concentration that, when developed & pursued, leads to the ending of the fermentations. "These are the four developments of concentration. "And it was in connection with this that I stated in Punnaka s Question in the Way to the Far Shore [Sn V.3]:

He who has fathomed
the far
for

& near in the world, whom there is nothing

perturbing in the world his vices evaporated, undesiring, untroubled,
he,
I tell

at peace you, has crossed over birth

& aging/"
See also:

AN 771.74; AN V.28; AN VIII.63; AN 7X.36

7V! 42

Questions

"There are these four ways of answering questions. Which four? There are questions that should be answered categorically

[straightforwardly yes, no, this, that]. There are questions that

should be answered with an analytical (qualified) answer [defining or redefining the terms]. There are questions that should be answered with a counter-question. There are ques tions that should be put aside. These are the four ways of answering questions."
First the categorical

answer, then the qualified, third, the type to be counter-questioned,

& fourth, the one to be set aside.
said to be skilled in the four types of questions:
is

Any monk who knows which is which, in line with the Dhamma,

Fours

81

He

hard to overcome, hard to beat, profound, hard to defeat. knows what s worthwhile

& what s not,
proficient in (recognizing) both, he rejects the worthless,

He

s

grasps the worthwhile. one who has broken through called to what s worthwhile,
enlightened,
wise.

See also:

MN 2; MN 58; MN 63; MN 72; SN 111.24; SN XIL35;
SN
XXII.82;

SN

XIL46;

SN

XXII.85-86;

SN

XLIV.10;

AN 111.73;

AN IV.77; AN IV.173; AN X.93-96
IV.45 Rohitassa

one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi, in Jeta s Grove, Anathapindika s monastery. Then Rohitassa, the son of a deva, in the far extreme of the night, his extreme radi
ance lighting up the entirety of Jeta
s

On

Grove, went to the Blessed

One. On arrival, having bowed down to the Blessed One, he stood to one side. As he was standing there he said to the it Blessed One: possible, lord, by traveling, to know or see or reach a far end of the cosmos where one doesn t take birth, age,
"Is

die,

pass
"I

away or reappear?"
you, friend, that
it isn t possible by traveling to know end of the cosmos where one doesn t take

tell

or see or reach a far
birth, age, die,
"It

pass away, or reappear." amazing, lord, and awesome, how well that has been said by the Blessed One: I tell you, friend, that it isn t possible by traveling to know or see or reach a far end of the cosmos where
is

take birth, age, die, pass away, or reappear. Once I Rohitassa, a student of Bhoja, a powerful skywalker. speed was as fast as that of a strong archer a practiced hand, a practiced sharp-shooter shoot well-trained, stride ing a light arrow across the shadow of a palm tree. stretched as far as the east sea is from the west. To me, endowed with such speed, such a stride, there came the desire: I will go traveling to the end of the cosmos. I with a one-hundred year

one doesn

t

was

a seer

named

My

My

8z

Fours

life,

& defecating, and sleeping to fight off weari but without reaching the end of the cosmos I died along the ness way. So it is amazing, lord, and awesome, how well that has been said by the Blessed One: I tell you, friend, that it isn t possible by
tasting, urinating

ing

a one-hundred year span spent one hundred years travel apart from the time spent on eating, drinking, chewing &

traveling to

know

or see or reach a far
die,

end of the cosmos where
"I

pass away, or reappear/" [When this was said, the Blessed One responded:] tell you, friend, that it isn t possible by traveling to know or see or reach a far end of the cosmos where one doesn t take birth, age, die, pass away, or reappear. But at the same time, I tell you that there is no

one doesn t take birth, age,

making an end
the cosmos. Yet

of suffering
it is

&

stress

without reaching the end of

perception

&

just within this fathom-long body, with its intellect, that I declare that there is the cosmos, the

origination of the cosmos, the cessation of the cosmos, path of practice leading to the cessation of the cosmos."
It s

and the

not to be reached by traveling,
the

end of the cosmos
regardless.

And

it

s

not without reaching

the

end of the cosmos
is

that there

release

from suffering
So, truly, the wise one,

& stress.

an expert with regard to the cosmos, a knower of the end of the cosmos, having fulfilled the celibate life,
calmed,

knowing

the cosmos end, doesn t long for this cosmos or for

any

other.

See also:

DN 11; SN XXXV.82; AN X.95

IV.49 Perversions
"Monks, there are these four perversions of perception, perver sions of mind, perversions of view. Which four? Constant with

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8*5

regard to the inconstant is a perversion of perception, a perver sion of mind, a perversion of view. Tleasant with regard to the stressful .... Self with regard to not-self .... Attractive with regard to the unattractive is a perversion of perception, a perver sion of mind, a perversion of view. These are the four perversions of perception, perversions of mind, perversions of view. "There are these four non-perversions of perception, nonof mind, non-perversions of view. Which four? perversions Inconstant with regard to the inconstant is a non-perversion of perception, a non-perversion of mind, a non-perversion of view. Stressful with regard to the stressful .... Not-self with regard to not-self .... Unattractive with regard to the unattractive is a non-perversion of perception, a non-perversion of mind, a nonperversion of view. These are the four non-perversions of
perception, non-perversions of mind, non-perversions of view."

Perceiving

constancy in the inconstant, pleasure in the stressful,
self in

what

s not-self,

attractiveness in the unattractive,

beings, destroyed by wrong-view, go mad, out of their minds.

Bound

to

Mara

s

yoke,

from the yoke they find no rest. Beings go on to the wandering-on,
leading to birth

& death.

But

when Awakened Ones
arise in the world, bringing light to the world,

they proclaim the Dhamma leading to the stilling of stress. When those with discernment listen,
seeing

they regain their senses, the inconstant as inconstant,

what

the stressful as stressful, s not-self as not-self, the unattractive as unattractive.
all stress

Undertaking right view,
they transcend
See also:

& suffering.

SN IV.19; SN XXII.59; SN XXXV.101; Ud 111.10; Sn 1.11

84

Fours

IV. 55

Living in Tune

Once the Blessed One was staying among the Bhaggas in the Deer Park at Bhesakala Grove, near Crocodile Haunt. Then early in the morning the Blessed One put on his robes and, car rying his bowl and outer robe, went to the home of the householder, Nakula s father. On arrival, he sat down on a seat made ready. Then Nakula s father & Nakula s mother went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As they were sitting there, Nakula s father said to the Blessed One: "Lord, ever since Nakula s mother as a young girl was brought to me [to be my wife] when I was just a young
boy,
I

much

am not conscious of being unfaithful to her even in mind, less in body. We want to see one another not only in the
life

present
since
I

but also in the
s

life

to

come/
One:
"Lord,

And Nakula
as a

mother said

to the Blessed

ever

young girl was brought to Nakula s father [to be his wife] when he was just a young boy, I am not conscious of being unfaithful to him even in mind, much less in body. We want to see
one another not only in the present life but also in the life to come." both husband & wife want to see [The Blessed One said:] one another not only in the present life but also in the life to come, they should be in tune [with each other] in conviction, in tune in virtue, in tune in generosity, and in tune in discernment. Then they will see one another not only in the present life but
"If

also in the

life

to

come."

Husband

& wife, both of them

having conviction, being responsive, being restrained,
living

by the Dhamma,

addressing each other with loving words: they benefit in manifold ways. To them comes bliss. Their enemies are dejected when both are in tune in virtue. Having followed the Dhamma here in this world,

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both in tune
they delight in the
in precepts practices, world of the devas,

&

enjoying the pleasures they desire.
See also:

AN VL16

IV.62 Debtless

Then Anathapindika the householder went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there the Blessed One said to him: "There are these four kinds of bliss that can be attained in the proper season, on the proper occasions, by a householder partaking of sensuality. Which four? The bliss of having, the bliss of [making use of]
wealth, the bliss of debtlessness, the bliss of blamelessness. "And what is the bliss of having? There is the case where the son of a good family has wealth earned through his efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat of his brow, righteous wealth righteously

gained.
efforts

and

When he thinks, I have wealth earned through my & enterprise, amassed through the strength of my arm, piled up through the sweat of my brow, righteous wealth

righteously gained/ he experiences bliss, he experiences joy. This is called the bliss of having. "And what is the bliss of [making use of] wealth? There is the case where the son of a good family, using the wealth earned

through his efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat of his brow, right eous wealth righteously gained, partakes of his wealth and makes merit. When he thinks, Using the wealth earned through my efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of my arm, and piled up through the sweat of my brow, righteous wealth righteously gained, I partake of wealth and make merit/ he experiences bliss, he experiences joy. This is called the bliss of [making use of] wealth. "And what is the bliss of debtlessness? There is the case where the son of a good family owes no debt, great or small, to anyone at all. When he thinks, I owe no debt, great or small, to anyone at all/ he experiences bliss, he experiences joy. This is
called the bliss of debtlessness.

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Fours

"And what is the bliss of blamelessness? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones is endowed with blameless bodily kamma, blameless verbal karnma, blameless mental kamma. When he thinks, 1 am endowed with blameless bodily kamma, blameless verbal kamma, blameless mental kamma/ he experiences bliss, he experiences joy. This is called the bliss of blamelessness. "These are the four kinds of bliss that can be attained in the proper season, on the proper occasions, by a householder partaking of sensuality/

Knowing

the bliss of debtlessness,

& recollecting the bliss of having,

enjoying the bliss of wealth, the mortal then sees clearly with discernment.

Seeing clearly

the wise one he knows both sides:

worth one sixteenth-sixteenth
that these are not

of the bliss of blamelessness.

See also:

SN 111.19; AN V.41; AN VI.45; AN VII.6-7; AN V1II.54

IV.67 (Bitten) by a Snake
one of the few protective charms mentioned in the Pali specifically allowed by the Buddha to the monks (another charm, also allowed to the monks, is contained in 32). Note that the power of the charm is said to come, not from the words, but from the mind of good will with which they are said. It thus differs from charms taught in later forms of Buddhism, where the words them
This
is

Canon and

DN

selves are said to contain power.

On

Jeta s

one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi in Grove, Anathapindika s monastery. Now, at that time in Savatthi a certain monk had died after having been bitten by a

Then a large number of monks went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As they were sitting there they said to him, "Lord, just now in Savatthi a certain monk died after having been bitten by a snake/
snake.

Fours

87

"Then it s certain, monks, that that monk didn t suffuse the four royal snake lineages with a mind of good will. For if he had suffused the four royal snake lineages with a mind of good will, he would not have died after having been bitten by a snake. Which four? The Virupakkha royal snake lineage, 1 the Erapatha royal snake lineage, the Chabyaputta royal snake lineage, the

Dark Gotamaka royal snake lineage. It s certain that that monk didn t suffuse these four royal snake lineages with a mind of good will. For if he had suffused these four royal snake lineages with a mind of good will, he would not have died after having been bitten by a snake. I allow you, monks, to suffuse these four royal snake lineages with a mind of good will for the sake of
self-protection, self-guarding, self-preservation."
I

have good will for good will for good will for good will for

the Virupakkhas, the Erapathas, the Chabyaputtas, the Dark Gotamakas.

I

have good will good will good will good will

for footless beings, for two-footed beings, for four-footed beings, for many-footed beings.

May footless beings May two-footed beings May four-footed beings May many-footed beings May all creatures,
all

do me no harm. do me no harm. do me no harm. do me no harm.

breathing things, all beings each & every one

meet with good fortune. none of them come to any evil. May
Limitless is the Buddha, limitless the Dhamma, limitless the Sahgha. There is a limit to creeping things: snakes, scorpions, centipedes,
spiders, lizards,
I

& rats.

have made I have made

this safeguard, this protection.

88

Fours

May the beings depart.
I

pay homage
One,

to the Blessed

homage
to the

seven

2 rightly self-awakened ones.

NOTES
1. The Virupakkhas are the chiefs of the nagas, associated with the western quarter (see DN 20). The other royal lineages of snakes are nowhere else mentioned in the Pali Canon. The commentary to this discourse doesn t identify them. 2. The seven most recent Buddhas, including Buddha, are mentioned in DN 14 & DN 32: Vipassin, Sikhin, Vessabhu, Kakusandha, Konagamana, Kassapa, and Gotama. It s noteworthy that the concept of the seven Buddhas is associated with protective
"our"

charms. For example, the heart of the charm given in

DN 32 is this:

Homage to Vipassin, possessed of Eyes & splendor. Homage to Sikhin, sympathetic to all beings. Homage to Vessabhu, cleansed, austere. Homage to Kakusandha, crusher of Mara s host. Homage to Konagamana, the Brahman who lived
Homage Homage
the life perfected. to Kassapa, entirely released. to Angirasa [Gotama],

splendid son of the Sakyans,

who taught this Dhamma:
the dispelling of
all stress

& pain.

Those unbound in the world, who have seen things as they

are,

great ones of gentle speech, thoroughly mature, even they pay homage to Gotama, the benefit of human & heavenly beings,
in knowledge conduct, the great one, thoroughly mature. revere the Buddha Gotama, consummate in knowledge conduct.

consummate

&

We

&

See also:

AN XI.l; Khp 6; Khp 9;

Iti

27

Fours

89

IV. 73

A Person of Integrity

a person endowed with these four qualities can be a person of no integrity/ Which four? "There is the case where a person of no integrity, when unasked, reveals another person s bad points, to say nothing of when asked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with ques tions, he is one who speaks of another person s bad points in full & in detail, without omission, without holding back. Of this person you may know, This venerable one is a person of no integrity/ "Then again, a person of no integrity, when asked, doesn t reveal another person s good points, to say nothing of when
"Monks,

known as

unasked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with ques tions, he is one who speaks of another person s good points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, This venerable one is a person of no integrity/ "Then again, a person of no integrity, when asked, doesn t reveal his own bad points, to say nothing of when unasked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own bad points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, "This venerable one is a person of no integrity/ "Then a person of no integrity, when unasked, reveals again, his own good points, to say nothing of when asked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own good points in full & in detail, without omis sions, without holding back. Of this person you may know, This venerable one is a person of no integrity/ person endowed with these four qualities can be known as a person of no integrity/ "Now, a person endowed with these four qualities can be known as a person of integrity/ Which four? "There is the case where a person of integrity, when asked, doesn t reveal another person s bad points, to say nothing of when unasked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of another person s bad points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, This venerable one is a person of integrity/ "Then again, a person of integrity, when unasked, reveals another person s good points, to say nothing of when asked.
"A

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Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of another person s good points in full & in detail, without omissions, without holding back. Of this person you may know, This venerable one is a person of integrity.
his
"Then again, a person of integrity, when unasked, reveals own bad points, to say nothing of when asked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own bad points in full & in detail, without omis sions, without holding back. Of this person you may know,

is a person of integrity. a person of integrity, when asked, doesn t again, reveal his own good points, to say nothing of when unasked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own good points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, This venerable one is a person of integrity. person endowed with these four qualities can be known as a person of integrity.
"Then
"A
"

This venerable one

See also:

MN 110; AN 11.31-32

IV. 77 Inconceivable
"There are these four inconceivables that are not to be conjec tured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about them. Which four? "The Buddha-range of the Buddhas [i.e., the range of

powers a Buddha develops as a result of becoming a Buddha] is an inconceivable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about it. "The jhana-range of a person in jhana [i.e., the range of that one may obtain while absorbed in jhana] .... powers "The [mechanism and precise working out of the] results of

kamma

....

"Conjecture about [the origin, etc., of] the world is an incon ceivable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about it. "These are the four inconceivables that are not to be conjec

tured about, that

would bring madness

&

vexation to anyone

who conjectured about them."

Fours

91

IV.79 Trade

Then Yen. Sariputta went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there
he said to the Blessed One,
"What is

the reason, lord,

what

is

the

cause why a certain trade, when engaged in by some people, turns out a failure? What is the reason, what is the cause why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out not as intended? What is the reason, what is the cause why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out as intended? What is the reason, what is the cause why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out better than intended?"
is the case, Sariputta, where a certain person, having to a priest or contemplative, makes him an offer: Tell me, sir, gone what you need in terms of the [four] requisites/ But he doesn t give what he offered. If he passes away from there and comes
"There

here, then
"Then

whatever trade he engages
there
is

in, it

turns out a failure.

where a certain person, having gone to a priest or contemplative, makes him an offer: Tell me, sir, what you need in terms of the [four] requisites/ But he gives him something other than what he intended by the offer. If he passes away from there and comes here, then whatever trade he
the case

engages

turns out not as intended. is the case where a certain person, having gone to a priest or contemplative, makes him an offer: Tell me, sir, what you need in terms of the [four] requisites/ He gives him what he intended by the offer. If he passes away from there and comes here, then whatever trade he engages in, it turns out as intended. "Then there is the case where a certain person, having gone to a priest or contemplative, makes him an offer: Tell me, sir,
in, it
"Then

there

what you need in terms of the [four] requisites/ He gives him more than what he intended by the offer. If he passes away from there and comes here, then whatever trade he engages in, it
turns out better than intended. "This is the reason, Sariputta, this
trade,
is

the cause

why

a certain

by some people, turns out a failure; why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out not as intended; why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out as intended; why the same sort of trade,
in

when engaged

when engaged in by other people, turns out better than intended."

qi

Fours

IV. 8 5

Darkness

are these four types of people to be found existing in the Which four? One in darkness who is headed for dark ness, one in darkness who is headed for light, one in light who
"There

world.
is

and one in light who is headed for light. one the type of person in darkness who is headed for darkness? There is the case where a person is born into a lowly family the family of a scavenger, a hunter, a basket-weaver, a wheelwright, or a sweeper a family that is poor, with little food or drink, living in hardship, where food & clothing are hard to come by. And he is ugly, misshapen, stunted, & sickly: half-blind or deformed or lame or crippled. He doesn t receive any [gifts of] food, drink, clothing, or vehi cles; garlands, perfumes, or ointments; bedding, shelter, or
headed
"And

for darkness,

how

is

lamps.

He

engages in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct,

&

mental misconduct. Having engaged in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct, he on the break-up
of the body, after death reappears in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. This is the type of person in darkness who is headed for darkness.
"And

how is one the type of person in darkness who is headed
There

is the case where a person is born into a lower class family the family of a scavenger, a hunter, a basket-weaver, a wheelwright, or a sweeper a family that is poor, with little food or drink, living in hardship, where food & clothing are hard to come by. And he is ugly, misshapen, stunted, & sickly: half-blind or deformed or lame or crippled. He doesn t receive any [gifts of] food, drink, clothing, or vehicles; garlands, perfumes, or oint ments; bedding, shelter, or lamps. He engages in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, & good mental conduct. Having engaged in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, & good mental conduct, he on the break-up of the body, after death reappears in the good destination, the heavenly world. This is

for light?

the type of person in darkness who is headed for light. "And how is one the type of person in light who is headed for darkness? There is the case where a person is born into an upper class family a noble warrior family, a priestly family, a prosperous householder family a family that is rich, with much wealth, with many possessions, with a great deal of money, a

Fours

great many accoutrements of wealth, a great many commodities. And he is well-built, handsome, extremely inspiring, endowed with a lotus-like complexion. He receives [gifts of] food, drink,
clothing,
shelter,

& vehicles; garlands, perfumes, & ointments; bedding, & lamps. He engages in bodily misconduct, verbal mis conduct, & mental misconduct. Having engaged in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct, he on
the break-up of the body, after death reappears in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. This is the type of person in light who is headed for darkness. "And how is one the type of person in light who is headed for There is the case where a person is born into an upper class light? family a noble warrior family, a priestly family, a prosperous householder family a family that is rich, with much wealth, with many possessions, with a great deal of money, a great many accou trements of wealth, a great many commodities. And he is well-built,
inspiring, endowed with a lotus-like com receives [gifts of] food, drink, clothing, vehicles; plexion. ointments; bedding, shelter, garlands, perfumes, lamps. He in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, engages good mental conduct. Having engaged in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, good mental conduct, he on the break-up of the

handsome, extremely

He

&

&

&

&

&

body, after
world. This
"These

death
is

reappears in the good destination, the heavenly

the type of person in light who is headed for light. are four types of people to be found existing in the

world/
See also:

MN 135; AN VII.6-7; AN X.176
& Insight)

IV.94 Concentration (Tranquility
"Monks,

these four types of people are to be found existing in
is

world.

Which four?
the case of the person

"There

who

has attained internal

tranquility of awareness, but not insight into phenomena through heightened discernment. There is the case of the person who has attained insight into phenomena through heightened discernment, but not internal tranquility of awareness. There is the case of the person who has attained neither internal tranquil ity of awareness nor insight into phenomena through heightened

94

Tours

discernment. And then there is the case of the person who has attained both internal tranquility of awareness & insight into phenomena through heightened discernment. "The person who has attained internal tranquility of aware ness, but not insight into phenomena through heightened discernment, should approach a person who has attained insight into phenomena through heightened discernment and ask him: How should fabrications be regarded? How should they be investigated? How should they be seen with insight? The other will answer in line with what he has seen & experienced: Fabrications should be regarded in this way. Fabrications should be investigated in this way. Fabrications should be seen in this
7

way with

who

insight/ Then eventually he [the first] will become one has attained both internal tranquility of awareness & insight into phenomena through heightened discernment. for the person who has attained insight into phenomena through heightened discernment, but not internal tranquility of awareness, he should approach a person who has attained inter nal tranquility of awareness... and ask him, How should the mind be steadied? How should it be made to settle down? How should it be unified? How should it be concentrated? The other will answer in line with what he has seen & experienced: The mind should be steadied in this way. The mind should be made to settle down in this way. The mind should be unified in this way. The mind should be concentrated in this way/ Then even tually he [the first] will become one who has attained both internal tranquility of awareness & insight into phenomena through heightened discernment. for the person who has attained neither internal tran quility of awareness nor insight into phenomena through heightened discernment, he should approach a person who has attained both internal tranquility of awareness & insight into phenomena through heightened discernment... and ask him, How should the mind be steadied? How should it be made to settle down? How should it be unified? How should it be con centrated? How should fabrications be regarded? How should they be investigated? How should they be seen with insight? The other will answer in line with what he has seen & experi enced: The mind should be steadied in this way. The mind should be made to settle down in this way. The mind should be unified in this way. The mind should be concentrated in this
"As

"As

Fours

way. Fabrications should be regarded in this way. Fabrications should be investigated in this way. Fabrications should be seen in this way with insight/ Then eventually he [the first] will become one who has attained both internal tranquility of aware ness & insight into phenomena through heightened discernment. "As for the person who has attained both internal tranquil of awareness & insight into phenomena through heightened ity

discernment, his duty is to make an effort in establishing those very same skillful qualities to a higher degree ( tuning ) for the ending of the fermentations. "These are four types of people to be found existing in the
world."

See also:

MN 149; SN XXXV.204; AN 1129-30; AN IV.l 70; AN X.71

IV.95 The Firebrand
"Monks, these four types of people are to be found existing in the world. Which four? The one who practices neither for

his/her

own benefit nor for that of others. The one who practices but not for his/her own. The one who for his/her own benefit but not for that of others. The practices one who practices for his/her own benefit and for that of others.
for the benefit of others

as a firebrand from a funeral pyre burning at both covered with excrement in the middle is used as fuel nei ends, ther in a village nor in the wilderness: I tell you that this is a simile for the person who practices neither for his/her own ben efit nor for that of others. The person who practices for the benefit of others but not for his/her own is the higher & more refined of these two. The person who practices for his/her own benefit but not for that of others is the highest & most refined of these three. The person who practices for his/her own benefit
"Just

and for that of others is, of these four, the foremost, the chief, the most outstanding, the highest, & supreme. Just as from a cow comes milk; from milk, curds; from curds, butter; from butter, ghee; from ghee, the skimmings of ghee; and of these, the skim mings of ghee are reckoned the foremost in the same way, of these four, the person who practices for his/her own benefit and for that of other is the foremost, the chief, the most outstanding,
the highest,

& supreme.

ours

"These

are four types of people to be found existing in the

world."

See also

AN V.20; AN VIL64; Hi 91

IV.96 The Subduing of Passion
"Monks, these four types of people are to be found existing in the world. Which four? The one who practices for his/her own benefit but not for that of others. The one who practices for the benefit of others but not for his/her own. The one who practices neither for his/her own benefit nor for that of others. The one who practices for his/her own benefit and for that of others. "And who is the person who practices for his/her own bene fit but not for that of others? There is the case where a certain person practices for the subduing of passion within him /herself but doesn t encourage others in the subduing of passion; prac tices for the subduing of aversion within him /herself but doesn t encourage others in the subduing of aversion; practices for the subduing of delusion within him /herself but doesn t encourage others in the subduing of delusion. Such is the person who prac tices for his/her own benefit but not for that of others. "And who is the person who practices for the benefit of others but not for his/her own? There is the case where a cer tain person doesn t practice for the subduing of passion within him/herself but encourages others in the subduing of passion; he/she doesn t practice for the subduing of aversion within him /her self but encourages others in the subduing of aversion; he/she doesn t practice for the subduing of delusion within him /herself but encourages others in the subduing of delusion. Such is the person who practices for the benefit of others but not

for his/her
"And

own.
is

practices neither for his/her is the case where a cer tain person doesn t practice for the subduing of passion within him /herself and doesn t encourage others in the subduing of

who

the person

who

own benefit nor

for that of others?

There

passion; he/she doesn t practice for the subduing of aversion within him /herself and doesn t encourage others in the subdu ing of aversion; he/she doesn t practice for the subduing of delusion within him/herself and doesn t encourage others in the

Tours

97

subduing of delusion. Such is the person who practices neither own benefit nor for that of others. "And who is the person who practices for his/her own ben efit and for that of others? There is the case where a certain
for his/her

person practices for the subduing of passion within him /herself and encourages others in the subduing of passion; practices for the subduing of aversion within him /herself and encourages
others in the subduing of aversion; practices for the subduing of delusion within him /her self and encourages others in the sub duing of delusion. Such is the person who practices for his/her own benefit and for that of others. "These are four types of people to be found existing in the
world."

See also:

AN V.20

IV.102 Thunderheads
"There

that thunders but
der,

are these four types of thunderheads. Which four? One doesn t rain, one that rains but doesn t thun
rains.

rains, and one that both There are these four types of thunderheads. the same way, these four types of persons resembling thunderheads are to be found existing in the world. Which four? The one that thunders but doesn t rain, the one that rains but doesn t thunder, the one that neither thunders nor rains, and the one that both thunders and rains. "And how is one the type of person who thunders but doesn t rain? There is the case where a person has mastered the Dhamma: dialogues, narratives of mixed prose and verse, explanations, verses, spontaneous exclamations, quotations,

one that neither thunders nor

thunders and
"In

birth stories,

amazing events, question

&

earliest classifications of the

s teachings]. Yet discern, as it actually is present, that This is stress.

Buddha

answer sessions [the he doesn t He doesn t

actually is present, that This is the origination of discern, as it actually is present, that This is the cessation of stress. He doesn t discern, as it actually is pre sent, that This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of
discern, as
stress.
it

He doesn t

stress.

This

is

the type of person

who thunders but doesn t rain.

g8
This type of person, I ders but doesn t rain.
"And

lours

tell

you,

is like

the thunderhead that thun

one the type of person who rains but doesn t the case where a person has not mastered the Dhamma: dialogues question & answer sessions. Yet he does

how

is

thunder? There

is

...

discern, as it actually is present, that This is stress. He discerns, as it actually is present, that This is the origination of stress. He discerns, as it actually is present, that This is the cessation of stress. He discerns, as it actually is present, that This is the path

of practice leading to the cessation of stress. This is the type of person who rains but doesn t thunder. This type of person, I tell you, is like the thunderhead that rains but doesn t thunder.
"And

how is one the type of person who neither thunders nor
is

rains? There

the case
...

Dhamma:
discern, as

dialogues
it

where a person has not mastered the question & answer sessions. He doesn t

actually is present, that This is stress ... This is the of stress ... This is the cessation of stress ... This is the origination path of practice leading to the cessation of stress. This is the type

neither thunders nor rains. This type of person, I the thunderhead that neither thunders nor rains. you, "And how is one the type of person who both thunders and rains? There is the case where a person has mastered the
of person
tell

who

is like

Dhamma:

question & answer sessions. He discerns, present, that This is stress ... This is the origina ... This is the cessation of stress ... This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress. This is the type of person who both thunders and rains. This type of person, I tell you, is like the thunderhead that both thunders and rains. "These are the four types of people to be found existing in the world."

dialogues
is

...

as it actually tion of stress

See also:

MN 95; AN X.24

IV.lll Kesin the Horse Trainer

Then Kesin
arrival,

went to the Blessed One and, on bowed down, sat to one side. As he was sitting having Kesin, are a trained man, there, the Blessed One said to him:
the horse trainer
"You,

a trainer of tamable horses.

How do you train a tamable

horse?"

Fours

"Lord, I train a tamable horse [sometimes] with gentleness, [sometimes] with harshness, [sometimes] with both gentleness & harshness/ "And if a tamable horse doesn t submit either to a mild training or to a harsh training or to a mild & harsh training,

Kesin,
"If

what do you

do?"

a tamable horse doesn t submit either to a mild training or to a harsh training or to a mild and harsh training, lord, then I kill it. Why is that? [I think:] Don t let this be a disgrace to my lineage of teachers/ But the Blessed One, lord, is the unexcelled do you train a tamable person?" trainer of tamable people. "Kesin, I train a tamable person [sometimes] with gentle

How

ness, [sometimes] with harshness, [sometimes] with both gentleness & harshness. using gentleness, [I teach:] Such is good bodily conduct. Such is the result of good bodily conduct. Such is good verbal conduct. Such is the result of good verbal conduct. Such is good mental conduct. Such is the result of good mental conduct. Such are the devas. Such are human beings/
"In

Such

using harshness, [I teach:] Such is bodily misconduct. the result of bodily misconduct. Such is verbal miscon duct. Such is the result of verbal misconduct. Such is mental misconduct. Such is the result of mental misconduct. Such is hell. Such is the animal womb. Such the realm of the hungry shades/
"In

is

using gentleness & harshness, [I teach:] Such is good bodily conduct. Such is the result of good bodily conduct. Such is bodily misconduct. Such is the result of bodily misconduct. Such is good verbal conduct. Such is the result of good verbal conduct. Such is verbal misconduct. Such is the result of verbal misconduct. Such is good mental conduct. Such is the result of good mental conduct. Such is mental misconduct. Such is the result of mental misconduct. Such are the devas. Such are
"In

human beings. Such

is hell. Such is the animal womb. Such the realm of the hungry shades/" "And if a tamable person doesn t submit either to a mild training or to a harsh training or to a mild & harsh training,

what do you
"If

do?"

a tamable person doesn t submit either to a mild training or to a harsh training or to a mild & harsh training, then I kill

him,

Kesin."

100

Fours

"But

it

the Blessed
"It

is

not proper for our Blessed One to take life! And yet I kill him, Kesin/" true, Kesin, that it s not proper for a Tathagata to take
s

One just said,

life.

if a tamable person doesn t submit either to a mild training or to a harsh training or to a mild & harsh training, then the Tathagata doesn t regard him as being worth speaking to or admonishing. His knowledgeable fellows in the celibate life do not regard him as being worth speaking to or admonish ing. This is what it means to be totally destroyed in the Doctrine & Vinaya, when the Tathagata doesn t regard one as being worth speaking to or admonishing, and one s knowledgeable fellows in the celibate life do not regard one as being worth speaking to or admonishing." "Yes, lord, wouldn t one be totally destroyed if the Tathagata doesn t regard one as being worth speaking to or admonishing, and one s knowledgeable fellows in the celibate life do not regard one as being worth speaking to or admonishing. "Magnificent, lord! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has the Blessed One through many lines of reasoning made the Dhamma clear. I go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Community of monks. May the Blessed

But

One remember me
refuge,

as a lay follower
for

who

has gone to him for

from

this

day forward,

life."

See also:

DN 12; DN 16; SN VI.l; SN XXIL90; AN 11122; AN X.95

IV.113 The Goad-stick
are these four types of excellent thoroughbred horses to be found existing in the world. Which four? There is the case where an excellent thoroughbred horse, on seeing the shadow of the goad-stick, is stirred & agitated, [thinking,] T wonder what task the trainer will have me do today? What should I do in response? Some excellent thoroughbred horses are like this.
"There

And

this is the first type of excellent

thoroughbred horse to be

found

existing in the world.

fours

101

"Then again there is the case where an excellent thorough bred horse isn t stirred & agitated on seeing the shadow of the goad-stick, but when his coat is pricked [with the goad stick] he

is

stirred

&

agitated, [thinking,]

will

have

me do

I wonder what task the trainer What should I do in response? Some today?

excellent thoroughbred horses are like this. And this is the second type of excellent thoroughbred horse to be found exist ing in the world. "Then again there is the case where an excellent thorough bred horse isn t stirred & agitated on seeing the shadow of the goad-stick, or when his coat is pricked, but when his hide is pricked [with the goad stick] he is stirred & agitated, [thinking,] I wonder what task the trainer will have me do today? What should I do in response? Some excellent thoroughbred horses are like this. And this is the third type of excellent thoroughbred horse to be found existing in the world. "Then again there is the case where an excellent thorough bred horse isn t stirred & agitated on seeing the shadow of the goad-stick, or when his coat is pricked, or when his hide is pricked, but when his bone is pricked [with the goad stick] he is stirred & agitated, [thinking,] T wonder what task the trainer will

today? What should I do in response? Some excel thoroughbred horses are like this. And this is the fourth type of excellent thoroughbred horse to be found existing in the world. "These are the four types of excellent thoroughbred horse to be found existing in the world. "Now, there are these four types of excellent thoroughbred persons to be found existing in the world. Which four? "There is the case where a certain excellent thoroughbred person hears, In that town or village over there a man or woman is in pain or has died. He is stirred & agitated by that. Stirred, he becomes appropriately resolute. Resolute, he both realizes with

have
lent

me do

his

the highest truth and, having penetrated it with dis cernment, sees. This type of excellent thoroughbred person, I tell you, is like the excellent thoroughbred horse who, on seeing the shadow of the goad-stick, is stirred & agitated. Some excellent thoroughbred people are like this. And this is the first type of excellent thoroughbred person to be found existing in the world. "Then again there is the case where a certain excellent thor oughbred person doesn t hear, Tn that town or village over there a man or woman is in pain or has died. But he himself

body

ioz

Foi ours
I

in pain or dead. He is stirred & agitated he becomes appropriately resolute. Resolute, he by both realizes with his body the highest truth and, having pene trated it with discernment, sees. This type of excellent

sees a

man

or

woman

that. Stirred,

thoroughbred person, I tell you, is like the excellent thorough bred horse who, when its coat is pricked with the goad-stick, is stirred & agitated. Some excellent thoroughbred people are like this. And this is the second type of excellent thoroughbred person to be found existing in the world. "Then again there is the case where a certain excellent thor oughbred person doesn t hear, In that town or village over there a man or woman is in pain or has died/ And he himself doesn t see a man or woman in pain or dead. But he sees one of his own blood relatives in pain or dead. He is stirred & agitated by that. Stirred, he becomes appropriately resolute. Resolute, he both realizes with his body the highest truth and, having pene trated it with discernment, sees. This type of excellent
thoroughbred person, I tell you, is like the excellent thorough bred horse who, when its hide is pricked with the goad-stick, is stirred & agitated. Some excellent thoroughbred people are like this. And this is the third type of excellent thoroughbred person to be found existing in the world.
a certain excellent thor In that town or village over hear, there a man or woman is in pain or has died/ And he himself doesn t see a man or woman in pain or dead, nor does he see one of his own blood relatives in pain or dead. But he himself is touched by bodily feelings that are painful, fierce, sharp, wrack
"Then

again there

is

the case
t

where

oughbred person doesn

ing, repellent, disagreeable, life-threatening. He is stirred agitated by that. Stirred, he becomes appropriately resolute. Resolute, he both realizes with his body the highest truth and,

&

having penetrated
lent

with discernment, sees. This type of excel thoroughbred person, I tell you, is like the excellent thoroughbred horse who, when its bone is pricked with the goad-stick, is stirred & agitated. Some excellent thoroughbred people are like this. And this is the fourth type of excellent thor oughbred person to be found existing in the world. "These are the four types of excellent thoroughbred persons to be found existing in the world."
it

See also:

SN 111.17; AN VI.19-20; AN X.15; Dhp 21-32; Sn 1118

Fours

103

IV. 115

Courses of Action

there are these four courses of action. Which four? the course of action that is unpleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is unprofitable. There is the course of action that is unpleasant to do but that, when done, leads to what is profitable. There is the course of action that is pleasant to do but that, when done, leads to what is unprofitable. There is the course of action that is pleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is profitable. "Now as for the course of action that is unpleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is unprofitable, one considers it as not worth doing for both reasons: because the course of action is unpleasant to do, one considers it as not worth doing; and because the course of action, when done, leads to what is unprofitable, one considers it as not worth doing. Thus one con siders it as not worth doing for both reasons. "As for the course of action that is unpleasant to do but that, when done, leads to what is profitable, it is in light of this course of action that one may be known in terms of manly sta mina, manly persistence, manly effort as a fool or a wise person. For a fool doesn t reflect, Even though this course of action is unpleasant to do, still when it is done it leads to what is profitable. So he doesn t do it, and thus the non-doing of that course of action leads to what is unprofitable for him. But a wise person reflects, Even though this course of action is unpleasant to do, still when it is done it leads to what is profitable/ So he does it, and thus the doing of that course of action leads to what
"Monks,

There

is

is

when

is pleasant to do but that, unprofitable, it is in light of this course of action that one may be known in terms of manly sta mina, manly persistence, manly effort as a fool or a wise person. For a fool doesn t reflect, Even though this course of action is pleasant to do, still when it is done it leads to what is unprofitable/ So he does it, and thus the doing of that course of action leads to what is unprofitable for him. But a wise person

profitable for him. "As for the course of action that

done, leads to what

is

reflects,

when

it is

Even though this course of action is pleasant to do, still done it leads to what is unprofitable/ So he doesn t

104

Fours

do it, and thus the non-doing what is profitable for him.

of that course of action leads to

"As for the course of action that is pleasant to do and that, when done, leads to what is profitable, one considers it as worth doing for both reasons: because the course of action is pleasant to do, one con siders it as worth doing; and because the course of action, when done, leads to what is profitable, one considers it as worth doing. Thus one considers it as worth doing for both reasons. "These are the four courses of action/

See also:

MN 45; MN 61; AN

III.2

IV.159TheNun
have heard that on one occasion Yen. Ananda was staying in Kosambi, at Ghosita s Park. Then a certain nun said to a certain
I

man, "Go, my good man, to my lord Ananda and, on arrival, bowing your head to his feet in my name, tell him, The nun

named such-and-such, venerable sir, is sick, in pain, severely ill. She bows her head to the feet of her lord Ananda and says, would be good if my lord Ananda were to go to the nuns quar ters, to visit this nun out of sympathy for her.
""

"It

my lady," the man then went to Ven. Responding, Ananda and, on arrival, having bowed down, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to Ven. Ananda, "The nun named such-and-such, venerable sir, is sick, in pain, severely ill. She bows her head to the feet of her lord Ananda and says, It would be good if my lord Ananda were to go to the nuns quar ters, to visit this nun out of sympathy for her. Ven. Ananda accepted with silence. Then in the early morning, having put on his robes and, car rying his bowl and outer robe, he went to the nuns quarters. The nun saw Ven. Ananda coming from afar. On seeing him, she
"Yes,
"

lay

down on a bed, having covered her head.

Then Ven. Ananda went to the nun and, on arrival, sat down on a prepared seat. As he was sitting there, he said to the nun: "This body, sister, comes into being through food. And yet it is by relying on food that food is to be abandoned. "This body comes into being through craving. And yet it is by relying on craving that craving is to be abandoned.

Fours

105-

body comes into being through conceit. And yet it is by relying on conceit that conceit is to be abandoned. "This body comes into being through sexual intercourse. Sexual intercourse is to be abandoned. With regard to sexual intercourse, the Buddha has declared the cutting off of the bridge.
"This
"

This body,

sister,

comes

is

relying And in reference to what was it said? There is the case, not sister, where a monk, considering it thoughtfully, takes food
said.

by

on food

that food

into being through food. And yet it is to be abandoned/ Thus it was

playfully, nor for intoxication, nor for putting on bulk, nor for beautification but simply for the survival continuance of this

&

support of the celibate life, old feelings [of hunger] and not [thinking,] destroy create new feelings [from overeating]. I will maintain myself, be blameless, & live in comfort/ Then, at a later time, he abandons food, having relied on food. This body, sister, comes into being
body, for

ending

its afflictions,

for the

Thus

will

I

And yet it is by relying on food that food is to be abandoned/ Thus it was said, and in reference to this was it said. "This body comes into being through craving. And yet it is by relying on craving that craving is to be abandoned/ Thus it was said. And in reference to what was it said? There is the case, sister, where a monk hears, The monk named such-and-such,
through food.
they say, through the ending of the fermentations, has entered & remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release & discern ment-release, having known & realized them for himself in the here & now/ The thought occurs to him, I hope that I, too, willthrough the ending of the fermentations enter & remain in the fermentation-free awareness-release & discernment-release, having directly known & realized them for myself right in the here & now/ Then, at a later time, he abandons craving, having relied on craving. This body comes into being through craving.

And

yet it is by relying on craving that craving is to be aban doned/ Thus it was said. And in reference to this was it said. This body comes into being through conceit. And yet it is by relying on conceit that conceit is to be abandoned/ Thus it was said. And in reference to what was it said? There is the case, sister, where a monk hears, The monk named such-and-such, they say, through
"

the ending of the fermentations, has entered

& remains

in the fer

mentation-free awareness-release
directly

known & realized them
to him,

discernment-release, having for himself right in the here & now/

&

The thought occurs

The monk named such-&-such, they

106

Fo urs

say, through the ending of the fermentations, has entered & remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release & discernmentrelease,

the here

having directly known & realized them for himself right in & now. Then why not me? Then, at a later time, he aban

conceit, having relied on conceit. This body comes into being through conceit. And yet it is by relying on conceit that conceit is to be abandoned/ Thus it was said, and in reference to this was it said. "This body comes into being through sexual intercourse. Sexual intercourse is to be abandoned. With regard to sexual inter course, the Buddha has declared the cutting off of the bridge." Then the nun getting up from her bed, arranging her upper robe over one shoulder, and bowing down with her head at Yen. Ananda s feet said, transgression has overcome me, venerable sir, in that I was so foolish, so muddle-headed, and so unskilled as to act in this way. May my lord Ananda please accept this confession of my transgression as such, so that I may

dons

"A

restrain myself in the
"Yes,

future."

a transgression overcame you in that you were so foolish, so muddle-headed, and so unskilled as to act in this way. But because you see your transgression as such and make amends in accordance with the Dhamma, we accept your confession. For it is a cause of growth in the Dhamma and discipline of the noble ones when, seeing a transgression as such, one makes amends in accordance with the Dhamma and exercises restraint in the future." That is what Ven. Ananda said. Gratified, the nun delighted in Ven. Ananda s words.
sister,

See also:

SN LI.15; AN V.75-76; AN VIIAS; Sn IV.7

IV.170 In Tandem

On

Ghosita

one occasion Ven. Ananda was staying in Kosambi, at s monastery. There he addressed the monks, "Friends!"
friend,"

the monks responded. monk or nun said: "Friends, whoever declares the attainment of arahantship in my presence, they all do it by means of one or another of four paths. Which four? "There is the case where a monk has developed insight pre
"Yes,

Ven.

Ananda

ceded by

tranquility.

tranquility, the

path

is

born.

As he develops insight preceded by He follows that path, develops it,

Fours

107

pursues

his fetters are

follows the path, developing it & pursuing it abandoned, his obsessions destroyed. "Then there is the case where a monk has developed tranquility preceded by insight. As he develops tranquility preceded
it.

As he

by

is born. He follows that path, develops it, follows the path, developing it & pursuing it pursues his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed. "Then there is the case where a monk has developed tran quility in tandem with insight. As he develops tranquility in tandem with insight, the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed. "Then there is the case where a monk s mind has its restless ness concerning the Dhamma [Comm: the corruptions of insight] well under control. There comes a time when his mind grows steady inwardly, settles down, and becomes unified & concen trated. In him the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed. "Whoever monk or nun declares the attainment of arain my presence, they all do it by means of one or hantship another of these four paths."

insight, the
it.

path

As he

See also:

MN 149; SN XXXV.204; AN 11.29; AN IV.94; AN X.71

IV.173 Kotthita

Then Ven. Maha Kotthita went to Ven. Sariputta and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he sat to one side. As he was sitting
there,

to Ven. Sariputta, "With the remainderless stopping of the six contact-media [vision, hearing, smell, taste, fading touch, intellection] is it the case that there is anything else?"

he said

&

&

say that, my friend." the remainderless stopping & fading of [Maha Kotthita:] the six contact-media, is it the case that there is not anything else?" [Sariputta:] "Don t say that, my friend." it the case that there both is & is not [Maha Kotthita:]
[Sariputta:]
"Don t
"With
"...is

anything

else?"

[Sariputta:]

"Don t

say

that,

my

friend."

io8

Fours

[Maha

Kotthita:]
else?"

"...is

it

the case that there neither

is

nor

is

not anything

say that, my friend." asked if, with the remainderless stop ping & fading of the six contact-media, there is anything else, you say, Don t say that, my friend. Being asked if ... there is not any thing else ... there both is & is not anything else ... there neither is nor is not anything else, you say, Don t say that, my friend.
[Sariputta:]
"Don t

[Maha

Kotthita:]

"Being

Now, how

is

the

meaning of your words

to

be

understood?"

statement, With the remainderless stopping fading of the six contact-media [vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch, intellection] is it the case that there is anything else? 1 complicates non-complication. The statement, ... is it the case that there is not anything else ... is it the case that there both is is not anything else ... is it the case that there neither is nor is not anything else? complicates non-complication. However far the six contact-media go, that is how far complication goes. However far complication goes, that is how far the six contact media go. With
[Sariputta:]
"The

&

&

&

the remainderless fading & stopping of the six contact-media, there comes to be the stopping, the allaying of complication.

NOTE:

classifications

am

18. As Sn IV.14 points out, the root of the and perceptions of complication is the thought, the thinker." This thought forms the motivation for the
1.

See

MN

"I

questions that Ven. Maha Kotthita is presenting here: the sense am the thinker" can either fear or desire annihilation in the of course of Unbinding. Both concerns get in the way of the aban doning of clinging, which is essential for the attainment of Unbinding. This is why the questions should not be asked.
"I

See also:

SN XXXV.23; AN IV.42; AN VIII.30

IV.178 The Waste-water Pool
these four types of people are to be found existing in the world. Which four? "There is the case where a monk enters & remains in a cer tain peaceful awareness-release. 1 He attends to the cessation of self-identification, but as he is attending to the cessation of selfidentification his mind doesn t leap up, grow confident,
"Monks,

Fours

109

steadfast, or firm in the cessation of self-identification. For him the cessation of self-identification is not to be expected. Just as if a man were to grasp a branch with his hand smeared with resin,

his

hand would

stick to

it,

monk enters & remains in a certain peaceful awarenessrelease. He attends to the cessation of self-identification, but as
the

grip

it,

adhere to

it;

in the

same way,

he is attending to the cessation of self-identification his mind doesn t leap up, grow confident, steadfast, or firm in the cessation
is

of self-identification. For not to be expected.

him

the cessation of self-identification

remains in a "Now, there is the case where a monk enters certain peaceful awareness-release. He attends to the cessation of self-identification, and as he is attending to the cessation of self-identification his mind leaps up, grows confident, steadfast,

&

&

firm in the cessation of self-identification. For
is

him

the cessa

tion of self-identification

be expected. Just as if a man were to grasp a branch with a clean hand, his hand would not stick to it, grip it, or adhere to it; in the same way, the monk enters & remains in a certain peaceful awareness-release. He attends to the cessation of self-identification, and as he is attending to the
to

cessation of self-identification his mind leaps up, grows confi dent, steadfast, & firm in the cessation of self-identification. For him the cessation of self-identification is to be expected. "Now, there is the case where a monk enters & remains in a certain peaceful awareness-release. He attends to the breaching of ignorance, but as he is attending to the breaching of ignorance his mind doesn t leap up, grow confident, steadfast, or firm in the breaching of ignorance. For him the breaching of ignorance is not to be expected. Just as if there were a waste-water pool that had stood for countless years, where a man were to block all the inlets and open all the outlets, and the sky were to not rain down in good streams of rain: the breaching of the waste-water pool s embankment would not be expected; in the same way, the monk enters & remains in a certain peaceful awareness-release. He attends to the breaching of ignorance, but as he is attending to the breaching of ignorance his mind doesn t leap up, grow confi dent, steadfast, or firm in the breaching of ignorance. For him the

breaching of ignorance
"Now,

is not to be expected. remains in a the case where a monk enters certain peaceful awareness-release. He attends to the breaching of ignorance, and as he is attending to the breaching of ignorance

there

is

&

no

ours Foi
I

his mind leaps up, grows confident, steadfast, & firm in the breaching of ignorance. For him the breaching of ignorance is to be expected. Just as if there were a waste-water pool that had stood for countless years, where a man were to open all the inlets and block all the outlets, and the sky were to rain down in good streams of rain: the breaching of the waste-water pool s embank

ment would be expected;

in the same way, the monk enters & remains in a certain peaceful awareness-release. He attends to the breaching of ignorance, and as he is attending to the breach ing of ignorance his mind leaps up, grows confident, steadfast, & firm in the breaching of ignorance. For him the breaching of ignorance is to be expected. "These are four types of people to be found existing in the world/

NOTE:

1.

Any of the levels of jhana.

IV.181 The Warrior
"Endowed with four qualities, monks, a warrior is worthy of a king, an asset to a king, and counts as a very limb of his king. Which four? "There is the case where a warrior is skilled in his stance, able to shoot far, able to fire shots in rapid succession, and able

to pierce great objects.
ities is

A warrior endowed with these four qual
asset to a king,

worthy of a king, an
the

and counts

as a very
is

limb of his king.
"In

same way

a

monk endowed

with four qualities

deserving of gifts, deserving of hospitality, deserving of offer ings, deserving of respect, an unexcelled field of merit for the world. Which four?
"There is the case where a monk is skilled in his stance, able to shoot far, able to fire shots in rapid succession, and able to monk endowed with these four qualities is pierce great objects. deserving of gifts, deserving of hospitality, deserving of offerings,

A

deserving of respect, an unexcelled field of merit for the world. "And how is a monk skilled in his stance? There is the case where a monk is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of
activity.

He

trains himself,

having undertaken the training

rules,

Fours

in

seeing danger in the slightest faults. This
skilled in his stance.
"And

is

how

a

monk

is

the case

how is a monk one who is able to shoot far? There is where a monk sees any form whatsoever that is past,

future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle; common or sublime; far or near every form as it actually is with right discernment as: This is not mine. This is not my self. This is not what I am/
"He

"He
"He
"He

sees any feeling whatsoever .... sees any perception whatsoever

....

sees sees

any fabrications whatsoever .... any consciousness whatsoever

that

is

past, future,

or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle, common or sublime, far or near every consciousness as it actually is with right discernment as: This is not mine. This is not my self. This is not what I am/ "This is how a monk is one who is able to shoot far. "And how is a monk one who is able to fire shots in rapid succession? There is the case where a monk discerns, as it actu ally is present, that This is stress ... This is the origination of stress ... This is the cessation of stress ... This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress/ This is how a monk is one who is able to fire shots in rapid succession. "And how is a monk one who is able to pierce great objects? There is the case where a monk pierces right through the great mass of ignorance. This is how a monk is one who is able to
pierce great objects right through. "Endowed with these four qualities, a monk is deserving of gifts, deserving of hospitality, deserving of offerings, deserving of respect, an unexcelled field of merit for the world."
See also:

AN V.75-76; AN IX.36; Thag 11.27; Thag 11.37
is

IV.183
I

On What

Heard

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying

Rajagaha in the Bamboo Forest, the Squirrels Sanctuary. Then Vassakara the brahman, the minister to the king of Magadha, went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an exchange of friendly greetings &
at

Fours

he sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: am of the view, of the opinion, that when of what he has seen, [saying,] Thus have I seen/ anyone speaks there is no fault in that. When anyone speaks of what he has heard, [saying,] Thus have I heard/ there is no fault in that. When anyone speaks of what he has sensed, [saying,] Thus have I sensed/ there is no fault in that. When anyone speaks of what he has cognized, [saying,] Thus have I cognized/ there is no fault in that/ do not say, brahman, that [The Blessed One responded:] that has been seen should be spoken about. Nor do I everything say that everything that has been seen should not be spoken about. I do not say that everything that has been heard ... every
courtesies,
"I "I

thing that has been sensed ... everything that has been cognized should be spoken about. Nor do I say that everything that has been cognized should not be spoken about. "When, for one who speaks of what has been seen, unskill
ful

mental qualities increase and

skillful

mental qualities

decrease, then that sort of thing should not be spoken about. But when, for one who speaks of what has been seen, unskillful mental qualities decrease and skillful mental qualities increase, then that sort of thing should be spoken about. "When, for one who speaks of what has been heard ... what has been sensed ... what has been cognized, unskillful mental qualities increase and skillful mental qualities decrease, then that sort of thing should not be spoken about. But when, for one who speaks of what has been cognized, unskillful mental quali ties decrease and skillful mental qualities increase, then that sort of thing should be spoken about." Then Vassakara the brahman, delighting & rejoicing in the Blessed One s words, got up from his seat and left.
See also:

MN 58; AN V.198; Sn

III.3

IV.184 Fearless

Then Janussonin the brahman went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings As he was sitting there he said

&

courtesies, he sat to to the Blessed One:
"I

one

side.

am

of the

Fou rs

view

& opinion that there is no one who, subject to
death."

death,

is

not

afraid or in terror of

[The Blessed

One

said:] "Brahman, there are

those who, sub

in terror of death. And there are those ject to death, are afraid to death, are not afraid or in terror of death. who, subject
"And

&

who

is

terror of death?

abandoned passion, desire, fondness, thirst, fever, & craving for sensuality. Then he comes down with a serious disease. As he comes down with a serious disease, the thought occurs to him, O, those beloved sensual pleasures will be taken from me, and I will be taken from them! He grieves & is tormented, weeps, beats his breast, & grows delirious. This is a person who, subject

the person who, subject to death, There is the case of the person

is

afraid

&

in

who

has not

& in terror of death. the case of the person who has not abandoned passion, desire, fondness, thirst, fever, & craving for the body. Then he comes down with a serious disease. As he comes down with a serious disease, the thought occurs to him, O,
to death, is afraid
"Then

there

is

my

beloved body will be taken from me, and I will be taken from my body! He grieves & is tormented, weeps, beats his breast, & grows delirious. This, too, is a person who, subject to death, is
afraid
is

& in terror of death.

there is the case of the person who has not done what has not done what is skillful, has not given protection good, to those in fear, and instead has done what is evil, savage, & cruel. Then he comes down with a serious disease. As he comes down with a serious disease, the thought occurs to him, T have not done what is good, have not done what is skillful, have not
"Then

fear, and instead have done what is To the extent that there is a destination for those who have not done what is good, have not done what is skillful, have not given protection to those in fear, and instead have done what is evil, savage, & cruel, that s where I headed

given protection to those in

evil, savage, & cruel.

m

tormented, weeps, beats his breast, grieves & grows delirious. This, too, is a person who, subject to death, is afraid & in terror of death. "Then there is the case of the person in doubt & perplexity, who has not arrived at certainty with regard to the True Dhamma. Then he comes down with a serious disease. As he comes down with a serious disease, the thought occurs to him, How doubtful & perplexed I am! I have not arrived at any certainty with regard

after death.

He

& is

n4

Fours

to the True

Dhamma! He

his breast, grows delirious. This, too, to death, is afraid in terror of death.

&

grieves

&

is

&

tormented, weeps, beats is a person who, subject
to death, are

"These,

afraid

& in terror of death.

brahman, are four people who, subject

"And who is the person who, subject to death, is not afraid or in terror of death? There is the case of the person who has abandoned passion,

desire, fondness, thirst, fever, craving for sensuality. Then he comes down with a serious disease. As he comes down with a

&

serious disease, the thought doesn t occur to him, O, those beloved sensual pleasures will be taken from me, and I will be taken from them! He doesn t grieve, isn t tormented; doesn t weep, beat his breast, or grow delirious. This is a person who, subject to death, is not afraid or in terror of death. "Then there is the case of the person who has abandoned

passion, desire, fondness, thirst, fever, & craving for the body. Then he comes down with a serious disease. As he comes down with a serious disease, the thought doesn t occur to him, O, my

beloved body will be taken from me, and I will be taken from my body! He doesn t grieve, isn t tormented; doesn t weep, beat his breast, or grow delirious. This, too, is a person who, subject to death, is not afraid or in terror of death. "Then there is the case of the person who has done what is has done what is skillful, has given protection to those in good, fear, and has not done what is evil, savage, or cruel. Then he comes down with a serious disease. As he comes down with a serious disease, the thought occurs to him, T have done what is good, have done what is skillful, have given protection to those in fear, and I have not done what is evil, savage, or cruel. To the extent that there is a destination for those who have done what is good, what is skillful, have given protection to those in fear, and have not done what is evil, savage, or cruel, that s where I headed after death. He doesn t grieve, isn t tormented; doesn t weep, beat his breast, or grow delirious. This, too, is a person who, subject to death, is not afraid or in terror of death. "Then there is the case of the person who has no doubt or who has arrived at certainty with regard to the True perplexity, Dhamma. Then he comes down with a serious disease. As he comes down with a serious disease, the thought occurs to him, I have no doubt or perplexity. I have arrived at certainty with

m

Fours

regard to the True Dhamma/ He doesn t grieve, isn t tormented; doesn t weep, beat his breast, or grow delirious. This, too, is a person who, subject to death, is not afraid or in terror of death. "These, brahman, are four people who, subject to death, are not afraid or in terror of death." [When this was said, Janussonin the brahman said to the Blessed One:] "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has Master Gotama through many lines of reasoning made the Dhamma clear. I go to Master

Gotama
monks.

who

Dhamma, and to the Community of Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower May has gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for
for refuge, to the
life."

See also:
VI.16;

SN XXII.l; SN XXXVI.7; SN XLL10; AN IIL51-52; AN
Iti

AN VI.20;

30-31;

Sn

V.15;

Sn

V.16;

Thag XVI.l; Thig XIV

IV.192 Traits
"Monks,

these four traits

may

be

known by means
s virtue

of four

[other] traits.
"It

Which

four?

s

through living together that a person
after a
is attentive,

may be

known, and then only
one
is

long period, not a short period; by

who
"It

discerning, not
s

not by one who is inattentive; by one who by one who is not discerning.

known, and then only

through dealing with a person that his purity may be after a long period, not a short period; by one who is attentive, not by one who is inattentive; by one who is discerning, not by one who is not discerning. s through adversity that a person s endurance may be known, and then only after a long period, not a short period; by one who is attentive, not by one who is inattentive; by one who is discerning, not by one who is not discerning. s through discussion that a person s discernment may be known, and then only after a long period, not a short period; by one who is attentive, not by one who is inattentive; by one who is discerning, not by one who is not discerning.
"It
"It

s through living together that a person s virtue may [1] be known, and then only after a long period, not a short period;
"It

ours

by one who

is

attentive, not

by one who

is

inattentive;
:

by one

discerning, not by one who is not discerning Thus it was said. And in reference to what was it said? "There is the case where one individual, through living with another, knows this: Tor a long time this person has been torn, broken, spotted, splattered in his actions. He hasn t been consis tent in his actions. He hasn t practiced consistently with regard to the precepts. He is an unprincipled person, not a virtuous, principled one. And then there is the case where one individ ual, through living with another, knows this: Tor a long time
is

who

person has been untorn, unbroken, unspotted, unsplattered He has been consistent in his actions. He has practiced consistently with regard to the precepts. He is a virtu ous, principled person, not an unprincipled one. It s through living together that a person s virtue may be known, and then only after a long period, not a short period; by one who is attentive, not by one who is inattentive; by one who is discerning, not by one who is not discerning Thus it was
this

in his actions.

"

:

said.

And in reference to this was it said.
"

It s through dealing with a person that his purity may be known, and then only after a long period, not a short period; by one who is attentive, not by one who is inattentive; by one who is discerning, not by one who is not discerning Thus it

[2]

:

was

said.

And in reference to what was it said?

"There is the case where one individual, through dealing with another, knows this: This person deals one way when oneon-one, another way when with two, another way when with three, another way when with many. His earlier dealings do not jibe with his later dealings. He is impure in his dealings, not pure. And then there is the case where one individual, through dealing with another, knows this: The way this person deals when one-on-one, is the same way he deals when with two, when with three, when with many. His earlier dealings jibe with his later dealings. He is pure in his dealings, not impure. It s through dealing with a person that his purity may be known, and then only after a long period, not a short period; by one who is attentive, not by one who is inattentive; by one who Thus it was is discerning, not by one who is not discerning
"

:

said.

And in reference to this was it said.
"

It s through adversity that a person s endurance may be known, and then only after a long period, not a short period;

[3]

Fours

by one who

is

attentive, not

by one who

is

inattentive;
:

who
was

is

discerning, not by one
is

who

is

not discerning

by one Thus it

said.

And in reference to what was it said?
the case

"There

loss of wealth, or loss

where a person, suffering loss of relatives, through disease, doesn t reflect: That s
"self-

how it is when living together in the world. That s how it is when gaining a personal identity (atta-bhava, literally When there is living in the world, when there is the
state").

gaining of a personal identity, these eight worldly conditions spin after the world, and the world spins after these eight worldly conditions: gain, loss, status, disgrace, censure, praise, pleasure, & pain. Suffering loss of relatives, loss of wealth, or loss through disease, he sorrows, grieves, & laments, beats his breast, becomes distraught. And then there is the case where a
person, suffering loss of relatives, loss of wealth, or loss through disease, reflects: That s how it is when living together in the world. That s how it is when gaining a personal identity. When there is living in the world, when there is the gaining of a per sonal identity, these eight worldly conditions spin after the world, and the world spins after these eight worldly conditions: gain, loss, status, disgrace, censure, praise, pleasure, & pain. Suffering loss of relatives, loss of wealth, or loss through dis ease, he doesn t sorrow, grieve, or lament, doesn t beat his breast or becomes distraught. It s through adversity that a person s endurance may be known, and then only after a long period, not a short period; by one who is attentive, not by one who is inattentive; by one who
"

is

by one who is attentive, not by one who is inattentive; one who is discerning, not by one who is not discerning by Thus it was said. And in reference to what was it said? "There is the case where one individual, through discussion with another, knows this: From the way this person rises to an issue, from the way he applies [his reasoning], from the way he addresses a question, he is dull, not discerning. Why is that? He doesn t make statements that are deep, tranquil, refined, beyond
period;
:

discerning, not by one who is not discerning Thus it was And in reference to this was it said. It s through discussion that a person s discernment [4] be known, and then only after a long period, not a short may
:

said.

"

the scope of conjecture, subtle, to-be-experienced by the wise. He cannot declare the meaning, teach it, describe it, set it forth,

n8

Fours

reveal

it,

explain

it,

or

make

it

plain.

He

is dull,

not discerning/

Just as if a man with good eyesight standing on the shore of a body of water were to see a small fish rise. The thought would

occur to him,
ples,

Trom the rise of this fish, from the break of its rip

speed, it is a small fish, not a large one/ In the individual, in discussion with another, knows this: Trom the way this person rises to an issue, from the way he applies [his reasoning], from the way he addresses a question ... he is dull, not discerning/ "And then there is the case where one individual, through discussion with another, knows this: From the way this person
its

from

same way, one

an issue, from the way he applies [his reasoning], from the way he addresses a question, he is discerning, not dull. Why is that? He makes statements that are deep, tranquil, refined, beyond the scope of conjecture, subtle, to-be-experienced by the wise. He can declare the meaning, teach it, describe it, set it make it plain. He is discerning, not forth, reveal it, explain it, dull/ Just as if a man with good eyesight standing on the shore of a body of water were to see a large fish rise. The thought would occur to him, Trom the rise of this fish, from the break of its ripples, from its speed, it is a large fish, not a small one/ In the same way, one individual, in discussion with another, knows this: Trom the way this person rises to an issue, from the way he applies [his reasoning], from the way he addresses a question ... he is discerning, not dull/ It s through discussion that a person s discernment may be known, and then only after a long period, not a short period; by
rises to

&

"

one
is

who

is

attentive, not

by one who

is

inattentive;
:

discerning, not by one
"These,

who

is

not discerning

by one who Thus it was

said.

And in reference to this was it said.
monks, are the four traits that of these four [other] traits."

may be known by

means

See also:

MN 95; MN 110; AN IV.73; AN VIII.6; AN X.24; Ud VI.2

IV.199 Craving
"Monks, I

will teach

along, spread out,

smothered

&

you craving: the ensnarer that has flowed and caught hold, with which this world is
like a tangled skein, a

enveloped

knotted ball of

Fours

119

matted rushes and reeds, and does not go beyond transmigration, beyond the planes of deprivation, woe, & bad
string, like

destinations. Listen well, and I will speak." "Yes, lord," the monks responded.

The Blessed One said: "And which craving is the ensnarer that has flowed along, spread out, and caught hold, with which this world is smothered enveloped like a tangled skein, a

&

knotted ball of string, like matted rushes and reeds, and does not go beyond transmigration, beyond the planes of depriva 1 tion, woe, & bad destinations? These 18 craving-verbalizations on what is internal and 18 craving-verbalizations dependent

am because of this (or: by means am here because of this/ there comes to be I am like this because of this I am otherwise because of this I am bad because of this I am good
what
is external? There being of this)/ there comes to be
I

dependent on what is external. "And which are the 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is internal? There being T am/ there comes to be 1 am here/ there comes to be T am like this ... T am otherwise ... 1 am bad ... I am good T might be ... 1 might be here ... I might be like this ... 1 might be otherwise May I be ... May I be here ... I be like this ... May I be otherwise ... T will be ... I May will be here ... I will be like this ... I will be otherwise. These are the 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is internal. "And which are the 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on
.

. .

.

.

.

I

...

...

...

because of this ... I might be because of this ... I might be here because of this ... I might be like this because of this ... I might be otherwise because of this May I be because of this ... I be here because of this ... May I be like this because May of this ... May I be otherwise because of this ... I will be because of this ... I will be here because of this ... I will be like this because of this ... I will be otherwise because of this. These
. . .

are the 18 craving- verbalizations dependent on what is external. "Thus there are 18 craving-verbalizations dependent on what is internal and 18 craving- verbalizations dependent on what is

These are called the 36 craving- verbalizations. Thus, with 36 craving-verbalizations of this sort in the past, 36 in the future, and 36 in the present, there are 108 craving-verbalizations. "This, monks is craving the ensnarer that has flowed along, spread out, and caught hold, with which this world is smothered & enveloped like a tangled skein, a knotted ball of string, like
external.

izo

Pours

matted rushes and reeds, and does not go beyond transmigration, beyond the planes of deprivation, woe, & bad destinations/

NOTE: 1. Tanha-vicaritani, literally, things evaluated by craving. The past participle here, vicaritani, is related to the noun, vicara, which is classed as a verbal fabrication, i.e., a necessary precondi tion for speech (see 44). A person devoid of craving would still be able to verbalize, but would not contemplate in the above terms, 2. which are so basic to ordinary thought patterns. See also

MN

MN

IV.200 Affection
these four things are born. Which four? Affection is Aversion is born of affection. Affection is born of aversion. Aversion is born of aversion. "And how is affection born of affection? There is the case
"Monks,

born of

affection.

where person is pleasing, appealing, & charming to (another) person. Others treat that person as pleasing, appealing, & charming, and the other one thinks, This person is pleasing,

appealing, & charming to me. Others treat this person as pleas ing, appealing, & charming/ He gives rise to affection for them. This is how affection is born of affection. "And how is aversion born of affection? There is the case where a person is pleasing, appealing, & charming to (another) person. Others treat that person as displeasing, unappealing, & not charming, and the other one thinks, This person is pleasing, appealing, & charming to me. Others treat this person as dis pleasing, unappealing, & not charming/ He gives rise to aversion for them. This is how aversion is born of affection. "And how is affection born of aversion? There is the case where a person is displeasing, unappealing, & not charming to
pealing,

(another) person. Others treat that person as displeasing, unap not charming, and the other one thinks, This person is

&

not charming to me. Others treat this displeasing, unappealing, not charming/ He gives person as displeasing, unappealing, rise to affection for them. This is how affection is born of aversion.

&

&

where a person

aversion born of aversion? There is the case displeasing, unappealing, & not charming to (another) person. Others treat that person as pleasing, appeal ing, & charming, and the other one thinks, This person is
"And

how

is

is

Fours

IZ!

displeasing, unappealing, & not charming to me. Others treat this person as pleasing, appealing, & charming/ He gives rise to

aversion for them. This is how aversion is born of aversion. "Monks, these are the four things that are born. "Now, on the occasion when a monk, quite withdrawn from

withdrawn from unskillful (mental) qualities, enters remains in the first jhana rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluationthen any affection of his that is born of affection does not come about. Any aversion of his that is born of affection any affec tion of his that is born of aversion any aversion of his that is born of aversion does not come about.
sensuality,

&

.

.

.

.

.

.

"On the occasion when a monk ... enters & remains in the second jhana enters & remains in the third jhana enters & remains in the fourth jhana, then any affection of his that is born of affection does not come about. Any aversion of his that is born of affection any affection of his that is born of aversion any aversion of his that is born of aversion does not come about.
. .

.

. . .

. . .

. . .

"On the occasion when a monk, through the ending of the fermentations, enters & remains in the fermentation-free aware ness-release release of discernment, having directly known realized them for himself right in the here & now, then any affec tion of his that is born of affection is abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising. Any aversion of his that is born of affection any affection of his that is born of aver sion any aversion of his that is born of aversion is abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising. "This is said to be a monk who doesn t pull in, doesn t push away, doesn t smolder, doesn t flare up, and doesn t burn. "And how does a monk pull in? There is the case where a monk assumes form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form. He assumes feeling to be the self, or the self as possessing feeling, or feeling as in the self, or the self as in feeling. He assumes perception to be the self, or the self as possessing perception, or perception as in the self, or the self as in perception. He assumes (mental) fab rications to be the self, or the self as possessing fabrications, or fabrications as in the self, or the self as in fabrications. He assumes consciousness to be the self, or the self as possessing

&

&

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

IZZ

Fours

consciousness, or consciousness as in the self, or the self as in consciousness. This is how a monk pulls in. "And how does a monk not pull in? There is the case where a monk doesn t assume form to be the self, or the self as pos sessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form. He doesn t assume feeling to be the self .... doesn t assume percep tion to be the self .... doesn t assume fabrications to be the self .... doesn t assume consciousness to be the self, or the self as pos sessing consciousness, or consciousness as in the self, or the self as in consciousness. This is how a monk doesn t pull in. "And how does a monk push away? There is the case where a monk returns insult to one who has insulted him, returns

who is angry at him, quarrels with one who is is how a monk pushes away. "And how does a monk not push away? There is the case where a monk doesn t return insult to one who has insulted him, doesn t return anger to one who is angry at him, doesn t quarrel with one who is quarreling. This is how a monk doesn t push away. "And how does a monk smolder? There is the case where, there being I am/ there comes to be I am here, there comes to I am otherwise be I am like this I am bad I am
anger to one
quarreling. This
... ...
.

...

T might be here T might be like this good might be ... I might be otherwise I be May May I be here I be like this I be otherwise ... I will be ... I will May May be here ... I will be like this ... I will be otherwise/ This is
...

I

. . .

. .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

how a monk smolders. "And how does a monk

where, there being I am, there doesn there doesn t come to be I am like this

not smolder? There t come to be
...

is
I

the case

am

here,
...

I

am otherwise

T

might be ... I might be here ... I be like this ... I might be otherwise ... May I be ... might May I be here May I be like this May I be otherwise I will be ... I will be here ... I will be ... I will be like this otherwise. This is how a monk doesn t smolder. "And how does a monk flare up? There is the case where, there being I am because of this (or: by means of this), there comes to be I am here because of this, there comes to be I am like this because of this T am otherwise because of this ... I am bad because of this ... I am good because of this ... I might be because of this ... I might be here because of this ... I might be like this because of this ... T might be otherwise because of
...

am bad

I

am good
. . .

...

I

.

. .

. . .

. . .

Fo urs

this this

...
. . .

May I be because of this ... May I be here because of May I be like this because of this May I be otherwise
.

. .

because of this ... I will be because of this ... I will be here because of this ... I will be like this because of this ... I will be otherwise because of this. This is how a monk flares up. "And how does a monk not flare up? There is the case where, there being I am because of this (or: by means of this), there doesn t come to be I am here because of this/ there doesn t come to be I am like this because of this ... I am other wise because of this ... I am bad because of this ... I am good because of this ... I might be because of this ... I might be here because of this ... I might be like this because of this ... I May I be because of this might be otherwise because of this ... I be here because of this ... May I be like this because May of this ... May I be otherwise because of this ... I will be because of this ... I will be here because of this ... I will be like this because of this ... I will be otherwise because of this. This is how a monk doesn t flare up. "And how does a monk burn? There is the case where a monk s conceit of I am is not abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of exis tence, not destined for future arising. This is how a monk burns. "And how does a monk not burn? There is the case where a monk s conceit of I am is abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising. This is how a monk doesn t burn."
. . .

See also:

MN 2; MN 87; AN IV.19; AN VIL60; AN X.80

IV.237 The Noble Path
"Monks,

verified,
is

& announced by me.
result.

these four types of

kamma have
Which
is

been

directly
is

known,
that

bright with result. There is kamma that is dark & bright with dark & bright bright result. There is kamma that is neither dark nor bright with neither dark nor bright result, leading to the ending of kamma. "And what is kamma that is dark with dark result? There is the case where a certain person fabricates an injurious bodily fabrication, fabricates an injurious verbal fabrication, fabricates

dark with dark

There

four? There kamma that

kamma

is

12,4

Fours

an injurious mental fabrication. Having fabricated an injurious bodily fabrication, having fabricated an injurious verbal fabrica tion, having fabricated an injurious mental fabrication, he rearises in an injurious world. On rearising in an injurious world, he is there touched by injurious contacts. Touched by injurious contacts, he experiences feelings that are exclusively
painful, like those of the beings in hell. This is called kamma that is dark with dark result. "And what is kamma that is bright with bright result? There is the case where a certain person fabricates a non-injurious bodily fabrication ... a non-injurious verbal fabrication ... a noninjurious mental fabrication .... He rearises in a non-injurious

world

....

There he

is

touched by non-injurious contacts

....

He

experiences feelings that are exclusively pleasant, like those of the Ever-radiant Devas. This is called kamma that is bright with
bright result.
"And

what

is

kamma

that

is

dark

&

bright with dark

&

bright result? There is the case where a certain person fabricates a bodily fabrication that is injurious non-injurious ... a verbal fabrication that is injurious non-injurious ... a mental fabrica

&

&

is injurious & non-injurious He rearises in an & non-injurious world There he is touched by inju injurious rious & non-injurious contacts He experiences injurious &

tion that

....

....

....

non-injurious feelings, pleasure mingled with pain, like those of human beings, some devas, and some beings in the lower realms. This is called kamma that is dark & bright with dark &
bright result.
"And what is kamma that is neither dark nor bright with neither dark nor bright result, leading to the ending of kamma? Right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right liveli hood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is called kamma that is neither dark nor bright with neither dark nor bright result, leading to the ending of kamma. "These, monks, are the four types of kamma directly known,

verified,

& announced by me/

See also:

MN 135; SN XLV.8; AN VL63

Fours

IV.252 Searches
"Monks,

these four are ignoble searches.

Which

four? There

is

the

where a person, being subject himself to aging, seeks [happiness what is subject to aging. Being subject himself to illness, he seeks in] what is subject to illness. Being subject himself to death, he seeks what is subject to death. Being subject himself to defilement, he seeks what is subject to defilement. These are four ignoble searches.
case
"Now,

these four are noble searches.

Which

four? There

is

the

where a person, being subject himself to aging, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to aging, seeks the imaging, unsur passed rest from the yoke: Unbinding. Being subject himself to illness, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to illness, he seeks the unailing, unsurpassed rest from the yoke: Unbinding. Being subject himself to death, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to death, he seeks the undying, unsurpassed rest from the
case

yoke: Unbinding. Being subject himself to defilement, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to defilement, he seeks the undefiled, unsurpassed rest from the yoke: Unbinding. "These are four noble searches."
See also:

MN 36; AN

111.39; Iti

54

IV.255 Families
every case where a family cannot hold onto its great wealth for long, it s for one or another of these four reasons. Which four? They don t look for things that are lost. They don t repair things that have gotten old. They are immoderate in consuming food & drink. They
"In

place a

woman or man of no virtue

or principles in the position of

where a family cannot hold onto its great wealth for long, it s for one or another of these four reasons. every case where a family can hold onto its great wealth for long, it s for one or another of these four reasons. Which four? They look for things that are lost. They repair things that have gotten old. They are moderate in consuming food & drink. They place a virtuous, principled woman or man in the position of authority. In every case where a family can hold onto its great wealth for long, it s for one or another of these four reasons."
authority. In every case
"In

Fo urs

IV.263
"Endowed

A

Wilderness Dweller
qualities, a

with [any of] four

four? [He is endowed] dwellings. with thoughts of sensuality, with thoughts of ill will, with thoughts of harmfulness, and he is a person of weak discernment, dull, a drooling idiot. Endowed with [any of] these four qualities, a monk isn t fit to stay in isolated forest & wilderness dwellings. "Endowed with four qualities, a monk is fit to stay in isolated forest & wilderness dwellings. Which four? [He is endowed] with thoughts of renunciation, with thoughts of non-ill will, with thoughts of harmlessness, and he is a discerning person, not dull, not a drooling idiot. Endowed with these four qualities, a monk is fit to stay in isolated forest & wilderness dwellings/
lated forest

& wilderness

monk isn t fit to stay in iso

Which

See also:

MN 19; SN IX.

1;

SN IX.6; SN IX.11; SN IX. 14; Ud 11.10;

Thag XVIII

izy

Fives

V.2 (Strengths) In Detail
"Monks, there are these five strengths for one in training. Which five? Strength of conviction, strength of conscience, strength of

concern, strength of persistence, & strength of discernment. "And what is strength of conviction? There is the case where a monk, a disciple of the noble ones, has conviction, is con vinced of the Tathagata s Awakening: Indeed, the Blessed One is worthy and rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowl edge & conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of divine & human beings, awakened, blessed/ This, monks, is called the strength of conviction. "And what is the strength of conscience? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones feels shame at [the thought of
in] bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct. This is called the strength of conscience. "And what is the strength of concern? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones feels concern for [the suffer ing that results from] bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct. This is called the strength of concern. "And what is the strength of persistence? There is the case where a monk, a disciple of the noble ones, keeps his persis tence aroused for abandoning unskillful mental qualities and taking on skillful mental qualities. He is steadfast, solid in his effort, not shirking his duties with regard to skillful mental qualities. This is called the strength of persistence. "And what is the strength of discernment? There is the case where a monk, a disciple of the noble ones, is discerning, endowed with discernment of arising & passing away noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress. This is called the strength of discernment. "These, monks, are the five strengths of one in training. Thus you should train yourselves, We will be endowed with the

engaging

12.8

Fiives

strength of conviction that is the strength of one in training; with the strength of conscience ... the strength of concern ... the strength of persistence ... the strength of discernment that is the strength of one in training/ That s how you should train yourselves/
See also:

SN XLVIII.10; SN XLVIIL44; AN VII.6

V.20 Benefit
"

A monk endowed with five qualities practices both for his own
and
for that of others.
is

benefit

Which

five?

where a monk is himself consummate in virtue and encourages others to be consummate in virtue. He himself is consummate in concentration and encourages others to be consummate in concentration. He himself is consummate in discernment and encourages others to be consummate in dis cernment. He himself is consummate in release and encourages others to be consummate in release. He himself is consummate in the knowledge & vision of release and encourages others to be consummate in the knowledge & vision of release.
"There

the case

"Endowed

with these five

qualities, a

monk

practices both

for his

own benefit and for that of others."

See also:

AN IV.95-96; AN VII.64

V.25 Supported
"Monks,

when

right

view

is

supported by five

factors,

it

has

awareness-release as its fruit, awareness-release as its reward; has discernment-release as its fruit, discernment-release as its reward. Which five? "There is the case where right view is supported by virtue,

supported by learning, supported by discussion, supported by tranquility, supported by insight. "When supported by these five factors, right view has aware ness-release as its fruit, awareness-release as its reward; has discernment-release as its fruit, discernment-release as its reward/
See also:

SN XII.15; MN 117; AN IV.94; AN IV.170; AN VII.6

Fives

\zq

V.27 (Immeasurable) Concentration
"Wise

&

mindful, you should develop immeasurable concentra

concentration based on immeasurable good will, compassion, appreciation, or equanimity]. When, wise & mindful, one has developed immeasurable concentration, five realiza tions arise right within oneself. Which five?
tion
[i.e.,
"The

tion

is blissful

realization arises right within oneself that This concentra in the present and will result in bliss in the future/

"The realization arises right within oneself that This con not connected with the baits of the flesh/ centration is noble "The realization arises right within oneself that This con

&

centration is not obtained by base people/ "The realization arises right within oneself that This con centration is peaceful, exquisite, the acquiring of serenity, the attainment of unity, not kept in place by the fabrications of
forceful restraint/
"The

realization arises right within oneself that

I

enter into

this concentration mindfully,

and mindfully I emerge from it/ "Wise & mindful, you should develop immeasurable con centration. When, wise & mindful, one has developed immeasurable concentration, these five realizations arise right
within oneself/
See also:
7

SN XLII.8; AN 111.66; AN
Iti

VI.13;

AN VIII.63; AN XI.16;

Khp 9; Iti 22;

27;

Thag

VI.2

V.28 The Factors of Concentration
I

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying Grove, Anathapindika s monastery. There he addressed the monks, "Monks, I will teach you the five-fac tored noble right concentration. Listen and pay close attention. I
at Savatthi, in Jeta s

will

speak."
"As

you say, lord," the monks replied. The Blessed One said: "Now what, monks, is five-factored noble right concentration? There is the case where a monk quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful quali ties enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure

rp

Fives

born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evalu ation. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal.
"Just

as

if

a skilled

bathman

or

bathman

s

apprentice

would

pour bath powder into a brass basin and knead it together, sprin kling it again and again with water, so that his ball of bath powder saturated, moisture-laden, permeated within and with out would nevertheless not drip; even so, the monk permeates, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture & pleasure born of withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal. This is the first devel opment of the five-factored noble right concentration. "Then, with the stilling of directed thought & evaluation, he enters and remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought and evaluation internal assurance. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture & pleasure born of composure. There is nothing of his entire body

& pleasure born of composure. with spring-water welling up from within, "Just having no inflow from east, west, north, or south, and with the skies periodically supplying abundant showers, so that the cool fount of water welling up from within the lake would permeate and pervade, suffuse and fill it with cool waters, there being no
unpervaded by rapture
like a lake

part of the lake unpervaded by the cool waters; even so, the monk permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture & pleasure born of composure. There is noth ing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture & pleasure born of composure. This is the second development of the five-factored noble right concentration. "Then, with the fading of rapture, he remains in equanimity,

mindful & alert, and physically sensitive to pleasure. He enters and remains in the third jhana, and of him the noble ones declare, Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding/ He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the pleasure divested of rapture, so that there is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture. in a blue-, white-, or red-lotus pond, there may be "Just as some of the blue, white, or red lotuses which, born and growing

Fives

in the water, stay

immersed

in the

water and flourish without

standing up out of the water, so that they are permeated and pervaded, suffused and filled with cool water from their roots to their tips, and nothing of those blue, white, or red lotuses would be unpervaded with cool water; even so, the monk per meates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the pleasure divested of rapture. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture. This is the third development of the five-factored noble right concentration.
"Then,

with the abandoning of pleasure & stress as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress he enters and remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. He sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright awareness, so that there is nothing of his

body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness. as if a man were sitting wrapped from head to foot with a white cloth so that there would be no part of his body to which the white cloth did not extend; even so, the monk sits, permeating his body with a pure, bright awareness. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright aware
entire
"Just

ness. This

is

the fourth development of the five-factored noble

right concentration. "And furthermore, the monk has his theme of reflection well in hand, well attended to, well-considered, well-tuned (wellpenetrated) by means of discernment. if one person were to reflect on another, or a stand "Just as were to reflect on a sitting person, or a sitting person ing person were to reflect on a person lying down; even so, monks, the

monk has his theme

of reflection well in hand, well attended to, well-tuned (well-penetrated) by means of dis well-pondered, cernment. This is the fifth development of the five-factored noble right concentration. "When a monk has developed and pursued the five-factored noble right concentration in this way, then whichever of the six

higher knowledges he turns his mind to know and realize, he can witness them for himself whenever there is an opening. set on a stand, brimful "Suppose that there were a water jar, of water so that a crow could drink from it. If a strong man were
to tip
it

in

any way

at

all,

would water

spill

out?"

"Yes, lord."

Fi ves

the same way, when a monk has developed and pursued the five-factored noble right concentration in this way, then whichever of the six higher knowledges he turns his mind to know and realize, he can witness them for himself whenever
"In

there

is

an opening.
there

were a rectangular water tank set on level brimful of water so that a crow could drink from it. If a strong man were to loosen the dikes anywhere at all, would water spill out?"
"Suppose

ground, bounded by dikes

"Yes, lord."

the same way, when a monk has developed and pursued the five-factored noble right concentration in this way, then whichever of the six higher knowledges he turns his mind to know and realize, he can witness them for himself whenever
"In

there

is

an opening.

a chariot on level ground at four cross "Suppose there were roads, harnessed to thoroughbreds, waiting with whips lying ready, so that a skilled driver, a trainer of tamable horses, might mount and taking the reins with his left hand and the whip with his right drive out and back, to whatever place and by whichever road he liked; in the same way, when a monk has developed and pursued the five-factored noble right concentra tion in this way, then whichever of the six higher knowledges he turns his mind to know and realize, he can witness them for himself whenever there is an opening.

he wants, he wields manifold supranormal powers. Having been one he becomes many; having been many he becomes one. He appears. He vanishes. He goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space. He dives in and out of the earth as if it were water. He walks on water without sinking as if it were dry land. Sitting cross-legged he flies through the air like a winged bird. With his hand he touches and strokes even the sun and moon, so mighty and powerful. He exercises influence with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening. he wants, he hears by means of the divine ear-element, purified and surpassing the human both kinds of sounds: divine and human, whether near or far. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening.
"If
"If

Fives

he wants, he knows the awareness of other beings, other individuals, having encompassed it with his own awareness. He discerns a mind with passion as a mind with passion, and a
"If

mind without passion as a mind without passion. He discerns a mind with aversion as a mind with aversion, and a mind with out aversion as a mind without aversion. He discerns a mind with delusion as a mind with delusion, and a mind without delusion as a mind without delusion. He discerns a restricted mind as a restricted mind, and a scattered mind as a scattered mind. He discerns an enlarged mind as an enlarged mind, and an unenlarged mind as an unenlarged mind. He discerns an excelled mind [one that is not at the most excellent level] as an excelled mind, and an unexcelled mind as an unexcelled mind. He discerns a concentrated mind as a concentrated mind, and an unconcentrated mind as an unconcentrated mind. He dis cerns a released mind as a released mind, and an unreleased mind as an unreleased mind. He can witness this for himself
whenever there
"If

is an opening. he wants, he recollects his manifold past lives (lit: previ ous homes), i.e., one birth, two births, three births, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, one hundred, one thousand, one hundred thousand, many aeons of cosmic contraction, many

aeons of cosmic expansion, many aeons of cosmic contraction & expansion, [recollecting], There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure & pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure & pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose here/ Thus he remembers his manifold past lives in their modes and details. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening. he wants, he sees by means of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the human beings passing away and re
"If

beautiful

appearing, and he discerns & ugly, fortunate

they are inferior & superior, unfortunate in accordance with their kamma: These beings who were endowed with bad con duct of body, speech, & mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views with the break-up of the body, after death, have

how

&

re-appeared in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the

"54

Fives

lower realms, in hell. But these beings who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech, & mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influence of right views with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the good destinations, in the heavenly world/ Thus by means of the divine eye, puri fied and surpassing the human he sees beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior & supe rior, beautiful & ugly, fortunate & unfortunate in accordance with their kamma. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening. he wants, then through the ending of the fermentations, he enters & remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release
"If

&

discernment-release, having directly

for himself right in the here
self

known & realized them & now. He can witness this for him
monks

whenever there
That
is

is

an opening/

the Blessed One said. Gratified, the in the Blessed One s words. delighted

what

See also: DN 2; SN XXXV.99; AN 171.74; AN IV.41; AN VIII.63; AN IX.35; AN IX.36

V.34 General Siha

(On Giving)

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Vesali, in the Great Forest, at the Gabled Pavilion. Then General Siha went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he it said to the Blessed One: possible, lord, to point out a fruit of giving visible in the here & now?"
"Is "It

is
is

possible, Siha.

One who
to

giving,

dear
gives,

&

gives,

charming
is

people

at large.

who is And

a master of the fact that

a master of giving, is dear charming to now. at large: this is a fruit of giving visible in the here people of integrity, admire one "Furthermore, good people, people who gives, who is a master of giving. And the fact that good people, people of integrity, admire one who gives, who is a master of giving: this, too, is a fruit of giving visible in the here & now. "Furthermore, the fine reputation of one who is gives, who is a master of giving, is spread far & wide. And the fact that the fine

one

who

who

&

&

Fives

reputation of one who gives, who is a master of giving, is spread far wide: this, too, is a fruit of giving visible in the here & now.

&

"Furthermore,

when one who
any assembly

giving, approaches

gives, who is a master of of people noble warriors,

brahmans, householders, or contemplatives
confidently

he/she does so without embarrassment. And the fact that when one who gives, who is a master of giving, approaches any assem noble warriors, brahmans, householders, or bly of people contemplatives he/she does so confidently & without embar rassment: this, too, is a fruit of giving visible in the here & now. "Furthermore, at the break-up of the body, after death, one who gives, who is a master of giving, reappears in a good desti nation, the heavenly world. And the fact that at the break-up of the body, after death, one who gives, who is a master of giving, reappears in a good destination, the heavenly world: this is a fruit of giving in the next When this was said, General Siha said to the Blessed One:

&

life."

"As

for the four fruits of giving visible in the here

& now

that

have been pointed out by the Blessed One, it s not the case that I go by conviction in the Blessed One with regard to them. I know them, too. I am one who gives, a master of giving, dear & charm ing to people at large. I am one who gives, a master of giving; good people, people of integrity, admire me. I am one who gives, a master of giving, and my fine reputation is spread far & wide: Siha is one who gives, a doer, a supporter of the Sarigha. I am one who gives, a master of giving, and when I approach any assembly of people noble warriors, brahmans, householders, or contemplatives I do so confidently & without embarrassment. "But when the Blessed One says to me, At the break-up of the body, after death, one who gives, who is a master of giving, reappears in a good destination, the heavenly world/ that I do not know. That is where I go by conviction in the Blessed One." it is, Siha. So it is. At the break-up of the body, after death, one who gives, who is a master of giving, reappears in a good destination, the heavenly world."
"So

One who gives is dear.
People at large admire him. He gains honor. His status grows. He enters an assembly unembarrassed.

He is confident

the

man unmiserly.

136

Fives

Therefore the wise give gifts. Seeking bliss, they would subdue the stain
of miserliness. Established in the three-fold heavenly world, they enjoy themselves long in fellowship with the devas.

Having made the opportunity having done what is skillful,
then

for themselves,

when they fall from here they fare on, self-radiant, in Nandana
[the

garden of the devas].

There they delight, enjoy, are joyful, replete with the five sensuality strings. Having followed the words of the sage they enjoy themselves in heaven
disciples of the

who is Such,

One Well-gone.

See also:

SN III 19-20; AN 111.58; AN VIL49; AN VIII.54; Hi 26

THE VERSES FROM THE THREE DISCOURSES MARKED WITH ASTERISKS BELOW ARE OFTEN CHANTED BY MONKS AS BLESSINGS AT MEALS OR OTHER OFFERINGS.
V.36 Seasonable Gifts*
"There

are these five seasonable
to

gifts.

Which

five?

One

gives to
to

a

newcomer. One gives

one going away. One gives

one

who is ill. One gives in time of famine. One sets the first fruits of field & orchard in front of those who are virtuous. These are the
five seasonable gifts/

In the proper season they give those with discernment,

responsive, free from stinginess. Having been given in proper season, with hearts inspired by the noble ones
straightened,
their offering bears

Such an abundance.

ives Fi

1-57

Those

who rejoice in that gift

or give assistance, have a share of the merit, and the offering isn t depleted by that. So, with an unhesitant mind, one should give where the gift bears great fruit.
they, too,

Merit

is what establishes living beings in the next life.

V.37AMeal*
Which
giving a meal, the donor gives five things to the recipient. five? He/she gives life, beauty, happiness, strength, & quick- wittedness. Having given life, he/she has a share in long life, either human or divine. Having given beauty, he/she has a share in beauty, either human or divine. Having given happi ness, he/she has a share in happiness, either human or divine. Having given strength, he/she has a share in strength, either human or divine. Having given quick-wittedness, he/she has a share in quick- wittedness, either human or divine. In giving a meal, the donor gives these five things to the recipient/
"In

The enlightened person giving

strength, beauty, quick-wittedness the wise person, a giver of happiness attains happiness himself.
life,

strength, beauty, happiness, & quick-wittedness, he has long life & status
life,

Having given

wherever he
See also:

arises.

AN VM; Hi 26

V.38 Conviction
"For

a lay person, there are these five rewards of conviction. the truly

Which five?
"When

good people

in the

world show compas
people of conviction, visiting, they first

sion, they will first show compassion to and not to people without conviction.

When

138

Fives

visit

When

people of conviction, and not people without conviction. accepting gifts, they will first accept those from people with conviction, and not from people without conviction. When teaching the Dhamma, they will first teach those with convic tion, and not those without conviction. A person of conviction, on the break-up of the body, after death, will arise in a good destination, the heavenly world. For a lay person, these are the five rewards of conviction.
"Just as a large banyan tree, on level ground where four roads meet, is a haven for the birds all around, even so a lay person of conviction is a haven for many people: monks, nuns, male lay followers, & female lay followers/

A massive tree
whose branches
carry fruits

& leaves,
rest.

with trunks & roots & an abundance of fruits: There the birds find
In that delightful sphere

they make their home. Those seeking shade

come to the shade, those seeking fruit find fruit to eat.
So with the person consummate
in virtue

& conviction,

humble,

sensitive, gentle,

delightful,

& mild:

To him come those without fermentation free from passion, free from aversion, free from delusion
the field of merit for the world.

They teach him the
that dispels

Dhamma

all stress.

And when he understands,
he
is

freed from fermentations,
totally

unbound.

See also:

Iti

107

ives Fi

V.41 Benefits to be Obtained (from Wealth)*

Then Anathapindika the householder went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there the Blessed One said to him: "There are these five benefits that can be obtained from wealth. Which five? "There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones the wealth earned through his efforts & enterprise, using amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through
provides himself with pleasure & satisfaction, and maintains that pleasure rightly. He provides his mother & father with pleasure & satisfaction, and maintains that pleasure rightly. He
provides his children, his wife, his slaves, servants, & assistants with pleasure & satisfaction, and maintains that pleasure rightly. This is the first benefit that can be obtained from wealth. "Furthermore, the disciple of the noble ones using the wealth earned through his efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat of his brow, righteous wealth righteously gained provides his friends & associates with pleasure & satisfaction, and maintains that pleasure rightly. This is the second benefit that can be obtained from wealth. "Furthermore, the disciple of the noble ones using the wealth earned through his efforts & enterprise, amassed
the sweat of his brow, righteous wealth righteously gained

through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat of his brow, righteous wealth righteously gained wards off from calamities coming from fire, flood, kings, thieves, or hate

and keeps himself can be obtained from wealth.
ful heirs,

safe.

This

is

the third benefit that

"Furthermore, the disciple of the noble ones using the wealth earned through his efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat

of his brow, righteous wealth righteously gained performs the devas. This five oblations: to relatives, guests, the dead, kings, is the fourth benefit that can be obtained from wealth.

&

"Furthermore, the disciple of the noble ones using the wealth earned through his efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat institutes of his brow, righteous wealth righteously gained offerings of supreme aim, heavenly, resulting in happiness,

140

Fives

leading to heaven, given to priests & contemplatives who abstain from intoxication & heedlessness, who endure all things with patience & humility, each taming himself, each restraining him self, each taking himself to Unbinding. This is the fifth benefit that can be obtained from wealth. it so happens that, when a disciple of the noble ones obtains these five benefits from wealth, his wealth goes to deple tion, the thought occurs to him, Even though my wealth has gone to depletion, I have obtained the five benefits that can be obtained from wealth/ and he feels no remorse. If it so happens that, when a disciple of the noble ones obtains these five benefits from wealth, his wealth increases, the thought occurs to him, I have obtained the five benefits that can be obtained from wealth, and my wealth has increased/ and he feels no remorse. So he feels no remorse in either case/
"If

My wealth has been enjoyed, my dependents supported,
I

I

protected from calamities by me. have given supreme offerings & performed the five oblations. have provided for the virtuous,

the restrained, followers of the celibate life. For whatever aim a wise householder would desire wealth, that aim have I attained. I have done what will not lead to future distress/

When this is recollected by a mortal,
a person established in the Dhamma of the noble ones,

he

is

praised in this life and, after death, rejoices in heaven.

See also:

SN 111.19; AN IV.62; AN VI.45; AN VII.6-7
is

V.43

What

Welcome

Then Anathapindika the householder went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there the Blessed One said to him: "These five things,

Fives

141

householder, are welcome, agreeable, pleasant, in the world. Which five?
"Long

& hard to obtain

life is

welcome, agreeable, pleasant,

& hard

to obtain

in the world.
"Beauty is

welcome, agreeable, pleasant,

& hard to obtain in &
hard to

the world.
"Happiness is

welcome, agreeable, pleasant,

obtain in the world.
"Status

is

welcome, agreeable, pleasant,

&

hard to obtain in

the world.
"Rebirth

in

heaven

is

welcome, agreeable, pleasant,

&

hard

to obtain in the world.

you, these five things are not to be obtained by If they were to be obtained by reason of prayers or wishes, who here would lack them? It s not fitting for the disciple of the noble ones who desires long life to
"Now, I tell

reason of prayers or wishes.

pray for it or to delight in doing so. Instead, the disciple of the noble ones who desires long life should follow the path of prac tice leading to long life. In so doing, he will attain long life, either

human or divine.
noble ones who desires or to delight in doing so. Instead, the disci beauty pray ple of the noble ones who desires beauty should follow the path of practice leading to beauty. In so doing, he will attain beauty, either human or divine. s not fitting for the disciple of the noble ones who desires happiness to pray for it or to delight in doing so. Instead, the disciple of the noble ones who desires happiness should follow the path of practice leading to happiness. In so doing, he will attain happiness, either human or divine. s not fitting for the disciple of the noble ones who desires status to pray for it or to delight in doing so. Instead, the disci ple of the noble ones who desires status should follow the path of practice leading to status. In so doing, he will attain status, either human or divine. s not fitting for the disciple of the noble ones who desires rebirth in heaven to pray for it or to delight in doing so. Instead, the disciple of the noble ones who desires rebirth in heaven should follow the path of practice leading to rebirth in heaven. In so doing, he will attain rebirth in heaven."
"It

s

not

fitting for the disciple of the

to

for

it

"It

"It

"It

Fives

beauty, status, honor, heaven, high birth: To those who delight
life,

Long

in aspiring for these things in great measure, continuously,

the wise praise needfulness in making merit.

The wise person, heedful,
acquires a two-fold welfare: welfare in this life & welfare in the next. breaking through to his welfare

By

he

s called enlightened, wise.

See also:

MN 126; SN XXIL101; SN XLIL6
(On
Grief)

V.49 The Kosalan

This discourse gives the Buddha s recommendations for dealing with grief. The passage discussing eulogies, chants, etc., is a reference to funeral customs designed to channel the feelings of the bereaved in a
productive direction. As the Buddha notes, as long as these seem to be serving a purpose, engage in them. Once they no longer seem to be serving a purpose, and one finds that one is indulging in grief, one should return to the important duties of one s life.

Once the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi in Jeta s Grove, Anathapindika s monastery. Then King Pasenadi the Kosalan went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down, sat to one side. Now, at that time Queen Mallika died. Then a certain man went to the king and whispered in his ear: "Your majesty, Queen Mallika has died/ When this was said, King Pasenadi the Kosalan sat there miserable, sick at heart, his shoulders drooping, his face down, brooding, at a loss for words. Then the Blessed One saw the king sitting there miser at a loss for words, and so said to him, able, sick at heart "There are these five things, great king, that cannot be gotten by
...

a contemplative, a priest, a deva, a Mara, a Brahma, or anyone at all in the world. Which five?

Fives

May what is subject to aging not age/ This is something that cannot be gotten by a contemplative, a priest, a deva, a Mara, a Brahma, or anyone at all in the world.
"

is subject to illness not grow ill/ This is some that cannot be gotten by a contemplative, a priest, a deva, thing a Mara, a Brahma, or anyone at all in the world.
"

May what

what is subject to death not die/ This is something "May that cannot be gotten by a contemplative, a priest, a deva, a Mara, a Brahma, or anyone at all in the world.

May what is subject to ending not end/ This is something that cannot be gotten by a contemplative, a priest, a deva, a Mara, a Brahma, or anyone at all in the world.
"

"May

what

is

something
"Now, it

is subject to destruction not be destroyed/ This that cannot be gotten by a contemplative, a priest,

a deva, a Mara, a Brahma, or anyone at
to

all

in the world.

past & future, passing away & re-arising it happens to them that what is subject to aging will age. And if, with the aging of what is subject to aging, I were to sorrow, grieve, lament, beat my breast, & become distraught, food would not agree with me, my body would become unattractive, my affairs would go untended, my enemies would be gratified and my friends unhappy/ So, with the aging of what is subject to aging, he sor rows, grieves, laments, beats his breast, & becomes distraught. This is called an ordinary uninstructed person pierced by the

an ordinary uninstructed person that happens that is subject to aging ages. With the aging of what is something subject to aging, he doesn t reflect: It doesn t happen only to me that what is subject to aging will age. To the extent that there are
all

beings
of

poisoned arrow of sorrow, tormenting himself. "Furthermore, it happens to an ordinary uninstructed person that something that is subject to illness grows ill ... that something subject to death dies ... that something subject to ending ends ... that something subject to destruction is
destroyed. With the destruction of
tion,
is

what

is

subject to destruc

doesn t happen only to me that what to destruction will be destroyed. To the extent that subject
he doesn
t reflect:

It

happens

there are beings to all of

past

them
if,

future, passing away re-arising that what is subject to destruction will
is

&

&

it

be

destroyed.
destruction,

And
I

with the destruction of what
to sorrow, grieve, lament, beat

subject to

were

become

distraught, food

would not agree with

my breast, & me, my body

144

Fives

would become unattractive, my affairs would go untended, my enemies would be gratified and my friends unhappy/ So, with the destruction of what is subject to destruction, he sorrows, grieves, laments, beats his breast, & becomes distraught. This is called an ordinary uninstructed person pierced by the poisoned
arrow of sorrow, tormenting himself. "Now, it happens to an instructed disciple of the noble ones that something that is subject to aging ages. With the aging of what is subject to aging, he reflects: It doesn t happen only to me that what is subject to aging will age. To the extent that there
are beings

past

&

future, passing

away &

re-arising

it

hap

pens to all of them that what is subject to aging will age. And if, with the aging of what is subject to aging, I were to sorrow, grieve, lament, beat my breast, & become distraught, food would not agree with me, my body would become unattractive, my affairs would go untended, my enemies would be gratified and my friends unhappy/ So, with the aging of what is subject to aging, he doesn t sorrow, grieve, or lament, doesn t beat his breast or become distraught. This is called an instructed disciple of the noble ones who has pulled out the poisoned arrow of sorrow pierced with which the ordinary uninstructed person torments himself. Sorrowless, arrowless, the disciple of the noble ones is totally unbound right within himself. "Furthermore, it happens to an instructed disciple of the noble ones that something that is subject to illness grows ill that something subject to death dies that something subject to ending ends ... that something subject to destruction is
... ...

destroyed. With the destruction of
tion,

he

reflects:

It

doesn

t

what is subject to destruc happen only to me that what is

subject to destruction will be destroyed. To the extent that there are beings past future, passing away re-arising it hap pens to all of them that what is subject to destruction will be destroyed. And if, with the destruction of what is subject to

&

&

destruction,

I

were

to sorrow, grieve, lament, beat

my breast, &

become distraught, food would not agree with me, my body would become unattractive, my affairs would go untended, my enemies would be gratified and my friends unhappy/ So, with the destruction of what is subject to destruction, he doesn t sorrow, grieve, or lament, doesn t beat his breast or become dis
traught. This

who

is called an instructed disciple of the noble ones has pulled out the poisoned arrow of sorrow pierced with

F,ives

145-

which the ordinary uninstructed person torments himself.
Sorrowless, arrowless, the disciple of the noble ones is totally unbound right within himself. "These are the five things, great king, that cannot be gotten by a contemplative, a priest, a deva, a Mara, a Brahma, or anyone at all in the world."

Not by sorrowing, not by lamenting, is any aim accomplished here, not even a bit.

Knowing you

re sorrowing & in pain, enemies are gratified. your

But when a sage with a sense for determining what is his aim doesn t waver in the face of misfortune, his enemies are pained,
seeing his face unchanged, as of old.

Where

& however an aim is accomplished
good sayings, donations, & family customs, diligently there & that way.
eulogies, chants,

through
follow them

But

if

you discern that
is

your

own aim

or that of others

not gained in this way, acquiesce [to the nature of things]

unsorrowing, with the thought: What important work am I doing now?
See also:

SN XLVIL13; Ud V.I; Ud VIII.8; Sn 1118; Thig 111.5; Thig VI.l

V.51 Obstacles

On

Jeta s

one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi, in Grove, Anathapindika s Monastery. There he addressed the monks, "Monks!"
"Yes, lord,"

the

monks

replied to the Blessed One.

,

46

ives

The Blessed One said: "These five are obstacles, hindrances overwhelm awareness and weaken discernment. Which five? "Sensual desire is an obstacle, a hindrance that overwhelms awareness and weakens discernment. Ill will Sloth & drowsi ness ... Restlessness & anxiety ... Uncertainty is an obstacle, a hindrance that overwhelms awareness and weakens discern ment. These are the five obstacles, hindrances that overwhelm awareness and weaken discernment. And when a monk has not abandoned these five obstacles, hindrances that overwhelm awareness and weaken discernment, when he is without strength and weak in discernment: for him to understand what is for his own benefit, to understand what is for the benefit of others, to understand what is for the benefit of both, to realize a superior human state, a truly noble distinction in knowledge &
that
. . .

vision: that is impossible.
river, flowing down from the moun current swift, carrying everything with going it and a man would open channels leading away from it on both sides, so that the current in the middle of the river would be
"Suppose

there

were a

tains

far, its

dispersed, diffused, & dissipated; it wouldn t go far, its current wouldn t be swift, and it wouldn t carry everything with it. In the same way, when a monk has not abandoned these five obsta cles, hindrances that overwhelm awareness and weaken discernment, when he is without strength and weak in discern ment for him to understand what is for his own benefit, to understand what is for the benefit of others, to understand what
is

for the benefit of both, to realize a superior human state, a vision: that is impossible. truly noble distinction in knowledge

&

has abandoned these five obstacles, hindrances that overwhelm awareness and weaken discern ment, when he is strong in discernment: for him to understand what is for his own benefit, to understand what is for the benefit of others, to understand what is for the benefit of both, to realize a superior human state, a truly noble distinction in knowledge
"Now,

when

a

monk

& vision: that is possible.
"Suppose

there

were a

river,

flowing

down from

the

moun

current swift, carrying everything with it and going a man would close the channels leading away from it on both sides, so that the current in the middle of the river would be undispersed, undiffused, undissipated; it would go far, its current
tains
far, its

&

everything with it. In the same way, when a monk has abandoned these five obstacles, hindrances that overwhelm
swift, carrying

Fives

47

awareness and weaken discernment, when he is strong in dis cernment: for him to understand what is for his own benefit, to understand what is for the benefit of others, to understand what
for the benefit of both, to realize a superior human state, a vision: that is possible." truly noble distinction in knowledge
is

&

See also:

DN 2; SN XLVL51; AN IX.64

V.53 Factors (for Exertion)
are the five factors for exertion. Which five? is the case where a monk has conviction, is con vinced of the Tathagata s Awakening: Indeed, the Blessed One is pure rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the world, unex celled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of human beings, awakened, blessed/ divine
"These

"There

&

&

&

"He

is free

from

illness

&

discomfort,

endowed with good
fit

digestion
"He

not too cold, not too hot, of moderate strength

for exertion.
is

to the Teacher or to his

neither fraudulent nor deceitful. He declares himself wise friends in the holy life in line with

what he
"He

actually is. keeps his energy aroused for
skillful

abandoning unskillful
mental
qualities.

mental qualities and taking on

He

is

steadfast, solid in his effort, not shirking his duties with regard to skillful mental qualities.
is discerning, endowed with discernment leading to the of the goal noble, penetrating, leading to the right arising ending of stress. "These are the five factors for exertion."
"He

See also:

AN VIII.80; Sn 1112; Thag 1.39

V.57 Subjects for Contemplation
are these five facts that one should reflect on often, is a woman or a man, lay or ordained. Which five? I am subject to aging, have not gone beyond aging/ This is the first fact that one should reflect on often
"There
"

whether one

.

.

148

Fives

"

I
"

I
"

am subject to illness, have not gone beyond illness am subject to death, have not gone beyond death
will

.... ....

I

grow

different, separate
of

from

all

that

is

dear

&

appealing to
"

me

....

I

am

the

owner

my

actions (kamma), heir to

my

actions,

born of

heir .... are the five facts that one should reflect on often, whether one is a woman or a man, lay or ordained. "Now, based on what line of reasoning should one often reflect... that I am subject to aging, have not gone beyond aging ? There are beings who are intoxicated with a [typical] youth s intoxication with youth. Because of that intoxication with youth, they conduct themselves in a bad way in body... in speech... and in mind. But when they often reflect on that fact, that youth s intoxication with youth will either be entirely aban doned or grow weaker.... "Now, based on what line of reasoning should one often
I fall
"These

actions that will

my as my

actions, related through
arbitrator.

Whatever

I

actions, and have for good or for evil, to do,

my

my

that I am subject to illness, have not gone beyond ill There are beings who are intoxicated with a [typical] healthy person s intoxication with health. Because of that intoxi cation with health, they conduct themselves in a bad way in body... in speech... and in mind. But when they often reflect on that fact, that healthy person s intoxication with health will either be entirely abandoned or grow weaker.... "Now, based on what line of reasoning should one often reflect... that I am subject to death, have not gone beyond death ? There are beings who are intoxicated with a [typical] living person s intoxication with life. Because of that intoxica tion with life, they conduct themselves in a bad way in body... in speech.. .and in mind. But when they often reflect on that fact, that living person s intoxication with life will either be entirely
reflect... ?

ness

abandoned or grow weaker.... "Now, based on what line of reasoning should one often reflect... that I will grow different, separate from all that is dear

& passion Because of that pas appealing. sion, they conduct themselves in a bad way in body.. .in speech... and in mind. But when they often reflect on that fact, that desire & passion for the things they find dear & appealing will either be entirely abandoned or grow weaker....
appealing to

&

me

?

There are beings

who

feel desire

for the things they find dear

&

Fives

49

based on what line of reasoning should one often 1 am the owner of my actions, heir to my actions, born of my actions, related through my actions, and have my actions as my arbitrator. Whatever I do, for good or for evil, to
"Now,

reflect...

that

heir ? There are beings who conduct themselves speech.. .and in mind. But when they that bad conduct in body, speech, mind will either be entirely abandoned or grow weaker.... I am not "Now, a disciple of the noble ones considers this:
that will
in a
I fall

bad way in body. .in often reflect on that fact,

&

the only one subject to aging, who has not gone beyond aging. To the extent that there are beings past & future, passing away & re-arising all beings are subject to aging, have not gone beyond aging/ When he/she often reflects on this, the [factors of the] path take birth. He/she sticks with that path, develops it, cultivates it. As he/she sticks with that path, develops it, & cul tivates it, the fetters are abandoned, the obsessions destroyed. "Further, a disciple of the noble ones considers this: 1 am not the only one subject to illness, who has not gone beyond ill ness .... I am not the only one subject to death, who has not gone beyond death .... I am not the only one who will grow dif ferent, separate from all that is dear & appealing to me ....
"A

one

my my

disciple of the noble ones considers this: I am not the only is the owner of actions, heir to actions, born of actions as actions, related through actions, and have

who

my my

my

my

do, for good or for evil, to that will I fall heir. To the extent that there are beings past future, all beings are the owners of their passing away re-arising actions, heir to their actions, born of their actions, related through their actions, and have their actions as their arbitrator. Whatever they do, for good or for evil, to that will they fall heir. When he/she often reflects on this, the [factors of the] path take
arbitrator;
I

who whatever

&

&

birth.

he/she
ters

sticks with that path, develops it, cultivates it. As with that path, develops it, & cultivates it, the fet are abandoned, the obsessions destroyed."

He/she
sticks

"Subject

to birth, subject to aging, subject to death,

ordinary people
are repelled

by those who

suffer

from that to which they are subject. And if I were to be repelled

by beings

subject to these things,

Fives

it

would not be

fitting for
do."

me,

living as they

As I maintained this attitude knowing the Dhamma
without acquisitions
I overcame all intoxication with health, youth, & life as one who sees

renunciation as security,
rest.

For me, energy arose,

Unbinding was clearly There s now no way
I

seen.

could partake of sensuality. Having followed the celibate I will not return."
See also:

life,

AN 117.39; AN X.48

V.64 Growth
This discourse helps to explain why, in the pre-modern period, Theravada countries enjoyed the world s highest female literacy rates.
"A female disciple of the noble ones who grows in terms of these five types of growth grows in the noble growth, grasps hold of what is essential, what is excellent in the body. Which five? She grows in terms of conviction, in terms of virtue, in terms of learn

terms of generosity, in terms of discernment. Growing in terms of these five types of growth, the female disciple of the noble ones grows in the noble growth, grasps hold of what is
ing, in essential,

what

is

excellent in the body.
in conviction

& virtue, discernment, generosity, & learning,
"Growing

a virtuous female lay disciple such as this takes hold of the essence within
See also:

herself."

AN VII. 6; AN VIII.54

F, ives
15-1

V.73

One Who Dwells

in the

Dhamma

monk went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One, One who dwells in the Dhamma, one who dwells in the Dhamma thus it is said, lord. To what extent is a bhikkhu one who dwells in the Dhamma?" "Monk, there is the case where a monk studies the Dhamma:
Then
a certain

having bowed

"

:

dialogues, narratives of mixed prose and verse, explanations, verses, spontaneous exclamations, quotations, birth stories, amazing events, question & answer sessions [the earliest classi fications of the Buddha s teachings]. He spends the day in

Dhamma-study. He neglects

seclusion.

He doesn t commit him

self to internal tranquility of

who is

awareness. This is called a monk keen on study, not one who dwells in the Dhamma.
there

"Then

he has heard

&

is the case where a monk takes the Dhamma as studied it and teaches it in full detail to others.

He spends the day in Dhamma-description. He neglects seclu sion. He doesn t commit himself to internal tranquility of awareness. This is called a monk who is keen on description, not one who dwells in the Dhamma. "Then there is the case where a monk takes the Dhamma as he has heard & studied it and recites it in full detail. He spends
the day in Dhamma-recitation. He neglects seclusion. He doesn t commit himself to internal tranquility of awareness. This is called a monk who is keen on recitation, not one who dwells in the Dhamma.
"Then

there

is

the case

where a monk takes the

Dhamma

as

he has heard & studied it and thinks about it, evaluates it, and examines it with his intellect. He spends the day in Dhammathinking. He neglects seclusion. He doesn t commit himself to
internal tranquility of awareness. This is called a monk keen on thinking, not one who dwells in the Dhamma.

who

is

"Then there is the case where a monk studies the Dhamma: dialogues, narratives of mixed prose and verse, explanations, verses, spontaneous exclamations, quotations, birth stories, amazing events, question & answer sessions [the earliest classi fications of the Buddha s teachings]. He doesn t spend the day in Dhamma-study. He doesn t neglect seclusion. He commits himself to internal tranquility of awareness. This is called a monk who dwells in the Dhamma.

Fives

"Now, monk, I have taught you the person who is keen on study, the one who is keen on description, the one who is keen on recitation, the one who is keen on thinking, and the one who dwells in the Dhamma. Whatever a teacher should do seeking

have

the welfare of his disciples, out of sympathy for them that I done for you. Over there are the roots of trees; over there, empty dwellings. Practice jhana, monk. Don t be heedless. Don t later fall into regret. This is our message to you."
See also:

AN VIL64

V.75 The Warrior (1)
This discourse is addressed to monks, and deals with their battle to maintain their celibacy and to come out victorious in the practice. The Buddha compares the victorious monk to a victorious warrior, an anal ogy that was probably intended to appeal to the monks masculine VIL48). In this analogy, a celibate is not a wimp, but is pride (see instead a warrior to the highest degree. Because the first confrontation for a man trying to maintain his celibacy involves his attraction to

AN

women, women play the role of first-line enemy in this discourse. Unfortunately, we have no record of how the Buddha advised his nun followers on how to maintain their celibacy, so we don t know if he would have used a woman-warrior analogy when teaching them to resist their attraction to men, or if he would have replaced it with
another analogy
to appeal more specifically to their feminine pride VIL48). However, there are discourses in the Pali (again, see Canon that depict nuns as successfully maintaining their celibacy when confronted by men in the forest. prime example is Thig XIV;

AN

A

other examples of nuns resisting temptation are in the Bhikkhunl Samyutta. Ultimately, of course, the true enemy lies, not without, but
within. This why the monk in this discourse has to go off alone and put an end to the fermentation of sensual passion in his own mind before he can be considered truly victorious.
"Monks, there are these five types of warriors who can be found existing in the world. Which five? "There is the case of a warrior who, on seeing a cloud of dust

[stirred
self,

up by
t

can

the

first

the enemy army], falters, faints, doesn t steel him engage in the battle. Some warriors are like this. This is type of warrior who can be found existing in the world.

Fives

"Then there is the warrior who can handle the cloud of dust, but on seeing the top of the enemy s banner, he falters, faints, doesn t steel himself, can t engage in the battle. Some warriors are like this. This is the second type of warrior who can be found existing in the world. "Then there is the warrior who can handle the cloud of dust & the top of the enemy s banner, but on hearing the tumult [of the approaching forces], he falters, faints, doesn t steel himself, can t engage in the battle. Some warriors are like this. This is the third type of warrior who can be found existing in the world. "Then there is the warrior who can handle the cloud of dust, the top of the enemy s banner, & the tumult, but when in handto-hand combat he is struck and falls wounded. Some warriors are like this. This is the fourth type of warrior who can be found existing in the world. "Then there is the warrior who can handle the cloud of dust, the top of the enemy s banner, the tumult, & the hand-to-hand combat. On winning the battle, victorious in battle, he comes out

very head of the battle. Some warriors are like this. This is the fifth type of warrior who can be found existing in the world. "These are the five types of warriors who can be found existing in the world.
at the
"In

the

same way, monks,

there are these five warrior-like

people who can be found existing among the monks. Which five? [1] "There is the case of the monk who, on seeing a cloud of
dust, falters, faints, doesn t steel himself, can t continue in the celibate life. Declaring his weakness in the training, he leaves

and returns to the lower life. What is the cloud of dust for him? There is the case of the monk who hears, In that village or town over there is a woman or girl who is shapely, good-looking, charming, endowed with the foremost lotus-like
the training

complexion. On hearing this, he falters, faints, doesn t steel himself, can t continue in the celibate life. Declaring his weak ness in the training, he leaves the training and returns to the lower life. That, for him, is the cloud of dust. This person, I tell you, is like the warrior who, on seeing a cloud of dust, falters, faints, doesn t steel himself, can t engage in the battle. Some
people are like this. This is the first type of warrior-like person who can be found existing among the monks. [2] "Then there is the case of the monk who can handle the cloud of dust, but on seeing the top of the enemy s banner, he

Fives

doesn t steel himself, can t continue in the celibate Declaring his weakness in the training, he leaves the training and returns to the lower life. What is the top of the banner for him? There is the case of the monk who not only hears that In
falters, faints,
life.

that village or

town over

there

is

a

woman or girl who is shapely,
the foremost lotus-like

good-looking, charming, endowed with

sees for himself that in that village or town over complexion. there is a woman or girl who is shapely, good-looking, charming, endowed with the foremost lotus-like complexion. On seeing her, he falters, faints, doesn t steel himself, can t continue in the

He

Declaring his weakness in the training, he leaves the to the lower life. That, for him, is the top of the banner. This person, I tell you, is like the warrior who can handle the cloud of dust, but on seeing the top of the enemy s banner, he
celibate
life.

training and returns

falters, faints,

doesn

t

steel himself,
is

can

t

engage in the battle. Some

the second type of warrior-like person who can be found existing among the monks. [3] "Then there is the case of the monk who can handle the

people are like this. This

cloud of dust & the top of the enemy s banner, but on hearing the tumult [of the approaching forces], he falters, faints, doesn t steel himself, can t continue in the celibate life. Declaring his

weakness

in the training, he leaves the training and returns to the lower life. What is the tumult for him? There is the case of the monk who has gone to the wilderness, to the foot of a tree, or

A woman approaches him and giggles at out to him, laughs aloud, & teases him. On being gig him, gled at, called out to, laughed at, & teased by the woman, he falters, faints, doesn t steel himself, can t continue in the celibate
to

an empty building.
calls

Declaring his weakness in the training, he leaves the training to the lower life. That, for him, is the tumult. This I tell you, is like the warrior who can handle the cloud of person, dust & the top of the enemy s banner, but on hearing the tumult
life.

and returns

he

falters, faints,

Some people
person
"Then

doesn t steel himself, can t engage in the battle. are like this. This is the third type of warrior-like

handle the [4] cloud of dust, the top of the enemy s banner, & the tumult, but when in hand-to-hand combat he is struck and falls wounded. What is the hand-to-hand combat for him? There is the case of the monk who has gone to the wilderness, to the foot of a tree, or to

who can be found existing among the monks. there is the case of the monk who can

an empty building.

A woman

approaches him and

sits

down

rives

iff

right next to him, lies

over him.

When

she

sits

down right next to him, throws herself all down right next to him, lies down right

next to him, and throws herself all over him, he without renouncing the training, without declaring his weakness engages in sexual intercourse. This, for him, is hand-to-hand combat. This person, I tell you, is like the warrior who can handle
the tumult, the cloud of dust, the top of the enemy s banner, in hand-to-hand combat he is struck and falls but when wounded. Some people are like this. This is the fourth type of warrior-like person who can be found existing among the monks. [5] "Then there is the case of the monk who can handle the cloud of dust, the top of the enemy s banner, the tumult, hand-to-hand combat. On winning the battle, victorious in

&

&

battle,

he comes out

at the

very head of the

battle.

What

is

vic

tory in the battle for him? There is the case of the monk who has gone to the wilderness, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty woman approaches him and sits down right next to dwelling.

A

down right next him, When she sits down right
lies

him, and throws himself, and goes off where he will. "He resorts to a secluded dwelling place: the wilderness, the foot of a tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a charnel
air, a haystack. Having gone to the wilderness, the foot of a tree, or an empty building, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds his body erect, and brings mindfulness to the fore. "Abandoning covetousness with regard to the world, he dwells with an awareness devoid of covetousness. He cleanses his mind of covetousness. Abandoning ill will & anger, he

to him, throws herself all over him. next to him, lies down right next to herself all over him, he extricates himself, frees

ground, a forest grove, the open

dwells with an awareness devoid of ill will, sympathetic with the welfare of all living beings. He cleanses his mind of ill will & anger. Abandoning sloth & drowsiness, he dwells with an awareness devoid of sloth & drowsiness, mindful, alert, percipi ent of light. He cleanses his mind of sloth & drowsiness. Abandoning restlessness & anxiety, he dwells undisturbed, his

mind inwardly stilled. He cleanses his mind of restlessness & anxiety. Abandoning uncertainty, he dwells having crossed over
uncertainty, with no perplexity with regard to skillful mental qualities. He cleanses his mind of uncertainty. five hindrances, corruptions of "Having abandoned these

awareness that weaken discernment, then

quite

withdrawn

Fiives

from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful (mental) qualities he enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evalua tion. With the stilling of directed thought & evaluation, he enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of concentration, unification of awareness free from directed
evaluation internal assurance. With the fading of rapture, he remains in equanimity, mindful fully aware, and remains in the physically sensitive of pleasure. He enters third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, Equanimous

thought

&

& &

&

mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding/ With the abandoning of pleasure & pain as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of

equanimity
"With

& mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain.
mind thus concentrated,
purified,

his

&

unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, & attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental fermentations. He dis
actually present, that This is stress ... This is the of stress ... This is the cessation of stress ... This is the origination way leading to the cessation of stress ... These are mental fermen
cerns, as
it is

bright,

This is the origination of fermentations ... This is the cessation of fermentations ... This is the way leading to the cessa tion of fermentations/ His heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, is released from the fermentation of sensuality, the fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With release, there is the knowledge, Released/ He discerns that Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world/ "This, for him, is victory in the battle. This person, I tell you, is like the warrior who can handle the cloud of dust, the top of the enemy s banner, the tumult, & hand-to-hand combat. On win ning the battle, victorious in battle, he comes out at the very head of the battle. Some people are like this. This is the fifth type of warrior-like person who can be found existing among the monks. "These are the five warrior-like people who can be found
tations
...

existing

among the monks/

Fi ives

V.76 The Warrior (2)
See the introduction to the preceding discourse.

there are these five types of warriors who can be found in the world. Which five? existing "There is the case of a warrior who taking his sword shield, strapping on his bow quiver goes down into the
"Monks,

&

&

thick of battle. There in the battle he strives

& makes effort.

But

while he
the
first

is

striving
finish

& making
him
off.

an

him down and

Some

effort, his opponents strike warriors are like this. This is

type of warrior who can be found existing in the world. "Then there is the warrior who shield, taking his sword on his bow strapping quiver goes down into the thick of battle. There in the battle he strives makes effort. But while he

&

&

&

is

striving making an effort, his opponents wound him. He carried out and taken to his relatives. But while he is being gets taken to his relatives, before he has reached them he dies along

&

the way. Some warriors are like this. This is the second type of warrior who can be found existing in the world. "Then there is the warrior who taking his sword & shield, on his bow & quiver goes down into the thick of strapping battle. There in the battle he strives & makes effort. But while he is striving & making an effort, his opponents wound him. He gets carried out and taken to his relatives, who nurse him and care for him, but he dies of that injury. Some warriors are like this. This is the third type of warrior who can be found existing in the world. "Then there is the warrior who taking his sword & shield, on his bow & quiver goes down into the thick of strapping battle. There in the battle he strives & makes effort. But while he is striving & making an effort, his opponents wound him. He gets carried out and taken to his relatives. His relatives nurse him and care for him, and he recovers from his injury. Some warriors are like this. This is the fourth type of warrior who can be found existing in the world. "Then there is the warrior who taking his sword & shield, strapping on his bow & quiver goes down into the thick of battle. On winning the battle, victorious in battle, he comes out at the very head of the battle. Some warriors are like this. This is the fifth type of warrior who can be found existing in the world.

Fiives

"These

are the five types of warriors

who

can be found

existing in the world.
"In

the

same way, monks,

there are these five warrior-like

people who can be found existing among the monks. Which five? [1] "There is the case of the monk who dwells in dependence
a certain village or town. Early in the morning, having put on and carrying his bowl outer robe, he goes into the or town for alms with his body, speech, mind unpro village
his robes

on

&

&

tected, with mindfulness unestablished, with his sense faculties unguarded. There he sees a woman improperly dressed or halfnaked. As he sees her improperly dressed or half-naked, lust ravages his mind. With his mind ravaged by lust, he without renouncing the training, without declaring his weakness engages in sexual intercourse. This person, I tell you, is like the warrior who taking his sword & shield, strapping on his bow & quiver goes down into the thick of battle. There in the battle he strives & makes effort. But while he is striving & making an
effort, his

opponents

strike
is

him down and
the
first

finish

him

off.

Some

people are like this. This
[2] "Then

who can be found existing among
there
is

type of warrior-like person the monks.

the case of the

monk who

dwells in depen

dence on a certain village or town. Early in the morning, having put on his robes and carrying his bowl & outer robe, he goes into the village or town for alms with his body, speech, & mind unprotected, with mindfulness unestablished, with his sense fac ulties unguarded. There he sees a woman improperly dressed or half-naked. As he sees her improperly dressed or half-naked, lust ravages his mind. With his mind ravaged by lust, he burns in body & mind. The thought occurs to him: What if I were to go to the monastery and tell the monks: "Friends, I am assailed by lust, overcome by lust. I can t continue in the celibate life. Declaring my weakness in the training, renouncing the training, I will return to the lower life/" He heads toward the monastery, but before he arrives there, along the way, he declares his weakness in the train ing, renounces the training, and returns to the lower life. This person, I tell you, is like the warrior who taking his sword &
shield, strapping on his bow quiver of battle. There in the battle he strives
is

&

& makes effort. But while he

goes

down

into the thick

striving carried out

& making an effort, his opponents wound him. He gets
and taken
to his relatives. But while he is being taken he has reached them he dies along the way.

to his relatives, before

Fives

Some people

are like this. This

is

person who can be found existing among the monks. [3] "Then there is the case of the monk who dwells

the second type of warrior-like
in

depen

dence on a certain village or town. Early in the morning, having put on his robes and carrying his bowl & outer robe, he goes into the village or town for alms with his body, speech, & mind unprotected, with mindfulness unestablished, with his sense fac ulties unguarded. There he sees a woman improperly dressed or half-naked. As he sees her improperly dressed or half-naked, lust ravages his mind. With his mind ravaged by lust, he burns in body & mind. The thought occurs to him: What if I were to go to the monastery and tell the monks: "Friends, I am assailed by lust, overcome by lust. I can t continue in the celibate life. Declaring

weakness in the training, renouncing the training, I will return to the lower life/" Going to the monastery, he tells the

my

monks, Friends,
ing,

I

am

assailed
life.
I

continue in the celibate
"Then

overcome by lust. I can t Declaring my weakness in the train

by

lust,

will return to the lower life/ in the celibate life admonish & companions instruct him, Friend, the Blessed One has said that sensual plea sures are of little satisfaction, of much stress, much despair, &

renouncing the training,
his

greater drawbacks. The Blessed One has compared sensual pleasures to a chain of bones of much stress, much despair, & greater drawbacks. He has compared sensual pleasures to a lump of flesh ... a grass torch ... a pit of glowing embers ... a dream ... borrowed goods ... the fruits of a tree ... a slaughter house ... spears & swords ... a poisonous snake of much stress,

much

greater drawbacks. Find delight, friend, in the t declare your weakness in the training, renounce the training, or return to the lower life/ "Thus admonished instructed by his companions in the celibate life, he says, Even though the Blessed One has said that sensual pleasures are of little satisfaction, of much stress, much despair, greater drawbacks, still I can t continue in the celibate life. Declaring weakness in the training, renouncing the training, I will return to the lower life/ So he declares his weak ness in the training, renounces the training, and returns to the lower life. This person, I tell you, is like the warrior who taking his sword shield, strapping on his bow quiver goes down into the thick of battle. There in the battle he strives makes effort. But while he is striving making an effort, his opponents wound him. He gets carried out and taken to his relatives, who
despair,
life.

&

celibate

Don

&

&

my

&

&

&

&

160

Fi ives

nurse him and care for him, but he dies of that injury. Some people are like this. This is the third type of warrior-like person who can be found existing among the monks. [4] "Then there is the case of the monk who dwells in depen dence on a certain village or town. Early in the morning, having put on his robes and carrying his bowl & outer robe, he goes into the village or town for alms with his body, speech, & mind unprotected, with mindfulness unestablished, with his sense faculties unguarded. There he sees a woman improperly dressed or half-naked. As he sees her improperly dressed or half-naked, lust ravages his mind. With his mind ravaged by lust, he burns in body & mind. The thought occurs to him:

monastery and tell the monks: overcome by lust. I can t con tinue in the celibate life. Declaring my weakness in the training, Going renouncing the training, I will return to the lower to the monastery, he tells the monks, Friends, I am assailed by lust, overcome by lust. I can t continue in the celibate life. Declaring my weakness in the training, renouncing the training,
if I

What

were

to

go

to the

"Friends, I

am

assailed

by

lust,

life."

I

will return to the lower life/
"Then

his

companions

instruct him, Friend, the Blessed sures are of little satisfaction, of

in the celibate life admonish & One has said that sensual plea

much

stress,

much

despair,

&

greater drawbacks. The Blessed One has compared sensual pleasures to a chain of bones of much stress, much despair, & greater drawbacks. He has compared sensual pleasures to a lump of flesh ... a grass torch ... a pit of glowing embers ... a dream ... borrowed goods ... the fruits of a tree ... a slaughter

house

...

spears

much

despair,

& swords a poisonous snake of much stress, & greater drawbacks. Find delight, friend, in the
...

life. Don t declare your weakness in the training, renounce the training, or return to the lower life.

celibate

"Thus

admonished

&

instructed

by

his

companions
I

in the
I

celibate

life,

he responds, T will

strive, friends.

will

remember.

weak will find delight in the celibate life. I won t yet declare ness in the training, renounce the training, or return to the lower

my

life/

sword

This person, I tell you, is like the warrior & shield, strapping on his bow & quiver
is

who
goes

taking his

down into
effort.

the thick of battle. There in the battle he strives

&

makes

striving & making an effort, his opponents wound him. He gets carried out and taken to his relatives, who nurse him and care for him, and he recovers from his injury.

But while he

Fives

161

Some people

are like this. This

is

the fourth type of warrior-like

person who can be found existing among the monks. [5] "Then there is the case of the monk who dwells in depen

dence on a certain village or town. Early in the morning, having put on his robes and carrying his bowl & outer robe, he goes into the village or town for alms with his body, speech, & mind protected, with mindfulness established, with his sense faculties guarded. On seeing a form with the eye, doesn t grasp at any theme or particulars by which if he were to dwell with out restraint over the faculty of the eye evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. He practices with restraint. He guards the faculty of the eye. He achieves restraint with regard to the faculty of the eye. "On hearing a sound with the ear .... "On smelling an aroma with the nose .... "On tasting a flavor with the tongue .... "On touching a tactile sensation with the body .... "On cognizing an idea with the intellect, he doesn t grasp at any theme or particulars by which if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the intellect evil, unskillful quali ties such as greed or distress might assail him. He practices with restraint. He guards the faculty of the intellect. He achieves restraint with regard to the faculty of the intellect. "Returning from his alms round, after his meal, he resorts to a secluded dwelling place: the wilderness, the foot of a tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a forest
grove, the open air, a haystack. Having gone to the wilderness, the foot of a tree, or an empty building, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds his body erect, and brings mindfulness to the fore. "Abandoning covetousness with regard to the world, he dwells with an awareness devoid of covetousness. He cleanses his mind of covetousness. Abandoning ill will & anger, he dwells with an awareness devoid of ill will, sympathetic with the welfare of all living beings. He cleanses his mind of ill will &

Abandoning sloth & drowsiness, he dwells with an awareness devoid of sloth & drowsiness, mindful, alert, percipi ent of light. He cleanses his mind of sloth & drowsiness. Abandoning restlessness & anxiety, he dwells undisturbed, his
anger.

mind inwardly stilled. He cleanses his mind of restlessness & anxiety. Abandoning uncertainty, he dwells having crossed over uncertainty, with no perplexity with regard to skillful mental qualities. He cleanses his mind of uncertainty.

i6z

Fives

"Having

abandoned these

five hindrances, corruptions of

awareness that weaken discernment, then quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful (mental) qualities he enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evalua tion. With the stilling of directed thought & evaluation, he enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of concentration, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation internal assurance. With the fading of rapture, he remains in equanimity, mindful & fully aware, and physically sensitive of pleasure. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding/ With the abandoning of pleasure & pain as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. "With his mind thus concentrated, purified, & bright, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, & unblemished, attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental fermentations. He dis
actually present, that This is stress ... This is the of stress ... This is the cessation of stress ... This is the origination way leading to the cessation of stress ... These are mental fer
cerns, as
it is

mentations

... This is the origination of fermentations ... This is the cessation of fermentations ... This is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations/ His heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, is released from the fermentation of sensuality, the fer mentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With release, there is the knowledge, Released/ He discerns that

Birth

is

ended, the holy
person,
I tell

life fulfilled,

the task done. There

is

nothing further for this world/
you, is like the warrior who taking his shield, strapping on his bow & quiver goes down into the thick of battle. On winning the battle, victorious in battle, he comes out at the very head of the battle. Some people are like this. This is the fifth type of warrior-like person who can
"This

sword

&

be found existing among the monks.
are the five warrior-like people 7 existing among the monks/
"These

who

can be found

See also:

SN 120; SN XXXV.U7; AN IV.181; AN V.139; Thag VII.l

Fives

V.77 Future Dangers
"Monks,

(1)

these five future dangers are just enough, when con for a monk living in the wilderness sidered, heedful, ardent, resolute to live for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the

&

reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yetunrealized. Which five? "There is the case where a monk living in the wilderness reminds himself of this: I am now living alone in the wilderness. While I am living alone in the wilderness a snake might bite me, a scorpion might sting me, a centipede might bite me. That would be how my death would come about. That would be an obstruction for me. So let me make an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized/ "This is the first future danger that is just enough, when for a monk living in the wilderness heedful, considered, resolute to live for the attaining of the as-yet-unat ardent, tained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of

&

the as-yet-unrealized. "Furthermore, the monk living in the wilderness reminds himself of this: T am now living alone in the wilderness. While I am living alone in the wilderness, stumbling, I might fall; my food, digested, might trouble me; my bile might be provoked, my phlegm... piercing wind forces (in the body) might be pro voked. That would be how my death would come about. That would be an obstruction for me. So let me make an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yetunreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized/ "This is the second future danger .... "Furthermore, the monk living in the wilderness reminds himself of this: I am now living alone in the wilderness. While I am living alone in the wilderness, I might meet up with vicious beasts: a lion or a tiger or a leopard or a bear or a hyena. They

might take my life. That would be how my death would come about. That would be an obstruction for me. So let me make an
effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the

reaching of

the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized/ "This is the third future danger .... "Furthermore, the monk living in the wilderness reminds himself of this: T am now living alone in the wilderness. While I

164

Fives

living alone in the wilderness, I might meet up with youths on their way to committing a crime or on their way back. They might take my life. That would be how my death would come about. That would be an obstruction for me. So let me make an
effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of

am

the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized/ "This is the fourth future danger .... "Furthermore, the monk living in the wilderness reminds himself of this: T am now living alone in the wilderness. And in the wilderness are vicious non-human beings (spirits). They might take my life. That would be how my death would come about. That would be an obstruction for me. So let me make an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized/ "This is the fifth future danger .... "These are the five future dangers that are just enough, when considered, for a monk living in the wilderness heedful, ardent, & resolute to live for the attaining of the as-yet-unat tained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized/

V. 78

Future Dangers

(2)

"Monks,

these five future dangers are just enough,

when con

resolute to live for the sidered, for a monk heedful, ardent, of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yetattaining unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. Which five?
"There

&

is

the case

where

a

monk reminds himself of this: At

present young, black-haired, endowed with the blessings of youth in the first stage of life. The time will come, though, when this body is beset by old age. When one is overcome with old age & decay, it is not easy to pay attention to the Buddha s teachings. It is not easy to reside in isolated forest or wilderness
I

am

dwellings. Before this unwelcome, disagreeable, displeasing thing happens, let me first make an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the real ization of the as-yet-unrealized, so that endowed with that Dhamma I will live in peace even when old/ "This is the first future danger that is just enough, when
considered, for a

monk

heedful, ardent,

& resolute

to live for

Fives

165-

the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yetunreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. "Furthermore, the monk reminds himself of this: At present I

am

free

from

illness

&

discomfort,

not too cold, not too hot, of medium strength & tolerance. The time will come, though, when this body is beset with illness. When one is overcome with illness, it is not easy to pay attention to the Buddha s teachings. It is not easy to reside in isolated forest or wilderness dwellings. Before this unwelcome, disagreeable, dis pleasing thing happens, let me first make an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yetunreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized, so that

endowed with good

digestion:

endowed with that Dhamma
"This

I

will live in peace

even when

ill/

the second future danger .... "Furthermore, the monk reminds himself of this: At present food is plentiful, alms are easy to come by. It is easy to maintain oneself by gleanings & patronage. The time will come, though, when there is famine: Food is scarce, alms are hard to come by, and it is not easy to maintain oneself by gleanings patronage. When there is famine, people will congregate where food is crowded together. plentiful. There they will live packed
is

&

&

When
pay

crowded together, it is not easy to living packed attention to the Buddha s teachings. It is not easy to reside
one
is

&

in isolated forest or wilderness dwellings. Before this

unwel

come, disagreeable, displeasing thing happens, let me first make an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching
of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized, so that endowed with that Dhamma I will live in peace even

when there is famine.
"This

is

this: At present people are in harmony, on friendly terms, without quarreling, like milk mixed with water, viewing one another with eyes of affection. The time will come, though, when there is danger & an invasion of savage tribes. Taking power, they will surround the countryside. When there is danger, people will congregate where it is safe. There
"Furthermore,

the third future danger .... the monk reminds himself of

they will live packed

&

crowded
it is

together.

When

one

is

living

packed

not easy to pay attention to the Buddha s teachings. It is not easy to reside in isolated forest or wilderness dwellings. Before this unwelcome, disagreeable, dis
together,

&

crowded

pleasing thing happens, let me first make an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the

,66

Fi ives

realization of the as-yet-unrealized, so that endowed with that I will live in peace even when there is danger/

Dhamma
"This

the fourth future danger .... the monk reminds himself of this: At present the Sahgha in harmony, on friendly terms, without quarrel ing lives in comfort with a single recitation. The time will come, though, when the Sarigha splits. When the Sangha is split, it is not easy to pay attention to the Buddha s teachings. It is not easy to reside in isolated forest or wilderness dwellings. Before
is

"Furthermore,

this
first

unwelcome, disagreeable, displeasing thing happens, let me make an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the

reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yetunrealized, so that endowed with that Dhamma I will live in

peace even
"This

when the Sahgha

is split/

the fifth future danger .... "These are the five future dangers that are just enough, when considered, for a monk heedful, ardent, & resolute to live for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized/
is

V.79 Future Dangers (3)
these five future dangers, unarisen at present, will Be alert to them and, being alert, work to get rid of them. Which five? "There will be, in the course of the future, monks undevel
"Monks,

arise in the future.

in bodily conduct, undeveloped in virtue, undeveloped in mind, undeveloped in discernment. They being undeveloped in bodily conduct, undeveloped in virtue, undeveloped in mind, undeveloped in discernment will give full ordination to others and will not be able to discipline them in heightened virtue, heightened mind, heightened discernment. These too will then be undeveloped in bodily conduct... virtue... mind... discernment. They being undeveloped in bodily conduct... virtue... mind... discernment will give full ordination to still others and will not be able to discipline them in heightened virtue, heightened mind, heightened discernment. These too will then be undeveloped in bodily conduct... virtue... mind... discernment. Thus from corrupt Dhamma comes corrupt disci pline; from corrupt discipline, corrupt Dhamma.

oped

Fives

167

"This, monks, is the first future danger, unarisen at present, that will arise in the future. Be alert to it and, being alert, work to get rid of it.

there will be in the course of the future in bodily conduct, undeveloped in virtue, undeveloped in mind, undeveloped in discernment. They being undeveloped in bodily conduct, undeveloped in virtue, undeveloped in mind, undeveloped in discernment will take on others as students and won t be able to discipline them in heightened virtue, heightened mind, heightened discernment. These too will then be undeveloped in bodily conduct... virtue... mind... discernment. They being undeveloped in bodily con duct... virtue... mind... discernment will take on still others as students and won t be able to discipline them in heightened virtue, heightened mind, heightened discernment. These too will then be undeveloped in bodily conduct... virtue... mind... discernment. Thus from corrupt Dhamma comes corrupt disci
"Furthermore,

monks undeveloped

pline;

from corrupt discipline, corrupt Dhamma. "This, monks, is the second future danger, unarisen at pre sent, that will arise in the future. Be alert to it and, being alert,
get rid of
it.

work to

"Furthermore,

there will be in the course of the future

monks undeveloped in bodily conduct... virtue... mind... dis cernment. They being undeveloped in bodily conduct... virtue... mind... discernment when giving a talk on higher

Dhamma

or a talk composed of questions answers, will fall into dark mental states without being aware of it. Thus from

&

corrupt Dhamma comes corrupt discipline; from corrupt disci pline, corrupt Dhamma. "This, monks, is the third future danger, unarisen at present, that will arise in the future. Be alert to it and, being alert, work
to get rid of
it.

"Furthermore,

there will be in the course of the future

monks

undeveloped in bodily conduct... virtue... mind... discernment. They being undeveloped in bodily conduct... virtue.... mind... discernment will not listen when discourses that are words of
the Tathagata deep, profound, transcendent, connected with emptiness are being recited. They will not lend ear, will not set their hearts on knowing them, will not regard these teachings as worth grasping or mastering. But they will listen when dis courses that are literary works the works of poets, elegant in

168

Fives

ples

sound, elegant in rhetoric, the work of outsiders, words of disci are recited. They will lend ear and set their hearts on knowing them. They will regard these teachings as worth grasp
ing

discipline;

mastering. Thus from corrupt Dhamma comes corrupt from corrupt discipline, corrupt Dhamma. "This, monks, is the fourth future danger, unarisen at pre

&

work to

sent, that will arise in the future. get rid of it.
"Furthermore,

Be

alert to

it

and, being

alert,

there will be in the course of the future

monks

undeveloped in bodily conduct... virtue... mind... discernment. They being undeveloped in bodily conduct... virtue... mind... discernment will become elders living in luxury, lethargic, fore

most
not

make an

in falling back, shirking the duties of solitude. They will effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the

reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yetunrealized. They will become an example for later generations, who will become luxurious in their living, lethargic, foremost in falling back, shirking the duties of solitude, and who will not make an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-

unrealized. Thus from corrupt Dhamma comes corrupt discipline; from corrupt discipline, corrupt Dhamma.
"This,

monks,
it.

is

the fifth future danger, unarisen at present,

that will arise in the future.
to get rid of
"These,

Be

alert to

it

and, being

alert,

work

monks, are the

sent, that will arise in the future. 7 alert, work to get rid of them/

five future dangers, unarisen at pre Be alert to them and, being

See also:

SN XX. 7; AN

VIL56

V.80 Future Dangers (4)
these five future dangers, unarisen at present, will Be alert to them and, being alert, work to get rid of them. Which five? "There will be, in the course of the future, monks desirous of fine robes. They, desirous of fine robes, will neglect the practice of wearing cast-off cloth; will neglect isolated forest & wilder ness dwellings; will move to towns, cities, & royal capitals,
"Monks,

arise in the future.

Fives

169

taking up residence there. For the sake of a robe they will do many kinds of unseemly, inappropriate things. "This, monks, is the first future danger, unarisen at present, that will arise in the future. Be alert to it and, being alert, work
to get rid of
it.

"Furthermore, in

monks

the course of the future there will be desirous of fine food. They, desirous of fine food, will

neglect the practice of going for alms; will neglect isolated forest & wilderness dwellings; will move to towns, cities, & royal capi tals, taking up residence there and searching out the tip-top tastes with the tip of the tongue. For the sake of food they will do many kinds of unseemly, inappropriate things. "This, monks, is the second future danger, unarisen at pre sent, that will arise in the future. Be alert to it and, being alert, work to get rid of it. "Furthermore, in the course of the future there will be monks desirous of fine lodgings. They, desirous of fine lodgings, will neglect the practice of living in the wilds; will neglect iso lated forest & wilderness dwellings; will move to towns, cities, & royal capitals, taking up residence there. For the sake of lodg ings they will do many kinds of unseemly, inappropriate things. "This, monks, is the third future danger, unarisen at present, that will arise in the future. Be alert to it and, being alert, work to get rid of it. "Furthermore, in the course of the future there will be monks who will live in close association with nuns, female pro bationers, & female novices. As they interact with nuns, female
probationers, & female novices, they can be expected either to lead the celibate life dissatisfied or to fall into one of the grosser offenses, leaving the training, returning to a lower way of life. "This, monks, is the fourth future danger, unarisen at pre sent, that will arise in the future. Be alert to it and, being alert, work to get rid of it. "Furthermore, in the course of the future there will be monks who will live in close association with monastery atten dants & novices. As they interact with monastery attendants & novices, they can be expected to live intent on storing up all kinds of possessions and to stake out crops & fields. "This, monks, is the fifth future danger, unarisen at present, that will arise in the future. Be alert to it and, being alert, work to get rid of it.

170

Fives

monks, are the five future dangers, unarisen at pre that will arise in the future. Be alert to them and, being sent, alert, work to get rid of them."
"These,

See also:

SN

1.

10;

AN 111.35; AN IV.28; AN
1.49;

VII.56;

Ud

11.10;

Thag

1.14;

Thag

1.41;

Thag

Thag XVIII; Thig V.6

V.96

One Who

Retains

What He Has Heard

"Endowed with five qualities, a monk pursuing mindfulness of breathing will in no long time penetrate the Unprovoked [release].

Which five?
"He

is

a person
life.

few duties
"He

& projects, easy to support, easily contented with the

who imposes

only a

little

[on others]: one of

requisites of
is

a person who eats only a little food, one committed to not indulging his stomach. "He is a person of only a little sloth, committed to wakefulness. "He is a person of much learning, who has retained what he heard, has stored what he has heard. Whatever teachings are admirable in the beginning, admirable in the middle, admirable in the end, that in their meaning expression proclaim the life that is entirely complete holy pure: those he has listened to often, retained, discussed, accumulated, examined with his mind, and well-penetrated in terms of his views. 1 "He reflects on the mind as it is released. "Endowed with these five qualities, a monk pursuing mindfulness of breathing will in no long time penetrate the Unprovoked."

& &

NOTE: 1. When the mind is released from hindrances as it enters concentration, when it is released from the factors of lower levels of concentration as it enters higher levels of concentration,
and when it is released from the
See also:
fetters

on reaching Awakening.

MN 118; AN IX.34

V.97 Talk
"Endowed with five qualities, a monk pursuing mindfulness of breathing will in no long time penetrate the Unprovoked [release].

Fives

7

Which five?
a person who imposes only a little [on others].... a person who eats only a little food.... "He is a person of only a little sloth.... "He without difficulty, talk that gets to hear at will, easily conducive to the opening of awareness: talk truly sobering
"He "He

is is

&

is

&

on modesty, contentment,

seclusion, non-entanglement, arous

ing persistence, virtue, concentration, discernment, release, vision of release. the knowledge

and

&

"He

reflects

on the mind as

it is

released.

monk pursuing mindfulness of breathing will in no long time penetrate the Unprovoked."
"Endowed

with these

five qualities, a

V.98 Wilderness
"Endowed

with five

qualities, a

monk

pursuing mindfulness of
[release].

breathing will in Which five?
"He "He

no long time penetrate the Unprovoked

a person who imposes only a little [on others].... a person who eats only a little food.... "He is a person of only a little sloth.... "He lives in the wilderness, in an isolated dwelling place. "He reflects on the mind as it is released "Endowed with these five qualities, a monk pursuing mindfulness of breathing will in no long time penetrate the Unprovoked."
is is
.

V.114 At Andhakavinda

On

one occasion the Blessed One was staying among the Magadhans at Andhakavinda. Then Ven. Ananda went to him and, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sit
ting there the Blessed One said to him, "Ananda, the new monks those who have not long gone forth, who are newcom
ers in this
"

Dhamma & Vinaya

should be encouraged, exhorted,

in these five things. Which five? Come, friends, be virtuous. Dwell restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in your behavior sphere of

and established

&

activity. Train yourselves, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults/ Thus they should be

Fiives

encouraged, exhorted, & established in restraint in accordance with the Patimokkha. Come, friends, dwell with your sense faculties guarded, with mindfulness as your protector, with mindfulness as your
"

chief,

encouraged, exhorted, & established in restraint of the senses. Come, friends, speak only a little, place limits on your con versation/ Thus they should be encouraged, exhorted, &
" "

with your intellect self-protected, endowed with an awareness protected by mindfulness/ Thus they should be

established in limited conversation. Come, friends, dwell in the wilderness. Resort to remote wilderness forest dwellings/ Thus they should be encour aged, exhorted, & established in physical seclusion. "Come, friends, develop right view. Be endowed with right vision/ Thus they should be encouraged, exhorted, estab lished in right vision. "New monks those who have not long gone forth, who are

&

&

newcomers in this Dhamma & Vinaya should be encouraged, exhorted, and established in these five things."
See also:

SNL20;

SN XXII.122; SN XXXV.127; AN V.73; AN V.80;
I/I. 5;

AN V.UO; AN XA8; AN X.69; Sn IV.U; Thag
V.UlToaSickMan

Thag XVIII

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Vesali, in the Great Forest, at the Gabled Pavilion. Then, in the late afternoon, he left his seclusion and went to the sick ward, where he saw a monk who was weak & sickly. Seeing him, he sat down on a prepared seat. As he was sitting there, he addressed the monks: "When these five things don t leave a monk who is weak & sickly, it can be expected of him that, before long with the ending of the fermentations he will enter & remain in the fermentation-free awareness-release &
I

discernment-release, having directly known & realized them for himself right in the here & now. Which five? "There is the case where a monk [1] remains focused on unattractiveness with regard to the body, [2] is percipient of foulness with regard to food, [3] is percipient of distaste with

regard to every world,

[4] is

percipient of the undesirability of

Fives

75

all

fabrications,

and

[5]

has the perception of death well estab

lished within himself. "When these five things
it

don t

leave a

monk who

is

weak

&

can be expected of him that, before long with the ending sickly, of the fermentations he will enter & remain in the fermentationfree awareness-release & discernment-release, having directly known & realized them for himself right in the here & now."
See also:

SN XXXVI.7; SN XLVI.14; AN X.60
Agony

V.129 In

lists the five grave deeds that are said to prevent chances of attaining any of the noble attainments in this lifetime. People who commit them fall immediately at the moment of death

This discourse

one

s

from outside is able to mitigate the sufferings they and thus they are said to be incurable. Only when the results of these deeds have worked themselves out will they be released from hell. Even if they return to the human plane, they will
into hell.

No

help

will

endure in

hell,

continue to suffer the consequences of their deeds. For example, Ven. Moggallana, one of the Buddha s foremost disciples, killed his parents many aeons ago, and the results of that deed pursued him even through his final lifetime, when he was beaten to death.
"There are these five inhabitants of the states of deprivation, inhabitants of hell, who are in agony & incurable. Which five?

One who has
father,

with a cor rupted mind has caused the blood of a Tathagata to flow, and one who has caused a split in the Sahgha. These are the five
inhabitants of the states of deprivation, inhabitants of hell, are in agony incurable."

one

who

killed his/her mother, one has killed an arahant,

who
one

has killed his/her

who

who

&

V.139 Not Resiliant

with five qualities, monks, a king s elephant is not of a king, is not a king s asset, does not count as a very worthy limb of his king. Which five? There is the case where a king s ele
"Endowed

phant is not resilient to sights, not resilient to sounds, not resilient to aromas, not resilient to flavors, not resilient to tactile sensations.

74

Fives

is

"And how is a king s elephant not resilient to sights? There the case where a king s elephant, having gone into battle, sees a troop of elephants, a troop of cavalry, a troop of chariots, a troop of foot soldiers, and so he falters, faints, doesn t steel him self, can t engage in the battle. This is how a king s elephant is

not resilient to sights. "And how is a king s elephant not resilient to sounds? There is the case where a king s elephant, having gone into battle, hears the sound of elephants, the sound of cavalry, the sound of chariots, the sound of foot soldiers, the resounding din of drums, cymbals, conchs, & tom-toms, and so he falters, faints, doesn t steel himself, can t engage in the battle. This is how a king s elephant is not resilient to sounds. "And how is a king s elephant not resilient to aromas? There is the case where a king s elephant, having gone into battle, smells the stench of the urine & feces of those pedigreed royal elephants who are at home in the battlefield, and so he falters, faints, doesn t steel himself, can t engage in the battle. This is how a king s elephant is not resilient to aromas. "And how is a king s elephant not resilient to flavors? There
is the case where a king s elephant, having gone into battle, goes without his ration of grass & water for one day, two days, three days, four days, five, and so he falters, faints, doesn t steel him self, can t engage in the battle. This is how a king s elephant is not resilient to flavors. "And how is a king s elephant not resilient to tactile sensa tions? There is the case where a king s elephant, having gone into battle, is pierced by a flight of arrows, two flights, three flights, four flights, five flights of arrows, and so he falters, faints, doesn t steel himself, can t engage in the battle. This is how a king s elephant is not resilient to tactile sensations. "Endowed with these five qualities, monks, a king s ele phant is not worthy of a king, is not a king s asset, does not count as a very limb of his king. the same way, a monk endowed with five qualities is not deserving of gifts, deserving of hospitality, deserving of offer ings, deserving of respect, nor is he an unexcelled field of merit for the world. Which five? There is the case where a monk is not resilient to sights, not resilient to sounds, not resilient to aromas, not resilient to flavors, not resilient to tactile sensations. "And how is a monk not resilient to sights? There is the case where a monk, on seeing a sight with the eye, feels passion for a
"In

Fives

175-

sight that incites passion

and cannot center

his

mind. This

is

how a monk is not resilient to sights. "And how is a monk not resilient

to sounds? There is the case where a monk, on hearing a sound with the ear, feels pas sion for a sound that incites passion and cannot center his mind. This is how a monk is not resilient to sounds. "And how is a monk not resilient to aromas? There is the case where a monk, on smelling an aroma with the nose, feels

passion for an aroma that incites passion and cannot center his mind. This is how a monk is not resilient to aromas. "And how is a monk not resilient to flavors? There is the case where a monk, on tasting a flavor with the tongue, feels passion for a flavor that incites passion and cannot center his mind. This is how a monk is not resilient to flavors. "And how is a monk not resilient to tactile sensations? There is the case where a monk, on touching a tactile sensation with the body, feels passion for a tactile sensation that incites passion and cannot center his mind. This is how a monk is not resilient
to tactile sensations.
"Endowed

with these five

qualities, a

monk

is

not deserving

of

gifts, deserving of hospitality, deserving of offerings, deserving of respect, nor is he an unexcelled field of merit for the world. "Now, a king s elephant endowed with five qualities is

worthy of a king,

a king s asset, counts as a very limb of his There is the case where a king s elephant is king. resilient to sights, resilient to sounds, resilient to aromas,
is

Which

five?

resilient to flavors, resilient to tactile sensations. "And is a king s elephant resilient to sights?

how

There

is

the case where a king s elephant, having gone into battle, sees a troop of elephants, a troop of cavalry, a troop of chariots, a troop of foot soldiers, but he doesn t falter or faint, he steels himself and engages in the battle. This is how a king s elephant is
resilient to sights.
"And how is a king s elephant resilient to sounds? There is the case where a king s elephant, having gone into battle, hears the sound of elephants, the sound of cavalry, the sound of chari ots, the sound of foot soldiers, the resounding din of drums, tom-toms, but he doesn t falter or faint, he cymbals, conchs, steels himself and engages in the battle. This is how a king s ele

&

phant

is resilient

to sounds.

"And

how

is

the case

where a king

a king s elephant resilient to aromas? There is s elephant, having gone into battle, smells

176

Fives

the stench of the urine & feces of those pedigreed royal ele phants who are at home in the battlefield, but he doesn t falter or faint, he steels himself and engages in the battle. This is how a king s elephant is not resilient to aromas.
"And

how

is

case

where a king

a king s elephant resilient to flavors? There is the s elephant, having gone into battle, goes without

his ration of grass

& water for one day,
t

days, five,
"And

but doesn
is

falter

two days, three days, four or faint; he steels himself and engages

in the battle. This

how a king s elephant is resilient to flavors.

There

a king s elephant resilient to tactile sensations? is the case where a king s elephant, having gone into
is

how

battle, is pierced by a flight of arrows, two flights, three flights, four flights, five flights of arrows, but he doesn t falter or faint, a king s he steels himself and engages in the battle. This is

how
s

elephant

is resilient

to tactile sensations.
five qualities,

"Endowed

with these
is

monks, a king

elephant

is

a king s asset, counts as a very limb of his king. worthy "In the same way, a monk endowed with five qualities is deserving of gifts, deserving of hospitality, deserving of offer
of a king,
ings, deserving of respect, an unexcelled field of merit for the world. Which five? There is the case where a monk is resilient to
sights, resilient to sounds, resilient to aromas, resilient to fla vors, resilient to tactile sensations. "And how is a monk resilient to sights? There is the case

where a monk, on seeing

a sight with the eye, feels no passion for a sight that incites passion and can center his mind. This is how a monk is resilient to sights.
"And

how

is

a

monk

resilient to

sounds? There

is

the case

where a monk, on hearing a sound with the ear, feels no passion for a sound that incites passion and can center his mind. This is

how a monk is resilient to sounds. "And how is a monk resilient

aromas? There is the case where a monk, on smelling an aroma with the nose, feels no passion for an aroma that incites passion and can center his mind. This is how a monk is resilient to aromas. "And how is a monk resilient to flavors? There is the case where a monk, on tasting a flavor with the tongue, feels no pas sion for a flavor that incites passion and can center his mind.
to

This
case

is

"And

how a monk is resilient to flavors. how is a monk resilient to tactile
tactile

where a monk, on touching a

sensations? There is the sensation with the body,

Fiives

177

feels

no passion

center his mind. This
"Endowed

for a tactile sensation that incites passion and can is how a monk is resilient to tactile sensations.

five qualities, a monk is deserving of of hospitality, deserving of offerings, deserving gifts, deserving 7 of respect, an unexcelled field of merit for the world/

with these

See also:

AN V.75-76

V.140 The Listener

with five qualities, a king s elephant is worthy of a a king s asset, counts as a very limb of his king. Which king, five? There is the case where a king s elephant is a listener, a destroyer, a protector, an endurer, and a goer. "And how is a king s elephant a listener? There is the case where, whenever the tamer of tamable elephants gives him a task, then regardless of whether he has or hasn t done it before he pays attention, applies his whole mind, and lends ear. This is how a king s elephant is a listener. "And how is a king s elephant a destroyer? There is the case where a king s elephant, having gone into battle, destroys an
"Endowed
is

elephant together with its rider, destroys a horse together with its rider, destroys a chariot together with its driver, destroys a foot soldier. This is how a king s elephant is a destroyer. "And how is a king s elephant a protector? There is the case

where a king

elephant, having gone into battle, protects his forequarters, protects his hindquarters, protects his forefeet, protects his hindfeet, protects his head, protects his ears, pro tects his tusks, protects his trunk, protects his tail, protects his rider. This is how a king s elephant is a protector. "And how is a king s elephant an endurer? There is the case where a king s elephant, having gone into battle, endures blows from spears, swords, arrows, & axes; he endures the resounding din of drums, cymbals, conchs, & tom-toms. This is how a king s elephant is an endurer. "And how is a king s elephant a goer? There is the case where in whichever direction the tamer of tamable elephants sends him, regardless of whether he has or hasn t gone there before a king s elephant goes there right away. This is how a king s elephant is a goer.
s

178

Fives

with these five qualities, a king s elephant is worthy a king s asset, counts as a very limb of his king. the same way, a monk endowed with five qualities is deserving of gifts, deserving of hospitality, deserving of offer ings, deserving of respect, an unexcelled field of merit for the world. Which five? There is the case where a monk is a listener, a destroyer, a protector, an endurer, and a goer. "And how is a monk a listener? There is the case where, when the Dhamma Vinaya declared by the Tathagata is being taught, a monk pays attention, applies his whole mind, and lends ear to the Dhamma. This is how a monk is a listener. "And how is a monk a destroyer? There is the case where a monk doesn t tolerate an arisen thought of sensuality. He aban dons it, destroys it, dispels it, wipes it out of existence. He doesn t tolerate an arisen thought of ill will ... an arisen thought of cruelty ... He doesn t tolerate arisen evil, unskillful mental
"Endowed
is

of a king,
"In

&

&

He abandons them, destroys them, dispels them, & them out of existence. This is how a monk is a destroyer. wipes "And how is a monk a protector? There is the case where a on seeing a form with the eye, doesn t grasp at any monk, theme or particulars by which if he were to dwell without
qualities.

restraint over the faculty of the eye evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. He practices with
restraint. He guards the faculty of the eye. He achieves restraint with regard to the faculty of the eye. "On hearing a sound with the ear .... "On smelling an aroma with the nose .... "On tasting a flavor with the tongue .... "On touching a tactile sensation with the body .... "On cognizing an idea with the intellect, he doesn t grasp at any theme or particulars by which if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the intellect evil, unskillful quali him. He practices with ties such as greed or distress might assail restraint. He guards the faculty of the intellect. He achieves restraint with regard to the faculty of the intellect.
"This

is

"And

how a monk is a protector. how is a monk an endurer? There
to cold, heat, hunger,

monk
flies,

is resilient

&

the case where a thirst; the touch of
is

mosquitoes, wind, sun, words & bodily feelings that,

&

reptiles; ill-spoken,

unwelcome
rack
to

when

they

arise, are painful,

ing, sharp, piercing, disagreeable, displeasing, life. This is how a monk is an endurer.

&

menacing

Fives

79

"And

how is a monk a goer? There is the case where a monk

goes right away to that direction to which he has never been before in the course of this long stretch of time in other words, to the resolution of all fabrications, the relinquishment of all acquisitions, the ending of craving, dispassion, cessation, Unbinding. This is how a monk is a goer. "Endowed with these five qualities a monk is deserving of gifts, deserving of hospitality, deserving of offerings, deserving of respect, an unexcelled field of merit for the world."
See also:

MN 61; AN V.75-76; Thag XVIII
Dhamma)

V.159 Udayin (On Teaching the
I

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Kosambi, in Ghosita s Park. Now at that time Ven. Udayin was sit ting surrounded_by a large assembly of householders, teaching the Dhamma. Ven. Ananda saw Ven. Udayin sitting surrounded by a large assembly of householders, teaching the Dhamma, and on seeing him went to the Blessed One. On arrival, he bowed down to the Blessed One and sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: "Ven. Udayin, lord, is sitting surrounded

by a

"It

large assembly of householders, teaching the Dhamma." s not easy to teach the Dhamma to others, Ananda. The

Dhamma
"[1]

should be taught to others only

when

five qualities
I

are established within the person teaching.

Which five?
will will will

The
The

Dhamma

should be taught with the thought,

speak step-by-step/

Dhamma should be taught with the thought, speak explaining the sequence [of cause & effect]/ The Dhamma should be taught with the thought,
"[2] "[3] "[4]

I

I

speak out of compassion/ The Dhamma should be taught with the thought, I wiU not for the purpose of material reward/ speak The Dhamma should be taught with the thought, 1 will without disparaging myself or others/ speak s not easy to teach the Dhamma to others, Ananda. The Dhamma should be taught to others only when these five quali ties are established within the person teaching."
"[5]
"It

See also:

AN V.202; AN VI.86-88

i8o

Fives

V.175 The Outcaste
This discourse lists first in negative and then in positive form the basic requirements for being a Buddhist lay follower in good standing.
"Endowed with these five qualities, a lay follower is an outcaste of a lay follower, a stain of a lay follower, a dregs of a lay follower. Which five? He/she doesn t have conviction [in the Buddha s cer Awakening]; is unvirtuous; is eager for protective charms emonies; trusts protective charms ceremonies, not kamma;

&

&

and searches for recipients of his/her offerings outside (of the Sahgha), and gives offerings there first. Endowed with these five qualities, a lay follower is an outcaste of a lay follower, a
stain of a lay follower, a dregs of a lay follower. "Endowed with these five qualities, a lay follower is a jewel of a lay follower, a lotus of a lay follower, a fine flower of a lay

follower.

Which

five?

He/she has

conviction;

is

virtuous;

is

not

ceremonies; trusts kamma, not pro eager for protective charms tective charms ceremonies; doesn t search for recipients of

&

&

his/her offerings outside, and gives offerings here first. Endowed with these five qualities, a lay follower is a jewel of a lay follower, a lotus of a lay follower, a fine flower of a lay follower."
See also:

SN 11124; AN V.179; AN VIII.26; AN VIIL54; AN X.176

V.17 6 Rapture

Then Anathapindika the householder, surrounded by about 500 lay followers, went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there the Blessed One said to him, "Householder, you have provided the Community of monks with robes, alms food, lodgings, & medi cinal requisites for the sick, but you shouldn t rest content with the thought, We have provided the Community of monks with
medicinal requisites for the sick. robes, alms food, lodgings, remain So you should train yourself, Let s periodically enter in seclusion rapture. That s how you should train yourself."

&

&

&

When this was said, Yen.
amazing,

lord. It s astounding,

s Sariputta said to the Blessed One, how well put that was by the
"It

Fives

181

seclusion & rapture, there are five possibilities that do not exist at that time: The pain & distress dependent on sensuality do not exist at that time. The pleasure & joy dependent on sensuality do not exist at that time. The pain & distress dependent on what is unskillful do not exist at that time. The pleasure joy depen dent on what is unskillful do not exist at that time. The pain distress dependent on what is skillful do not exist at that time. When a disciple of the noble ones enters remains in seclusion rapture, these five possibilities do not exist at that time."

robes, alms food, lodgings, & medicinal requisites for the sick." So you should train yourself, s periodically enter & remain in seclusion & rapture." That s how you should train yourself/ "Lord, when a disciple of the noble ones enters & remains in
"Let

Blessed One: Householder, you have provided the Community of monks with robes, alms food, lodgings, medicinal requi sites for the sick, but you shouldn t rest content with the thought, "We have provided the Community of monks with

&

&

&

& &

&
&

When a

One said:] "Excellent, Sariputta. Excellent. of the noble ones enters remains in seclusion disciple there are five possibilities that do not exist at that rapture, time: The pain distress dependent on sensuality do not exist
[The Blessed

&

The pleasure & joy dependent on sensuality do not exist at that time. The pain & distress dependent on what is unskillful do not exist at that time. The pleasure & joy depen dent on what is unskillful do not exist at that time. The pain & distress dependent on what is skillful do not exist at that time.
at that time.

When

a disciple of the noble ones enters & remains in seclusion & rapture, these five possibilities do not exist at that
time."

V.177 Business (Wrong Livelihood)
a lay follower should not engage in five types of busi five? Business in weapons, business in living business in meat, business in intoxicants, and business beings, in poison. "These are the five types of business a lay follower should
"Monks,

ness.

Which

not engage

in."

i8i

Fives

V.179 The Householder

Then Anathapindika the householder, surrounded by about 500 lay followers, went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having

bowed down

to him, sat to one side. So the Blessed One said to Ven. Sariputta: "Sariputta, when you know of a householder clothed in white, that he is restrained in terms of the five train ing rules and that he obtains at will, without difficulty, without hardship, four pleasant mental abidings in the here & now, then if he wants he may state about himself: Hell is ended; animal wombs are ended; the state of the hungry shades is ended; states of deprivation, destitution, the bad bourns are ended! I am a stream-winner, steadfast, never again destined for states of

woe, headed
"Now,
"There

he restrained? the case where a disciple of the noble ones abstains from taking life, abstains from taking what is not given, abstains from illicit sex, abstains from lying, abstains from distilled & fermented drinks that cause heedlessness. "These are the five training rules in terms of which he is
is

in terms of

for self-awakening! which five training rules is

restrained.
"And

which four pleasant mental abidings
at will,

in the here

& now

without hardship? "There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones is endowed with unwavering faith in the Awakened One: Indeed, the Blessed One is worthy & rightly self-awakened, consum mate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of divine & human beings, awakened, blessed/ This is the first pleasant mental abiding in the here & now that he has attained, for the purification of the mind that is
difficulty,

does he obtain

without

impure, for the cleansing of the mind that is unclean. "Furthermore, he is endowed with unwavering faith in the Dhamma: The Dhamma is well-expounded by the Blessed One, to be seen here & now, timeless, inviting verification, pertinent, to be realized by the wise for themselves/ This is the second pleasant mental abiding in the here & now that he has attained,
for the purification of the mind that of the mind that is unclean.
is

impure, for the cleansing

"Furthermore, he is endowed with unwavering faith in the Sahgha: The Sangha of the Blessed One s disciples who have

Fives

practiced well... who have practiced straight-forwardly...who have practiced methodically... who have practiced masterfully in other words, the four pairs, the eight individuals 1 they are the Sangha of the Blessed One s disciples: worthy of gifts, worthy of hospital ity, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, the incomparable field of merit for the world/ This is the third pleasant mental abiding in now that he has attained, for the purification of the the here

&

mind that is impure, for the cleansing of the mind that is unclean. "Furthermore, he is endowed with virtues that are appealing
to the noble ones: untorn, unbroken, unspotted, unsplattered, liber ating, praised by the wise, untarnished, leading to concentration.

This

he has attained,

the fourth pleasant mental abiding in the here now that for the purification of the mind that is impure, for the cleansing of the mind that is unclean.
is

&

These

are the four pleasant mental abidings in the here

&

now that he obtains at will, without difficulty, without hardship. "Sariputta, when you know of a householder clothed in white,
he is restrained in terms of the five training rules and that he obtains at will, without difficulty, without hardship, four pleasant mental abidings in the here & now, then if he wants he may state about himself: Hell is ended; animal wombs are ended; the state of the hungry shades is ended; states of deprivation, destitution, the bad bourns are ended! I am a stream-winner, steadfast, never again destined for states of woe, headed for self-awakening!
that
"Seeing

the danger in hells, the wise would shun evils,

would shun them,
taking on the noble

Dhamma.

You shouldn

t

kill

living beings

existing, striving;

shouldn t grasp what isn t given. Content with your own wife, don t delight in the wives of others. You shouldn t drink drinks,
distilled,

fermented,

that confuse the

mind.

Recollect the self-awakened one. Think often of the Dhamma.

184

rives

Develop a mind useful, devoid of ill will, for the sake of the heavenly world. When hoping for merit,
provide
gifts first

to those peaceful ones, ideal, what is offered, given, to

whom
tell

becomes abundant
I

[in fruit].

will

you

of those peaceful ones,

Sariputta. Listen to me.

In a herd of cattle, whether black, white,

ruddy, brown, dappled, uniform,
or pigeon gray: if a bull is born

tame, enduring,

consummate

in strength,

& swiftpeople yoke him to burdens,
regardless of his color. In the same way,

wherever one

is

born

among human beings
noble warriors, priests, merchants, workers, outcastes, or scavengers
if

one

is

tame, with good practices,

righteous, consummate in virtue, a speaker of truth, with conscience at heart,

one

who s abandoned
completed put down

birth

done

& death, the celibate life the burden, the task
all

fermentation-free,

gone beyond through lack of clinging

dhammas,

unbound:

Fi ves

offerings to this spotless field

bear an abundance of

fruit.

But

fools,

unknowing,
uninformed,

dull,

give gifts outside and don t come near the good. While those who do come near the good regarded as enlightened,

wise

whose

trust in the

One Well-gone

has taken root,
established & firm: they go to the world of the devas or are reborn here in good family.
is

Step by step they reach

Unbinding
:

they
7

who are wise/
NOTE:

l.The four pairs are (1) the person on the path to stream-entry, the person experiencing the fruit of stream-entry; (2) the person on the path to once-returning, the person experi encing the fruit of once-returning; (3) the person on the path to non-returning, the person experiencing the fruit of non-return ing; (4) the person on the path to arahantship, the person experiencing the fruit of arahantship. The eight individuals are the eight types forming these four pairs.
See also:

AN 111.58; AN X.92

V.180 Gavesin

On

one occasion the Blessed One was wandering on a tour among the Kosalans with a large Community of monks. As he was going along a road, he saw a large sal forest in a certain On place. Going down from the road, he went to the sal forest. he plunged into it and at a certain spot, broke into a reaching it, smile. Then the thought occurred to Yen. Ananda, "What is the cause, what is the reason, for the Blessed One s breaking into a

186

Fives

not without purpose that Tathagata s break into So he said to the Blessed One, "What is the cause, what is the reason, for the Blessed One s breaking into a smile? It s not without purpose that Tathagata s break into smile." this spot, Ananda, there was once a great city: powerful, prosperous, populous, crowded with people. And on that city, Kassapa the Blessed One, worthy & fully self-awakened, dwelled dependent. Now, Kassapa the Blessed One, worthy & fully self-awakened, had a lay follower named Gavesin who didn t practice in full in terms of his virtue. But because of Gavesin, there were 500 people who had been inspired to declare themselves lay followers, and yet who also didn t prac tice in full in terms of their virtue. "Then the thought occurred to Gavesin the lay follower: I am the benefactor of these 500 lay followers, their leader, the one who has inspired them. But I don t practice in full in terms of my virtue, just as they don t practice in full in terms of their virtue.
smile?
It s
smile."
"In

In that

we re

about something

exactly even; there s nothing extra [for me]. extra! So he went to the 500 lay followers

How
and

on

arrival said to them,
"Then

Trom today onward I want you to know

me as someone who practices in full in terms of my virtue.
the thought occurred to the 500 lay followers: Master our benefactor, our leader, the one who has inspired us. He will now practice in full in terms of his virtue. So why shouldn t we? So they went to Gavesin the lay follower and on arrival said to him, Trom today onward we want Master Gavesin to know the 500 lay followers as people who practice in full in terms of their virtue/ I "Then the thought occurred to Gavesin the lay follower: am the benefactor of these 500 lay followers, their leader, the one who has inspired them. I practice in full in terms of my virtue, just as they practice in full in terms of their virtue. In that about we re exactly even; there s nothing extra [for me]. something extra! So he went to the 500 lay followers and on arrival said to them, Trom today onward I want you to know me as someone who practices the celibate life, the life apart, abstaining from intercourse, the act of villagers. "Then the thought occurred to the 500 lay followers: Master Gavesin is our benefactor, our leader, the one who has inspired us. He will now practice the celibate life, the life apart, abstain

Gavesin

is

How

ing from intercourse, the act of villagers. So

why

shouldn

t

we?

Fives

187

So they went to Gavesin the lay follower and on arrival said to him, From today onward we want Master Gavesin to know the 500 lay followers as people who practice the celibate life, the life apart, abstaining from intercourse, the act of villagers/ "Then the thought occurred to Gavesin the lay follower: I am the benefactor of these 500 lay followers, their leader, the one who has inspired them. I practice in full in terms of my
virtue, just as they practice in full in terms of their virtue. I prac tice the celibate life, the life apart, abstaining from intercourse, the act of villagers, just as they practice the celibate life, the life

we

apart, abstaining from intercourse, the act of villagers. In that re exactly even; there s nothing extra [for me]. about

How

So he went to the 500 lay followers and on something arrival said to them, Trom today onward I want you to know me as someone who eats only one meal a day, refraining in the night, abstaining from a meal at the wrong time. "Then the thought occurred to the 500 lay followers: Master Gavesin is our benefactor, our leader, the one who has inspired us. He will now eat only one meal a day, refraining in the night, abstaining from a meal at the wrong time. So why shouldn t we? So they went to Gavesin the lay follower and on arrival said to him, Trom today onward we want Master Gavesin to know the 500 lay followers as people who eat only one meal a day, refrain ing in the night, abstaining from a meal at the wrong time. I "Then the thought occurred to Gavesin the lay follower: am the benefactor of these 500 lay followers, their leader, the one who has inspired them. I practice in full in terms of my
extra!
virtue, just as they practice in full in terms of their virtue. I prac tice the celibate life, the life apart, abstaining from intercourse, the act of villagers, just as they practice the celibate life, the life

from intercourse, the act of villagers. I eat only one meal a day, refraining in the night, abstaining from a meal at the wrong time, just as they eat only one meal a day, refrain ing in the night, abstaining from a meal at the wrong time. In
apart, abstaining

we re exactly even; there about something extra!
that

s

nothing extra

[for

me].

How

"So he went to Kassapa the Blessed One, worthy & fully self-awakened, and on arrival said to him, Lord, may I receive the Going Forth in the Blessed One s presence. May I receive the Full Acceptance. So he received the Going Forth in the presence of Kassapa the Blessed One, worthy & fully self-awakened; he received the Going Forth. And not long after his admission

i88

Fives

dwelling alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, & resolute he in no long time reached & remained in the supreme goal of the celi bate life, for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing & realizing it for himself in the here & now. He knew: Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for the sake of this world/ And thus Gavesin the monk became another one of the arahants. Then the thought occurred to the 500 lay followers: Master Gavesin is our benefactor, our leader, the one who has inspired us. Having shaven off his hair & beard, having put on the ochre robe, he has gone forth from the home life into homelessness. So

why shouldn t we?
"So

they went to Kassapa the Blessed One, worthy & fully self-awakened, and on arrival said to him, Lord, may we
receive the Going Forth in the Blessed One s presence. May we receive the Full Acceptance/ So they received the Going Forth in the presence of Kassapa the Blessed One, worthy fully self-

&

awakened; they received the Going Forth. "Then the thought occurred to Gavesin the monk: T obtain
will

at

without difficulty, without hardship this unexcelled bliss of release. O, that these 500 monks may obtain at will without this unexcelled bliss of release! difficulty, without hardship Then those 500 monks dwelling alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, & resolute in no long time reached & remained in the supreme goal of the celibate life, for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing & realizing it for themselves in the here & now. They knew: Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for the sake of this world/ And thus did those 500 monks headed by Gavesin, striving at what is more & more excellent, more & more
refined
"So,

realize unexcelled release.

Ananda, you should train yourselves: Striving at what is more & more excellent, more & more refined, we will realize unexcelled release/ That s how you should train yourselves."

V.196 Dreams
"When

the Tathagata

still

just

worthy & rightly self-awakened was an unawakened bodhisatta, five great dreams appeared
five?

to him.

Which

Fives

189

the Tathagata worthy & rightly self-awakened was an unawakened bodhisatta, this great earth was his great just bed. The Himalayas, king of mountains, was his pillow. His left
"When

still

hand rested in the eastern sea, his right hand in the western sea, and both feet in the southern sea. When the Tathagata worthy & rightly self-awakened was still just an unawakened bodhisatta, this was the first great dream that appeared to him. "Furthermore, when the Tathagata worthy & rightly selfawakened was still just an unawakened bodhisatta, a woody vine growing out of his navel stood reaching to the sky. When the Tathagata worthy & rightly self-awakened was still just an unawakened bodhisatta, this was the second great dream
that

appeared to him.

"Furthermore,

when

the Tathagata

worthy

& &

rightly self-

awakened was still just an unawakened bodhisatta, white worms with black heads crawling up from his feet covered him
as far as his knees.

When
when

the Tathagata

worthy

rightly selfthis

awakened
the third

the Tathagata worthy & rightly selfjust an unawakened bodhisatta, four different-colored birds coming from the four directions fell at his feet and turned entirely white. When the Tathagata worthy
"Furthermore,

was still just an unawakened bodhisatta, great dream that appeared to him.

was

awakened

was

still

&

hisatta, this

rightly self-awakened was still just an unawakened bod was the fourth great dream that appeared to him. "Furthermore, when the Tathagata worthy rightly self-

&

just an unawakened bodhisatta, he walked back & forth on top of a giant mountain of excrement but was not soiled by the excrement. When the Tathagata worthy & rightly self-awakened was still just an unawakened bod

awakened

was

still

hisatta, this
"Now,

was

when

the fifth great dream that appeared to him. the Tathagata worthy & rightly self-awak

ened
his

earth

was still just an unawakened bodhisatta, and this great was his great bed, the Himalayas, king of mountains, was pillow, his left hand rested in the eastern sea, his right hand

in the western sea,

and both feet in the southern sea: this first great dream appeared to let him know that he would awaken to the unexcelled right self-awakening.
the Tathagata worthy & rightly self-awakened was an unawakened bodhisatta, and a woody vine growing out of his navel stood reaching to the sky: this second great dream appeared to let him know that when he had awakened to
"When
still

just

igo

Fives

the noble eightfold path, he would proclaim it well as far as there are human & celestial beings. "When the Tathagata worthy & rightly self-awakened was still just an unawakened bodhisatta, and white worms with black heads crawling up from his feet covered him as far as his knees: this third great dream appeared to let him know that many whiteclothed householders would go for life-long refuge to the Tathagata. "When the Tathagata worthy & rightly self-awakened was still just an unawakened bodhisatta, and four differentcolored birds coming from the four directions fell at his feet and turned entirely white: this fourth great dream appeared to let him know that people from the four castes priests, noble-warriors, merchants, & laborers having gone forth from the home life into homelessness in the Dhamma & Vinaya taught by the Tathagata, would realize unexcelled release. "When the Tathagata worthy & rightly self-awakened
just an unawakened bodhisatta, and he walked back & on top of a giant mountain of excrement but was not soiled by the excrement: this fifth great dream appeared to let him know that the Tathagata would receive gifts of robes, alms

was

still

forth

would use them unattached

medicinal requisites to cure the sick, but he to them, uninfatuated, guiltless, the drawbacks (of attachment to them), and discerning seeing the escape from them. "When the Tathagata worthy & rightly self-awakened
food, lodgings,
just an unawakened bodhisatta, these five great appeared to him."
still

&

was

dreams

V.198

A Statement

"Monks, a statement endowed with five factors is well-spoken, not ill-spoken. It is blameless & unfaulted by knowledgeable

people.
"It

Which five?
is

spoken

at the right time. It is
It is

spoken
a

affectionately.

spoken in truth. It is spoken beneficially. It is spoken with
five factors is well-spoken,

mind
"A

of

good

will.

statement

endowed with these
blameless

not ill-spoken.
people."

It is

&

unfaulted by knowledgeable

See also:

MN 21; MN 58; AN IV.183; AN X.176; Sn

III.3

Fives

191

V.200 Leading
"Five

to

Escape

"There

properties lead to escape. is the case where the

to sensuality, doesn t leap dent, steadfast, or released in sensuality. But when attending to renunciation, his mind leaps up at renunciation, grows confident,

Which five? mind of a monk, when attending at sensuality, doesn t grow confi up

released in renunciation. When his mind is rightlygone, rightly developed, has rightly risen above, gained release, and become disjoined from sensuality, then whatever fermenta fevers there are that arise in dependence on tions, torments,
steadfast,

&

&

released from them. He doesn t experience that This is expounded as the escape from sensuality. feeling. "Furthermore, there is the case where the mind of a monk, when attending to ill will, doesn t leap up at ill will, doesn t grow confident, steadfast, or released in ill will. But when
sensuality, he
is

attending to non-ill will, his mind leaps up at non-ill will, grows confident, steadfast, & released in non-ill will. When his mind is
rightly-gone, rightly developed, has rightly risen above, gained

and become disjoined from ill will, then whatever fer mentations, torments, & fevers there are that arise in dependence on ill will, he is released from them. He doesn t experience that feeling. This is expounded as the escape from ill will. "Furthermore, there is the case where the mind of a monk,
release,

when

attending to harmfulness, doesn t leap up at harmfulness, doesn t grow confident, steadfast, or released in harmfulness. But when attending to harmlessness, his mind leaps up at harm-

When

released in harmlessness. lessness, grows confident, steadfast, his mind is rightly-gone, rightly developed, has rightly risen above, gained release, and become disjoined from harmfevers there fulness, then whatever fermentations, torments, are that arise in dependence on harmfulness, he is released from them. He doesn t experience that feeling. This is expounded as

&

&

the escape from harmfulness. "Furthermore, there is the case

where the mind of a monk,

when attending

leap up at forms, doesn t grow confident, steadfast, or released in forms. But when attending to the formless, his mind leaps up at the formless, grows confident, steadfast, & released in the formless. When his mind is rightlyto forms,

doesn

t

gone, rightly developed, has rightly risen above, gained release, and become disjoined from forms, then whatever fermentations,

1Q2.

Fives

he

torments, & fevers there are that arise in dependence on forms, is released from them. He doesn t experience that feeling. This is expounded as the escape from forms. "Furthermore, there is the case where the mind of a monk,

when

attending to self-identity, doesn t leap up at self-identity, doesn t grow confident, steadfast, or released in self-identity. But when attending to the cessation of self-identity, his mind leaps up at the cessation of self-identity, grows confident, stead
released in the cessation of self-identity. When his mind rightly-gone, rightly developed, has rightly risen above, gained release, and become disjoined from self-identity, then whatever fermentations, torments, & fevers there are that arise in dependence on self-identity, he is released from them. He doesn t experience that feeling. This is expounded as the escape from self-identity. Delight in sensuality doesn t obsess him.
fast,
is

&

Delight in ill will doesn t obsess him. Delight in harmfulness doesn t obsess him. Delight in form doesn t obsess him. Delight in self-identity doesn t obsess him. From the lack of any obses sion with sensuality, the lack of any obsession with ill will ... with harmfulness with form with self-identity, he is called a monk without attachment. He has cut through craving, has turned away from the fetter, and by rightly breaking through conceit he has put an end to suffering & stress. "These are the five properties that lead to escape."
.

. .

.

.

.

See also:

MN 44; SN XXXVI.6; AN VI.13; AN IX.34; AN IX.41;
Dhamma
Dhamma.

Hi 72-73

V.202 Listening to the
"There

are these five rewards in listening to the

Which

five?

"One hears what one has not heard before. One clarifies what one has heard before. One gets rid of doubt. One s views are made straight. One s mind grows serene.

"These

are the five rewards in listening to the Dhamma."

See also:

AN VL86-88

Sixes

VI.12 Conducive to Amiability
these six are conditions that are conducive to amiabil engender feelings of endearment, engender feelings of ity, respect, leading to a sense of fellowship, a lack of disputes, har mony, & a state of unity. Which six? "There is the case where a monk is set on bodily acts of good will with regard to his fellows in the celibate life, to their faces & behind their backs. This is a condition that is conducive to amia bility, that engenders feelings of endearment, engenders feelings of respect, leading to a sense of fellowship, a lack of disputes, harmony, & a state of unity. "Furthermore, the monk is set on verbal acts of good will with regard to his fellows in the celibate life, to their faces & behind their backs. This is a condition that is conducive to amia bility, that engenders feelings of endearment, engenders feelings of respect, leading to a sense of fellowship, a lack of disputes, harmony, & a state of unity. "Furthermore, the monk is set on mental acts of good will with regard to his fellows in the celibate life, to their faces &
"Monks,

that

behind

their backs. This is a condition that is

conducive to amia

bility that engenders feelings of endearment, engenders feelings of respect, leading to a sense of fellowship, a lack of disputes, a state of unity. harmony,

&

"Furthermore,

whatever righteous gains the
even
if

monk may

bowl way he doesn t consume them alone. He consumes them after sharing them in common with his virtuous fellows in the celi
obtain in a righteous

only the alms in his

bate

a condition that is conducive to amiability, that engenders feelings of endearment, engenders feelings of respect, leading to a sense of fellowship, a lack of disputes, har mony, & a state of unity. with reference to the virtues that are untorn, "Furthermore unbroken, unspotted, unsplattered, liberating, praised by the
life.

This

is

iQ4

Sixes

wise, untarnished, leading to concentration the monk dwells with his virtue in tune with that of his fellows in the celibate life, to their faces & behind their backs. This is a condition that is conducive to amiability, that engenders feelings of endear ment, engenders feelings of respect, leading to a sense of fellowship, a lack of disputes, harmony, & a state of unity. with reference to views that are noble, lead "Furthermore ing outward, that lead those who act in accordance with them to the right ending of suffering & stress the monk dwells with his views in tune with those of his fellows in the celibate life, to their faces & behind their backs. This is a condition that is con ducive to amiability, that engenders feelings of endearment, engenders feelings of respect, leading to a sense of fellowship, a lack of disputes, harmony, & a state of unity. "These are the six conditions that are conducive to amiabil ity, that engender feelings of endearment, engender feelings of respect, leading to a sense of fellowship, a lack of disputes, har a state of unity." mony,

&

See also:

AN IV.32; AN VII.21
of Escape

VI. 13

Means

these six properties are means of escape. Which six? is the case where a monk might say, Although good will has been developed, pursued, handed the reins, taken as a basis, steadied, consolidated, and well-undertaken by me as my
"Monks,
"There

overpowering my mind/ t speak in that way. Don t misrepresent the Blessed One, for it s not right to misrepresent the Blessed One, and the Blessed One wouldn t say that. It s impossible, there is no way that when good will has been developed, pursued, handed the reins, taken as a basis, steadied, consolidated, and well-undertaken as an awarenessrelease ill will would still keep overpowering the mind. That possibility doesn t exist, for this is the escape from ill will: good will as an awareness-release. "Furthermore, there is the case where a monk might say, Although compassion has been developed, pursued, handed the reins, taken as a basis, steadied, consolidated, and well-undertaken
awareness-release,
still ill

will keeps
that.

He

should be

told,

Don

t

say

You shouldn

Siixes

by

me as my awareness-release, still viciousness keeps overpower ing my mind/ He should be told, Don t say that. You shouldn t

speak in that way. Don t misrepresent the Blessed One, for it s not right to misrepresent the Blessed One, and the Blessed One wouldn t say that. It s impossible, there is no way that when compassion has been developed, pursued, handed the reins, taken as a basis, steadied, consolidated, and well-undertaken as an
awareness-release viciousness would still keep overpowering the mind. That possibility doesn t exist, for this is the escape from viciousness: compassion as an awareness-release.
"Furthermore, there is the case where a monk might say, Although appreciation has been developed, pursued, handed the

taken as a basis, steadied, consolidated, and well-under taken by me as my awareness-release, still resentment keeps overpowering my mind/ He should be told, Don t say that. You shouldn t speak in that way. Don t misrepresent the Blessed One, for it s not right to misrepresent the Blessed One, and the Blessed One wouldn t say that. It s impossible, there is no way that when appreciation has been developed, pursued, handed the reins, taken as a basis, steadied, consolidated, and well-under taken as an awareness-release resentment would still keep overpowering the mind. That possibility doesn t exist, for this is the escape from resentment: appreciation as an awareness-release/
reins,
"Furthermore, there is the case where a monk might say, Although equanimity has been developed, pursued, handed the reins, taken as a basis, steadied, consolidated, and well-

undertaken by

me

as

overpowering my mind/ He should be told, Don t say that. You shouldn t speak in that way. Don t misrepresent the Blessed One, for it s not right to misrepresent the Blessed One, and the Blessed One wouldn t say that. It s impossible, there is no way that when equanimity has been developed, pursued, handed the reins, taken as a basis, steadied, consolidated, and wellundertaken as an awareness-release passion would still keep overpowering the mind. That possibility doesn t exist, for this is the escape from passion: equanimity as an awareness-release/ "Furthermore, there is the case where a monk might say, Although the signless has been developed, pursued, handed the reins, taken as a basis, steadied, consolidated, and well-under

my

awareness-release,

still

passion keeps

me as my awareness-release, still follows the drift of signs/ He should be told,
taken by

my

consciousness

Don t say that. You

196

Sixes

t speak in that way. Don t misrepresent the Blessed One, not right to misrepresent the Blessed One, and the Blessed One wouldn t say that. It s impossible, there is no way that when the signless has been developed, pursued, handed the reins, taken as a basis, steadied, consolidated, and well-under taken as an awareness-release consciousness would follow the drift of signs. That possibility doesn t exist, for this is the escape

shouldn
for
it

s

from

the signless as an awareness-release. there is the case where a monk might say, am" is am this," Although gone, and I do not assume that still the arrow of uncertainty & perplexity keeps overpowering
all signs:

"Furthermore,
"I

"I

mind. He should be told, Don t say that. You shouldn t speak in that way. Don t misrepresent the Blessed One, for it s not right to misrepresent the Blessed One, and the Blessed One wouldn t say that. It s impossible, there is no way that when am" is am is not assumed the arrow of uncer gone, and tainty & perplexity would keep overpowering the mind. That possibility doesn t exist, for this is the escape from the arrow of

my

"I

"I

this"

uncertainty
"These,

& perplexity: the uprooting of the conceit,
six properties that are

"I

am".

monks, are

means

of

escape."

See also:

MN 121; SN XLIL8, AN 11166; AN V.27; AN V.200; AN
Iti

VIII.63; AN XI.16; Khp 9;

27;

Iti

72-73

VL16 Nakula
Once

s

Parents

the Blessed One was staying among the Bhaggas in the Deer Park at Bhesakala Grove, near Crocodile Haunt. At that time, Nakula s father, the householder, was diseased, in pain, severely ill. Then Nakula s mother said to him: "Don t be worried as you die, householder. Death is painful for one who is worried. The Blessed One has criticized being worried at the time of death. "Now it may be that you are thinking, Nakula s mother will not be able to support the children or maintain the household after I m gone, but you shouldn t see things in that way. I am skilled at spinning cotton, at carding matted wool. I can support the children and maintain the household after you are gone. So don t be worried as you die, householder. Death is painful for one who is worried. The Blessed One has criticized being worried at
the time of death.

Sixes

97

"Now it

may be that you are thinking, Nakula s mother will
husband after I You know
t

take another

m

gone/ but you shouldn
I

t

see
(lit.,

things in that way.
years. So

as well as

how my

fidelity

has been constant for the past sixteen be worried as you die, householder. Death is painful for one who is worried. The Blessed One has criticized death when one is worried. "Now it may be that you are thinking, Nakula s mother will have no desire to go see the Blessed One, to go see the Community of monks, after I gone/ but you shouldn t see things in that way. I will have an even greater desire to go see the Blessed One, to go see the Community of monks, after you are gone. So don t be worried as you die, householder. Death is painful for one who is worried. The Blessed One has criticized being worried at the time of death. "Now it may be that you are thinking, Nakula s mother will not act fully in accordance with the precepts after I gone/ but you shouldn t see things in that way. To the extent that the Blessed One has white-clad householder female disciples who act fully in accordance with the precepts, I am one of them. If anyone doubts or denies this, let him go ask the Blessed One, the worthy one, the rightly self-awakened one who is staying among the Bhaggas in the Deer Park at Bhesakala Grove, near Crocodile Haunt. So don t be worried as you die, householder. Death is painful for one who is worried. The Blessed One has criticized being worried at the time of death. "Now it may be that you are thinking, Nakula s mother will not attain inner tranquility of awareness after I gone/ but you shouldn t see things in that way. To the extent that the Blessed One has white-clad householder female disciples who attain inner tranquility of awareness, I am one of them. If anyone doubts or denies this, let him go ask the Blessed One, the worthy one, the rightly self-awakened one who is staying among the Bhaggas in the Deer Park at Bhesakala Grove, near Crocodile Haunt. So don t be worried as you die, householder. Death is painful for one who is worried. The Blessed One has criticized being worried at the time of death. "Now it may be that you are thinking, Nakula s mother will
"householder-celibacy")

don

m

m

m

not reach firm ground in this Dhamma & Vinaya, will not attain a firm foothold, will not attain consolation, overcome her doubts, dispel her perplexity, reach fearlessness or gain independence

ig8

Sixes

to the Teacher s message [a standard of a stream-winner]/ but you shouldn t see things in description that way. To the extent that the Blessed One has white-clad householder female disciples who reach firm ground in this Dhamma Vinaya, attain a firm foothold, attain consolation,

from others with regard

&

overcome

gain message, I am one of them. If anyone doubts or denies this, let him go ask the Blessed One, the worthy one, the rightly self-awak ened one who is staying among the Bhaggas in the Deer Park at Bhesakala Grove, near Crocodile Haunt. So don t be worried as you die, householder. Death is painful for one who is worried. The Blessed One has criticized being worried at the time of death." While Nakula s father the householder was being exhorted Nakula s mother with this exhortation, his disease was by immediately allayed. And he recovered from his disease. That
s father s disease was abandoned. soon after Nakula s father the householder had recov Then, ered from being sick, not long after his recovery from his illness, he went leaning on a stick to the Blessed One. On arrival, having bowed down to the Blessed One, he sat to one side. As he was is your gain, your sitting there, the Blessed One said to him, that you have Nakula s mother sym great gain, householder, pathetic & wishing for your welfare as your counselor & instructor. To the extent that I have white-clad householder female disciples who act fully in accordance with the precepts, she is one of them. To the extent that I have white-clad house holder female disciples who attain inner tranquility of awareness, she is one of them. To the extent that I have whiteclad householder female disciples who reach firm ground in this
"It

&

their doubts, dispel their perplexity, reach fearlessness, independence from others with regard to the Teacher s

was how Nakula

Dhamma &
overcome

Vinaya, attain a firm foothold, attain consolation,

&

their doubts, dispel their perplexity, reach fearlessness, gain independence from others with regard to the Teacher s

message, she is one of them. It is your gain, your great gain, householder, that you have Nakula s mother sympathetic & wishing for your welfare as your counselor & instructor."
See also:

SN XXIL1; AN IV.55; AN IV.184

s ixes

199

VI.19 Mindfulness of Death (1)

have heard that at one time the Blessed One was staying at Nadika, in the Brick Hall. There he addressed the monks, "Monks!"
I
"Yes, lord,"

the

monks

replied.

said, "Mindfulness of death, when developed pursued, is of great fruit great benefit. It gains a footing in the Deathless, has the Deathless as its final end. Therefore you

The Blessed One

&

&

should develop mindfulness of

death."

When
One,
"I

this

was

said, a certain

monk

addressed the Blessed

already develop mindfulness of

death."

"And
"I

how do you develop mindfulness of death?"
might
live for a

think, O, that I attend to the Blessed

day

&

night, that

I

might

One
is

s instructions. I

would have accom
"I,

plished a great deal/ This

how I develop mindfulness of death."
too,
death."

Then another monk addressed the Blessed One,
already develop mindfulness of
"And
"I

how do you develop mindfulness of death?"
is

think, O, that I might live for a day, that I might attend to the Blessed One s instructions. I would have accomplished a

great deal/ This

how I develop mindfulness of death."
"I,

too, think, O, that I might live for the interval that it takes to eat a meal, that I might attend to the Blessed One s instructions. I would have accomplished a

Then another monk addressed the Blessed One,
death....
"I

develop mindfulness of

great deal

....

Then another monk addressed the Blessed One,
develop mindfulness of
for the interval that
it

"I,

too,

O, that I might live takes to swallow having chewed up four
death....
"I

think,

morsels of food, that I might attend to the Blessed One s instruc tions. I would have accomplished a great deal .... Then another monk addressed the Blessed One, too, think, O, that I might live develop mindfulness of death....
"I,
"I

for the interval that

takes to swallow having chewed up one morsel of food, that I might attend to the Blessed One s instruc tions. I would have accomplished a great deal .... Then another monk addressed the Blessed One, too, think, O, that I might live develop mindfulness of death.... for the interval that it takes to breathe out after breathing in, or to breathe in after breathing out, that I might attend to the
it
"I,
"I

zoo
Blessed One deal/ This is

Sixes

s instructions. I

would have accomplished

a great

how I develop mindfulness of death/
day

When
"Whoever

this

was said, the Blessed One addressed the monks. develops mindfulness of death, thinking, O, that I

might

live for a

&

night.. .for a day.. .for the interval that

it

takes to eat a meal.. .for the interval that it takes to swallow having chewed up four morsels of food, that I might attend to the Blessed One s instructions. I would have accomplished a great deal they are said to dwell heedlessly. They develop mindfulness of death slowly for the sake of ending the fermentations.

whoever develops mindfulness of death, thinking, O, might live for the interval that it takes to swallow having chewed up one morsel of food... for the interval that it takes to
"But

that

I

breathe out after breathing in, or to breathe in after breathing out, that I might attend to the Blessed One s instructions. I would have accomplished a great deal they are said to dwell
heedfully. They develop mindfulness of death acutely for the sake of ending the fermentations. "Therefore you should train yourselves: We will dwell heedfully. We will develop mindfulness of death acutely for the sake of ending the fermentations/ That is how you should train
yourselves."

That

is

what

the Blessed

delighted in the Blessed

One said. One s words.

Gratified, the

monks

VL20 Mindfulness
I

of Death (2)
at

have heard that

at

one time the Blessed One was staying

Nadika, in the Brick Hall. There he addressed the monks, "Monks, mindfulness of death when developed pursued is of great

&

great benefit. It gains a footing in the Deathless, has the Deathless as its final end. And is mindfulness of death devel
fruit

&

how

of great fruit great benefit, gains a in the Deathless, and has the Deathless as its final end? footing "There is the case where a monk, as day departs and night death. returns, reflects: Many are the [possible] causes of

oped

& pursued so that

it is

&

my

A

snake might bite me, a scorpion might sting me, a centipede might bite me. That would be how my death would come about. That would be an obstruction for me. Stumbling, I might fall; my food, digested, might trouble me; my bile might be pro voked, my phlegm... piercing wind forces [in the body] might

Sixes

2.01

be provoked. That would be how my death would come about. That would be an obstruction for me/ Then the monk should investigate: Are there any evil, unskillful mental qualities unabandoned by me that would be an obstruction for me were I to die in the night? If, on reflecting, he realizes that there are evil, unskillful mental qualities unabandoned by him that would be an obstruction for him were he to die in the night, then he should put forth extra desire, effort, diligence, endeavor, undi vided mindfulness, & alertness for the abandoning of those very

same

evil, unskillful qualities. Just as

when

a person

whose

turban or head was on fire would put forth extra desire, effort, diligence, endeavor, undivided mindfulness, & alertness to put out the fire on his turban or head, in the same way the monk should put forth extra desire, effort, diligence, endeavor, undi vided mindfulness, & alertness for the abandoning of those very

same

evil, unskillful qualities.

that there are

by him

that

But if, on reflecting, he realizes no evil, unskillful mental qualities unabandoned would be an obstruction for him were he to die in

the night, then for that very reason he should dwell in joy rapture, training himself day & night in skillful qualities. "Further, there is the case where a monk, as night departs and day returns, reflects: Many are the [possible] causes of my death. snake might bite me, a scorpion might sting me, a cen death would tipede might bite me. That would be how come about. That would be an obstruction for me. Stumbling, I might fall; my food, digested, might trouble me; my bile might be provoked, my phlegm... piercing wind forces [in the body]

&

A

my

might be provoked. That would be how my death would come about. That would be an obstruction for me. Then the monk should investigate: Are there any evil, unskillful mental quali ties unabandoned by me that would be an obstruction for me were I to die during the day? If, on reflecting, he realizes that there are evil, unskillful mental qualities unabandoned by him that would be an obstruction for him were he to die during the day, then he should put forth extra desire, effort, diligence, endeavor, undivided mindfulness, & alertness for the abandon
ing of those very same evil, unskillful qualities. Just as when a person whose turban or head was on fire would put forth extra desire, effort, diligence, endeavor, undivided mindfulness, & alertness to put out the fire on his turban or head, in the same way the monk should put forth extra desire, effort, diligence,

2.0Z

Sixes

endeavor, undivided mindfulness, & alertness for the abandoning of those very same evil, unskillful qualities. But if, on reflecting, he
realizes that there are

doned by him

that

no evil, unskillful mental qualities unabanwould be an obstruction for him were he to die

during the day, then for that very reason he should dwell in joy rapture, training himself day & night in skillful qualities. This, monks, is how mindfulness of death is developed
7

& &

pursued so that it is of great fruit & great benefit, gains a footing in the Deathless, and has the Deathless as its final end/ That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One s words.
See also:

SN 11117; SN 11125; SN
Iti

AN V.57; AN X.I 5; Dhp 21-32;
VI.45 Debt
"Monks,

23;

XX.6; AN IV.113; AN IV.184; Sn IV.6; Sn V.16; Thig V.6

for

one

who partakes

of sensuality, poverty

is

suffering

in the

world."

"Yes, lord."

"And

one
the

who

a poor, destitute, penniless person gets into debt. For partakes of sensuality, getting into debt is suffering in

world."
"Yes, lord."

"And

debt,
ity,

owes

a poor, destitute, penniless person, having gotten into interest payments. For one who partakes of sensual

interest

payment is

suffering in the

world."

"Yes, lord."

"And

when
one

a poor, destitute, penniless person
t

owing

inter

est
is

payments doesn

notice. For

who

pay interest on time, they serve him partakes of sensuality, being served notice

suffering in the
"Yes, lord."

world."

notice,

a poor, destitute, penniless person, being served pay, they hound him. For one who partakes of sensuality, being hounded is suffering in the world."
"And

when
t

doesn

"Yes, lord."

hounded, doesn

a poor, destitute, penniless person, being pay, he is put into bondage. For one who par takes of sensuality, bondage is suffering in the world."
"And
t

when

Sixes

"Yes,

lord/

monks, poverty is suffering in the world for one who of sensuality. Getting into debt is suffering in the world partakes for one who partakes of sensuality. Interest payment is suffering in the world for one who partakes of sensuality. Being served
"Thus,

who partakes of sensual in the world for one who ity. suffering partakes of sensuality. Bondage is suffering in the world for one who partakes of sensuality. the same way, monks, whoever has no conviction with to skillful mental qualities, no sense of conscience with regard regard to skillful mental qualities, no sense of concern with
notice
is

suffering in the
is

world

for

one

Being hounded

"In

regard to
skillful

skillful

mental
is,

qualities,

mental

qualities,

no persistence with regard to no discernment with regard to skillful
be

mental qualities
poor, destitute,

"He penniless, having no conviction with regard to skillful mental qualities, no sense of conscience ... no sense of concern ... no persistence ... no discernment with regard to skillful mental qualities engages in misconduct by way of the body, misconduct by way of speech, misconduct by way of the mind. For him, I tell you, this is getting into debt. "For the purpose of concealing his bodily misconduct, he formulates evil desires: He desires, May they not know about me. He resolves, May they not know about me/ He speaks, [thinking,] May they not know about me/ He makes an effort with his body, [thinking,] May they not know about me/ For the purpose of concealing his verbal misconduct .... For the pur pose of concealing his mental misconduct, he formulates evil desires: He desires, May they not know about me/ He resolves, May they not know about me/ He speaks, [thinking,] May they not know about me/ He makes an effort with his body, [thinking,] May they not know about me/ For him, I tell you, this is interest payment. "And then his well-behaved companions in the celibate life about him, This venerable one acts in this way, behaves in say this way/ For him, I tell you, this is being served notice. "And then, when he has gone to the wilderness, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty dwelling, he is beset with evil, unskill ful thoughts accompanied by remorse. For him, I tell you, this is being hounded.

& penniless. poor, destitute, &

in the discipline of a noble one, said to

Z04

Sixes

"He poor, destitute, & penniless, having engaged in mis conduct by way of the body, misconduct by way of speech, & misconduct by way of the mind on the break-up of the body,

after death, is

bound by

the

bond

of hell or the

bond

of the

can imagine no one other bond so tor so painful, so obstructive to the unexcelled rest from menting, bondage, as the bond of hell or the bond of the animal womb.
I

animal womb.

And

"Poverty is

called

suffering in the world;

A poor person, in debt,

so, too, is getting into debt.

partaking of sensuality, suffers hardship. Then they hound him

and put him
the painful
for

into bondage:

bond

one longing to gain sensual pleasures.

Now, anyone with no
no sense

conviction

in the discipline of a noble one no sense of conscience,

of concern

contemplating doing wrong by

evil actions,

way of body, wrong by way of speech, & wrong by way of the mind,

wants:

May they not

know about me/ He creeps along in body,
speech, or mind,
piling

up

evil actions,

here

& there, again & again.
is

He,

with
his

evil actions,

wisdom weak,

knowing his own wrong-doing,
a poor person, in debt. Partaking of sensuality,

he suffers hardship.

Siixes
2.05"

Then they hound him
painful mental resolves born of remorse
at

home or in the wilderness.
with
his
evil actions,

He,

wisdom weak,

knowing his own wrong-doing,
goes to an animal
the

womb

bound painful bond
or
is

in hell:

from which the enlightened
are freed.

But one with confidence,
living at

home,

making

belongings, righteously-gained,

gifts of his

wins both goals: advantage in the here-&-now, & happiness in the world beyond. The liberality of this householder
piles

up

merit.

Now, anyone with conviction
firmly established in the discipline of a noble one with a sense of conscience, a sense of concern,

is,

discerning & restrained by virtue in the discipline of a noble one, said to be living in ease.

Gaining a pleasure not of the flesh, he determines on equanimity: abandoning the five hindrances persistence constantly aroused
entering the jhanas:
unified,

mindful,
wise.
this
is

&

Knowing
as
it

actually

zo6

Sixes

in the total

ending of through everywhere
his

all fetters,

mind

is

not-clinging, rightly released.

In him, Such, rightly released, there is the knowledge, in the total ending of the fetters of becoming: release

My

is

unshakable/

That
that,

the highest knowledge the happiness unexcelled.
is

Sorrowless,
dustless,
at rest,

that
is

release

from

debt."

See also:

AN IV.62; Iti 107

VI.55 Sona
I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Rajagaha, on Vulture Peak Mountain. And on that occasion Ven. Sona was staying near Rajagaha in the Cool Wood. Then, as Ven. Sona was meditating in seclusion [after doing walking medi

tation until the skin of his soles

was

split

thought arose in his awareness:

"Of

bleeding], this train of the Blessed One s disciples

&

aroused their persistence, I am one, but my mind is not released from the fermentations through lack of clinging /suste nance. Now, family has enough wealth that it would be

who have

my

make merit. What if I were to disavow possible to enjoy wealth the training, return to the lower life, enjoy wealth, make merit?" Then the Blessed One, as soon as he perceived with his aware ness the train of thought in Ven. Sona s awareness disappeared from Vulture Peak Mountain just as a strong man might extend his flexed arm or flex his extended arm appeared in the Cool Wood right in front of Ven. Sona, and sat down on a prepared seat. Ven. Sona, after bowing down to the Blessed One, sat to one side.

&

&

Sixes

107

As he was sitting there, the Blessed One said to him, now, as were meditating in seclusion, didn t this train of thought you appear to your awareness: Of the Blessed One s disciples who have aroused their persistence, I am one, but my mind is not released from the fermentations.... What if I were to disavow the
"Just

training, return to the
"Yes, lord."

lower

life,

enjoy wealth,

& make merit?

"

what do you think, Sona. Before, when you were house-dweller, were you skilled at playing the vina?"
"Now
"Yes, lord."

a

"And

were too

what do you think: when the strings taut, was your vina in tune & playable?"

of your vina

"No, lord."

"And

were too

what do you think: when the strings of your vina loose, was your vina in tune & playable?"

"No, lord."

"And what do you think: when the strings of your vina were neither too taut nor too loose, but tuned (lit: established ) to be right on pitch, was your vina in tune & playable?"
"Yes, lord."

same way, Sona, over-aroused persistence leads to restlessness, overly slack persistence leads to laziness. Thus you
"In

the

should determine the right pitch for your persistence, attune
1 penetrate, ferret out ) the pitch of the [five] faculties [to that], and there pick up your theme."
(
"Yes,

lord,"

Ven. Sona answered the Blessed One. Then,

having given
a strong

man

this exhortation to Ven. Sona, the Blessed One as extend his flexed arm or flex his extended might

disappeared from the Cool Wood and appeared on Vulture Peak Mountain. So after that, Ven. Sona determined the right pitch for his per sistence, attuned the pitch of the [five] faculties [to that], and there picked up his theme. Dwelling alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, & resolute, he in no long time reached & remained in the supreme

arm

goal of the celibate life for which clansmen rightly go forth from into homelessness, knowing realizing it for himself in the here & now. He knew: "Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for the sake of this world."

home

&

And thus Ven. Sona became another one of the arahants.
Then, on the attainment of arahantship,
to Ven. Sona:
"What if I

this

were

to

go

to the Blessed

thought occurred One and, on

2.o8

Siixes

arrival, to declare gnosis in his presence?"

So he then went to the

One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One:
Blessed
"When a monk is an arahant, with his fermentations ended, one who has reached fulfillment, done the task, laid down the burden,

attained the true goal, totally destroyed the fetter of becoming, and is released through right gnosis, he is dedicated to six things: renunciation, seclusion, non-afflictiveness, the ending of craving, the ending of clinging /sustenance, & non-deludedness. "Now it may occur to a certain venerable one to think, Perhaps it is entirely dependent on conviction that this venerable

one

is

dedicated to renunciation/ but
life],

it

should not be seen in that

way. The monk whose fermentations
[the celibate

doesn

t

are ended, having fulfilled see in himself anything further to do, or

anything further to add to what he has done. It is because of the ending of passion, because of his being free of passion, that he is dedicated to renunciation. It is because of the ending of aversion,

because of his being free of aversion, that he is dedicated to renunciation. It is because of the ending of delusion, because of his being free of delusion, that he is dedicated to renunciation. "Now it may occur to a certain venerable one to think, Perhaps it is because he desires gain, honor, & fame that this venerable one is dedicated to seclusion ... Perhaps it is because he falls back on attachment to precepts & practices as being essential that he is dedicated to non-afflictiveness/ but it should not be seen in that way. The monk whose fermentations are ended, having fulfilled [the celibate life], doesn t see in himself anything further to do, or anything further to add to what he has done. It is because of the ending of passion, because of his being free of passion, that he is dedicated to non-afflictiveness. It is because of the ending of aversion, because of his being free of aversion, that he is dedicated to non-afflictiveness. It is because of the ending of delusion, because of his being free of delusion, that he is dedicated to non-afflictiveness. is because of the ending of passion, because of his being free of passion because of the ending of aversion, because of his being free of aversion because of the ending of delusion, because of his being free of delusion, that he is dedicated to the
"It

...

...

ending of craving non-deludedness.

...

to the

ending of clinging/ sustenance

...

to

Sixes

zog

"Even if

powerful forms cognizable by the eye come into the

monk whose mind is thus rightly released, his neither overpowered nor even engaged. Being still, having reached imperturbability, he focuses on their passing away. And even if powerful sounds ... aromas ... flavors ... tactile sensations .... Even if powerful ideas cognizable by the intellect come into the mental range of a monk whose mind is thus rightly released, his mind is neither overpowered nor even
visual range of a

mind

is

engaged. Being still, having reached imperturbability, he focuses on their passing away. as if there were a mountain of rock without cracks, without fissures, one solid mass and then from the east there were to come a powerful storm of wind & rain: the mountain would neither shiver nor quiver nor shake. And then from the west ... the north the south there were to come a powerful storm of wind & rain: the mountain would neither shiver nor quiver nor shake. In the same way, even if powerful forms cog nizable by the eye come into the visual range of a monk whose mind is thus rightly released, his mind is neither overpowered nor even engaged. Being still, having reached imperturbability, he focuses on their passing away. And even if powerful sounds ... aromas ... flavors ... tactile sensations .... Even if powerful ideas cognizable by the intellect come into the mental range of a
"Just
...

monk whose mind

is

thus rightly released, his

mind

is

neither

overpowered nor even engaged. Being still, having reached imperturbability, he focuses on their passing away"

When one s awareness is dedicated
to renunciation, seclusion,

ending of clinging, & non-deludedness, the arising of the sense media, seeing
the

non-afflictiveness, the the ending of craving,

mind is

rightly released.

For that monk, rightly released,
his heart at peace, there s nothing to be done, nothing to add
to

what

s

done.
t

As

a single
all

mass

of rock isn

moved by the wind,

even so

forms, flavors, sounds,

aromas, contacts,

no

Sixes

ideas desirable

& not,

have no effect on one The mind
still,

who is Such.

totally released

focuses on
their passing

away.

NOTE:
See also:

1.

See

SN XLVIII.10.

AN IV.37; AN VIII.80; Ud IIIA; Sn 1112

VL63
"I

Penetrative

will teach you the penetrative explanation that is a Dhamma explanation. Listen & pay close attention. I will speak/ "As you say, lord/ the monks responded. The Blessed One said: "And which penetrative explanation is a Dhamma explanation? "Sensuality should be known. The cause by which sensual ity comes into play should be known. The diversity in sensuality should be known. The result of sensuality should be known. The cessation of sensuality should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of sensuality should be known.
"Feeling

should be known. The cause by which feeling

comes

into play should be

known. The diversity

in feeling

should be known. The result of feeling should be known. The cessation of feeling should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of feeling should be known. "Perception should be known. The cause by which percep tion comes into play should be known. The diversity in perception should be known. The result of perception should be known. The cessation of perception should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of perception should be known. "Fermentations (asava) should be known. The cause by which fermentations come into play should be known. The diversity in fermentations should be known. The result of fer mentations should be known. The cessation of fermentations should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of fer mentations should be known

Siixes

2,11

"Kamma

should be known. The cause by which

kamma

known. The diversity in kamma should be known. The result of kamma should be known. The cessation of kamma should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of kamma should be known. "Stress should be known. The cause by which stress comes into play should be known. The diversity in stress should be known. The result of stress should be known. The cessation of stress should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of stress should be known.
comes
into play should be

Sensuality should be known. The cause by which sen suality comes into play ... The diversity in sensuality ... The result of sensuality ... The cessation of sensuality ... The path of practice for the cessation of sensuality should be known/ Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said?
"

[1]

Forms cognizable via the eye

are these five strands of sensuality. Which five? agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing; sounds cognizable via the ear ... aromas cognizable via the nose ... flavors cognizable via the tongue ... tactile sensations cognizable via the body agree
"There

able, pleasing,

charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing. But these are not sensuality. They are called strands of sensual ity in the discipline of the noble ones.

The passion for his resolves is a man not the beautiful sensual pleasures found in the world.

s sensuality,

The passion for his resolves is a man s sensuality. The beauties remain as they are in the world,
while the wise, in this regard,

subdue
"And

their desire.

what
is

play? Contact
"And

what

is the cause by which sensuality comes into the cause by which sensuality comes into play. is the diversity in sensuality? Sensuality with

is one thing, sensuality with regard to sounds is another, sensuality with regard to aromas is another, sensuality with regard to flavors is another, sensuality with regard to tactile sensations is another. This is called the diversity in sensuality.

regard to forms

2,12.

Sixes

the result of sensuality? One who wants sen a corresponding state of existence, on the side suality produces of merit or demerit. This is called the result of sensuality. "And what is the cessation of sensuality? From the cessation of contact is the cessation of sensuality; and just this noble eightfold
"And

what

is

path

right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration is the way leading to the cessation of sensuality.
"Now when a disciple of the noble ones discerns sensuality in this way, the cause by which sensuality comes into play in this way, the diversity of sensuality in this way, the result of sen

the suality in this way, the cessation of sensuality in this way, of practice leading to the cessation of sensuality in this path way, then he discerns this penetrative celibate life as the cessa
tion of sensuality.

&

Sensuality should be known. The cause by which sensual into play ... The diversity in sensuality ... The result of ity sensuality ... The cessation of sensuality ... The path of practice for the cessation of sensuality should be known/ Thus it has been said, and in reference to this was it said.
"

comes

"

[2]

Feeling should be known. The cause
...

comes
ing
...

into play

The

diversity in feeling

...

by which The result

feeling of feel

of feeling ... The path of practice for the of feeling should be known/ Thus it has been said. In cessation reference to what was it said? "There are these three kinds of feeling: a feeling of pleasure, a feeling of pain, & feeling of neither pleasure nor pain. "And what is the cause by which feeling comes into play? Contact is the cause by which feeling comes into play. "And what is the diversity in feeling? There is the feeling of pleasure connected with the baits of the world. There is the feel ing of pleasure not connected with the baits of the world. There is the feeling of pain connected with the baits of the world. There is the feeling of pain not connected with the baits of the

The cessation

world. There is the feeling of neither pleasure nor pain con nected with the baits of the world. There is the feeling of neither pleasure nor pain not connected with the baits of the world.
This
called the diversity in feeling. what is the result of feeling? One produces a corresponding state of existence,
is
"And

who

feels a feeling

on the

side of merit

or demerit. This

is

called the result of feeling.

Sixes

"And

what

contact

is

is the cessation of feeling? From the cessation of the cessation of feeling; and just this noble eightfold

path

right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration is the way leading to the cessation of feeling. "Now when a disciple of the noble ones discerns feeling in
this

way, the cause by which feeling comes into play in this way, the diversity of feeling in this way, the result of feeling in this way, the cessation of feeling in this way, & the path of practice leading to the cessation of feeling in this way, then he discerns this penetrative celibate life as the cessation of feeling.
Feeling should be known. The cause by which feeling comes into play The diversity in feeling The result of feeling The cessation of feeling The path of practice for the cessation of feeling should be known/ Thus it has been said, and in refer
"

...

...

...

...

ence to this was
"

it

said.

Perception should be known. The cause by which per into play ... The diversity in perception ... The result of perception ... The cessation of perception ... The path of practice for the cessation of perception should be known/ Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said? "There are these six kinds of perception (mental labels): the of form, the perception of sound, the perception of perception aroma, the perception of flavor, the perception of tactile sensa tion, the perception of ideas. "And what is the cause by which perception comes into Contact is the cause by which perception comes into play. play? "And what is the diversity in perception? Perception with
[3]

ception comes

regard to forms is one thing, perception with regard to sounds is another, perception with regard to aromas is another, perception with regard to flavors is another, perception with regard to tac tile sensations is another, perception with regard to ideas is another. This is called the diversity in perception. "And what is the result of perception? Perception has
expression as its result, I tell you. However a person perceives something, that is how he expresses it: I have this sort of per ception/ This is called the result of perception. "And what is the cessation of perception? From the cessation of contact is the cessation of perception; and just this noble eight
fold path
right view, right resolve, right speech, right action,

2.14

Sixes

right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentra tion is the way leading to the cessation of perception.
"Now when a disciple of the noble ones discerns perception in this way, the cause by which perception comes into play in this way, the diversity of perception in this way, the result of

perception in this way, the cessation of perception in this way, & the path of practice leading to the cessation of perception in this way, then he discerns this penetrative celibate life as the cessa
tion of perception.
"Perception

should be known. The cause by which percep

... The diversity in perception ... The result of perception ... The cessation of perception ... The path of prac tice for the cessation of perception should be known/ Thus it has been said, and in reference to this was it said.

tion

comes

into play

"

[4]

fermentations

Fermentations should be known. The cause by which come into play ... The diversity in fermentations ...
...
...

The result of fermentations The cessation of fermentations The path of practice for the cessation of fermentations should be known/ Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said?
"There are these three kinds of fermentations: the fermenta tion of sensuality, the fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. "And what is the cause by which fermentations comes into

play? Ignorance
"And

is

the cause by which fermentations

comes into play.

the diversity in fermentations? There are fer mentations that lead to hell, those that lead to the animal womb, those that lead to the realm of the hungry shades, those that lead to the human world, those that lead to the world of the devas. This is called the diversity in fermentations. "And what is the result of fermentations? One who is immersed in ignorance produces a corresponding state of existence, on the side of merit or demerit. This is called the result of fermentations. "And what is the cessation of fermentations? From the cessa tion of ignorance is the cessation of fermentations; and just this
is

what

noble eightfold path

right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right con centration is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.
"Now when a disciple of the noble ones discerns fermenta tions in this way, the cause by which fermentations comes into play in this way, the diversity of fermentations in this way, the result of fermentations in this way, the cessation of fermenta-

Sixes

tions in this way, the path of practice leading to the cessation of fermentations in this way, then he discerns this penetrative
celibate life as the cessation of fermentations.
"Fermentations should be known. The cause by which fer mentations come into play ... The diversity in fermentations ...

&

The result of fermentations The cessation of fermentations The path of practice for the cessation of fermentations should be known/ Thus it has been said, and in reference to this was it said.
...

...

[5]

"Kamma

should be known. The cause by which

kamma

known. The diversity in kamma should be known. The result of kamma should be known. The cessation of kamma should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of kamma should be known/ Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said? "Intention, I tell you, is kamma. Intending, one does kamma by way of body, speech, & intellect. "And what is the cause by which kamma comes into play? Contact is the cause by which kamma comes into play. "And what is the diversity in kamma? There is kamma to be

comes

into play should be

hell, kamma to be experienced in the realm of animals, kamma to be experienced in the realm of the hungry shades, kamma to be experienced in the human world, kamma to be experienced in the world of the devas. This is called the diversity in kamma. "And what is the result of kamma? The result of kamma is of three sorts, I tell you: that which arises right here & now, that which arises later [in this lifetime], and that which arises follow ing that. This is called the result of kamma. "And what is the cessation of kamma? From the cessation of contact is the cessation of kamma; and just this noble eightfold

experienced in

common

path

right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration is the way leading to the cessation of kamma. "Now when a disciple of the noble ones discerns kamma in

this way, the cause by which kamma comes into play in this way, the diversity of kamma in this way, the result of kamma in this way, the cessation of kamma in this way, & the path of prac tice leading to the cessation of kamma in this way, then he

discerns this penetrative celibate
"

life

as the cessation of

kamma.

should be known. The cause by which kamma comes into play ... The diversity in kamma ... The result of

Kamma

116

Sixes

kamma

The cessation of kamma ... The path of practice for the cessation of kamma should be known/ Thus it has been said, and in reference to this was it said.
...

Stress should be known. The cause by which stress comes into play should be known. The diversity in stress should be known. The result of stress should be known. The cessation of stress should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of stress should be known/ Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said? "Birth is stress, aging is stress, death is stress; sorrow, lamen tation, pain, distress, & despair are stress; association with what is not loved is stress, separation from what is loved is stress, not getting what is wanted is stress. In short, the five clinging"

[6]

aggregates are
"And

stress.

is the cause by which stress comes into play? the cause by which stress comes into play. Craving "And what is the diversity in stress? There is major stress & minor, slowly fading & quickly fading. This is called the diversity
is

what

in stress.

which

what is the result of stress? There are some cases in a person overcome with pain, his mind exhausted, grieves, mourns, laments, beats his breast, & becomes bewil dered. Or one overcome with pain, his mind exhausted, comes to search outside, Who knows a way or two to stop this pain? I tell you, monks, that stress results either in bewilderment or in search. This is called the result of stress. "And what is the cessation of stress? From the cessation of craving is the cessation of stress; and just this noble eightfold
"And

path

right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress. "Now when a disciple of the noble ones discerns stress in

way, the cause by which stress comes into play in this way, the diversity of stress in this way, the result of stress in this way, the cessation of stress in this way, the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress in this way, then he discerns this pene trative celibate life as the cessation of stress.
this

&

"

Stress should
...

be known. The cause by which

stress

comes

diversity in stress ... The result of stress ... The cessation of stress ... The path of practice for the cessation of
into play

The

Sixes

ziy

stress

should be known/ Thus

it

has been said, and in reference

to this

was

it

said.

"And

this is the penetrative explanation that is a

Dhamma

explanation."

See also:

DN 22

(Section D.5);

MN 18; MN 135; SN XLVI.ll;

ANIV.237

VL86

Obstructions

"Endowed

with these

six qualities, a

person

alighting on the lawfulness, the Tightness
qualities
"He

is incapable of of skillful mental

even when listening to the true Dhamma. Which six? endowed with a (present) kamma obstruction, a defile ment obstruction, a result-of-(past)-kamma obstruction; he lacks conviction, has no desire (to listen), and has dull discernment. "Endowed with these six qualities, a person is incapable of alighting on the lawfulness, the Tightness of skillful mental qualities even when listening to the true Dhamma. "Endowed with these six qualities, a person is capable of alighting on the lawfulness, the Tightness of skillful mental qualities even while listening to the true Dhamma. Which six? "He is not endowed with a (present) kamma obstruction, a
is

defilement obstruction, or a result-of-(past)-kamma obstruction;

he has conviction, has the desire (to listen), and is discerning. "Endowed with these six qualities, a person is capable of alighting on the lawfulness, the Tightness of skillful mental qualities even while listening to the true Dhamma.
See also:

AN V.202; Thag V.10
Obstructions
six qualities, a

VI.87

Kamma

"Endowed

with these

person

alighting on the lawfulness, the Tightness
qualities
"He

is incapable of of skillful mental

even when listening to the true Dhamma. Which six? has killed his mother; he has killed his father; he has killed an arahant; he has, with corrupt intent, caused the blood of a Tathagata to flow; he has caused a split in the Sarigha; or he is a person of dull discernment, slow & dull-witted.

2.i8

Sixes

"Endowed

with these

six qualities, a

person

is

incapable of

alighting
qualities

on the lawfulness, the Tightness of on the lawfulness, the Tightness of
to the true

skillful

mental

even when listening to the true Dhamma. "Endowed with these six qualities, a person even while listening

is

capable of

alighting
qualities

skillful

mental

Dhamma. Which six?

"He has not killed his mother; he has not killed his father; he has not killed an arahant; he has not, with corrupt intent, caused the blood of a Tathagata to flow; he has not caused a split in the Sarigha; and he is a discerning person, not slow or dull-witted. "Endowed with these six qualities, a person is capable of alighting on the lawfulness, the Tightness of skillful mental qualities even while listening to the true Dhamma/

See also:

DN 2; AN V.129; AN V.202

VI.88 Listening Well
"Endowed

with these

six qualities, a

person

is

incapable of

mental even when listening to the true Dhamma. Which six? "When the Dhamma & Vinaya declared by the Tathagata is being taught, he doesn t listen well, doesn t give ear, doesn t apply his mind to gnosis, grabs hold of what is worthless, rejects what is worthwhile, and is not endowed with the patience to comply with the teaching. "Endowed with these six qualities, a person is incapable of alighting on the lawfulness, the Tightness of skillful mental qualities even when listening to the true Dhamma. "Endowed with these six qualities, a person is capable of alighting on the lawfulness, the Tightness of skillful mental qualities even while listening to the true Dhamma. Which six?
alighting
qualities
skillful
"When

on the lawfulness, the Tightness of

the

Dhamma &

Vinaya declared by the Tathagata

is

being taught, he
rejects
is

listens well, gives ear, applies his

mind

to gnosis,

what is worthless, grabs hold of what is worthwhile, and endowed with the patience to comply with the teaching.
"Endowed

with these

six qualities, a

person

is

capable of

alighting
qualities

on the lawfulness, the Tightness of

skillful

mental

even while listening

to the true Dhamma."

See also:

AN V.202; Thag V.10

2.19

Sevens

VII.6 Treasure
"Monks, there are these seven treasures. Which seven? The trea sure of conviction, the treasure of virtue, the treasure of

conscience, the treasure of concern, the treasure of listening, the treasure of generosity, the treasure of discernment. "And what is the treasure of conviction? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones has conviction, is convinced of the Tathagata s Awakening: Indeed, the Blessed One is pure and rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & con duct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of human beings, awakened, blessed/ This is called the divine

&

treasure of conviction. "And what is the treasure of virtue? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones abstains from taking life, abstains from stealing, abstains from illicit sexual conduct, abstains from lying, abstains from taking intoxicants that cause heedlessness.
This,

monks,

is

called the treasure of virtue.
is

"And

what

the treasure of conscience? There

is

the case

where a disciple of the noble ones feels shame at [the thought of engaging in] bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental
called the treasure of conscience. the treasure of concern? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones feels concern for [the suffer ing that results from] bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct. This is called the treasure of concern. "And what is the treasure of listening? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones has heard much, has retained what he/she has heard, has stored what he/she has heard. Whatever teachings are admirable in the beginning, admirable in the middle, admirable in the end, that in their meaning &

misconduct. This
"And

is

what

is

expression proclaim the celibate life that is entirely complete & pure: those he/she has listened to often, retained, discussed,

2.2.0

Sevens

accumulated, examined with his/her mind, and well-penetrated in terms of his/her views. This is called the treasure of listening. "And what is the treasure of generosity? There is the case of a disciple of the noble ones, his awareness cleansed of the stain of
stinginess, living at home, freely generous, openhanded, delight ing in being magnanimous, responsive to requests, delighting in
gifts. This is called the treasure of generosity. the treasure of discernment? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones is discerning, endowed with discernment of arising passing away noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress. This is called the treasure of discernment. "These, monks, are the seven treasures."

the distribution of
"And

what

is

&

The

treasure of conviction, the treasure of virtue, the treasure of conscience concern, the treasure of listening, generosity, discernment as the seventh treasure. Whoever, man or woman, has these treasures is said not to be poor, has not lived in vain. Dhamma-vision So conviction & virtue, confidence should be cultivated by the wise, remembering the Buddhas instruction.

&

&

&

VII.7

Ugga

Then Ugga, the king s chief minister, went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he said to the Blessed One: s amazing, lord. It s awesome, how prosperous Migara Rohaneyya is, how
"It

great his treasures,

how great his resources!"
"But

[The Buddha:]
great treasures
"One

what

is

& great resources?"
Ugga.
I

his property,

Ugga? What are his
lord, to say
s not.

hundred thousand pieces of gold,
is

nothing

of his

silver."

"That

treasure,
fire,

don t say

that

it

And

that trea

hateful heirs. But these floods, kings, thieves, seven treasures are not open to fire, flood, kings, thieves, or hateful heirs. Which seven? The treasure of conviction, the treasure of

sure

is

open to

&

virtue, the treasure of conscience, the treasure of concern, the

Sevens

111

treasure of listening, the treasure of generosity, the treasure of discernment. These, Ugga, are the seven treasures that are not open to fire, flood, kings, thieves, or hateful heirs.

The treasure

of conviction, the treasure of virtue, the treasure of conscience & concern, the treasure of listening, generosity, discernment as the seventh treasure: Whoever, man or woman, has these treasures, has great treasure in the world that no being, human or divine,

&

can excel. So conviction & virtue, confidence should be cultivated by the wise,

& Dhamma-vision

remembering the Buddhas
See also:

instruction.

SN IIL19-20; SN 711.25; AN 11152-53; AN IV.62; Khp

6;

Khp8
VII.11 Obsessions (1)
"Monks,
"(1)

"(2)

"(3)

"(4)

"(5)

"(6)

The The The The The The (7) The

there are these seven obsessions. 1 Which seven? obsession of sensual passion. obsession of resistance. obsession of views. obsession of uncertainty. obsession of conceit. obsession of passion for becoming. obsession of ignorance.
obsessions."

"These

are the seven
1.

usually translated as translations tendency." These "underlying tendency" are based on the etymology of the term, which literally means, lie down with." However, in actual usage, the related verb

NOTE:

This term

anusaya

is

or

"latent

"to

(anuseti)

means

to

thoughts to return
See also:

be obsessed with something, for one over and over again. down with and
"lie
it"

s

MN 44; SN XXII.36; SN XXXVI.6

ZZ2.

Sevens

VII.12 Obsessions (2)

destruction of the seven Monks, with the abandoning obsessions, the celibate life is fulfilled. Which seven? The obses sion of sensual passion, the obsession of resistance, the obsession of views, the obsession of uncertainty, the obsession of conceit, the obsession of passion for becoming, the obsession of ignorance. With the abandoning & destruction of these seven obsessions, the celibate life is fulfilled. "When, for a monk, the obsession of sensual passion has been
its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, of the conditions of existence, not destined for future deprived the obsession arising; when, for him, the obsession of resistance of views ... the obsession of uncertainty ... the obsession of con ceit the obsession of passion for becoming the obsession of

&

abandoned,

. . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

root destroyed, like an tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not uprooted palm destined for future arising: this is called a monk who has cut through craving, has turned away from the fetter, and by rightly breaking through conceit has put an end to suffering & stress/
its

ignorance has been abandoned,

VII.21 Conditions for
I

No

Decline

among

the

Monks

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying on Vulture Peak Mountain. There he addressed the monks: "Monks, I will teach you the seven conditions that lead to no decline. Listen & pay close attention. I will speak."
in Rajagaha,
"Yes, lord,"

the

monks responded.
"And

The Blessed One said: that lead to no decline?
[1]
"As

which seven are the conditions

long as the monks meet often, meet a great deal, growth can be expected, not their decline. [2] "As long as the monks meet in harmony, adjourn from their meetings in harmony, and conduct Community business in harmony, their growth can be expected, not their decline. [3] "As long as the monks neither decree what has been undecreed nor repeal what has been decreed, but practice undertaking the training rules as they have been decreed, their growth can be expected, not their decline.
their

Sevens

honor, respect, venerate, and do those with seniority who have homage been ordained, the fathers of the Community, leaders of long the Community regarding them as worth listening to, their growth can be expected, not their decline. [5] "As long as the monks do not submit to the power of any arisen craving that leads to further becoming, their growth can be expected, not their decline. [6] "As long as the monks see their own benefit in wilder ness dwellings, their growth can be expected, not their decline. [7] "As long as the monks each keep firmly in mind: If there are any well-behaved fellow followers of the celibate life who have yet to come, may they come; and may the well-behaved fellow-followers of the celibate life who have come live in com fort/ their growth can be expected, not their decline. "As long as the monks remain steadfast in these seven con ditions, and as long as these seven conditions endure among the monks, the monks growth can be expected, not their decline."
[4]
"As

long as the

to the elder

monks monks

See also:

DN 16; AN V.77-80; AN VI.12; AN VII.56

VII.48 Bondage
lack of you a Dhamma discourse on bondage Listen close attention. I will speak." bondage. pay "Yes, lord," the monks responded. The Blessed One said: woman attends inwardly to her
"I

will teach

&

&

"A

feminine faculties, her feminine gestures, her feminine manners,

feminine poise, feminine desires, feminine voice, feminine charms. She is excited by that, delighted by that. Being excited & delighted by that, she attends outwardly to masculine facul ties, masculine gestures, masculine manners, masculine poise, masculine desires, masculine voices, masculine charms. She is

by that, delighted by that. Being excited & delighted by she wants to be bonded to what is outside her, wants what ever pleasure & happiness that arise based on that bond. Delighting, caught up in her femininity, a woman goes into bondage with reference to men. This is how a woman doesn t transcend her femininity.
excited
that,

2.Z

4

Sevens

attends inwardly to his masculine faculties, mascu line gestures, masculine manners, masculine poise, masculine desires, masculine voice, masculine charms. He is excited by that, delighted by that. Being excited & delighted by that, he attends outwardly to feminine faculties, feminine gestures, fem inine manners, feminine poise, feminine desires, feminine voices, feminine charms. He is excited by that, delighted by that. Being excited & delighted by that, he wants to be bonded to what is outside him, wants whatever pleasure & happiness
"A

man

that bond. Delighting, caught up in his mas culinity, a man goes into bondage with reference to women. This is how a man doesn t transcend his masculinity.

that arise based

on

"

And how is there lack of bondage? A woman doesn t attend

inwardly to her feminine faculties ... feminine charms. She is not excited by that, not delighted by that ... doesn t attend outwardly to masculine faculties ... masculine charms. She is not excited by that, not delighted by that ... doesn t want to be bonded to what is outside her, doesn t want whatever pleasure & happiness that arise based on that bond. Not delighting, not caught up in her femininity, a woman doesn t go into bondage with reference to

men. This
"A

is how a woman transcends her femininity. man doesn t attend inwardly to his masculine faculties masculine charms. He is not excited by that, not delighted by
...

attend outwardly to feminine faculties ... femi nine charms. He is not excited by that, not delighted by that ... doesn t want to be bonded to what is outside him, doesn t want
that
...

doesn

t

whatever pleasure

happiness that arise based on that bond. Not delighting, not caught up in his masculinity, a man doesn t go into bondage with reference to women. This is how a man transcends his masculinity.
"This

&

is

how there is lack of bondage. And this is the Dhamma

discourse on bondage
See also:

& lack of bondage."

AN V.75-76; AN X.13; Sn IV.7

VIL49 Giving
This discourse discusses the possible motivations for generosity, rates in ascending order the results they can lead to. The Commentary notes that the highest motivation, untainted by lower

and

Sevens

motivations and leading to non-returning, requires a certain level of mastery in concentration and insight in order to be one s genuine motivation for giving.

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in Campa, on the shore of Gaggara Lake. Then a large number of lay followers from Campa went to Ven. Sariputta and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As they were sitting there they said to Ven. Sariputta: has been a long time, vener able sir, since we have had a chance to hear a Dhamma talk in the Blessed One s presence. It would be good if we could get to
I
"It

hear a

Dhamma talk in the Blessed One s presence/
in that case,

"Then

my

friends,
ll

come again on

the next
talk in

uposatha day, and perhaps you
the Blessed
"As

get to hear a

Dhamma

One
say,

s presence."

you

venerable

sir,"

the lay followers from

to Ven. Sariputta. Rising

and then

circling

him

their seats, bowing keeping him on their right

from

Campa said down to him,
they
left.

Then, on the following uposatha day, the lay followers from Campa went to Ven. Sariputta and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, stood to one side. Then Ven. Sariputta, together with the lay followers from Campa, went to the Blessed One and on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he said to the Blessed One: "Might there be the case where a person gives a gift of a certain sort and it doesn t
bear great
gift of the

whereas another person gives a bears great fruit and great benefit?" "Yes, Sariputta, there would be the case where a person gives a gift of a certain sort and it doesn t bear great fruit or great benefit, whereas another person gives a gift of the same sort and it bears great fruit and great benefit." "Lord, what is the cause, what is the reason, why a person gives a gift of a certain sort and it doesn t bear great fruit or great benefit, whereas another person gives a gift of the same sort and it bears great fruit and great benefit?" where a person gives a gift seek "Sariputta, there is the case his own profit, with a mind attached [to the reward], ing seeking to store up for himself [with the thought], T ll enjoy this after death. He gives his gift food, drink, clothing, a vehicle; a
fruit or great benefit,

same

sort

and

it

garland, perfume, & ointment; bedding, shelter, & a lamp to a priest or a contemplative. What do you think, Sariputta? Might a person give such a gift as this?"

Z2.6

Sevens

"Yes, lord."

given this gift seeking his own profit with a mind the reward], seeking to store up for himself, [with the [to on the break-up of the body, thought], Til enjoy this after death after death, he reappears in the company of the Four Great Kings. Then, having exhausted that action, that power, that status, that sovereignty, he is a returner, coming back to this world.
"Having

attached

the case of a person who gives a gift not seek attached [to the reward], not to store up for himself, nor [with the thought], Til enjoy seeking this after death/ Instead, he gives a gift with the thought, Giving is good/ He gives his gift food, drink, clothing, a vehi cle; a garland, perfume, & ointment; bedding, shelter, & a lamp to a priest or a contemplative. What do you think, Sariputta? Might a person give such a gift as this?"
"Then

there

is

ing his

own profit, not with a mind

"Yes, lord."

"Having given this gift with the thought, Giving is good/ on the break-up of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of the devas of the Thirty-three. Then, having exhausted

that action, that power, that status, that sovereignty, he
returner, coming back to this world. "Or, instead of thinking, Giving

is

a

is good/ he gives a gift with the thought, This was given in the past, done in the past, by my father grandfather. It would not be right for me to let this old custom be discontinued ... on the break-up of the body, family after death, he reappears in the company of the devas of the

&

Hours. Then, having exhausted that action, that power, that status, that sovereignty, he is a returner, coming back to this world. instead he gives a gift with the thought, I am well-off. These are not well-off. It would not be right for me, being well-off, not to give a gift to those who are not well-off on the break-up of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of the Contented devas. Then, having exhausted that action, that power, that status, that sovereignty, he is a returner, coming back to this world. instead ... he gives a gift with the thought, Just as there were the great sacrifices of the sages of the past Atthaka, Vamaka, Vamadeva, Vessamitta, Yamadaggin, Angirasa, Bharadvaja, Vasettha, Kassapa, & Bhagu in the same way will this be my distribution of gifts on the break-up of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of the devas who delight in creation. Then, having exhausted that action, that power, that status, that sovereignty, he is a returner, coming back to this world.
"Or,

...

...

"Or,

...

Sevens

2.2,7

... he gives a gift with the thought, When this gift given, it makes the mind serene. Gratification joy arise ... on the break-up of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of the devas who have power over the creations of
"Or,

instead
is

of

mine

&

others. Then, having exhausted that action, that power, that status, that sovereignty, he is a returner, coming back to this world.
"Or,

instead of thinking,

When

this gift of

mine

is

makes the mind
for the

serene. Gratification

& joy arise/ he gives a gift

given,

it

with the thought, This

is an ornament for the mind, a support gives his gift food, drink, clothing, a vehicle; a garland, perfume, & ointment; bedding, shelter, & a lamp to a priest or a contemplative. What do you think, Sariputta? Might a person give such a gift as this?"

mind/ He

"Yes, lord."

mind

given this, not seeking his own profit, not with a attached [to the reward], not seeking to store up for him self, nor [with the thought], Til enjoy this after death, nor with the thought, Giving is good/ nor with the thought, "This was given in the past, done in the past, by my father & grandfather. It would not be right for me to let this old family custom be discontinued/ nor with the thought, I am well-off. These are not welloff. It would not be right for me, being well-off, not to give a gift to those who are not well-off/ nor with the thought, Just as there were the great sacrifices of the sages of the past Atthaka,
"Having

Vamaka, Vamadeva, Vessamitta, Yamadaggin, Angirasa, in the same way this Bharadvaja, Vasettha, Kassapa, & Bhagu
will

be my distribution of gifts/ nor with the thought, When
the

this gift of

mine

is

given,

it

makes

mind

serene. Gratification

& joy arise/

but with the thought, This is an ornament for the mind, a on the break-up of the body, after death, support for the mind he reappears in the company of Brahma s Retinue. Then, having exhausted that action, that power, that status, that sovereignty, he is a non-returner. He doesn t come back to this world. "This, Sariputta, is the cause, this is the reason, why a person gives a gift of a certain sort and it doesn t bear great fruit or great benefit, whereas another person gives a gift of the same
sort

and

it

bears great fruit and great

benefit."

See also:

SN 111.24; AN 111.58

zz8

Sevens

VIL56 To Kimila
have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying Bamboo Grove. Then Yen. Kimila went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to the Blessed One, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: "What is the cause, lord, what is the reason why, when a Tathagata has become totally unbound (has entered total Nibbana), the true Dhamma does not last a long time?" "Kimila, there is the case where, when a Tathagata has become totally unbound, the monks, nuns, male lay followers, & female lay
I

at Kimila, in the

followers live without respect, without deference, for the Teacher; live without respect, without deference, for the Dhamma ... the Sarigha ... the Training [heightened virtue, heightened concentra tion, heightened discernment] ... concentration ... needfulness; live

without respect, without deference, for hospitality. This is the cause, this is the reason why, when a Tathagata has become totally unbound, the true Dhamma does not last a long time." "And what is the cause, what is the reason why, when a has become totally unbound, the true Dhamma does Tathagata
last

a long

time?"

"Kimila,

there

become

totally

is the case where, when a Tathagata has unbound, the monks, nuns, male lay followers,

female lay followers live with respect, with deference, for the Teacher; live with respect, with deference, for the Dhamma ...
the Sangha ... the Training ... concentration ... needfulness; live with respect, with deference, for hospitality. This is the cause, this is the reason why, when a Tathagata has become totally unbound, the true Dhamma does last a long time."
See also:

&

SN VI.2; SN XX.7; AN V.79; AN VII.21

VII.58 Nodding

Once
Park

the Blessed
at

One was living among the Bhaggas in the Deer Bhesakala Grove, near Crocodile Haunt. At that time

Yen. Maha Moggallana [prior to his Awakening] sat nodding near the village of Kallavalaputta, in Magadha. The Blessed One, with his purified divine eye, surpassing the human, saw Yen. Maha Moggallana as he sat nodding near the village of

Sevens

2.ZQ

Kallavalaputta in Magadha. As soon as he saw this just as a strong man might extend his flexed arm or flex his extended arm he disappeared from among the Bhaggas in the Deer Park at Bhesakala Grove near Crocodile Haunt and re-appeared near the village of Kallavalaputta in Magadha, right in front of Ven. Maha Moggallana. There he sat down on a prepared seat. As he was sitting there, the Blessed One said to Ven. Maha Moggallana,
"Are

you nodding, Moggallana? Are you nodding?"

"Yes, lord."

"Well then, Moggallana, whatever perception you have in mind when drowsiness descends on you, don t attend to that perception, don t pursue it. It s possible that by doing this you

will shake off
"But

your drowsiness.

this you don t shake off your drowsiness, then recall to your awareness the Dhamma as you have heard & memorized it, re-examine it, & ponder it over in your mind. It s possible that by doing this you will shake off your drowsiness. "But if by doing this you don t shake off your drowsiness, then repeat aloud in detail the Dhamma as you have heard & memorized it. It s possible that by doing this you will shake off your drowsiness. "But if by doing this you don t shake off your drowsiness, then pull both your earlobes and rub your limbs with your hands. It s possible that by doing this you will shake off your drowsiness. "But if by doing this you don t shake off your drowsiness, then get up from your seat and, after washing your eyes out with water, look around in all directions and upward to the
if

by doing

major

stars

& constellations.

It s

possible that

by doing

this

you

will shake off

"But if t shake off your drowsiness, then attend to the perception of light, resolve on the perception of daytime, [dwelling] by night as by day, and by day as by night. By means of an awareness thus open & unhampered,

your drowsiness. by doing this you don

develop a brightened mind. It s possible that by doing this you shake off your drowsiness. "But if by doing this you don t shake off your drowsiness, then percipient of what lies in front & behind set a distance to meditate walking back & forth, your senses inwardly immersed, your mind not straying outwards. It s possible that by doing this you will shake off your drowsiness. "But if by doing this you don t shake off your drowsiness, then reclining on your right side take up the lion s posture,
will

Sevens

one foot placed on top of the other, mindful, alert, with your mind set on getting up. As soon as you wake up, get up quickly, with the thought, I won t stay indulging in the pleasure of lying down, the pleasure of reclining, the pleasure of drowsiness/ That is how you should train yourself.
"Furthermore,

not

visit families
s

phant

yourself.

That is how you should train families there are many jobs that have to be done, so that people don t pay attention to a visiting monk. If a monk visits them with his trunk lifted high, the thought will occur to him, who, I wonder, has caused a split between
trunk)] lifted high.

Moggallana, should you train yourself: I will with my pride [literally, "my trunk" (i.e., a ele

Among

Now

me and
mind

The people seem to have no liking for me. Getting nothing, he becomes abashed. Abashed, he becomes restless. Restless, he becomes unrestrained. Unrestrained, his
this family?
is far

from concentration.

Moggallana, should you train yourself: I will speak no confrontational speech. That is how you should train
"Furthermore,

When there is confrontational speech, a lot of discus sion can be expected. When there is a lot of discussion, there is restlessness. One who is restless becomes unrestrained. Unrestrained, his mind is far from concentration. s not the case, Moggallana, that I praise association of every sort. But it s not the case that I dispraise association of every sort. I don t praise association with householders and renunciates. But as for dwelling places that are free from noise, free from sound, their atmosphere devoid of people, appropri ately secluded for resting undisturbed by human beings: I praise association with dwelling places of this sort." When this was said, Ven. Moggallana said to the Blessed One: "Briefly, lord, in what respect is a monk released through the ending of craving, utterly complete, utterly free from bonds, a follower of the utterly celibate life, utterly consummate: fore
yourself.
"It

most among human
"There

& heavenly beings?"

the case, Moggallana, where a monk has heard, All phenomena are unworthy of attachment/ Having heard that all phe nomena are unworthy of attachment, he fully knows all
is

phenomena. Fully knowing all phenomena, he fully comprehends all phenomena. Fully comprehending all phenomena, then what ever feeling he experiences pleasure, pain, neither pleasure nor pain he remains focused on inconstancy, focused on dispassion, focused on cessation, focused on relinquishing with regard to that

Sevens

feeling.

As he remains focused on

inconstancy, focused

sion, focused on cessation, focused to that feeling, he is unsustained by

on dispason relinquishing with regard
(doesn
t

cling to) anything in

the world. Unsustained, he isn

agitated. Unagitated, he is within. He discerns: Birth is ended, the holy life right fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world. s in this respect, Moggallana, that a monk, in brief, is
t

unbound
"It

released through the ending of craving, utterly complete, utterly free from bonds, a follower of the utterly celibate life, utterly

consummate: foremost among human
See also:

& heavenly

beings."

SN

XXIL23;
11.10;

SN

XXXV.23-24;
11.37

AN IIL137; AN IV.37;

Dhp 277-279; Sn

Thag 1.84; Thag

VII.60
"These

An Angry Person
come
to a

seven things
s

enemy
seven?

aim
is

pleasing to an enemy, bringing about an man or woman who is angry. Which

"There

the case

where an enemy wishes of an enemy, O,

may

this

person be ugly!

Why is that? An enemy is not pleased

with an enemy s good looks. Now, when a person is angry overcome with anger, oppressed with anger then even though that he may be well-bathed, well-anointed, dressed in white clothes, his hair & beard neatly trimmed, he is ugly neverthe less, all because he is overcome with anger. This is the first thing pleasing to an enemy, bringing about an enemy s aim, that

comes

to a

man or woman who is angry.
an enemy wishes of an enemy, O,
is

"Furthermore,

may

this

person sleep badly! Why an enemy s restful sleep. Now, when a person is angry over come with anger, oppressed with anger then even though he sleeps on a bed spread with a white blanket, spread with a woolen coverlet, spread with a flower-embroidered bedspread, covered with a rug of deerskins, with a canopy overhead, or on a sofa with red cushions at either end, he sleeps badly neverthe less, all because he is overcome with anger. This is the second thing pleasing to an enemy, bringing about an enemy s aim, that
that?

An enemy is not pleased with

comes

to a

man or woman who is angry.
an enemy wishes of an enemy, O,
profit!

"Furthermore,

person not

Why

is

that?

An enemy

may

this

is

not pleased with

Sevens

an enemy s profits. Now, when a person is angry overcome with anger, oppressed with anger then even when he suffers a loss, he thinks, I ve gained a profit and even when he gains a profit, he thinks, Tve suffered a loss/ When he has grabbed hold of these ideas that work in mutual opposition [to the truth], they lead to his long-term suffering & loss, all because he is overcome with anger. This is the third thing pleasing to an enemy, bringing about an enemy s aim, that comes to a man or
7

;

woman who is angry.
an enemy wishes of an enemy, O, may this not have any wealth! Why is that? An enemy is not person pleased with an enemy s wealth. Now, when a person is angry overcome with anger, oppressed with anger then whatever his wealth, earned through his efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat of his brow righteous wealth righteously gained the king orders it sent to the royal treasury [in payment of fines levied for his behavior] all because he is overcome with anger. This is the fourth thing pleasing to an enemy, bringing about an
"Furthermore,

enemy

s

aim, that comes to a

man or woman who is angry.

"Furthermore, an enemy wishes of an enemy, O, may this person not have any reputation! Why is that? An enemy is not pleased with an enemy s reputation. Now, when a person is angry overcome with anger, oppressed with anger whatever reputation he has gained from being heedful, it falls away, all because he is overcome with anger. This is the fifth thing pleas ing to an enemy, bringing about an enemy s aim, that comes to a

man or woman who is angry.
an enemy wishes of an enemy, O, may this person not have any friends! Why is that? An enemy is not pleased with an enemy s having friends. Now, when a person is angry overcome with anger, oppressed with anger his friends, companions, & relatives will avoid him from afar, all because he is overcome with anger. This is the sixth thing pleas ing to an enemy, bringing about an enemy s aim, that comes to a
"Furthermore,

man or woman who is angry.
"Furthermore,

an enemy wishes of an enemy, O,

may

this

person, on the break-up of the body, after death, reappear in the plane of deprivation, the bad bourn, the lower realms, in hell! is that? An enemy is not pleased with an enemy s going to heaven.

Why

Now, when

a person

is

angry

overcome with anger, oppressed

Sevens

with anger he engages in misconduct with the body, misconduct with speech, misconduct with the mind. Having engaged in misconduct with the body, misconduct with speech, misconduct with the mind, then on the break-up of the body, after deathhe reappears in the plane of deprivation, the bad bourn, the lower realms, in hell, all because he was overcome with anger. This is the seventh thing pleasing to an enemy, bringing about

an enemy

aim, that comes to a man or woman who is angry. are the seven things pleasing to an enemy, bringing about an enemy s aim that come to a man or woman who is
s
"These
angry."

An angry person is ugly & sleeps poorly.
Gaining a profit, he turns it into a loss, having done damage with word & deed. A person overwhelmed with anger
destroys his wealth.

Maddened with anger,
he destroys his
Relatives, friends,
status.

& colleagues avoid him.

Anger brings loss. Anger inflames the mind.

He doesn t realize
that his

danger

is

born from within.

An angry person doesn t know his own benefit. An angry person doesn t see
the

Dhamma.

A man conquered by anger
is

in a

mass

of darkness.

He takes pleasure in bad deeds
as if they were good, but later, when his anger is gone, he suffers as if burned with fire.

He is spoiled, blotted out,
like fire

enveloped in smoke.

When anger spreads, when a man becomes angry,
he has no shame, no fear of
is

evil,

not respectful in speech.

Sevens

For a person overcome with anger, nothing gives light.
I ll list

that are far

the deeds that bring remorse, from the teachings.
Listen!

An angry person

kills his father, kills his kills

mother,

brahmans

& ordinary people. because of a mother s devotion that one sees the world, yet an angry ordinary person can kill this giver of life. Like oneself, all beings hold themselves most dear, yet an angry person, deranged, can kill himself in many ways: with a sword, taking poison, hanging himself by a rope in a mountain glen.
It

s

Doing these deeds that kill beings and do violence to himself, the angry person doesn t realize that he s ruined.
This snare of Mara, in the form of anger, dwelling in the cave of the heart: cut it out with self-control, discernment, persistence, right view. The wise man would cut out

each

& every form of unskillfulness.

Train yourselves: May we not be blotted out.

Free from anger & untroubled, free from greed, without longing,

tamed, your anger abandoned, free from fermentation, you will be unbound.
See also:

MN 21; SN 1.72; SN VII.2; AN III.133; AN IV.200; AN

X.80

Sevens

135-

VII. 64

One with

a Sense

ofDhamma
seven qualities
offerings,
is worthy of gifts, worthy of respect, an

"A

monk endowed with these

worthy of hospitality, worthy of

unexcelled field of merit for the world. Which seven? There is the case where a monk is one with a sense of Dhamma, a sense of meaning, a sense of himself, a sense of moderation, a sense of time, a sense of social gatherings, & a sense of distinctions

among individuals. "And how is a monk one with a sense of Dhamma? There is the case where a monk knows the Dhamma: dialogues, narra tives of mixed prose and verse, explanations, verses,
spontaneous exclamations, quotations, birth
stories,

answer sessions [the earliest classifications of events, question the Buddha s teachings]. If he didn t know the Dhamma dia
logues, narratives of mixed prose and verse, explanations, verses, spontaneous exclamations, quotations, birth stories, amazing events, question & answer sessions he wouldn t be said to be one with a sense of Dhamma. So it s because he does know the Dhamma dialogues ... question & answer sessions that he is said to be one with a sense of Dhamma. This is one with a sense of Dhamma. "And how is a monk one with a sense of meaning? There is the case where a monk knows the meaning of this & that state ment This is the meaning of that statement; that is the meaning of this. If he didn t know the meaning of this & that statement This is the meaning of that statement; that is the meaning of this he wouldn t be said to be one with a sense of meaning. So it s because he does know the meaning of this & that statement This is the meaning of that statement; that is the meaning of this that he is said to be one with a sense of mean ing. This is one with a sense of Dhamma & a sense of meaning. "And how is a monk one with a sense of himself? There is the case where a monk knows himself: This is how far I have come in conviction, virtue, learning, liberality, discernment, This is how far I quick-wittedness. If he didn t know himself have come in conviction, virtue, learning, liberality, discern he wouldn t be said to be one with a ment, quick-wittedness This is sense of himself. So it s because he does know himself

&

amazing

how

far

I

have come

in conviction, virtue, learning, liberality,

Sevens

that he is said to be one with a discernment, quick-wittedness sense of himself. This is one with a sense of Dhamma, a sense of meaning, & a sense of himself. "And how is a monk one with a sense of moderation? There is the case where a monk knows moderation in accepting robes, almsfood, lodgings, & medicinal requisites for curing the sick. If he didn t know moderation in accepting robes, almsfood, lodgings, & medicinal requisites for curing the sick, he wouldn t be said to be one with a sense of moderation. So it s because he does know mod eration in accepting robes, almsfood, lodgings, & medicinal requisites for curing the sick, that he is said to be one with a sense of moderation. This is one with a sense of Dhamma, a sense of meaning, a sense of himself, & a sense of moderation. "And how is a monk one with a sense of time? There is the case where a monk knows the time: This is the time for recita tion; this, the time for questioning; this, the time for making an effort [in meditation]; this, the time for seclusion. If he didn t know the time This is the time for recitation; this, the time for questioning; this, the time for making an effort; this, the time for he wouldn t be said to be one with a sense of time. seclusion So it s because he does know the time This is the time for the time for questioning; this, the time for recitation; this, making an effort; this, the time for seclusion that he is said to be one with a sense of time. This is one with a sense of Dhamma, a sense of meaning, a sense of himself, a sense of moderation, & a sense of time. "And how is a monk one with a sense of social gatherings? There is the case where a monk knows his social gathering: This is a social gathering of noble warriors; this, a social gather

ing of priests; this, a social gathering of householders; this, a social gathering of contemplatives; here one should approach them in this way, stand in this way, act in this way, sit in this way, speak in this way, stay silent in this way. If he didn t know his social gathering This is a social gathering of noble war a social gathering of priests; this, a social gathering of riors; this, householders; this, a social gathering of contemplatives; here one should approach them in this way, stand in this way, act in

way, sit in this way, speak in this way, stay silent in this way he wouldn t be said to be one with a sense of social gath This erings. So it s because he does know his social gathering
this
is

a social gathering of noble warriors; this, a social gathering of

Sevens

is a social gathering of noble warriors; this, a social gathering of priests; this, a social gathering of householders; this, a social gathering of contemplatives; here one should approach them in this way, stand in this way, act in this way, sit in this way, speak

in this way, stay silent in this way that he is said to be one with a sense of social gatherings. This is one with a sense of Dhamma, a sense of meaning, a sense of himself, a sense of

moderation, a sense of time,
"And

& a sense of social gatherings.

sense of distinctions among individuals? There is the case where people are known to a monk in terms of two categories. "Of two people one who wants to see noble ones and one who doesn t the one who doesn t want to see noble ones is to be criticized for that reason; the one who does want to see noble ones is, for that reason, to be praised. "Of two people who want to see noble ones one who wants to hear the true Dhamma and one who doesn t the one who doesn t want to hear the true Dhamma is to be criticized for that reason; the one who does want to hear the true

how is a monk one with a

Dhamma is, for that reason, to be praised. two people who want to hear the true Dhamma one who listens with an attentive ear and one who listens without
"Of

an attentive ear the one who listens without an attentive ear is to be criticized for that reason; the one who listens with an attentive ear is, for that reason, to be praised. two people who listen with an attentive ear one who, listened to the Dhamma, remembers it, and one who having doesn t the one who, having listened to the Dhamma, doesn t remember it is to be criticized for that reason; the one who, having listened to the Dhamma, does remember the Dhamma is, for that reason, to be praised. two people who, having listened to the Dhamma, remem ber it one who explores the meaning of the Dhamma he has remembered and one who doesn t the one who doesn t explore the meaning of the Dhamma he has remembered is to be criticized for that reason; the one who does explore the meaning of the Dhamma he has remembered is, for that reason, to be praised.
"Of
"Of

two people who explore the meaning of the Dhamma have remembered one who practices the Dhamma in line they with the Dhamma, having a sense of Dhamma, having a sense of meaning, and one who doesn t the one who doesn t practice
"Of

Sevens

in line with the Dhamma, having a sense of Dhamma, having a sense of meaning, is to be criticized for that reason; the one who does practice the Dhamma in line with the Dhamma, having a sense of Dhamma, having a sense of mean ing is, for that reason, to be praised. "Of two people who practice the Dhamma in line with the Dhamma, having a sense of Dhamma, having a sense of mean ing one who practices for both his own benefit and that of others, and one who practices for his own benefit but not that of others the one who practices for his own benefit but not that of others is to be criticized for that reason; the one who practices for both his own benefit and that of others is, for that reason, to be praised. "This is how people are known to a monk in terms of two And this is how a monk is one with a sense of dis categories. tinctions among individuals. monk endowed with these seven qualities is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, an unexcelled field of merit for the world."

the

Dhamma

"A

See also:

AN IV.95-96; AN V.20; AN XI.12

VII.80 The Teacher s Instruction

Then Ven. Upali went

to the Blessed

bowed down
Blessed

to him, sat to
"It

one

side.

One and, on arrival, having As he was sitting there he

said to the Blessed One:

One would

teach

me

having heard the

Dhamma
to utter

sir, if the the Dhamma in brief such that, from the Blessed One, I might dwell

would be good, venerable

alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, the qualities of which "Upali,
ties

&

resolute."

you may know, These

quali

do not lead
:

cessation, to calm, to

disenchantment, to dispassion, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, nor to
definitely hold, This is not the Dhamma, is not the Teacher s instruction.

Unbinding You
this is
"As

may

not the Vinaya, this

ties

for the qualities of which you may know, These quali lead to utter disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to
:

calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding You may definitely hold, This is the Dhamma, this is the Vinaya, this is the Teacher s instruction.
"

See also:

MN 72; SN LVI.l; AN VIII.53

Eights

VIII.2

Discernment

"Monks, these eight causes, these eight requisite conditions lead to the acquiring of the as-yet-unacquired discernment that is basic to the celibate life, and to the increase, plenitude, develop

ment,

&

culmination of that which has already been acquired.

Which eight?
"There is the case where a monk lives in apprenticeship to the Teacher or to a respectable comrade in the celibate life in whom he has established a strong sense of conscience, fear of blame, love, & respect. This, monks, is the first cause, the first requisite condition that leads to the acquiring of the as-yetunacquired discernment that is basic to the celibate life, and to the increase, plenitude, development, & culmination of that

which has already been acquired.
"As he lives in apprenticeship under the Teacher or under a respectable comrade in the celibate life in whom he has estab lished a strong sense of conscience, fear of blame, love, respect, he approaches him at the appropriate times to ask & question him: What, venerable sir, is the meaning of this state ment? He [the Teacher or the respectable comrade in the celibate life] reveals what is hidden, makes plain what is obscure, and dispels perplexity in many kinds of perplexing things. This is the

&

second cause, the second requisite condition .... "Having heard the Dhamma, he [the student] achieves a twofold seclusion: seclusion in body & seclusion in mind. This
is

the third cause, the third requisite condition .... "He is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults. This is the fourth cause, the fourth requisite condition .... "He has heard much, has retained what he has heard, has stored what he has heard. Whatever teachings are admirable in

2,40

Eights

the beginning, admirable in the middle, admirable in the end, that in their meaning expression proclaim the celibate life that is entirely complete & pure: those he has listened to often, retained, discussed, accumulated, examined with his mind, & well-penetrated in terms of his views. This is the fifth cause, the fifth requisite condition ....

&

"He keeps his persistence aroused for abandoning unskillful mental qualities and for taking on skillful mental qualities. He is steadfast, solid in his effort, not shirking his duties with regard to skillful mental qualities. This is the sixth cause, the sixth requisite

condition

....

he is in the midst of the Sahgha he doesn t talk on & on about a variety of things. Either he speaks Dhamma himself or he invites another to do so, and he feels no disdain for noble
"When

silence [the second jhana]. This

is the seventh cause, the seventh condition .... requisite "He remains focused on arising & passing away with regard to the five aggregates: Such is form, such its origination, such

its

... Such is apperception ... Such consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance. This, monks, is the eighth cause, the eighth requisite condition that leads to the acquiring of the asyet-unacquired discernment that is basic to the celibate life, and to the increase, plenitude, development, & culmination of that

disappearance. Such
...

is

feeling

are fabrications

Such

is

which has already been acquired. "When this is the case, his comrades in the celibate life hold him in esteem: This venerable one lives in apprenticeship to the Teacher or to a respectable comrade in the celibate life in whom he has established a strong sense of conscience, fear of blame, love, & respect. Surely, knowing, he knows; seeing, he sees.
This
is a factor leading to endearment, to respect, to develop ment, to consonance, to unification [of mind]. As he lives in apprenticeship under the "[They say:] Teacher or under a respectable comrade in the celibate life in whom he has established a strong sense of conscience, fear of blame, love, & respect, he approaches him at the appropriate times to ask & question him: What, venerable sir, is the mean ing of this statement? He [the Teacher or the respectable comrade in the celibate life] reveals what is hidden, makes plain what is obscure, and dispels perplexity in all kinds of perplex ing things. Surely, knowing, he knows; seeing, he sees. This is a

Eights

141

factor leading to endearment, to respect, to development, to consonance, to unification [of mind].
"[They say:] Having heard the Dhamma, he [the student] achieves a twofold seclusion: seclusion in body & seclusion in mind. Surely, knowing, he knows; seeing, he sees/ This, too, is a

factor leading to endearment, to respect, to development, to consonance, to unification [of mind].
"[They

say:]

He

is

virtuous.

He

dwells restrained in accor

dance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults. Surely, knowing, he knows; seeing, he sees/ This, too, is a factor lead
ing to endearment, to respect, to development, to consonance, to unification [of mind]. He has heard much, has retained what he has "[They say:] heard, has stored what he has heard. Whatever teachings are admirable in the beginning, admirable in the middle, admirable in
the end, that in their meaning bate life that is entirely complete

& expression proclaim the celi & pure: those he has listened to

examined with his mind, well-penetrated in terms of his views. Surely, knowing, he knows; seeing, he sees/ This, too, is a factor leading to endearment, to respect, to development, to consonance, to unification [of mind]. He keeps his persistence aroused for abandoning "[They say:] unskillful mental qualities and for taking on skillful mental quali ties. He is steadfast, solid in his effort, not shirking his duties with
often, retained, discussed, accumulated,

&

regard to skillful mental qualities. Surely, knowing, he knows; seeing, he sees/ This, too, is a factor leading to endearment, to respect, to development, to consonance, to unification [of mind]. When he is in the midst of the Sangha he doesn t "[They say:] talk on & on about a variety of things. Either he speaks Dhamma himself or he invites another to do so, and he feels no disdain for noble silence [the second jhana]. Surely, knowing, he knows; to seeing, he sees/ This, too, is a factor leading to endearment, unification [of mind]. respect, to development, to consonance, to He remains focused on arising & passing away "[They say:] with regard to the five aggregates: Such is form, such its origina tion, such its disappearance. Such is feeling ... Such is apperception ... Such are fabrications ... Such is consciousness, such its origina
tion,

such

its

disappearance/ Surely, knowing, he knows; seeing,

Z42-

Eights

he sees/

This, too, is a factor leading to endearment, to respect, to development, to consonance, to unification [of mind].

"These, monks, are the eight causes, the eight requisite con ditions that lead to the acquiring of the as-yet-unacquired discernment that is basic to the celibate life, and to the increase, plenitude, development, & culmination of that which has

already been
See also:

acquired."

SN VI.2; SN XLV.2; AN V.114; AN IX.l; Dhp 372; Ud IV.l

VIII.6

The Failings of the World
these eight worldly conditions spin after the world, after these eight worldly conditions. Which

"Monks,

and the world spins

eight? Gain, loss, status, disgrace, censure, praise, pleasure, & pain. These are the eight worldly conditions that spin after the world, and the world spins after these eight worldly conditions. "For an ordinary uninstructed person there arise gain, loss, status, disgrace, censure, praise, pleasure, & pain. For a wellinstructed disciple of the noble ones there also arise gain, loss,
pain. So what dif factor is there ference, distinction, between the well-instructed disciple of the noble ones and the
status, disgrace, censure, praise, pleasure,

&

what

what distinguishing

ordinary uninstructed
"For

person?"

us, lord, the teachings have the Blessed One as their root, their guide, their arbitrator. It would be good if the Blessed One

&

himself would explicate the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from the Blessed One, the monks will remember
it."

"In

that case,

monks,
lord,"

listen

& pay

close attention.

I

will

speak."

"As

you

say,

the

monks responded.
"Gain

an ordinary unin structed person. He doesn t reflect, Gain has arisen for me. It is inconstant, stressful, & subject to change. He doesn t discern it
said,

The Blessed One

arises for

as

it

actually

is.
....

Status arises .... Disgrace arises .... Censure arises .... Praise arises .... Pleasure arises .... "Pain arises. He doesn t reflect, Tain has arisen for me. It is inconstant, stressful, subject to change. He doesn t discern it it as actually is.
"Loss

arises

&

"His

mind remains consumed with
...

remains consumed with the loss

the gain. His mind with the status ... the disgrace

Eights

...

the censure

...

the praise

...

the pleasure. His

mind remains con

sumed with the pain.
"He

welcomes the arisen gain and

loss.

He welcomes the arisen status and rebels against the arisen disgrace. He welcomes the arisen praise and rebels against the arisen censure. He welcomes the arisen pleasure and rebels

rebels against the arisen

against the arisen pain. As he is thus engaged in welcoming & rebelling, he is not released from birth, aging, or death; from sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, or despairs. He is not
released,
"Now,

ones.
ful,

He

you, from suffering & stress. gain arises for a well-instructed disciple of the noble reflects, Gain has arisen for me. It is inconstant, stress
I tell
....

& subject to change/ He discerns it as it actually is.
"Loss
....

arises

arises .... Status arises .... Disgrace arises Praise arises .... Pleasure arises ....
arises.

Censure
incon
is.

"Pain

He

reflects,

Tain has

arisen for me.

It is

stant, stressful,
"His

& subject to change/ He discerns it as it actually
t
...

mind doesn
t

remain consumed with the gain. His
...

mind doesn
...

loss ... with the status the praise ... the pleasure. His mind doesn t remain consumed with the pain. "He doesn t welcome the arisen gain, or rebel against the arisen loss. He doesn t welcome the arisen status, or rebel against the arisen disgrace. He doesn t welcome the arisen praise, or rebel against the arisen censure. He doesn t welcome the arisen pleasure, or rebel against the arisen pain. As he thus abandons welcoming rebelling, he is released from birth,

remain consumed with the
the censure

the disgrace

&

death; from sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, aging, stress. despairs. He is released, I tell you, from suffering "This is the difference, this the distinction, this the distin guishing factor between the well-instructed disciple of the noble ones and the ordinary uninstructed person."

&

&

&

Gain/loss,
status /disgrace,

censure /praise,
pleasure /pain:

These conditions among
are

human beings

inconstant,

impermanent,
subject to change.

Z44

Eights

Knowing this, the wise person, mindful, ponders these changing conditions.
Desirable things undesirable ones

don t charm

the mind,

bring no resistance.

His welcoming

& rebelling

are scattered,

gone

to their end,
exist.

do not

Knowing the
he

dustless, sorrowless state,

discerns rightly,

has gone, beyond becoming, to the Further Shore.
See also:

AN IV.192
(On Being a Lay Follower)

VIII.26 Jivaka
I

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in Rajagaha, at Jivaka s Mango Grove. Then Jivaka Komarabhacca went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, to what extent is one a lay follower?" "Jivaka, when one has gone to the Buddha for refuge, has gone to the Dhamma for refuge, and has gone to the Sarigha for refuge, then to that extent is one a lay follower." "And to what extent, venerable sir, is one a virtuous lay follower?" when one abstains from taking life, from stealing, "Jivaka, from sexual misconduct, from lying, and from fermented & dis tilled drinks that lead to heedlessness, then to that extent is one
a virtuous lay
"And

follower."

to

what

extent, venerable

sir, is

one a lay follower
in

who
con

practices for his
"Jivaka,

own benefit but not that of others?" when a lay follower himself is consummate
t

encourage others in the consummation of when he himself is consummate in virtue but doesn t conviction; encourage others in the consummation of virtue; when he him self is consummate in generosity but doesn t encourage others in the consummation of generosity; when he himself desires to see the monks but doesn t encourage others to see the monks; when he himself wants to hear the true Dhamma but doesn t encour age others to hear the true Dhamma; when he himself habitually
viction but doesn

Eights

its meaning, practices the Dhamma in line with the Dhamma, but doesn t encourage others to practice the Dhamma in line with the Dhamma: then to that extent he is a lay follower who practices for his own benefit but not for the benefit of others." "And to what extent, venerable sir, is one a lay follower who practices both for his own benefit & the benefit of others?" "Jivaka, when a lay follower himself is consummate in con viction and encourages others in the consummation of conviction; when he himself is consummate in virtue and encourages others in the consummation of virtue; when he him

remembers the Dhamma he has heard but doesn t encourage others to remember the Dhamma they have heard; when he him self explores the meaning of the Dhamma he has heard but doesn t encourage others to explore the meaning of the Dhamma they have heard; when he himself, knowing both the Dhamma &

consummate in generosity and encourages others in the consummation of generosity; when he himself desires to see the monks and encourages others to see the monks; when he him self wants to hear the true Dhamma and encourages others to hear the true Dhamma; when he himself habitually remembers the Dhamma he has heard and encourages others to remember the Dhamma they have heard; when he himself explores the meaning of the Dhamma he has heard and encourages others to explore the meaning of the Dhamma they have heard; when he himself, knowing both the Dhamma & its meaning, practices the Dhamma in line with the Dhamma and encourages others to
self is

practice the Dhamma in line with the Dhamma: then to that extent he is a lay follower who practices both for his own bene fit and for the benefit of others."
See also:

AN V.175; AN VIIL54
Anuruddha

VIII.30

Once

Deer Park

One was staying among the Bhaggas in the Bhesakala Grove, near Crocodile Haunt. And at that time Ven. Anuruddha was living among the Cetis in the Eastern Bamboo Park. Then, as he was alone in seclusion, this line of thinking arose in Ven. Anuruddha s awareness: "This Dhamma is for one who is modest, not for one who is self-aggrandizing. This
the Blessed
at

146

Eights

Dhamma is for one who is content, not for one who is discontent. Dhamma is for one who is reclusive, not for one who is entangled. This Dhamma is for one whose persistence is aroused, not for one who is lazy. This Dhamma is for one whose mindfulThis
ness This
is

Dhamma

established, not for one whose mindfulness is confused. is for one whose mind is centered, not for one
7

is uncentered. This Dhamma is for one endowed with discernment, not for whose discernment is weak/ Then the Blessed One, realizing with his awareness the line of thinking in Ven. Anuruddha s awareness just as a strong man might extend his flexed arm or flex his extended arm dis appeared from among the Bhaggas in the Deer Park at Bhesakala Grove, near Crocodile Haunt, and re-appeared among the Cetis

whose mind

in the Eastern

Bamboo

Park, right in front of Ven.

Anuruddha.

down on a prepared seat. As for Ven. Anuruddha, bowed down to the Blessed One, he sat to one side. As he having was sitting there the Blessed One said to him, "Good,
There he sat

Anuruddha, very good.

It s

good

that

you think

these thoughts

of a great person: This Dhamma is for one who is modest, not for one who is self-aggrandizing. This Dhamma is for one who is content, not for one

who

is

discontent. This

who
for

is

reclusive, not for

one

who

one whose persistence is Dhamma is for one whose mindfulness is established, not for one whose mindfulness is confused. This Dhamma is for one whose mind is centered, not for one whose mind is uncentered. This Dhamma is for one endowed with discernment, not for one whose discernment is weak/ Now then, Anuruddha, think the eighth thought of a great person: This Dhamma is for one who
This
enjoys non-complication, who delights in non-complication, not for one who enjoys & delights in complication/ "Anuruddha, when you think these eight thoughts of a great

Dhamma is for one entangled. This Dhamma is aroused, not for one who is lazy.
is

person, then

withdrawn from sen qualities, you will enter & suality, remain in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from with drawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. When you think these eight thoughts of a great person, then when ever you want with the stilling of directed thought and evaluation, you will enter & remain in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free with from directed thought & evaluation internal assurance
whenever you want withdrawn from unskillful
quite
....

Eights

Z47

the fading of rapture, you will remain in equanimity, mindful & remain alert, physically sensitive to pleasure. You will enter in the third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, Equanimous and mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding/ When you think these eight thoughts of a great person, then whenever you want with the abandoning of pleasure & pain, as with the ear lier disappearance of elation & distress, you will enter & remain in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, nei-

&

ther-pleasure-nor-pain.

when you think these eight thoughts of a great and become a person who can attain at will, without person trouble or difficulty, these four jhanas heightened mental
"Now,

providing a pleasant abiding in the here & now then robe of cast-off rags will seem to you to be just like the your clothes chest of a householder or householder s son, full of
states

clothes of

many

colors.

As you

live contented,

it

will serve for

your

delight, for a comfortable abiding, for non-agitation,

&

for

alighting on Unbinding. "When you think these eight thoughts of a great person and become a person who can attain at will, without trouble or diffi

four jhanas heightened mental states providing a pleasant abiding in the here & now then your meal of almsfood will seem to you to be just like the rice & wheat of a householder or householder s son, cleaned of black grains, and served with a variety of sauces & seasonings .... your dwelling at the foot of a tree will seem to you to be just like the gabled mansion of a householder or householder s son, plastered inside & out, draft-free, bolted, and with its shutters closed .... your bed on a spread of grass will seem to you like the couch of
culty, these

a householder or householder s son, spread with long-haired coverlets, white woolen coverlets, embroidered coverlets, ante deer-skin rugs, covered with a canopy, and with red lope-hide

&

cushions for the head
"When

& feet

....

you think these eight thoughts of a great person and become a person who can attain at will, without trouble or diffi heightened mental states providing a culty, these four jhanas pleasant abiding in the here & now then your medicine of strong-smelling urine will seem to you to be just like the various
tonics of a householder or householder s son: ghee, fresh butter, molasses sugar. As you live contented, it will serve oil, honey,

&

148

Eights

your delight, for a comfortable abiding, for non-agitation, for alighting on Unbinding. "Now, then, Anuruddha, you are to stay right here among
for

&

the Cetis for the
"As

coming Rains Retreat/
venerable

7

you

say,

Then, having given Blessed One as a strong
flex his

sir/ Ven. Anuruddha replied. this exhortation to Ven. Anuruddha, the

man might

extend his flexed arm or

disappeared from the Eastern Bamboo Park of the Cetis and reappeared among the Bhaggas in the Deer Park at Bhesakala Grove, near Crocodile Haunt. He sat down on a prepared seat and, as he was sitting there, he addressed the monks: "Monks, I will teach you the eight thoughts of a great
person. Listen

extended arm

& pay close attention. I will
the

speak."

"Yes, lord,"

The Blessed are the eight thoughts of a great person? This Dhamma is for one who is modest, not for one who is self-aggrandizing. This Dhamma is for one who is content, not for one who is discontent. This Dhamma is for one
is reclusive, not for one who is entangled. This Dhamma is one whose persistence is aroused, not for one who is lazy. This Dhamma is for one whose mindfulness is established, not for one whose mindfulness is confused. This Dhamma is for one whose mind is centered, not for one whose mind is uncentered. This Dhamma is for one endowed with discernment, not for one whose discernment is weak. This Dhamma is for one who

monks responded. One said, "Now, what

who
for

enjoys non-complication, who delights in non-complication, not for one who enjoys & delights in complication. This Dhamma is for one who is modest, not for one who is
"

self-aggrandizing/ Thus was it said. With reference to what was it said? There is the case where a monk, being modest, doesn t want it to be known that He is modest/ Being content, he doesn t want it to be known that He is content/ Being reclusive, he doesn t want it to be known that He is reclusive/ His persis tence being aroused, he doesn t want it to be known that His
persistence

aroused/ His mindfulness being established, he doesn t want it to be known that His mindfulness is estab lished/ His mind being centered, he doesn t want it to be known that His mind is centered/ Being endowed with discernment, he doesn t want it to be known that He is endowed with discern ment/ Enjoying non-complication, he doesn t want it to be
is

known

that

He

is

enjoying non-complication/ This

Dhamma

is

Eights

for one who is modest, not for one who is self-aggrandizing/ Thus was it said. And with reference to this was it said. "This Dhamma is for one who is content, not for one who is discontent/ Thus was it said. With reference to what was it said? There is the case where a monk is content with any old robe cloth at all, any old almsfood, any old lodging, any old

medicinal requisites for curing sickness at all. This Dhamma is for one who is content, not for one who is discontent/ Thus was it said. And with reference to this was it said. "This Dhamma is for one who is reclusive, not for one who
it said. With reference to what was it where a monk, when living in seclusion, is visited by monks, nuns, lay men, lay women, kings, royal min isters, sectarians & their disciples. With his mind bent on seclusion, tending toward seclusion, inclined toward seclusion, aiming at seclusion, relishing renunciation, he converses with them only as much is necessary for them to take their leave. This

is

entangled/ Thus was
is

said? There

the case

Dhamma is for one who is reclusive, not for one who is entangled/ Thus was it said. And with reference to this was it said. Dhamma is for one whose persistence is aroused, not for one who is lazy/ Thus was it said. With reference to what was it said? There is the case where a monk keeps his persis
"This

tence aroused for abandoning unskillful mental qualities and taking on skillful mental qualities. He is steadfast, solid in his effort, not shirking his duties with regard to skillful mental qualities. This Dhamma is for one whose persistence is aroused, not for one who is lazy/ Thus was it said. And with reference to this was it said. This Dhamma is for one whose mindfulness is established, not for one whose mindfulness is confused/ Thus was it said. With reference to what was it said? There is the case where a
"

monk is mindful, highly meticulous, remembering & able to call to mind even things that were done & said long ago. This

Dhamma
"

one whose mindfulness is established, not for one whose mindfulness is confused/ Thus was it said. And with
is

for

reference to this was it said. This Dhamma is for one

whose mind is centered, not for uncentered/ Thus was it said. With reference one whose mind is to what was it said? There is the case where a monk, quite with
mental sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure enters qualities,

drawn from

&

Eights

born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & eval uation. With the stilling of directed thought & evaluation, he enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation internal assurance. With the fading of rapture he remains in equanimity, mindful & alert, and physically sensitive of pleasure. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasur able abiding/ With the abandoning of pleasure & pain as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This Dhamma is for one whose mind is centered, not for one whose mind is uncentered/ Thus was it said. And with reference to this was it said. "This Dhamma is for one endowed with discernment, not for one whose discernment is weak/ Thus was it said. With ref erence to what was it said? There is the case where a monk is discerning, endowed with discernment of arising & passing

away

This Dhamma is for one endowed with discernment, not for one whose discernment is weak/ Thus was it said. And with
reference to this
"This

noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress.

was

it

said.

who

for one who enjoys non-complication, delights in non-complication, not for one who enjoys & delights in complication/ Thus was it said. With reference to what was it said? There is the case where a monk s mind leaps up, grows confident, steadfast, & firm in the cessation of compli cation. This Dhamma is for one who enjoys non-complication,
is

Dhamma

who
this

delights in non-complication, not for one who enjoys & delights in complication/ Thus was it said. And with reference to

the following Rains Retreat, Ven. Anuruddha stayed right there in the Eastern Bamboo Park among the Cetis. Dwelling alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, & resolute, he in no long time reached & remained in the supreme goal of the celi bate life for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing & realizing it for himself in the here &

was it Now, during
said."

now.

He knew: "Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for the sake of this world." And thus Ven. Anuruddha became another one of the arahants.
Then, on attaining arahantship, he uttered
this verse:

Eights

Knowing my

thoughts, the Teacher, unexcelled in the cosmos,

came to me through his power in a body made of mind.

He taught in line with my thoughts,
and then The Buddha,
delighting in non-complication, taught non-complication.
further.

Knowing his Dhamma,
I

kept delighting in his bidding.

The three knowledges have been attained;
the

Buddha

s bidding, done.

See also:

DN 21; MN 18; SN XXII.3; AN IV.173; AN VIII.53; AN
VI.10

X.69;

Ud llll; Iti 80; Thag
Rewards

VIII.39

"Monks,

fulness,

there are these eight rewards of merit, rewards of skillnourishments of happiness, celestial, resulting in

happiness, leading to heaven, leading to what is desirable, plea surable, & appealing, to welfare & happiness. Which eight? "There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones has gone to the Buddha for refuge. This is the first reward of merit, reward of skillfulness, nourishment of happiness, celestial,
resulting in happiness, leading to heaven, leading to what is desirable, pleasurable, & appealing; to welfare & to happiness. "Furthermore, the disciple of the noble ones has gone to the Dhamma for refuge. This is the second reward of merit .... "Furthermore, the disciple of the noble ones has gone to the Sangha for refuge. This is the third reward of merit ....
"Now, there are these five gifts, five great gifts original, long-standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulter ated from the beginning that are not open to suspicion, will never be open to suspicion, and are unfaulted by knowledge

able contemplatives

& priests. Which five?

Eights

There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones, abandon ing the taking of life, abstains from taking life. In doing so, he gives freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, he gains a share in limitless free
danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from oppression. This is the first gift, the first great gift original, long standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulterated from the beginning that is not open to suspicion, will never be open to suspicion, and is unfaulted by knowledgeable contemplatives & priests. And this is the fourth reward of merit .... "Furthermore, abandoning taking what is not given (stealing), the disciple of the noble ones abstains from taking what is not
given. In doing so, he gives freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, he gains a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from oppression. This is the second gift, the second

dom from

great gift

...

and

this is the fifth

reward of merit
illicit

....

"Furthermore,

abandoning
illicit

sex, the disciple of the
so,

noble

he gives freedom from doing freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to lim danger, itless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from clanger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, he gains a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from oppression. This is the third .... gift, the third great gift ... and this is the sixth reward of merit
ones abstains from
sex. In
"Furthermore,

abandoning

lying, the disciple of the noble

ones

abstains from lying. In doing so, he gives freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, he gains a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from oppression. This is the fourth gift, the fourth great gift ... and this is the seventh reward of merit .... "Furthermore, abandoning the use of intoxicants, the disciple of the noble ones abstains from taking intoxicants. In doing so, he

gives freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression

Eights

2-51

to limitless

dom

numbers of beings, he gains a share in limitless free from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from

oppression. This is the fifth gift, the fifth great gift original, long-standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulter ated from the beginning that is not open to suspicion, will never be open to suspicion, and is unfaulted by knowledgeable contemplatives & priests. And this is the eighth reward of merit, reward of skillfulness, nourishment of happiness, celestial,
resulting in happiness, leading to heaven, leading to what is desirable, pleasurable, & appealing; to welfare & to happiness/
See also:

MN 135; AN X.92;

Iti

22; Hi

27

VIII.40 Results
"Monks,

the taking of
is

life

when indulged

in,

developed,

&

pursued something that leads to hell, leads to rebirth as a common animal, leads to the realm of the hungry shades. The slightest of all the results coming from the taking of life is that,

when one becomes a human being, it leads to a short life span. when indulged in, developed, & pursued is "Stealing
to hell, leads to rebirth as a common animal, leads to the realm of the hungry shades. The slightest of all the results coming from stealing is that, when one becomes a human being, it leads to the loss of one s wealth. "Illicit sexual behavior when indulged in, developed, & pur sued is something that leads to hell, leads to rebirth as a common animal, leads to the realm of the hungry shades. The slightest of all the results coming from illicit sexual behavior is that, when one becomes a human being, it leads to rivalry & revenge. when indulged in, developed, & pur "Telling falsehoods sued is something that leads to hell, leads to rebirth as a common animal, leads to the realm of the hungry shades. The slightest of all the results coming from telling falsehoods is that, when one becomes a human being, it leads to being falsely accused.

something that leads

"Divisive

tale-bearing

when indulged

in,

developed,

&

pursued

common
that,

something that leads to hell, leads to rebirth as a animal, leads to the realm of the hungry shades. The
is

slightest of all the results

coming from malicious

when one becomes

a

human being,

it

tale-bearing is leads to the breaking

of one s friendships.

2.^4

"Harsh

speech

when indulged

in,

developed,

& pursued

something that leads to hell, leads to rebirth as a common animal, leads to the realm of the hungry shades. The slightest of
is

all the results coming from harsh speech is that, when one becomes a human being, it leads to unappealing sounds. "Frivolous chattering when indulged in, developed, & is something that leads to hell, leads to rebirth as a pursued common animal, leads to the realm of the hungry shades. The slightest of all the results coming from frivolous chattering is that, when one becomes a human being, it leads to words that aren t worth taking to heart. "The drinking of fermented & distilled liquors when indulged in, developed, & pursued is something that leads to

leads to rebirth as a common animal, leads to the realm of hungry shades. The slightest of all the results coming from drinking fermented & distilled liquors is that, when one becomes a human being, it leads to mental derangement/
hell,

the

See also:

MN 135; SN XLIL6; SN XLII.8; AN IIL101

VIII.53 Gotaml

on one occasion the Blessed One was stay Peaked Roof Hall in the Great Forest. Then Mahapajapati Gotami went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, stood to one side. As she would be good, venera was standing there she said to him:
I

have heard that

at

ing at Vesali, in the

"It

ble

sir, if

the Blessed

One would

teach

me

the

Dhamma

in brief
7

that, having heard the Dhamma from the Blessed One, I might dwell alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, & resolute/ "Gotami, the qualities of which you may know, These quali ties lead to passion, not to dispassion; to being fettered, not to being unfettered; to accumulating, not to shedding; to selfaggrandizement, not to modesty; to discontent, not to

such

contentment; to entanglement, not to seclusion; to laziness, not to aroused persistence; to being burdensome, not to being unburdensome You may definitely hold, This is not the Dhamma, this is not the Vinaya, this is not the Teacher s instruction/
:

"As

ties

for the qualities of which you may know, These quali lead to dispassion, not to passion; to being unfettered, not to

Eights

being fettered; to shedding, not to accumulating; to modesty, not to self-aggrandizement; to contentment, not to discontent; to seclusion, not to entanglement; to aroused persistence, not to laziness; to being unburdensome, not to being burdensome You may definitely hold, This is the Dhamma, this is the Vinaya, this is the Teacher s instruction/" That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, Mahapajapati Gotami delighted at his words.
:

See also:

MN 61; AN VII 64; AN VII.80; AN VIII.30

VIIL54 Dighajanu

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the Koliyans. Now the Koliyans have a town named Kakkarapatta. there Dighajanu (LongShin) the Koliyan went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to the Blessed One, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One, "We are lay people enjoying sensuality; living crowded with spouses & children; using Kasi fabrics & sandalI

wood; wearing garlands,
silver.

May

the Blessed

One

scents, creams; handling gold teach the Dhamma for those like us,
life,

&

&
&

for

our happiness

& well-being in this
come."

for

our happiness

well-being in lives to

[The Blessed One said:] "There are these four qualities, TigerPaw, that lead to a lay person s happiness and well-being in this life. Which four? Being consummate in initiative, being consummate in vigilance, admirable friendship, and maintain ing one s livelihood in tune. "And what does it mean to be consummate in initiative? There is the case where a lay person, by whatever occupation he makes his living whether by farming or trading or cattle tend
ing or archery or as a king s man or by any other craft is clever and untiring at it, endowed with discrimination in its tech niques, enough to arrange and carry it out. This is called being

consummate in initiative. "And what does it mean
There
is

be consummate in vigilance? person has righteous wealth from his initiative, his striving, his righteously gained, coming making an effort, gathered by the strength of his arm, earned by
to

the case

when

a lay

Eights

his sweat

he manages to protect it through vigilance [with the thought], How shall neither kings nor thieves make off with this property of mine, nor fire burn it, nor water sweep it away, nor hateful heirs make off with it? This is called being consum

mate
case

in vigilance.

"And

what is meant by admirable friendship? There is the where a lay person, in whatever town or village he may

dwell, spends time with householders or householders sons, or old, who are advanced in virtue. He talks with them, engages them in discussions. He emulates consummate convic tion in those who are consummate in conviction, consummate virtue in those who are consummate in virtue, consummate generosity in those who are consummate in generosity, and con summate discernment in those who are consummate in discernment. This is called admirable friendship. "And what does it mean to maintain one s livelihood in tune? There is the case where a lay person, knowing the income and outflow of his wealth, maintains a livelihood in tune, neither a spendthrift nor a penny-pincher, [thinking], Thus will my income exceed my outflow, and my outflow will not exceed my income. Just as when a weigher or his apprentice, when holding the scales, knows, It has tipped down so much or has tipped up so much, in the same way, the lay person, knowing the income and outflow of his wealth, maintains a livelihood in tune, neither a spendthrift nor a penny-pincher, [thinking], Thus will my income exceed my outflow, and my outflow will not exceed my income. If a lay person has a small income but maintains a grand livelihood, it will be rumored of him, This clansman

young

devours his wealth like a fruit-tree eater [Commentary: one who shakes more fruit off a tree than he can possibly eat]. If a lay person has a large income but maintains a miserable livelihood, it will be rumored of him, This clansman will die of starvation. But when a lay person, knowing the income and outflow of his wealth, maintains a livelihood in tune, neither a spendthrift nor a penny-pincher, [thinking], Thus will my income exceed my outflow, and my outflow will not exceed my income/ this is call maintaining one s livelihood in tune. "These are the four drains on one s store of wealth:

debauchery in

sex;

debauchery in drink; debauchery

in

gam

bling; and evil friendship, evil companionship, evil camaraderie. Just as if there were a great reservoir with four inlets and four drains, and a man were to close the inlets and

Eights

2*7

drains, and the sky were not to pour down proper showers, the depletion of that great reservoir could be expected, not its increase. In the same way, these are the four drains on

open the

one

s store of wealth: debauchery in sex; debauchery in drink; debauchery in gambling; and evil friendship, evil companion

ship, evil camaraderie.
"These are the four inlets to one s store of wealth: no debauchery in sex; no debauchery in drink; no debauchery in gambling; and admirable friendship, admirable companionship, admirable camaraderie. Just as if there were a great reservoir with four inlets and four drains, and a man were to open the inlets and close the drains, and the sky were to pour down proper showers, the increase of that great reservoir could be expected, not its depletion. In the same way, these are the four inlets to one s store of wealth: no debauchery in sex; no debauchery in drink; no debauchery in gambling; and admirable friendship, admirable companionship, admirable camaraderie.

TigerPaw, are the four qualities that lead to a lay happiness and well-being in this life. "There are these four qualities that lead to a lay person s happiness and well-being in lives to come. Which four? Being
"These,

person

s

consummate in conviction, being consummate in virtue, being consummate in generosity, being consummate in discernment. "And what does it mean to be consummate in conviction? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones has convic
convinced of the Tathagata s Awakening: Indeed, the One is pure and rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge and conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of divine and human beings, awakened, blessed. This is called being consummate in conviction. "And what does it mean to be consummate in virtue? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones abstains from taking life, abstains from stealing, abstains from illicit sexual conduct, abstains from lying, abstains from taking intoxicants that cause
tion, is

Blessed

heedlessness. This
"And

is

be consummate in generosity? There is the case of a disciple of the noble ones, his awareness cleansed of the stain of miserliness, living at home, freely generous, openhanded, delighting in being magnanimous, responsive to

what does

called being it mean to

consummate

in virtue.

requests, delighting in the distribution of gifts. This being consummate in generosity.

is

called

Eights

There

what does it mean to be consummate in discernment? where a disciple of the noble ones is discern endowed with discernment of arising and passing ing,
"And

is

the case

away
This
is

noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress. called being consummate in discernment.

These, TigerPaw, are the four qualities that lead to a lay person s happiness and well-being in lives to come.
"Heedful

at administering

or working at one s occupation, maintaining one s life in tune, one protects one s store of wealth. person of conviction,

A

consummate in virtue, magnanimous, free of selfishness,
Thus
constantly clears the path to security in the lives to come. for one who seeks the household

life,

these eight qualities, leading to welfare happiness

&

both in

this life

& in lives to come, have been declared by the one
whose name
is truth.

And this is how, for householders,
generosity
See also:

& merit
X.12;

increase."

SN

111.19;

SN

SN

XLV.2;

AN V.34; AN

V.38; AN V.41; AN V.175; AN

AN IIL48; AN IV.62; V.179; AN VI.45; AN

VIIL80;Itil7;Iti76

VIIL63 In Brief (Good Will Mindfulness,
This discourse
is

& Concentration)

important in that it explicitly refers to the prac four frames of reference (the four foundations of mindfulness) as a form of concentration practice, mastered in terms of
tice of the
the levels ofjhana.

Then

a certain

monk went
to

having bowed down

to the Blessed One and, on arrival, him, sat to one side. As he was sitting

Eights

24-9

there he said to the Blessed One: Blessed One would teach me the

"It

Dhamma

would be good

if

the

in brief so that,

having heard the

Dhamma from the Blessed One, I might dwell alone in seclusion: heedful, ardent, & resolute." "But it s in just this way, monk, that some worthless men make a request but then, having been told the Dhamma, think

they should tag along right behind me." the Blessed One teach me the Dhamma in brief! May "May the One Well-gone teach me the Dhamma in brief! It may well be that I will understand the Blessed One s words. It may well be that I will become an heir to the Blessed One s words." "Then, monk, you should train yourself thus: My mind will be established inwardly, well-composed. No evil, unskillful qualities, once they have arisen, will remain consuming the mind. That s how you should train yourself.

Good will, as my "Then you should train yourself thus: awareness-release, will be developed, pursued, handed the reins, taken as a basis, steadied, consolidated, & well-under taken. That s how you should train yourself. When you have developed this concentration in this way, you should develop this concentration with directed thought & evaluation, you
a modicum of it with no directed thought evaluation, you should develop it with no directed thought no evaluation, you should develop it accompanied by rapture ... not accompanied by rapture ... endowed with a sense of enjoy

should develop

&

&

ment; you should develop
"When

it

endowed with equanimity.

developed, thus well-devel should then train yourself thus: Compassion, as oped by you, you
this concentration is thus

my
....

awareness-release

....

Appreciation, as

my

awareness-release

awareness-release, will be developed, pur Equanimity, as sued, given a means of transport, given a grounding, steadied, well-undertaken. That s how you should train consolidated, When you have developed this concentration in this yourself. way, you should develop this concentration with directed thought a should develop it with no directed thought evaluation,

my

&

&

you

&

modicum
thought
rapture
...

&

of evaluation, you should develop it with no directed no evaluation, you should develop it accompanied by not accompanied by rapture ... endowed with a sense of

enjoyment; you should develop it endowed with equanimity. "When this concentration is thus developed, thus wellI will developed by you, you should then train yourself thus:

z6o

Eights

mindful putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world/ That s how you should train yourself. When you have developed this concentration in this way, you should develop this concentration with directed thought & evaluation, you should develop it with no directed thought & a modicum of evaluation, you should develop it with no directed thought & no evaluation, you should develop it accompanied by rapture ... not accompanied by rapture endowed with a sense of enjoy ment; you should develop it endowed with equanimity. "When this concentration is thus developed, thus welldeveloped by you, you should train yourself: I will remain
...

remain focused on the body

in

&

of itself

ardent, alert,

&

& of themselves .... the mind in & of itself mental qualities in & of themselves ardent, alert, & mind ful putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world/ That s how you should train yourself. When you have devel oped this concentration in this way, you should develop this concentration with directed thought & evaluation, you should develop it with no directed thought & a modicum of evaluation, you should develop it with no directed thought & no evalua tion, you should develop it accompanied by rapture ... not accompanied by rapture ... endowed with a sense of enjoyment; you should develop it endowed with equanimity. "When this concentration is thus developed, thus welldeveloped by you, then wherever you go, you will go in comfort. Wherever you stand, you will stand in comfort.
focused on feelings in
...

Wherever you sit, you will sit in comfort. Wherever you lie down, you will lie down in comfort." Then that monk, having been admonished by the admonish ment from the Blessed One, got up from his seat and bowed down to the Blessed One, circled around him, keeping the Blessed One to his right side, and left. Then, dwelling alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, & resolute, he in no long time reached & remained in the supreme goal of the celibate life for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing & realizing it for himself in the here & now. He knew:
the task done. There is nothing further for the sake of this world." And thus he became another one of the arahants.
"Birth

is

ended, the holy

life fulfilled,

See also:

MN 44; SN XLVII.8; AN WAI; AN V.27; AN V.28; AN

IX.35;ANX.71

Eights

z6i

VIII.80 The
"Monks,

Grounds for Laziness

& the Arousal of Energy

there are these eight grounds for laziness. Which eight? is the case where a monk has some work to do. The occurs to him: T will have to do this work. But when I thought don t I lie have done this work, body will be tired.
"There

down? So he

effort for the of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yetattaining unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. This is the
lies
t

down. He doesn

my

Why

make an

first

ground

for laziness.

is the case where a monk has done some work. The thought occurs to him: I have done some work. Now that I have done work, my body is tired. Why don t I lie down? So he lies down. He doesn t make an effort for the attaining of the as-yet"Then

there

unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. This is the second ground for laziness. "Then there is the case where a monk has to go on a journey. The thought occurs to him: I will have to go on this journey. But when I have gone on the journey, body will be tired.

my

Why

don

t I lie

down? So he lies down. He doesn t make an effort for

the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yetunreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. This is the
third
is the case where a monk has gone on a jour The thought occurs to him: I have gone on a journey. Now ney. that I have gone on a journey, my body is tired. Why don t I lie down? So he lies down. He doesn t make an effort for the
"Then

ground

for laziness.

there

attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yetunreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. This is the fourth ground for laziness. "Then there is the case where a monk, having gone for alms in a village or town, doesn t get as much coarse or refined food as he would like for his fill. The thought occurs to him: I, as having gone for alms in a village or town, haven t gotten like for my fill. This much coarse or refined food as I would

body

mine is tired & unsuitable for work. Why don t I lie down? So he lies down. He doesn t make an effort for the
of
of the as-yetattaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unrealized. This is the unreached, the realization
fifth

ground

for laziness.

2,6z

Eights

"Then

there

is

the case

where a monk, having gone

for

alms

in a village or town, gets as would like for his fill. The

much

coarse or refined food as he

thought occurs to him: I, having alms in a village or town, have gotten as much coarse or refined food as I would like for my fill. This body of mine is heavy & unsuitable for work stuffed with beans, as it were. Why don t I lie down? So he lies down. He doesn t make an

gone

for

7

effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of

the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. This is the sixth ground for laziness. "Then there is the case where a monk comes down with a slight illness. The thought occurs to him: I have come down with a slight illness. There s a need to lie down. So he lies down. He doesn t make an effort for the attaining of the as-yetunattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. This is the seventh ground for laziness. "Then there is the case where a monk has recovered from his illness, not long after his recovery. The thought occurs to him: I have recovered from my illness. It s not long after my recovery. This body of mine is weak & unsuitable for work. Why don t I lie down? So he lies down. He doesn t make an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yetunreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. This is the

eighth ground for laziness. "These are the eight grounds for laziness. "There are these eight grounds for the arousal of energy.

Which eight?
is the case where a monk has some work to do. The occurs to him: T will have to do this work. But when I thought am doing this work, it won t be easy to attend to the Buddha s message. Why don t I make an effort beforehand for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized? So he makes an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yetunreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. This is the first ground for the arousal of energy. "Then there is the case where a monk has done some work. The thought occurs to him: I have done some work. While I was doing work, I couldn t attend to the Buddha s message. Why don t I make an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unat tained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of
"There

Eights

the as-yet-unrealized? So he makes an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. This is the second ground for the arousal of energy. Then there is the case where a monk has to go on a journey. The thought occurs to him: I will have to go on this journey. But when I am going on the journey, it won t be easy to attend to the

Buddha

s

message.

Why don t I make

an

effort

beforehand for

the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yetunreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized? So he makes an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yetunrealized. This is the third ground for the arousal of energy. "Then there is the case where a monk has gone on a jour ney. The thought occurs to him: 1 have gone on a journey. While I was going on the journey, I couldn t attend to the Buddha s message. Why don t I make an effort for the attaining of the asyet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized? So he makes an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yetunreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. This is the fourth ground for the arousal of energy. "Then there is the case where a monk, having gone for alms in a village or town, doesn t get as much coarse or refined food as he would like for his fill. The thought occurs to him: I, having gone for alms in a village or town, haven t gotten as much coarse or refined food as I would like for my fill. This body of mine is light & suitable for work. Why don t I make an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized? So he makes an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the asyet-unrealized. This is the fifth ground for the arousal of energy.
"Then

there

is

the case

where a monk, having gone

for

alms

in a village or town, gets as would like for his fill. The
for

much

coarse or refined food as he

thought occurs to him: T, having alms in a village or town, have gotten as much coarse gone or refined food as I would like for my fill. This body of mine is for the light & suitable for work. Why don t I make an effort
attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yetunreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized? So he

2.64

Eights

makes an

effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yetreaching unrealized. This is the sixth ground for the arousal of energy. "Then there is the case where a monk comes down with a

The thought occurs to him: T have come down with a slight illness. Now, there s the possibility that it could get worse. Why don t I make an effort beforehand for the attaining
slight illness.

of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized? So he makes an effort
for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the asyet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. This is

the seventh ground for the arousal of energy. "Then there is the case where a monk has recovered from his illness, not long after his recovery. The thought occurs to him: I

my illness. It s not long after my recovery. there s the possibility that the illness could come back. Why don t I make an effort beforehand for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the real ization of the as-yet-unrealized? So he makes an effort for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yetunreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. This is the eighth ground for the arousal of energy. "These are the eight grounds for the arousal of energy."
Now,
See also:

have recovered from

SN 11117; AN V.77-80; AN VII.58; Iti 47; Sn 11.10; Sn III.2;
11.37;

Thag

1.84;

Thag

Thag

111.5

Nines

IX. 1 Self-awakening
I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi in Jeta s Grove, Anathapindika s monastery. There

he said

to the monks: "Monks, if wanderers who are members of other sects should ask you, What, friend, are the prerequi sites for the development of the wings to self-awakening? how
them?"

would you answer
"For

us, lord, the teachings have the Blessed One as their their arbitrator. It would be good if the root, their guide, Blessed One himself would explicate the meaning of this state

&

ment. Having heard

it

from the Blessed One, the monks will
listen

remember
"In

it."

that case,

monks,
lord,"

& pay close attention. I will

speak."

"As

you

say,

the

monks responded.
"If

wanderers who are members of The Blessed One said, other sects should ask you, What, friend, are the prerequisites for the development of the wings to self-awakening? 1 you should answer, There is the case where a monk has admirable people as friends, companions, & comrades. This is the first pre requisite for the development of the wings to self-awakening. "Furthermore, the monk is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the train ing rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults. This is the second prerequisite for the development of the wings to self-awakening. Furthermore, he gets to hear at will, easily & without diffi culty, talk that is truly sobering & conducive to the opening of awareness, i.e., talk on modesty, contentment, seclusion, non-entan
"

glement, arousing persistence, virtue, concentration, discernment, release, and the knowledge & vision of release. This is the third prerequisite for the development of the wings to self-awakening.
"

ing unskillful mental qualities

Furthermore, he keeps his persistence aroused for abandon and for taking on skillful mental

2.66

Nines

qualities. He is steadfast, solid in his effort, not shirking his duties with regard to skillful mental qualities. This is the fourth prereq uisite for the development of the wings to self-awakening. Furthermore, he is discerning, endowed with the discern
"

ment

companions, & comrades, it is to be expected that he will be vir tuous, will dwell restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity, and will train himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in
the slightest faults. "When a monk has admirable people as friends, companions, & comrades, it is to be expected that he will get to hear at will, easily & without difficulty, talk that is truly sobering and conducive to the opening of awareness, i.e., talk on modesty, contentment, seclusion, non-entanglement, arousing persistence, virtue, concentration, discernment, release, and the knowledge & vision of release. "When a monk has admirable people as friends, companions,

of arising passing away noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress. This is the fifth prerequisite for the development of the wings to self-awakening/ "Monks, when a monk has admirable people as friends,

&

& comrades, it is to be expected that he will keep his persistence aroused for abandoning unskillful mental qualities, and for taking on skillful mental qualities steadfast, solid in his effort,
ions,

not shirking his duties with regard to skillful mental qualities. "When a monk has admirable people as friends, compan

& comrades, it is to be expected

that

he will be discerning,

passing away noble, leading to the right ending of stress. penetrating, "And furthermore, monks, when the monk is established in these five qualities, there are four additional qualities he should develop: He should develop [contemplation of] the unattractive so as to abandon lust. He should develop good will so as to abandon ill will. He should develop mindfulness of in-&-out breathing so as to cut off distracted thinking. He should develop the perception of inconstancy so as to uproot the conceit, T am/ For a monk perceiving inconstancy, the perception of not-self is made firm. One perceiving not-self attains the uprooting of the conceit, I am Unbinding in the here & now."

endowed with discernment

of arising

&

NOTE:
See also:

1.

The

five

mental

faculties.

See

SN XLVIII.10.

MN 118; MN 119; SN XXIL59; SN XLV.2; Ud IV.l; Hi 76

Nines

167

IX.7 Sutavant

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in Rajagaha, on Vulture Peak Mountain. Then Sutavant the wan derer went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he said to the Blessed One: "One day recently when I was staying right here in Rajagaha, at Giribbaja, I heard it in the Blessed One s presence, learned it in the Blessed One s presence: Sutavant, an arahant monk whose mental fermentations are ended, who has reached fulfillment, done the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, totally destroyed the fetter of becoming, and who is released through right gnosis, cannot possibly transgress these five principles. It is impossible for a monk whose mental fermen tations are ended to intentionally deprive a living being of life. It is impossible for a monk whose mental fermentations are ended
I

to take, in the manner of stealing, what is not given. It is impossi ble for a monk whose mental fermentations are ended to engage in sexual intercourse. It is impossible for a monk whose mental

fermentations are ended to tell a conscious lie. It is impossible for a monk whose mental fermentations are ended to consume stored-up sensual things as he did before, when he was a house holder. Now, did I hear this rightly from the Blessed One? Did I learn it rightly, attend to it rightly, understand it rightly?"
"Yes, Sutavant, you heard it rightly, learned it rightly, attended to it rightly, & understood it rightly. Both before & now I say to you that an arahant monk whose mental fermenta tions are ended, who has reached fulfillment, done the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, totally destroyed the fetter of becoming, and who is released through right gnosis, cannot possibly transgress these nine principles. It is impossible for a monk whose mental fermentations are ended to intentionally deprive a living being of life. [2] It is impossi ble for a monk whose mental fermentations are ended to take, in the
"[1]

manner of stealing, what is not given. [3] It is impossible for a monk whose mental fermentations are ended to engage in sexual inter course. [4] It is impossible for a monk whose mental fermentations are ended to tell a conscious lie. [5] It is impossible for a monk whose mental fermentations are ended to consume stored-up sensual things as he did before when he was a householder.

2.68

Nines

It is impossible for a monk whose mental fermentations are ended to go off course through desire. [7] It is impossible for a monk whose mental fermentations are ended to go off course
"[6]

[8] It is impossible for a monk whose mental fermentations are ended to go off course through fear. [9] It is impossible for a monk whose mental fermentations are ended to go off course through delusion. "Both before and now I say to you that an arahant monk whose mental fermentations are ended, who has reached fulfill ment, done the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, totally destroyed the fetter of becoming, and who is released through right gnosis, cannot possibly transgress these nine principles/

through aversion.

See also:

MN

1;

SN XXII.122; AN IV.19; AN IX.62; AN X.13

IX.34 Unbinding
I have heard that on one occasion Ven. Sariputta was staying near Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels Feeding Sanctuary. There he said to the monks, "This Unbinding is

pleasant, friends. This

When
what is
"Just

Unbinding is pleasant/ Udayin said to Ven. Sariputta, the pleasure here, my friend, where there is nothing
this

was
is

said, Ven.

"But

felt?"

that
felt.

the pleasure here,
via the eye

my

friend:

where there

is

nothing
five?

There are these five strings of sensuality. Which
agreeable, pleasing,

Forms cognizable

charm

ing, endearing, fostering desire, enticing;

sounds cognizable via

the ear ... smells cognizable via the nose ... tastes cognizable via the tongue ... tactile sensations cognizable via the body agree
able, pleasing,

charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing.
arises in

Whatever pleasure or joy
strings of sensuality, that
"Now

dependence on these
quite

five

there

is

sensual pleasure. the case where a monk
is

withdrawn

from

enters sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities remains in the first jhana: rapture pleasure born from with

&

&

drawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. If, as he remains there, he is beset with attention to perceptions dealing with sensuality, that is an affliction for him. Just as pain arises as an affliction in a healthy person for his affliction, even so the

Nines

169

attention to perceptions dealing with sensuality that beset the is an affliction for him. Now, the Blessed One has said that whatever is an affliction is stress. So by this line of reason

monk
ing
it

the stilling of directed thought enters remains in the second evaluation, jhana: rapture pleasure born of composure, unification of aware ness free from directed thought & evaluation internal assurance. If, as he remains there, he is beset with attention to perceptions dealing with directed thought, that is an affliction for him .... "Then there is the case where a monk, with the fading of rap

may be known how Unbinding is pleasant. Then there is the case where a monk, with

&

&

&

remains in equanimity, mindful & alert, is physically sensitive and enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding/ If, as he remains there, he is beset with attention to perceptions dealing with rapture, that is an affliction for him .... Then there is the case where a monk, with the abandoning
ture,

to pleasure,

of pleasure stress as with the earlier disappearance of ela tion distress enters remains in the fourth jhana: purity of mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. If, as he equanimity

&

&

&

&

remains there, he is beset with attention to perceptions dealing with equanimity, that is an affliction for him .... Then there is the case where a monk, with the complete tran scending of perceptions of [physical] form, with the disappearance
of perceptions of resistance,
sity,

and not heeding perceptions of diver

remains in the dimension thinking, space/ enters of the infinitude of space. If, as he remains there, he is beset with attention to perceptions dealing with form, that is an afflic tion for him .... "Then there is the case where a monk, with the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of space, think
Infinite

&

remains in the dimension ing, Infinite consciousness/ enters of the infinitude of consciousness. If, as he remains there, he is
beset with attention to perceptions dealing with the dimension of
the infinitude of space, that is
"Then

&

an

affliction for

him

....

there is the case where a monk, with the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of conscious ness, thinking, There is nothing/ enters & remains in the dimension of nothingness. If, as he remains there, he is beset with attention to perceptions dealing with the dimension of the
infinitude of consciousness, that is

an

affliction for

him

....

2,70

Nines

there is the case where a monk, with the complete tran of the dimension of nothingness, enters remains in the scending dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. If, as he
"Then

&

remains there, he
Blessed

the dimension of nothingness, that is

One

beset with attention to perceptions dealing with an affliction for him. Now, the has said that whatever is an affliction is stress. So by
is

reasoning it may be known how Unbinding is pleasant. there is the case where a monk, with the complete transcending of the dimension of neither perception nor nonperception, enters & remains in the cessation of perception & feeling. And, having seen [that] with discernment, his mental fermentations are completely ended. So by this line of reasoning
this line of

Then

it

may be known how Unbinding is pleasant."
See also:

MN 121; Dhp 202-203; Dhp 381; Ud IL1-2; Ud VIIL1-4
Cow

IX.35 The

foolish, inexperienced, "Suppose there was a mountain cow unfamiliar with her pasture, unskilled in roaming on rugged mountains and she were to think, What if I were to go in a
I have never gone before, to eat grass I have never eaten before, to drink water I have never drunk before! She would lift her hind hoof without having placed her front hoof firmly and [as a result] would not get to go in a direction she had never gone before, to eat grass she had never eaten before, or to drink water she had never drunk before. And as for the place where she was standing when the thought occurred to her, What if I were to go where I have never been before ... to drink water I have never drunk before/ she would not return there safely. Why is that? Because she is a foolish, inexperienced mountain cow, unfamiliar with her pasture, unskilled in roam ing on rugged mountains.

direction

there are cases where a monk foolish, unfamiliar with his pasture, unskilled in being inexperienced, quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities, and entering & remaining in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation doesn t stick with that theme, doesn t develop it, pursue it, or establish himself firmly in it. The thought occurs to him, What if I, with the stilling of directed thought &
"In

the

same way,

Nines

zyi

were to enter & remain in the second jhana: rapture & born of composure, unification of awareness free from pleasure directed thought & evaluation internal assurance/ He is not able ... to enter & remain in the second jhana .... The thought occurs to him, What if I ... were to enter & remain in the first to enter & remain in the first jhana. This jhana .... He is not able is called a monk who has slipped & fallen from both sides, like the mountain cow, foolish, inexperienced, unfamiliar with her pasture, unskilled in roaming on rugged mountains.
evaluation,
...

"But

suppose there was a mountain cow

wise, experi

enced, familiar with her pasture, skilled in roaming on rugged mountains and she were to think, What if I were to go in a direction I have never gone before, to eat grass I have never eaten before, to drink water I have never drunk before! She

would

lift

her hind hoof only after having placed her front hoof
...

firmly and [as a result] would get to go in a direction she had never gone before to drink water she had never drunk before. And as for the place where she was standing when the thought occurred to her, What if I were to go in a direction I have never to drink water I have never drunk before/ she gone before would return there safely. Why is that? Because she is a wise, experienced mountain cow, familiar with her pasture, skilled in roaming on rugged mountains. the same way, there are some cases where a monk...
"In

wise, experienced, familiar with his pasture, skilled in being quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities, and entering & remaining in the first jhana: rapture &

pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation sticks with that theme, develops it, pur
sues
it,

& establishes himself firmly in

it.

thought occurs to him, What if, with the stilling of directed thought & evaluation, I were to enter & remain in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation internal assurance/ Without jumping at the second jhana, he with the enters & remains in stilling of directed thought & evaluation
"The

& pleasure born of composure, unifi cation of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation internal assurance. He sticks with that theme,
the second jhana: rapture

develops

it,

pursues

it,

& establishes himself firmly in

it.

2,72.

Nines

thought occurs to him, What if, with the fading of rap were to enter & remain in the third jhana .... Without jumping at the third jhana, with the fading of rapture, he remains in equanimity, mindful & alert, and physically sensitive
"The

ture,

I

...

to pleasure, entering remaining in the third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, Equanimous mindful, he has a plea surable abiding/ He sticks with that theme, develops it, pursues

&

&

it,

& establishes himself firmly in
The

it.

thought occurs to him, What if I ... were to enter & remain in the fourth jhana .... Without jumping at the fourth jhana, with the abandoning of pleasure & stress as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. He sticks with that theme, develops it, pursues it, & establishes himself firmly in it. "The thought occurs to him, What if I ... were to enter & remain in the dimension of the infinitude of space. Without jumping at the dimension of the infinitude of space, he, with the complete transcending of perceptions of [physical] form, with the
disappearance of perceptions of resistance, and not heeding per ceptions of diversity, thinking, Infinite space/ enters & remains in the dimension of the infinitude of space. He sticks with that theme, develops it, pursues it, & establishes himself firmly in it. "The thought occurs to him, What if I ... were to enter & remain in the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness/ Without jumping at the dimension of the infinitude of con sciousness, he, with the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of space, thinking, Infinite consciousness/ enters & remains in the dimension of the infinitude of con
sciousness.

He

sticks

with that theme, develops

it,

pursues

it,

& &

establishes himself firmly in it. "The thought occurs to him, What if I ... were to enter remain in the dimension of nothingness/ Without jumping at the dimension of nothingness, he, with the complete transcending of

the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, thinking, There is nothing/ enters remains in the dimension of nothingness. He establishes himself sticks with that theme, develops it, pursues, it

&

&

firmly in

it.

"The thought occurs to him, What if I ... were to enter & remain in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception/ Without jumping at the dimension of neither perception nor

Ni nes

non-perception, he, with the complete transcending of the dimension of nothingness, enters & remains in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. He sticks with that theme, develops it, pursues it, & establishes himself firmly in it. "The thought occurs to him, What if I, with the complete transcending of the dimension of neither perception nor nonperception, were to enter & remain in the cessation of perception & feeling/ Without jumping at the cessation of per ception & feeling, he, with the complete transcending of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception, enters & remains in the cessation of perception & feeling. "When a monk enters & emerges from that very attainment, his mind is pliant & malleable. With his pliant, malleable mind, limitless concentration is well developed. With his well-devel oped, limitless concentration, then whichever of the six higher knowledges he turns his mind to know & realize, he can witness them for himself whenever there is an opening. he wants, he wields manifold supranormal powers.
"If

Having been one he becomes many; having been many he becomes one. He appears. He vanishes. He goes unimpeded

through walls, ramparts, & mountains as if through space. He dives in and out of the earth as if it were water. He walks on water without sinking as if it were dry land. Sitting cross-legged he flies through the air like a winged bird. With his hand he touches and strokes even the sun & moon, so mighty & power ful. He exercises influence with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening. he wants, he hears by means of the divine ear-element, purified & surpassing the human both kinds of sounds: divine & human, whether near or far. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening. he wants, he knows the awareness of other beings, other individuals, having encompassed it with his own awareness. He discerns a mind with passion as a mind with passion, and a mind without passion as a mind without passion. He discerns a mind with aversion as a mind with aversion, and a mind with out aversion as a mind without aversion. He discerns a mind with delusion as a mind with delusion, and a mind without delusion as a mind without delusion. He discerns a restricted mind as a restricted mind, and a scattered mind as a scattered
"If "If

174

Nines

He discerns an enlarged mind as an enlarged mind, and an unenlarged mind as an unenlarged mind. He discerns an excelled mind [one that is not at the most excellent level] as an excelled mind, and an unexcelled mind as an unexcelled mind. He discerns a concentrated mind as a concentrated mind, and an unconcentrated mind as an unconcentrated mind. He dis cerns a released mind as a released mind, and an unreleased mind as an unreleased mind. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening. he wants, he recollects his manifold past lives (lit: previous homes), i.e., one birth, two births, three births, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, one hundred, one thousand, one hun
mind.
"If

dred thousand, many aeons of cosmic contraction, many aeons of cosmic expansion, many aeons of cosmic contraction & expan sion, [recollecting], There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my expe rience of pleasure & pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure & pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose here/ Thus he remembers his manifold past lives in their modes & details. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening. he wants, he sees by means of the divine eye, purified
"If

& surpassing the human &

beings passing
inferior

and he discerns how they are
ugly, fortunate

&

away &

re-appearing, superior, beautiful

&

unfortunate in accordance with their

kamma:

These beings who were endowed with bad conduct of body, speech, & mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. But these beings who were endowed with good con duct of body, speech, & mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influ ence of right views with the break-up of the body, after death,

have re-appeared in the good destinations, in the heavenly world/ Thus by means of the divine eye, purified & surpass
ing the

human he

and he discerns how they
ugly, fortunate

&

sees beings passing away re-appearing, are inferior superior, beautiful unfortunate in accordance with their kamma.

&

&

&

He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening.

Nines

"If

enters

&

he wants, then through the ending of fermentations, he remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release &

discernment-release, having directly known & realized them for himself right in the here & now. He can witness this for himself

whenever there
See also:

is

an

opening."

AN IV.41; AN V.28; AN VIII.63

IX.36 Jhana
you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on jhana ... the second jhana ... the third ... the fourth ... the dimension of the infinitude of space ... the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness ... the dimension of nothingness. I tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. I tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the first jhana/ Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said? There is the case where a monk, withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities, enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from with drawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. He regards whatever phenomena there that are connected with form, feeling, perception, fabrications, & consciousness, as inconstant, stressful, a disease, a cancer, an arrow, painful, an
"I

tell

the

first

"

affliction, alien, a disintegration,

an emptiness,

not-self.

He

turns his
so,

mind away from those phenomena, and having done inclines his mind to the property of deathlessness: This is

peace, this is exquisite the resolution of all fabrications; the relinquishment of all acquisitions; the ending of craving; dispassion; cessation; Unbinding/ "Suppose that an archer or archer s apprentice were to prac tice on a straw man or mound of clay, so that after a while he

would become

able to shoot long distances, to fire accurate shots in rapid succession, and to pierce great masses. In the same way, there is the case where a monk... enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born of withdrawal, accom panied by directed thought & evaluation. He regards whatever phenomena there that are connected with form, feeling, percep tion, fabrications, & consciousness, as inconstant, stressful, a

Nines

an arrow, painful, an affliction, alien, a disinte an emptiness, not-self. He turns his mind away from gration, those phenomena, and having done so, inclines his mind to the
disease, a cancer,

property of deathlessness: This

is peace, this is exquisite the resolution of all fabrications; the relinquishment of all acquisi tions; the ending of craving; dispassion; cessation; Unbinding/ "Staying right there, he reaches the ending of the mental fer mentations. Or, if not, then through passion delight for this and from the total wasting very property [of deathlessness] away of the first of the five fetters [self-identity views, grasping at precepts practices, uncertainty, sensual passion, and irrita he is due to be reborn [in the Pure Abodes], there to be tion] totally unbound, never again to return from that world. tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the first jhana. Thus it was said, and in reference to this was

&

&

"I

it

said.

[Similarly with the other levels of jhana up through the dimension of nothingness.]
"Thus, as far as the perception-attainments go, that is as far as gnosis-penetration goes. As for these two dimensions the attainment of the dimension of neither perception nor non-per

the attainment of the cessation of feeling & perception I tell you that they are to be rightly explained by

ception
those

&

monks who

attaining

&

are meditators, skilled in attaining, skilled in emerged in depen emerging, who have attained

&

dence on

them."

See also:

AN IV.94; AN IV.170; AN IX.43-45; Dhp 372

IX.41 Tapussa (On Renunciation)

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying among the Mallans near a Mallan town named Uruvelakappa. Then early in the morning the Blessed One, having put on his robes and carrying his bowl and outer robe, went into Uruvelakappa for alms. Having gone into Uruvelakappa for alms, after his meal, on his return from his alms round, he said to Ven. Ananda, "Stay right here, Ananda, while I go into the Great Wood for the day s abiding."
I
"As

you

say,

lord,"

Ven.

Ananda responded.

Nines

277

Then the Blessed One went into the Great Wood and down at the root of a certain tree for the day s abiding.
Then Tapussa the householder went
arrival,

sat

to Ven.

having bowed down

to him, sat to

one

Ananda and, on side. As he was

sitting there he said to Ven. Ananda: "Venerable Ananda, sir, we are householders who indulge in sensuality, delight in sensual

enjoy sensuality, rejoice in sensuality. For us indulging in sensuality, delighting in sensuality, enjoying sensuality, rejoicing in sensuality renunciation seems like a sheer drop-off. Yet I ve
ity,

heard that in
fast,

this

Dhamma &
it

Vinaya the hearts of the very

young monks leap up

&

Dhamma &
One. Let
"As

firm, seeing

Vinaya

is

grow confident, stead as peace. So right here is where this contrary to the great mass of people: i.e.,
at renunciation,

Let s go see the Blessed approach him and, on arrival, tell him this matter. However he explains it to us, we will bear it in mind." you say, Tapussa the householder responded to Ven. Ananda. Then Ven. Ananda, together with Tapussa the householder, went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One_: "Tapussa the householder, here, has said to me, Venerable Ananda, sir, we are householders who indulge in
s
sir,"

[this issue of] renunciation." "This calls for a talk, householder.

sensuality, delight in sensuality, enjoy sensuality, rejoice in sen suality. For us indulging in sensuality, delighting in sensuality,

enjoying sensuality, rejoicing in sensuality renunciation seems like a sheer drop-off. Yet I ve heard that in this Dhamma & Vinaya the hearts of the very young monks leap up at renuncia
tion,

grow
mass

confident, steadfast,
is

&

right here

where

this
i.e.,

Dhamma &

firm, seeing

Vinaya

is

it as peace. So contrary to the
"

great

of people:

[this issue of] renunciation.

it is, Ananda. So it is. Even I myself, before my Awakening, when I was still an unawakened Bodhisatta,
"So

thought: Renunciation is good. Seclusion is good. But my heart didn t leap up at renunciation, didn t grow confident, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace. The thought occurred to me: What is the cause, what is the reason, why my heart doesn t leap up at renunciation, doesn t grow confident, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace? Then the thought occurred to me: I haven t seen the

drawback of

sensuality;

I

haven

t

pursued

[that theme].

I

haven

t

Nines

understood the reward of renunciation;

I

haven

t

familiarized

myself with it. That s why my heart doesn t leap up at renuncia tion, doesn t grow confident, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace. [1] "Then the thought occurred to me: If, having seen the drawback of sensuality, I were to pursue that theme; and if, having understood the reward of renunciation, I were to familiarize myself

with

heart would leap up at it, there s the possibility that firm, seeing it as peace. renunciation, grow confident, steadfast, "So at a later time, having seen the drawback of sensuality, I pursued that theme; having understood the reward of renuncia

my &

familiarized myself with it. My heart leaped up at renunciation, grew confident, steadfast, & firm, seeing it as peace. Then, quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities, I entered & remained in the first jhana: rap ture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by
tion,
I

directed thought
"As

& evaluation.

remained there, I was beset with attention to percep tions dealing with sensuality. That was an affliction for me. Just as pain arises as an affliction for a healthy person, even so the attention to perceptions dealing with sensuality that beset me was an affliction for me. [2] "The thought occurred to me: What if, with the stilling of directed thought & evaluation, I were to enter & remain in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation internal assurance. But my heart didn t leap up at being without directed thought, didn t grow confident, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace. The thought occurred to me: What is the cause, what is the reason, why my heart doesn t leap up at being without directed thought, doesn t grow confident, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace? Then the thought occurred to me: T haven t seen the drawback of directed thought; I haven t pursued that theme. I haven t understood the reward of being without directed thought; I haven t familiarized myself with it. That s why my heart doesn t leap up at being without directed thought, doesn t
I

confident, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace. the thought occurred to me: Tf, having seen the draw directed thought, I were to pursue that theme; and if, back of having understood the reward of being without directed thought, I were to familiarize myself with it, there s the possibility that

grow

"Then

my

Nines

179

heart

confident, steadfast, & firm, seeing it as peace/
"So

would leap up

at

being without directed thought, grow

at a later time, having seen the drawback of directed thought, I pursued that theme; having understood the reward of being without directed thought, I familiarized myself with it.

My

heart leaped
steadfast,

& firm, seeing it as peace. With the stilling of directed & evaluation, I entered & remained in the second jhana: thought rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness internal assurance. free from directed thought & evaluation
"As I remained there, I was beset with attention to percep tions dealing with directed thought. That was an affliction for me. Just as pain arises as an affliction for a healthy person, even so the attention to perceptions dealing with directed thought

up

at

being without directed thought, grew confident,

that beset
[3]
I

me was an affliction for me.
were

thought occurred to me: What if, with the fading of to remain in equanimity, mindful & alert, to be rapture, sensitive to pleasure, and to enter & remain in the physically third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, "Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding"? But my heart didn t leap up at being without rapture, didn t grow confident, stead fast, or firm, seeing it as peace .... So at a later time, having seen the drawback of rapture, I pursued that theme; having under stood the reward of being without rapture, I familiarized myself with it. My heart leaped up at being without rapture, grew con
"The

& firm, seeing it as peace. With the fading of remained in equanimity, mindful & alert, physically rapture, sensitive to pleasure, and entered & remained in the third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, Equanimous & mindful, he
fident, steadfast,
I

has a pleasurable abiding.
"As I remained there, I was beset with attention to percep tions dealing with rapture. That was an affliction for me. Just as pain arises as an affliction for a healthy person, even so the attention to perceptions dealing with rapture that beset me was

an

affliction for
[4]
"The

me.

thought occurred to me: What if, with the aban as with the earlier disappearance stress of pleasure doning remain in the fourth I were to enter of elation distress

&

&

&

jhana: purity of equanimity

mindfulness, neither-pleasureBut my heart didn t leap up at being without the nor-pain? pleasure of equanimity, didn t grow confident, steadfast, or

&

2.8o

Nines

firm, seeing it as peace .... So at a later time, having seen the draw back of the pleasure of equanimity, I pursued that theme; having understood the reward of neither-pleasure-nor-pain, I familiarized myself with it. My heart leaped up at neither-pleasure-nor-pain, grew confident, steadfast, & firm, seeing it as peace. With the aban doning of pleasure & stress as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress I entered & remained in the fourth jhana:

purity of equanimity
"As

& mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain.

remained there, I was beset with attention to percep tions dealing with equanimity. That was an affliction for me. Just as pain arises as an affliction for a healthy person, even so the attention to perceptions dealing with equanimity that beset me was an affliction for me. [5] "The thought occurred to me: What if, with the com plete transcending of perceptions of [physical] form, with the disappearance of perceptions of resistance, and not heeding per ceptions of diversity, thinking, "Infinite space/ I were to enter & remain in the dimension of the infinitude of space? But my heart didn t leap up at the dimension of the infinitude of space, didn t grow confident, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace .... So
I
7

at a later time,

having seen the drawback of forms,

I

pursued

that theme; having understood the reward of the dimension of the infinitude of space, I familiarized myself with it. heart

My

leaped up at the dimension of the infinitude of space, grew con fident, steadfast, & firm, seeing it as peace. With the complete transcending of perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of resistance, and not heeding perceptions of diver sity, thinking, Infinite space/ I entered & remained in the

dimension of the infinitude of space. I remained there, I was beset with attention to perceptions with forms. That was an affliction for me. Just as pain arises dealing as an affliction for a healthy person, even so the attention to percep tions dealing with forms that beset me was an affliction for me. [6] "The thought occurred to me: What if, with the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of space, thinking, "Infinite consciousness," I were to enter & remain in the dimen sion of the infinitude of consciousness? But my heart didn t leap up at the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, didn t So at a later grow confident, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace seen the drawback of the dimension of the infinitude time, having of space, I pursued that theme; having understood the reward of
"As

....

Nines

2.81

the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, I familiarized heart leaped up at the dimension of the infini myself with it. tude of consciousness, grew confident, steadfast, firm, seeing it as peace. With the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of space, thinking, Infinite consciousness/ I entered & remained in the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness. "As I remained there, I was beset with attention to perceptions dealing with the dimension of the infinitude of space. That was an affliction for me. Just as pain arises as an affliction for a healthy person, even so the attention to perceptions dealing with the dimen sion of the infinitude of space that beset me was an affliction for me. [7] "The thought occurred to me: What if, with the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, remain in the thinking, "There is nothing," I were to enter dimension of nothingness? But my heart didn t leap up at the dimension of nothingness, didn t grow confident, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace .... So at a later time, having seen the draw back of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, I pursued that theme; having understood the reward of the dimen heart leaped sion of nothingness, I familiarized myself with it.

My

&

&

dimension of nothingness, grew confident, steadfast, & up firm, seeing it as peace. With the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, thinking, There is nothing, I entered & remained in the dimension of nothingness. I remained there, I was beset with attention to percep tions dealing with the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness. That was an affliction for me. Just as pain arises as an affliction for a healthy person, even so the attention to per ceptions dealing with the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness that beset me was an affliction for me. if I, with the com [8] "The thought occurred to me: What
at the
"As

My

were to plete transcending of the dimension of nothingness, nor nonenter remain in the dimension of neither perception of perception? But my heart didn t leap up at the dimension didn t grow confident, neither perception nor non-perception, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace .... So at a later time, having seen the drawback of the dimension of nothingness, I pursued understood the reward of the dimension of that theme;

&

having

neither perception nor non-perception, I familiarized myself with it. My heart leaped up at the dimension of neither percep tion nor non-perception, grew confident, steadfast, & firm,

z8z

Nines

seeing it as peace. With the complete transcending of the dimen sion of nothingness, I entered & remained in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. "As I remained there, I was beset with attention to percep tions dealing with the dimension of nothingness. That was an affliction for me. Just as pain arises as an affliction for a healthy person, even so the attention to perceptions dealing with the dimension of nothingness that beset me was an affliction for me. [9] "The thought occurred to me: What if I, with the com plete transcending of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception, were to enter & remain in the cessation of per ception & feeling? But my heart didn t leap up at the cessation of perception & feeling, didn t grow confident, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace. The thought occurred to me: What is the cause, what is the reason, why my heart doesn t leap up at the cessation of perception & feeling, doesn t grow confident, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace? Then the thought occurred to me: T haven t seen the drawback of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception; I haven t pursued that theme. I haven t understood the reward of the cessation of perception & feeling; I haven t familiarized myself with it. That s why my heart doesn t leap up at the cessation of perception & feeling, doesn t grow confident, steadfast, or firm, seeing it as peace. "Then the thought occurred to me: If, having seen the drawback of the dimension of neither perception nor non-per
ception, I were to pursue that theme; and if, having understood the reward of the cessation of perception feeling, I were to heart familiarize myself with it, there s the possibility that would leap up at the cessation of perception feeling, grow firm, seeing it as peace. confident, steadfast, "So at a later time, having seen the drawback of the dimen sion of neither perception nor non-perception, I pursued that

&

&

my

&

theme; having understood the reward of the cessation of per ception & feeling, I familiarized myself with it. My heart leaped up at the cessation of perception & feeling, grew confident, steadfast, & firm, seeing it as peace. With the complete tran scending of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception, I entered & remained in the cessation of percep tion & feeling. And as I saw with discernment, the mental
fermentations went to their total end.

Nines

"Ananda, as long as I had not attained & emerged from these nine step-by-step dwelling-attainments in forward & backward order in this way, I did not claim to have directly awakened to the right self-awakening unexcelled in the cosmos

with

its

devas, Maras,

priests, its

royalty attained & emerged from these nine step-by-step dwellingattainments in forward & backward order in this way, then I did claim to have directly awakened to the right self-awakening unexcelled in the cosmos with its devas, Maras, & Brahmas, with its contemplatives & priests, its royalty & common people. Knowledge & vision arose in me: My release is unshakable. This is the last birth. There is now no further becoming/"
See also:

& Brahmas, with its contemplatives & & common people. But as soon as I had

SN XXVIL1-10; SN XXXV.127; SN XXXVI.ll
three discourses

The following

show

that,

contrary to a popular

misconception, the phrase, "Released through discernment" does not release without experience of the refer to a person who has attained
at least the first jhanas. Instead, it refers to a person who has attained jhana but does not experience any of the psychic powers that some times can be accessed through jhana.

IX.43 Bodily Witness
Bodily witness, bodily witness/ it is said. To what [Udayin:] extent is one described by the Blessed One as a bodily witness?" friend, where a monk, [Ananda:] "There is the case,
"

my

withdrawn from

sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful quali remains in the first jhana: rapture ties, enters pleasure born evalua directed thought from withdrawal, accompanied by his body in whatever way there with tion. He remains

&

&

&

touching
It s

is

an opening

there. 1

to this extent that

one

is

described with

explication by the Blessed One as a bodily witness. evalua "Furthermore, with the stilling of directed thought in the second ... the third ... the fourth remains tion, he enters jhana ... the dimension of the infinitude of space ... the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness ... the dimension of nothing

&

&

ness

...

the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception.

2.84

Nines

remains touching with his body in whatever way there is an opening there. It s to this extent that one is described with expli cation by the Blessed One as a bodily witness. "Then, with the complete transcending of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception, he enters & remains in the cessation of perception & feeling. And as he sees with dis cernment, the mental fermentations go to their total end. He remains touching with his body in whatever way there is an opening there. It s to this extent that one is described without
explication
2

He

by the Blessed One

as a bodily

witness."

NOTES
1.

2.

See See

AN IX.35. AN IX.36.

IX. 44 Released through Discernment
"

[Udayin:]

discernment/
Blessed

it is

Released through discernment, released through said. To what extent is one described by the

as released through discernment?" friend, [Ananda:] "There is the case,

One

my

where

a

monk,

withdrawn from
ties,

rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evalua tion. And he knows it through discernment. It s to this extent that one is described with explication by the Blessed One as
enters

& remains in the first jhana:

sensuality,

withdrawn from

unskillful quali

released through discernment. "Then, with the stilling of directed thought & evaluation, he enters & remains in the second ... the third ... the fourth jhana ... the

dimension of the infinitude of space the dimension of the infini tude of consciousness ... the dimension of nothingness ... the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. And he knows it through discernment. It s to this extent that one is described with
...

One as released through discernment. with the complete transcending of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception, he enters & remains in the cessation of perception & feeling. And as he sees with dis cernment, the mental fermentations go to their total end. And he knows it through discernment. It s to this extent that one is described without explication by the Blessed One as released
explication by the Blessed
"Then,

through

discernment."

Nines

IX.45 (Released) Both Ways
[Udayin:] Released both ways, released both ways/ it is said. To what extent is one described by the Blessed One as released
"

both ways?"
[Ananda:]
"There

is

the case,

my friend, where a monk, with

drawn from
enters

&

withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. He remains touching with his body in whatever way there is an opening there, and he knows it through discernment. It s to this extent that one is described with explication by the Blessed One as released both ways. "Then, with the stilling of directed thought & evaluation, he the fourth jhana the the third enters & remains in the second dimension of the infinitude of space the dimension of the infinitude the dimension of the dimension of nothingness of consciousness neither perception nor non-perception. He remains touching with his body in whatever way there is an opening there, and he knows it through discernment. It s to this extent that one is described with explication by the Blessed One as released both ways. nei "Then, with the complete transcending of the dimension of ther perception nor non-perception, he enters & remains in the cessation of perception & feeling. And as he sees with discernment, the mental fermentations go to their total end. He remains touching with his body in whatever way there is an opening there, and he knows it through discernment. It s to this extent that one is described without explication by the Blessed One as released both ways."
... ...
...

sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities, remains in the first jhana: rapture pleasure born from

&

...

...

...

IX.62 Capable
"Monks,

one

who hasn t abandoned
Which nine?

nine things

is

incapable of

Passion, aversion, delusion, realizing arahantship. stinginess. One anger, resentment, arrogance, insolence, envy, who hasn t abandoned these nine things is incapable of realiz

&

ing arahantship. "One who has abandoned nine things is capable of realizing arahantship. Which nine? Passion, aversion, delusion, anger, resentment, arrogance, insolence, envy, & stinginess. One who has abandoned these nine things is capable of realizing arahantship."

z86

Nines

IX. 63 Things That
"Monks,

Weaken

the Training

these five are things that weaken the training. Which The taking of life, stealing, sexual misconduct, the telling of lies, and distilled & fermented beverages that are a cause for heedlessness. These five are things that weaken the training. abandon these five things that weaken the training, one should develop the four frames of reference. Which four? There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself ardent, alert, & mindful putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings in & of mind in & of itself mental qualities in & of them themselves
five?
"To

...

...

mindful putting aside greed & distress ardent, alert, with reference to the world. To abandon the five things that weaken the training, one should develop these four frames of reference/
selves

&

IX. 64 Hindrances
"Monks, there are these five hindrances. Which five? Sensual drowsiness desire as a hindrance, ill will as a hindrance, sloth as a hindrance, and uncer as a hindrance, restlessness anxiety tainty as a hindrance. These are the five hindrances. "To abandon these five hindrances, one should develop the

&

&

monk remains

four? There is the case where a of itself ... feelings in & of itself ... mental qualities in & of of themselves ... mind in mindful putting aside greed & themselves ardent, alert, distress with reference to the world. To abandon the five hin drances, one should develop these four frames of reference."

four frames of reference.

Which

focused on the body in

&

&

&

See also:

DN 2; SN XLVI.51; AN V.51

Tens

X.13 Fetters
"There are these ten fetters. Which ten? Five lower fetters & five higher fetters. And which are the five lower fetters? Self-identity views, uncertainty, grasping at precepts & practices, sensual desire, & ill will. These are the five lower fetters. And which are the five higher fetters? Passion for form, passion for what is

formless, conceit, restlessness, ignorance. These are the five And these are the ten fetters/ higher fetters.
See also:

&

AN VIL48

X.15 Heedfulness
"To

the extent that there are animals

footless, two-footed, four-

footed,

many

footed; with form or formless; percipient,

non-percipient, or neither percipient nor non-percipient the Tathagata, worthy & rightly self-awakened, is reckoned the foremost among them. In the same way, all skillful qualities are rooted in needfulness, converge in needfulness, and needfulness is reckoned the foremost among them. all legged animals are encom "Just as the footprints of the elephant, and the elephant s passed by the footprint of footprint is reckoned the foremost among them in terms of size; in the same way, all skillful qualities are rooted in needfulness, converge in needfulness, and needfulness is reckoned the fore

most among them.
as the rafters in a peak-roofed house all go to the roofincline to the roof-peak, converge at the roof-peak, and the peak, is reckoned the foremost among them; in the same way,
"Just

roof-peak
fulness,

all skillful qualities

and needfulness

are rooted in needfulness, converge in heedis reckoned the foremost among them.

z88

Tens

"Just as, of all root fragrances, black aloes-root is reckoned the foremost; in the same way, all skillful qualities are rooted in heedfulness, converge in heedfulness, and needfulness is reck oned the foremost among them. all wood fragrances, red sandalwood is reckoned "Just as, of the foremost; in the same way, all skillful qualities are rooted in heedfulness, converge in heedfulness, and heedfulness is reck oned the foremost among them. all flower fragrances, jasmine is reckoned the "Just as, of foremost; in the same way, all skillful qualities are rooted in heedfulness, converge in heedfulness, and heedfulness is reck oned the foremost among them. all wattle-and-daub-town princes fall subject to a "Just as wheel-turning emperor, and the wheel-turning emperor is reck oned the foremost among them; in the same way, all skillful qualities are rooted in heedfulness, converge in heedfulness, and heedfulness is reckoned the foremost among them. as all the light of the constellations doesn t equal one "Just sixteenth of the light of the moon, and the light of the moon is reckoned the foremost among them; in the same way, all skillful qualities are rooted in heedfulness, converge in heedfulness,

and heedfulness
"Just

is

reckoned the foremost

among them.

as in the last month of the rains, in autumn, when the sky is clear cloudless, the sun, on ascending the sky, overpowers the dazzles; in the same space immersed in darkness, shines, blazes,

&

&

way,

all skillful qualities

are rooted in heedfulness, converge in heed-

is reckoned the foremost among them. as the great rivers such as the Ganges, the Yamuna, the the Mahi all go to the ocean, incline to Aciravati, the Sarabhu, the ocean, slope to the ocean, tend toward the ocean, and the

fulness,

and heedfulness

"Just

&

among them; in the same way, all rooted in heedfulness, converge in heedfulness, and heedfulness is reckoned the foremost among them."
ocean
is

reckoned the foremost

skillful qualities are

See also:

SN 111.17; AN VL19-20; Iti 23

X.17 Protectors
with a protector, monks, and not without a protector. He suffers, one who lives without a protector. And these ten are
"Live

qualities creating a protector.

Which

ten?

Tens

2,89

"There is the case where a monk is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults. And the fact that he is virtuous seeing danger in the faults, is a quality creating a protector. slightest "Then again, the monk has heard much, has retained what he has heard, has stored what he has heard. Whatever teachings are admirable in the beginning, admirable in the middle, admirable in the end, that in their meaning and expression proclaim the celibate life that is entirely complete and pure:

&

.

. .

those he has listened to often, retained, discussed, accumulated, examined with his mind, & well-penetrated in terms of his views. And the fact that he has heard much well-penetrated in terms of his views, is a quality creating a protector. "Then again, the monk has admirable friends, admirable companions, admirable comrades. And the fact that he has
. . .

admirable friends, admirable companions, admirable comrades
is

a quality creating a protector. "Then again, the monk is easy to speak to, endowed with qualities that make him easy to speak to, patient, respectful to instruction. And the fact that he is easy to speak to ... respectful to instruction, is a quality creating a protector. "Then again, the monk is adept at the various affairs involv his fellows in the celibate life; is vigorous, quick-witted in the ing techniques involved in them, is up to doing them or arranging to get them done. And the fact that he is adept at ... doing them or arranging to get them done is a quality creating a protector. "Then again, the monk is one who desires the Dhamma, endearing in his conversation, greatly rejoicing in the higher

Dhamma & higher Vinaya. And the fact that he is one who desires
the

Dhamma, endearing in his conversation, greatly rejoicing in the
"Then

higher

Dhamma & higher Vinaya, is a quality creating a protector. again, the monk keeps his persistence aroused for
is

qualities and for taking on skillful quali steadfast, solid in his effort, not shirking his duties with regard to skillful qualities. And the fact that he keeps his not shirking his duties with regard to persistence aroused

abandoning unskillful
ties.

He

.

. .

skillful qualities, is a quality creating a protector.
"Then

any

at all, again, the monk is content with any old robe cloth old medicinal requisites old alms food, any old lodging, any

2.90

Tens

for curing sickness at any old robe cloth at

all.

all,

And the fact that he is content with any old alms food, any old lodging,
all, is

any old medicinal
"Then

requisites for curing sickness at

a quality

creating a protector.

again, the

monk

is

mindful, highly meticulous,
is

remembering

& able to call to mind even things that were done
And
the fact that he

&

said long ago.

mindful, highly meticu

lous,

remembering

& able to call to mind

even things that were

done

& said long ago, is a quality creating a protector.
&

again, the monk is discerning, endowed with discern of arising passing away noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress. And the fact that the monk is discern passing away ing, endowed with discernment of arising noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress, is a
"Then

ment

&

quality creating a protector. "Live with a protector, monks,

He

suffers,

one

who

lives

and not without a protector. without a protector. These are the ten

qualities creating a protector/

See also:

SN 111.5; AN IV.128; AN /X.I; Khp 5

X.24 Cunda

On one occasion Ven. Maha Cunda was staying among the Cetis at Sahajati. There he addressed the monks, "Monks, my
friends."
"Yes,

friend,"

the

monks responded.

Ven. Maha Cunda said this: "When a monk utters words about knowing, saying, I know this Dhamma; I see this Dhamma/ but he remains with his mind conquered by greed, his mind con

quered by aversion, delusion, anger,

hostility, hypocrisy, spite, selfishness, evil envy, or evil longing, then it should be known of
that, This venerable one doesn t discern how it is that, when one discerns, greed doesn t come into being, which is why he remains with his mind conquered by greed. This venerable one doesn t discern how it is that, when one discerns, aversion ...

him

delusion
. . .

...

anger
.

...

hostility

...

hypocrisy

...

spite

...

selfishness

evil longing doesn t come into being, which is why envy he remains with his mind conquered by evil longing. "When a monk utters words about developing, saying, I am developed in bodily action, developed in virtue, developed in

evil

. .

lens

2,91

mind, developed in discernment/ but he remains with his mind conquered by greed, his mind conquered by aversion, delusion,
anger, hostility, hypocrisy, spite, selfishness, evil envy, or evil longing, then it should be known of him that, This venerable one doesn t discern how it is that, when one discerns, greed doesn t come into being, which is why he remains with his mind conquered by greed. This venerable one doesn t discern how it is that, when one discerns, aversion delusion anger selfishness evil envy hostility hypocrisy spite
. . .

. .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

longing doesn t come into being, which is why he remains with his mind conquered by evil longing. "When a monk utters words about knowing & developing,
evil

saying,

I

know

this

Dhamma;

I

see this

Dhamma;

I

am

devel

oped in bodily action, developed in virtue, developed in mind, developed in discernment/ but he remains with his mind con
quered by greed, his mind conquered by aversion, delusion,
anger, hostility, hypocrisy, spite, selfishness, evil envy, or evil longing, then it should be known of him that, This venerable one doesn t discern how it is that, when one discerns, greed doesn t come into being, which is why he remains with his mind conquered by greed. This venerable one doesn t discern

how
...

it is

that,
...

when one

doesn t come into being, which is why he remains with his mind conquered by evil longing. s just as if a person, though poor, were to talk about riches, or a person without wealth were to talk about wealth, or a person without property were to talk about property, and then when there arose one situation or another calling for wealth and he would not be able to come forth with wealth or commodities or silver or gold, then they would know about him that, This venerable one, though poor, talks about riches; without wealth, he talks about wealth; without property, he talks about property. How do we know that? Because when there arises a situation calling for wealth, he can t come forth with wealth or commodities or silver or gold. the same way, when a monk utters words about know
"It

hostility evil longing

discerns, aversion ... delusion ... anger hypocrisy ... spite ... selfishness ... evil envy ...

"In

ing

...

saying, 1 know this Dhamma; I see this Dhamma; I am devel oped in bodily action, developed in virtue, developed in mind, developed in discernment/ but he remains with his mind con quered by greed, his mind conquered by aversion, delusion,

about developing

...

about knowing

&

developing,

igz

Tens

anger, hostility, hypocrisy, spite, selfishness, evil envy, or evil longing, then it should be known of him that, This venerable one doesn t discern how it is that, when one discerns, greed doesn t come into being, which is why he remains with his mind conquered by greed. This venerable one doesn t discern

how
...

it is

that,
...

when one
t

come into being, which is why he remains with his mind conquered by evil longing. when a monk utters words about knowing ... about about knowing & developing, saying, I know developing
doesn
"But
. . .

hostility evil longing

delusion discerns, aversion ... ... selfishness ... evil spite hypocrisy
.

. .

.

.

.

anger
...

envy

developed in bodily mind, developed in action, developed developed and he remains with his mind not conquered by discernment, greed, his mind not conquered by aversion, delusion, anger,
this
I

Dhamma;

see this

Dhamma;

I

am

in virtue,

in

hostility,

then
cerns

it

should be
it is

hypocrisy, spite, selfishness, evil envy, or evil longing, known of him that, This venerable one dis
that,

being, which

discerns, greed doesn t come into he remains with his mind not conquered by why greed. This venerable one discerns how it is that, when one dis delusion cerns, aversion anger hostility hypocrisy ... selfishness ... evil spite envy ... evil longing doesn t come into being, which is why he remains with his mind not con
is
. .
.

how

when one

. . .

.

.

.

. .

.

.

.

.

quered by
"It

evil longing.

s just as if a rich

person were to talk about

riches, or a

wealthy person were to talk about wealth, or a propertied person were to talk about property, and then when there arose one situation or another calling for wealth and he would be able to come forth with wealth or commodities or silver or gold, then they would know about him that, This venerable one, being
about riches; being wealthy, he talks about wealth; being propertied, he talks about property. How do we know that? Because when there arises a situation calling for wealth, he can come forth with wealth or commodities or silver or gold. the same way, when a monk utters words about knowing about developing about knowing & developing, saying, T
rich, talks
"In
. . . . .
.

know this Dhamma; I see this Dhamma; I am developed in bodily
developed in virtue, developed in mind, developed in dis cernment/ and he remains with his mind not conquered by greed, his mind not conquered by aversion, delusion, anger, hostility, hypocrisy, spite, selfishness, evil envy, or evil longing, then it
action,

Tens
should be
is that,

known of him that, This venerable one discerns how it when one discerns, greed doesn t come into being, which is

why he remains with his mind not conquered by greed. This ven erable one discerns how it is that, when one discerns, aversion ...
hostility ... hypocrisy ... spite ... selfishness longing doesn t come into being, which is why he remains with his mind not conquered by evil longing.
...

delusion
. . .

anger
. . .

...

evil

envy

evil

"

See also:

MN 95; AN IV.102; AN IV.192
the Sakyans

X.47 To

(On

the Uposatha)

On one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Kapilavatthu
Banyan Park. Then many Sakyan lay followers, it being the uposatha day, went to the Blessed One. On arrival, having
at the

bowed down

there, the Blessed

to him, they sat to one side. As they were sitting One said to them, "Sakyans, do you observe
uposatha?"
t."

the eight-factored
"Sometimes
"It

we do, lord, and sometimes we don

no gain for you, Sakyans. It s ill-gotten, that in this life so endangered by grief, in this life so endangered by death, you some times observe the eight-factored uposatha and sometimes don t. "What do you think, Sakyans. Suppose a man, by some pro fession or other, without encountering an unskillful day, were to earn a half-kahapana. Would he deserve to be called a capable man, full of initiative?"
s
"Yes, lord."

a man, by some profession or other, without encoun two kahapanas an unskillful day, were to earn a kahapana tering
"Suppose
.

. .

...

three

... ...

four

....

five

...

six
...

...

seven
...

...

eight

...

nine

...

ten

...

one hundred kahapanas. twenty fifty thirty forty Would he deserve to be called a capable man, full of initiative?"
...
"Yes, lord."

what do you think: earning one hundred, one thou sand kahapanas a day; saving up his gains, living for one hundred years, would a man arrive at a great mass of wealth?"
"Now
"Yes, lord."

what do you think: would that man, because of that on account of that wealth, with that wealth as the cause, wealth,
"Now

live sensitive to

unalloyed bliss for a day, a night, half a day, or

half a

night?"

ZQ4

Tens

"No, lord. And why is that? Sensual pleasures are inconstant, hollow, false, deceptive by nature." "Now, Sakyans, there is the case where a disciple of mine, spending ten years practicing as I have instructed, would live sensitive to unalloyed bliss for a hundred years, a hundred cen turies, a hundred millennia. And he would be a once-returner, a non-returner, or at the very least a stream-winner. "Let alone ten years, there is the case where a disciple of mine, seven ... six ... five four eight years spending nine years
. .
.

. . .

.

.

.

one year practicing as I have instructed, would live sensitive to unalloyed bliss for a hundred years, a hun dred centuries, a hundred millennia. And he would be a
. . .

three

. . .

two years

.

.

.

once-returner, a non-returner, or at the very least a stream-winner. "Let alone one year, there is the case where a disciple of

nine months mine, spending ten months eight months seven ... six ... five ... four ... three ... two months ... one
.

. .

.

. .

.

.

.

month

...

half a

month

practicing as

I

have instructed, would

live sensitive to

unalloyed bliss for a hundred years, a hundred centuries, a hundred millennia. And he would be a oncereturner, a non-returner, or at the very least a stream-winner. "Let alone half a month, there is the case where a disciple of nine days & nights mine, spending ten days & nights eight four three two days & nights seven ... six ... five one day & night practicing as I have instructed, would live sen
. . .

. .

.

. . .

. .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

unalloyed bliss for a hundred years, a hundred centuries, a hundred millennia. And he would be a oncereturner, a non-returner, or at the very least a stream-winner. s no gain for you, Sakyans. It s ill-gotten, that in this life so endangered by grief, in this life so endangered by death, you some times observe the eight-factored uposatha and sometimes don "Then from this day forward, lord, we will observe the
sitive to
"It
t."

eight-factored
See also:

uposatha."

AN 11171

XA8
"There

Ten Things

are these ten things that a person gone-forth should
:

reflect
"

on often. Which ten? I have become casteless reflect on this.

a person gone forth should often

Tens

ZCtf

"

My life is dependent on others

.

...
. .

"

"

behavior should be different [from that of householders] .. "My Can I fault myself with regard to my virtue? ... Can my knowledgeable fellows in the holy life, on close
.

examination, fault
"

me with regard to my virtue?

.

...

I

will
....

grow

different, separate

from all that is dear

to

me
"

& appealing

I

born of

am the owner of my actions (kamma), heir to my actions, my actions, related through my actions, and have my

actions as arbitrator. that will I fall heir ....
"
"

my

Whatever

I

do, for

good or

for evil, to
...

What am I becoming as the days

& nights fly past?
.

.

Do I delight in an empty dwelling? Have I attained a superior human attainment, a truly noble distinction of knowledge & vision, such that when my fellows in the holy life question me in the last days of my life I won t
...
"

feel

abashed?

"These

a person gone forth should often reflect on this. are the ten things that a person gone-forth should
:

reflect

on

often."

See also:

AN V.57; AN V.114

X.51

One s Own Mind

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi, in Jeta s Grove, Anathapindika s monastery. There he addressed the monks: "Monks!"
"Yes, lord,"

the

monks responded.
be skilled in reading

The Blessed One said: "Even if a monk is not skilled in the ways of the minds of others (not skilled in reading the minds of
others),

he should train himself:

I

will

my

own mind. how is a monk skilled in reading his own mind? Imagine a young woman or man fond of adornment, examining the image of her own face in a bright, clean mirror or bowl of clear
"And

water:

she saw any dirt or blemish there, she would try to If she saw no dirt or blemish there, she would be pleased, her resolves fulfilled: How fortunate I am! How clean I am! In the same way, a monk s self-examination is very productive in terms of skillful qualities [if he conducts it in this way]: Do I
If

remove

it.

196

lens

usually remain covetous or not? With thoughts of ill will or not? Overcome by sloth drowsiness or not? Restless or not? Uncertain or gone beyond uncertainty? Angry or not? With soiled thoughts or unsoiled thoughts? With my body aroused or unaroused? Lazy or with persistence aroused? Unconcentrated or concentrated? on examination, a monk knows, I usually remain cov etous, with thoughts of ill will, overcome by sloth drowsiness, restless, uncertain, angry, with soiled thoughts, with my body aroused, lazy, or unconcentrated/ then he should put forth extra

&

"If,

&

desire, effort, diligence, endeavor, undivided mindfulness, alertness for the abandoning of those very same evil, unskillful
qualities. Just as

&

when a person whose turban or head was on fire

would put

forth extra desire, effort, diligence, endeavor, undi vided mindfulness, alertness to put out the fire on his turban or head; in the same way, the monk should put forth extra desire,

&

endeavor, undivided mindfulness, & alertness abandoning of those very same evil, unskillful qualities. I usually remain "But if, on examination, a monk knows, uncovetous, without thoughts of ill will, free of sloth & drowsi ness, not restless, gone beyond uncertainty, not angry, with unsoiled thoughts, with my body unaroused, with persistence aroused, & concentrated/ then his duty is to make an effort in
effort, diligence,

for the

establishing ( tuning ) those very same skillful qualities to a higher degree for the ending of the fermentations."

X.60 Girimananda
I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi, in Jeta s Grove, Anathapindika s monastery. And on that occasion Ven. Girimananda was diseased, in pain,

severely
arrival,

ill.

Then Ven. Ananda went

to the Blessed

One

and, on

having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One, "Lord, Ven. Girimananda is diseased, in pain, severely ill. It would be good if the Blessed One would visit Ven. Girimananda, out of sympathy for him." "Ananda, if you go to the monk Girimananda and tell him ten perceptions, it s possible that when he hears the ten percep tions his disease may be allayed. Which ten? The perception of
inconstancy, the perception of not-self, the perception of unattractiveness, the perception of drawbacks, the perception of

Tens

Z97

abandoning, the perception of dispassion, the perception of cessa tion, the perception of distaste for every world, the perception of the undesirability of all fabrications, mindfulness of in-&-out breathing. [1] "And what is the perception of inconstancy? There is the case where a monk having gone to the wilderness, to the

shade of a

tree,

or to an

empty building

reflects thus:

Torm

is

inconstant, feeling is inconstant, perception is inconstant, fabri cations are inconstant, consciousness is inconstant/ Thus he

remains focused on inconstancy with regard to the five aggre

Ananda, is called the perception of inconstancy. what is the perception of not-self? There is the case where a monk having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a reflects thus: The eye is not-self; tree, or to an empty building forms are not-self. The ear is not-self; sounds are not-self. The nose is not-self; aromas are not-self. The tongue is not-self; fla
gates. This,
[2]
"And

vors are not-self. The body
not-self.

remains
[3]

is not-self; tactile sensations are intellect is not-self; ideas are not-self/ Thus he focused on not-selfness with regard to the six inner

The

&

outer sense media. This
case
feet

"And what is is the where a monk ponders this very body from the soles of the on up, from the crown of the head on down, surrounded by

called the perception of not-self. the perception of unattractiveness? There
is

skin, filled with all sorts of unclean things: There is in this body: hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, muscle, tendons, bones, bone marrow, spleen, heart, liver, membranes, kidneys,

lungs, large intestines, small intestines, gorge, feces, gall, phlegm, lymph, blood, sweat, fat, tears, oil, saliva, mucus, oil in the joints, urine/ Thus he remains focused on unattractiveness with regard
to this very body. This is called the perception of unattractiveness. [4] "And what is the perception of drawbacks? There is the

case where a monk having gone to the wilderness, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty dwelling reflects thus: This body has many pains, many drawbacks. In this body many kinds of dis

ease arise, such

as:

seeing-diseases, hearing-diseases,

nose-diseases, tongue-diseases, body-diseases, head-diseases, eardiseases, mouth-diseases, teeth-diseases, cough, asthma, catarrh, fever, aging, stomach-ache, fainting, dysentery, grippe, cholera, leprosy, boils, ringworm, tuberculosis, epilepsy, skin-diseases, jaundice, diabetes, hemorrhoids, fis tulas, ulcers; diseases arising from bile, from phlegm, from the wind-property, from combinations of bodily humors, from
itch, scab, psoriasis, scabies,

T( ens

changes in the weather, from uneven care of the body, from attacks, from the result of kamma; cold, heat, hunger, thirst, defe cation, urination/ Thus he remains focused on drawbacks with
regard to this body. This is called the perception of drawbacks. [5] "And what is the perception of abandoning? There is the case where a monk doesn t tolerate an arisen thought of sensu ality. He abandons it, destroys it, dispels it, & wipes it out of
existence.

He doesn t tolerate an arisen thought of ill-will. He abandons it, destroys it, dispels it, & wipes it out of existence. He doesn t tolerate an arisen thought of harmfulness. He aban dons it, destroys it, dispels it, & wipes it out of existence. He doesn t tolerate arisen evil, unskillful mental qualities. He aban dons them, destroys them, dispels them, & wipes them out of
existence. This
[6]
"And

is

what
a

called the perception of abandoning. is the perception of dispassion? There

is

the

case

where

monk having gone

shade of a tree, or to an empty peace, this is exquisite the stilling of all fabrications, the relin quishing of all acquisitions, the ending of craving, dispassion, Unbinding. This is called the perception of dispassion. [7] "And what is the perception of cessation? There is the case where a monk having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a reflects thus: This is peace, this is tree, or to an empty building exquisite the stilling of all fabrications, the relinquishing of all acquisitions, the ending of craving, cessation, Unbinding. This is called the perception of cessation. [8] "And what is the perception of distaste for every world? There is the case where a monk abandoning any attachments, clingings, fixations of awareness, biases, or obsessions with regard to any world, refrains from them and doesn t get involved. This is called the perception of distaste for every world. [9] "And what is the perception of the undesirability of all fabrications? There is the case where a monk feels horrified, humiliated, & disgusted with all fabrications. This is called the perception of the undesirability of all fabrications. 1 [10] "And what is mindfulness of in-&-out breathing? There is the case where a monk having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building sits down folding his
legs crosswise, holding his body erect, and setting mindfulness to the fore. Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes out.

to the wilderness, to the building reflects thus: This is

lens

199

Breathing in long, he discerns that he is breathing in or breathing out long, he discerns that he is breathing out long; long, [ii] Or breathing in short, he discerns that he is breathing in short; or breathing out short, he discerns that he is breathing out short, [iii] He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to the entire body, and to breathe out sensitive to the entire body, [iv] He trains himself to breathe in calming bodily fabrication, and to breathe out calming bodily fabrication. He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to rapture, and to breathe out sensitive to rapture, [vi] He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to pleasure, and to breathe out sensitive to pleasure, [vii] He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to mental fabrication, and to breathe out sensitive to mental fabrication, [viii] He trains himself to breathe in calming mental fabrication, and to breathe out calming mental fabrication. He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to the mind, and to breathe out sensitive to the mind, [x] He trains himself to breathe in satisfying the mind, and to breathe out satisfying the mind, [xi] He trains himself to breathe in steadying the mind, and to breathe out steadying the mind, [xii] He trains himself to breathe in releasing the mind, and to breathe out releasing the mind. He trains himself to breathe in focusing on inconstancy, "[xiii] and to breathe out focusing on inconstancy, [xiv] He trains him self to breathe in focusing on dispassion [literally, fading], and to
"[i]

"[v]

"[ix]

breathe out focusing on dispassion. [xv] He trains himself to breathe in focusing on cessation, and to breathe out focusing on cessation, [xvi] He trains himself to breathe in focusing on relin quishing, and to breathe out focusing on relinquishing. "This, Ananda, is called mindfulness of in-&-out breathing.

him

Ananda, if you go to the monk Girimananda and tell these ten perceptions, it s possible that when he hears these ten perceptions_his disease may be allayed/ Then Yen. Ananda, having learned these ten perceptions in the Blessed One s presence, went to Ven. Girimananda and told them to him. As Ven. Girimananda heard these ten perceptions,
"Now,

his disease

was

his disease.

And Ven. Girimananda recovered from That was how Ven. Girimananda s disease was
allayed.

abandoned.

NOTE:
See also:

1.

For notes on this section, see the notes to

MN 118.

SN LII.10; SN XLVI.14

po

Tens

X.69 Topics of Conversation
I

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying

in Savatthi at Jeta s Grove, Anathapindika s monastery. at that time a large number of monks, after the meal, on returning

Now

from their alms round, had gathered at the meeting hall and were engaged in many kinds of bestial topics of conversation:

conversation about kings, robbers, & ministers of state; armies, alarms, & battles; food & drink; clothing, furniture, garlands, &

women & heroes;
talk of

scents; relatives; vehicles; villages, towns, cities, the countryside; the gossip of the street the well; tales of the of the sea; dead; tales of diversity, the creation of the world

&

&

whether things

exist or not.

Then the Blessed One, emerging from his seclusion in the went to the meeting hall and, on arrival, sat made ready. As he sat down there, he addressed what topic of conversation are you gathered the monks: together here? In the midst of what topic of conversation have you been interrupted?" now, lord, after the meal, on returning from our alms round, we gathered at the meeting hall and got engaged in
late afternoon, down on a seat
"For
"Just

many kinds

of bestial topics of conversation: conversation about ministers of state; armies, alarms, battles; kings, robbers, food drink; clothing, furniture, garlands, scents; relatives; heroes; vehicles; villages, towns, cities, the countryside; women the gossip of the street the well; tales of the dead; tales of of the sea; talk of whether diversity, the creation of the world things exist or not." isn t right, monks, that sons of good families, on having gone forth out of faith from home to the homeless life, should get engaged in such topics of conversation, i.e., conversation about kings, robbers, ministers of state ... talk of whether

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

"It

&

things exist or not. "There are these ten topics of [proper] conversation. Which ten? Talk on modesty, contentment, seclusion, non-entangle

ment, arousing persistence, virtue, concentration, discernment, release, and the knowledge & vision of release. These are the ten
topics of conversation. If you were to engage repeatedly in these ten topics of conversation, you would outshine even the sun

&

Tens

301

moon, so mighty, so powerful
of other
sects."

to say nothing of the

wanderers

See also:

AN VIII.30; AN VIII.53; AN /X.I; Ud 11.2

X.71 Wishes
This discourse lists ten reasons, of ascending worth, for perfecting the precepts and being committed to the development of calm (samatha) and insight (vipassana). An interesting feature of this dis cussion is that the Buddha does not separate insight and jhana into
separate paths of practice, and actually cites insight, together with tranquility, as a prerequisite for mastering thefourjhanas.

On

Jeta s Grove,

one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi in Anathapindika s monastery. There he addressed the monks, "Monks!"
"Yes, lord,"

the

monks responded.

The Blessed One said: "Monks, dwell consummate in virtue, consummate in terms of the Patimokkha. Dwell restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in your behavior
sphere of activity. Train yourselves, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults. a monk would wish, May I be dear [1] pleasing to my fellows in the celibate life, respected by inspiring to them/ then
"If

&

&

&

he should be one who brings the precepts to perfection, who is committed to mental calm, who doesn t neglect jhana, who is endowed with insight, and who frequents empty dwellings. a monk would wish, May I be someone who receives [2] alms food, lodgings, & medicinal requisites for curing the robes, sick/ then he should be one who brings the precepts to perfection, who is committed to mental calm, who doesn t neglect jhana, who is endowed with insight, and who frequents empty dwellings. a monk would wish, Whatever I use or consume in [3] terms of robes, alms food, lodgings, & medical requisites for curing the sick, may that be of great fruit, of great benefit to those who provided them/ then he should be one who brings the precepts to perfection, who is committed to mental calm, who doesn t neglect jhana, who is endowed with insight, and
"If

"If

who frequents empty dwellings.

-$02,

Tens

a monk would wish, May it also be of great fruit, of [4] great benefit, to whatever dead relatives they [the donors] recol
"If

with brightened minds/ then he should be one who brings the precepts to perfection, who is committed to mental calm, who doesn t neglect jhana, who is endowed with insight, and who frequents empty dwellings. a monk would wish, May I be content with whatever [5] robes, alms food, lodgings, & medical requisites for curing the sick are available/ then he should be one who brings the pre
lect
"If

hunger, & thirst; to the touch of gadflies & mosquitoes, wind & sun & creeping things; to abusive, hurtful language; to bodily feelings that, when they arise, are painful, sharp, stabbing, fierce, distasteful, deadly/ then he should be one who brings the
precepts to perfection, who is committed to mental calm, who doesn t neglect jhana, who is endowed with insight, and who frequents empty dwellings. a monk would wish, May I overcome displeasure, [7] and not be overcome by displeasure. May I dwell having con quered any displeasure that has arisen/ then he should be one who brings the precepts to perfection, who is committed to
"If

cepts to perfection, who is committed to mental calm, who doesn t neglect jhana, who is endowed with insight, and who frequents empty dwellings. a monk would wish, May I be resistant to cold, heat, [6]
"If

mental calm,
"If

who doesn t neglect jhana, who is endowed with and who frequents empty dwellings. insight, a monk would wish, May I overcome fear & dread, [8] and not be overcome by fear & dread. May I dwell having con quered any fear & dread that have arisen/ then he should be one who brings the precepts to perfection, who is committed to mental calm, who doesn t neglect jhana, who is endowed with insight, and who frequents empty dwellings. a monk would wish, May I attain whenever I want, [9] without strain, without difficulty the four jhanas that are
"If

heightened mental states, pleasant abidings in the here-&-now/ then he should be one who brings the precepts to perfection, who is committed to mental calm, who doesn t neglect jhana, who is endowed with insight, and who frequents empty dwellings. a monk would wish, May I with the ending of [10] mental fermentations remain in the fermentation-free aware ness-release & discernment-release, having directly known &
"If

Tens

them for myself right in the here-&-now/ then he should be one who brings the precepts to perfection, who is committed to mental calm, who doesn t neglect jhana, who is endowed with insight, and who frequents empty dwellings. Monks, dwell consummate in virtue, consummate in terms of the Patimokkha. Dwell restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in your behavior & sphere of activity. Train yourselves, having undertaken the training rules,
realized
"

seeing danger in the slightest faults. reference to this was it said."
See also:

Thus was

it

said.

And

in

AN IV.28; AN IV.94; AN IV.170; AN V.114; AN VIIL63

X.80 Hatred
"There

are these ten

ways

[1] "Thinking,

He He
He

of subduing hatred. Which ten? has done me harm. But what should
is

I

expect? one subdues hatred.
[2] "Thinking,

doing

me

harm. But what should

I

expect? one subdues hatred.
[3] "Thinking,
I

is

going to do

me harm.

But what should

He has done harm to people who are dear & But what should I expect? one subdues hatred. pleasing to me. [5] "Thinking, He is doing harm to people who are dear & pleasing to me. But what should I expect? one subdues hatred.
[4] "Thinking,
[6] "Thinking,

expect? one subdues hatred.

one subdues hatred. has aided people who are not dear or [7] "Thinking, pleasing to me. But what should I expect? one subdues hatred. [8] "Thinking, He is aiding people who are not dear or pleasing to me. But what should I expect? one subdues hatred. [9] "Thinking, He is going to aid people who are not dear or pleasing to me. But what should I expect? one subdues hatred. [10] "One doesn t get worked up over impossibilities.

& pleasing to me. But what should I expect?
He

He is going to do harm to people who are dear

"These

are ten

ways

of

subduing

hatred."

See also:

AN IV.200

304

Tens

X.81 Bahuna
I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Campa, on the shore of Gaggara Lake. Then Ven. Bahuna went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: "Lord, freed, dissociated, & released from how many things does the Tathagata dwell with unrestricted awareness?"
"Freed,

dissociated,

&

released from ten things, Bahuna, the

Tathagata dwells with unrestricted awareness. Which ten? Freed, dissociated, & released from form, the Tathagata dwells with unrestricted awareness. Freed, dissociated, & released from feel ing ... Freed, dissociated, & released from perception ... Freed,
dissociated,

& released from fabrications ... Freed, dissociated, & released from consciousness ... Freed, dissociated, & released from birth ... Freed, dissociated, & released from aging ... Freed, dissociated, & released from death ... Freed, dissociated, & released from stress ... Freed, dissociated, & released from defile ment, the Tathagata dwells with unrestricted awareness. as a red, blue, or white lotus born in the water and "Just in the water, rises up above the water and stands with growing no water adhering to it, in the same way the Tathagata freed, dissociated, & released from these ten things dwells with unrestricted awareness."
See also:

MN 72; SN XXII.85-86; AN IV.24;

Iti

111;

Sn V.6

X.92 Animosity

Then Anathapindika the householder went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to the Blessed One, sat to one side. As he was siting there, the Blessed One said to him, "When,
for a disciple of the noble ones, five
stilled;

when he

is

endowed with

forms of fear animosity are the four factors of stream entry;
rightly seen

&

and when, through discernment, he has

& rightly fer

reted out the noble method, then if he wants he may state about himself: Hell is ended; animal wombs are ended; the state of the hungry shades is ended; states of deprivation, destitution, the bad

bourns are ended!

I

am

a stream- winner, steadfast, never again

destined for states of woe, headed for self-awakening!

Tens
five forms of danger animosity are stilled? a person takes life, then with the taking of life as a requisite condition, he produces fear animosity in the here fear in future lives, experiences now, produces animosity
"Now,

which

&

"When

&

&

&

mental concomitants of pain & despair; but when he refrains from taking life, he neither produces fear & animosity in the here & now nor does he produce fear & animosity in future lives, nor does he experience mental concomitants of pain & despair: for one who refrains from taking life, that fear & ani
mosity
is

thus

stilled.
.

a person steals tells lies engages in illicit sex "When a person drinks distilled & fermented drinks that cause heedlessness, then with the drinking of distilled & fer mented drinks that cause heedlessness as a requisite condition, he produces fear & animosity in the here & now, produces fear animosity in future lives, experiences mental concomitants of
"When
. .
.

. .

.

.

.

&

pain & despair; but when he refrains from drinking distilled & fermented drinks that cause heedlessness, he neither produces fear & animosity in the here & now nor does he produce fear & animosity in future lives, nor does he experience mental con comitants of pain & despair: for one who refrains from drinking distilled & fermented drinks that cause heedlessness, that fear & animosity is thus stilled. "These are the five forms of fear & animosity that are stilled.
"And

which are the four factors of stream entry with which he is endowed? "There is the case where the disciple of the noble ones is endowed with unwavering faith in the Awakened One: Indeed, the Blessed One is worthy & rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the
world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of divine & human beings, awakened, blessed/ The "He is endowed with unwavering faith in the Dhamma: Dhamma is well-expounded by the Blessed One, to be seen here
the wise for themselves/
"He

& now, timeless, inviting verification, pertinent, to be realized by
is

endowed with unwavering

faith in the Sarigha:

The

Sangha
well...

practiced disciples practiced straight-forwardly...who have prac ticed methodically... who have practiced masterfully in other 1 they are the words, the four pairs, the eight individuals

of the Blessed

One

s

who have

who have

Tens

Sahgha of the Blessed One s disciples: worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, the incompa rable field of merit for the world/
"He is endowed with virtues that are appealing to the noble ones: untorn, unbroken, unspotted, unsplattered, liberating, praised by the wise, untarnished, leading to concentration. These are the four factors of stream entry with which he is

endowed.

which is the noble method that he has rightly seen ferreted out through discernment? rightly "There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones notices:
"And

&

"When
"From

this

is,

that

is.

the arising of this comes the arising of that. "When this isn t, that isn t.
"From
"In

the cessation of this

comes the cessation of that.

other words:

"From
"From

ignorance as a requisite condition
fabrications as a requisite condition

come

fabrications.

"From

comes consciousness. consciousness as a requisite condition comes name-

&-form.
"From

name-&-form
the six sense

as a requisite condition

come

the six

sense media.

media as a requisite condition comes contact. contact as a requisite condition comes feeling. "From feeling as a requisite condition comes craving. "From as a requisite condition comes clinging/sustenance. craving "From clinging /sustenance as a requisite condition comes
"From

"From

becoming.
a requisite condition comes birth. birth as a requisite condition, then aging death, & despair come into play. sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, Such is the origination of this entire mass of stress & suffering. "Now from the remainderless fading & cessation of that very ignorance comes the cessation of fabrications. From the cessation of fabrications comes the cessation of consciousness. From the ces
"From

becoming as

"From

&

sation of consciousness comes the cessation of name-&-form. From the cessation of name-&-form comes the cessation of the six sense media. From the cessation of the six sense media comes the cessation of contact. From the cessation of contact comes the cessa tion of feeling. From the cessation of feeling comes the cessation of craving. From the cessation of craving comes the cessation of

T<

ens

307

clinging/sustenance. From the cessation of clinging /sustenance comes the cessation of becoming. From the cessation of becoming comes the cessation of birth. From the cessation of birth, then

aging

cease.

death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, despair all entire mass of stress suffering. "This is the noble method that he has rightly seen rightly

&

Such is the cessation of this

& &

&

ferreted out through discernment. "When, for a disciple of the noble ones, these five forms of fear animosity are stilled; when he is endowed with these

&

four factors of stream entry; and when, through discernment, he has rightly seen & rightly ferreted out this noble method, then if he wants he may state about himself: Hell is ended; animal wombs are ended; the state of the hungry shades is ended; states of deprivation, destitution, the bad bourns are ended! I am a stream-winner, steadfast, never again destined for states of

woe, headed

for self-awakening!"
1.

pairs are (1) the person on the path to stream-entry, the person experiencing the fruit of stream-entry; the person experi (2) the person on the path to once-returning, the person on the path to encing the fruit of once-returning; (3) non-returning, the person experiencing the fruit of non-return

NOTE:

The four

ing; (4) the

person on the path to arahantship, the person experiencing the fruit of arahantship. The eight individuals are
the eight types forming these four pairs.
See also:

SN XI.3; SN XZI.2; AN VIII.39; Dhp 188-192; Khp 6; Iti 90

X.93 Views
I

have heard

that

near Savatthi in

on one occasion the Blessed One was staying Then Jeta s Grove, Anathapindika monastery.

of the Anathapindika the householder left Savatthi in the middle but the thought then occurred to him, day to see the Blessed One, "Now is not the right time to see the Blessed One, for he is in seclusion. And it is not the right time to see the mind-developing monks, for they too are in seclusion. Why don t I visit the park of the wanderers of other persuasions?" So he headed to the park of the wanderers of other persuasions. Now on that occasion the wanderers of other persuasions

had come together

in a gathering

and were

sitting,

discussing

308

T( ens

of bestial topics [see AN X.69], making a great noise and racket. They saw Anathapindika the householder coming from afar, and on seeing him, hushed one another: quiet, good sirs. Don t make any noise. Here comes Anathapindika the householder, a disciple of the contemplative Gotama. He is one of those disciples of the contemplative Gotama, clad in white, who lives in Savatthi. These people are fond of quietude, trained in quietude, and speak in praise of quietude. Maybe, if he perceives our group as quiet, he will consider it worth his while to come our way/ So the wanderers fell silent. Then Anathapindika the householder went to where the wanderers of other persuasions were staying. On arrival he greeted them courteously. After an exchange of friendly greet ings & courtesies, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there, the wanderers said to him, us, householder, what views the Gotama contemplative "Venerable sirs, I don t know entirely what views the

many kinds

"Be

"Tell

has."

Blessed

One

has."

So you don t know entirely what views the con Gotama has. Then tell us what views the monks have." templative don t even know entirely what views the monks have." you don t know entirely what views the contemplative Gotama has or even that the monks have. Then tell us what views you have." wouldn t be difficult for me to expound to you what views I have. But please let the venerable ones expound each in line with his position, and then it won t be difficult for me to expound to you what views I have." When this had been said, one of the wanderers said to
"Well,

well.

"I

"So

"It

Anathapindika the householder, "The cosmos is eternal Only this is true; anything otherwise is worthless. This is the sort of view I have." Another wanderer said to Anathapindika, "The cosmos is not eternal. Only this is true; anything otherwise is worthless. This is
the sort of view
is

I have."

Another wanderer
infinite..
."..."The

said,

"The

cosmos

is

soul

& the body are the same...
"..."After

finite...

"..."The

"..."The

soul

cosmos is one

thing and the body another...
exists.. ."..."After

death a Tathagata

death a Tathagata does not exist... "..."After death a both does does not exist... "..."After death a Tathagata nei Tathagata ther does nor does not exist. Only this is true; anything otherwise

&

is

worthless. This

is

the sort of view

I have."

Tens

-509

When

this

had been

said to the wanderers,

"As

said, Anathapindika the householder for the venerable one who says, The

cosmos is eternal. Only this is true; anything otherwise is worth less. This is the sort of view I have/ his view arises from his own inappropriate attention or in dependence on the words of another. Now this view has been brought into being, is fabri
cated, willed, dependently originated. Whatever has been brought into being, is fabricated, willed, dependently origi nated, that is inconstant. Whatever is inconstant is stress. This venerable one thus adheres to that very stress, submits himself
to that

very

stress."

(Similarly for the other positions.)

When this had been said, the wanderers said to Anathapindika
the householder,
line
"We

have each

with our

own positions. Now tell us what views you

& every one expounded to you in
have."

has been brought into being, is fabricated, willed, dependently originated, that is inconstant. Whatever is inconstant is stress. Whatever is stress is not me, is not what I am, is not my self. This is the sort of view I have." householder, whatever has been brought into being, is fabricated, willed, dependently originated, that is inconstant. Whatever is inconstant is stress. You thus adhere to that very stress, submit yourself to that very stress." "Venerable sirs, whatever has been brought into being, is fabricated, willed, dependently originated, that is inconstant. Whatever is inconstant is stress. Whatever is stress is not me, is not what I am, is not my self. Having seen this well with right discernment as it actually is present, I also discern the higher escape from it as it actually is present." When this was said, the wanderers fell silent, abashed, sitting with their shoulders drooping, their heads down, brooding, at a loss for words. Anathapindika the householder, perceiving that the wanderers were silent, abashed...at a loss for words, got up & went to the Blessed One. On arrival, having bowed down to the Blessed One, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he told the
"Whatever
"So,

Blessed

That

should periodically & righteously refute those instructed, urged, roused, and encour the householder with a talk on Dhamma. aged Anathapindika When Anathapindika the householder had been instructed, urged, roused, and encouraged by the Blessed One with a talk on Dhamma, he got up from his seat and, having bowed down
is

One the entirety of his conversation with the wanderers. [The Blessed One said:] "Well done, householder. Well done.

how you
men."

foolish

Then he

Tens
to the Blessed
side.

One,

left,

Not long afterward,
even a

"Monks,

monk

Vinaya would do well, periodically & right wanderers of other persuasions in just the the householder has done/ way Anathapindika
this

Dhamma &

keeping the Blessed One on his right the Blessed One addressed the monks: who has long penetrated the Dhamma in

eously, to refute the

See also:

MN 63; MN 72; Sn IV.5; Sn IV.8; Sn IV.9; Sn IV.ll

X.94 Vajjiya
I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Campa, on the shore of Gaggara Lake. Then Vajjiya Mahita the householder left Campa in the middle of the day to see the Blessed One, but the thought then occurred to him, "Now is not the right time to see the Blessed One, for he is in seclusion. And it is not the right time to see the mind-developing monks, for

they too are in seclusion. Why don t I visit the park of the wan derers of other persuasions?" So he headed to the park of the wanderers of other persuasions. Now on that occasion the wanderers of other persuasions

had come together

in a gathering and were sitting, discussing kinds of bestial topics [see X.69], making a great noise many & racket. They saw Vajjiya Mahita the householder coming from

AN

and on seeing him, hushed one another: quiet, good Don t make any noise. Here comes Vajjiya Mahita the householder, a disciple of the contemplative Gotama. He is one of those disciples of the contemplative Gotama, clad in white, who lives in Savatthi. These people are fond of quietude, trained in quietude, and speak in praise of quietude. Maybe, if he perceives our group as quiet, he will consider it worth his while to come our way." So the wanderers fell silent. Then Vajjiya Mahita the householder went to where the wan derers of other persuasions were staying. On arrival he greeted them courteously. After an exchange of friendly greetings & cour tesies, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there, the wanderers
afar,
sirs.
"Be

said to him,

Gotama

contemplative he categorically denounces & disparages all ascetics who live the rough "No, venerable sirs, the Blessed One does not criticize all asceticism, nor does he categorically denounce or disparage all
"Is

it

true, householder, that the

criticizes all asceticism, that

life?"

Tens
life. The Blessed One criticizes what and praises what should be praised. Criticizing what should be criticized, praising what should be praised, the Blessed One is one who speaks making distinctions, not one who speaks categorically on this matter." When this was said, one of the wanderers said to Vajjiya

ascetics

who

live the

rough

should be

criticized,

Mahita the householder,
contemplative Gotama

"Now

wait a minute, householder. This

whom

you

praise

is

a

nihilist,

one

who

doesn
"I

t

declare anything/

tell you, venerable sirs, that the Blessed One righteously declares that This is skillful. He declares that This is unskill ful. Declaring that This is skillful and This is unskillful, he is one who has declared [a teaching]. He is not a nihilist, one who

doesn

t

declare
this

anything."

said, the wanderers fell silent, abashed, sit with their shoulders drooping, their heads down, brooding, ting at a loss for words. Vajjiya Mahita the householder, perceiving that the wanderers were silent, abashed.. .at a loss for words, got up & went to went to the Blessed One. On arrival, having bowed down to the Blessed One, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he told the Blessed One the entirety of his conver sation with the wanderers.

When

was

[The Blessed

One

said:]

"Well

That

is

how you
men.
all

should periodically

foolish

say that

I don t say that all asceticism is not to be pursued. I don t say that all observances should be observed, nor do I day that all observances should not be observed. I don t say that all exertions are to be pur sued, nor do I say that all exertions are not to be pursued. I don t

done, householder. Well done. & righteously refute those asceticism is to be pursued, nor do I

say that all forfeiture should be forfeited, nor do I say that all forfei ture should not be forfeited. I don t say that all release is to be used for release, nor do I say that all release is not to be used for release. when an asceticism is pursued, unskillful qualities grow and skillful qualities wane, then I tell you that that sort of asceti cism is not to be pursued. But if, when an asceticism is pursued, unskillful qualities wane and skillful qualities grow, then I tell
"If,

you that that sort of asceticism is to be pursued. when an observance is observed, unskillful qualities and skillful qualities wane, then I tell you that that sort of grow
"If,

observance is not to be observed. But if, when an observance is observed, unskillful qualities wane and skillful qualities grow, then I tell you that that sort of observance is to be observed.

-$12,

Tens

"If,

"If,

when an exertion is pursued .... a forfeiture is forfeited when a release is used for release, unskillful qualities
.

. .

grow and
release
is

skillful qualities wane, then I tell you that that sort of not to be used for release. But if, when a release is used

for release, unskillful qualities wane then I tell you that that sort of release

and
is

skillful qualities

grow,

be used for release." When Vajjiya Mahita the householder had been instructed, urged, roused & encouraged by the Blessed One with a talk on Dhamma, he got up from his seat and, having bowed down to the Blessed One, left, keeping the Blessed One on his right side. Not long afterward, the Blessed One addressed the monks: "Monks, even a monk who has long penetrated the Dhamma in
to
this

Dhamma &

eously, to refute the

way Vajjiya
See also:

Vinaya would do well, periodically & right wanderers of other persuasions in just the Mahita the householder has done."

DN 2; DN 16; MN 19; SN XLII.8; AN 11.19; AN 777.62; AN 11166; AN 711.73; Ud VI.5-6
X.95 Uttiya
Here the Buddha refuses
(and
the
still is)

to

answer a question
Ven.

that later

became

a live issue

among Mahayanists.

Ananda

explains

Buddha

s refusal

Then Uttiya the wanderer went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he said to the Blessed One, "Master Gotama, is it the case that The cosmos is eternal:

Only

anything otherwise is worthless I haven t declared that The cosmos is eternal: Only "Uttiya, this is true; anything otherwise is worthless. Master Gotama, is it the case that: The cosmos "Very well, then, is not eternal: Only this is true; anything otherwise is worthless I haven t declared that The cosmos is not eternal: "Uttiya, Only this is true; anything otherwise is worthless. is it the case that The "Very well, then, Master Gotama, cosmos is finite ... ... The cosmos is infinite ... ... The soul & the body are the same ... ... The soul is one thing and the body another ...
this is true;
?"
"

?"

"

...

After death a Tathagata exists

...

...

After death a Tathagata does

Tens

not exist
...

... ... does not exist ... After death a Tathagata both does death a Tathagata neither does nor does not exist. Only this After

&

is worthless declared that After death a Tathagata neither does nor does not exist: Only this is true; anything otherwise is

is true;

anything otherwise
I

?"

"Uttiya,

haven

t

worthless/"

Master Gotama, on being asked, Is it the case that "The eternal: Only this is true; anything otherwise is worth less"? you inform me, Uttiya, I haven t declared that "The cosmos is eternal: Only this is true; anything otherwise is worth
"But,

cosmos

is

less."
"

On being asked,
"The

...

...

cosmos
...

soul

& the body
"

finite ... are the same ...
"After
"

is

another

...

the case that "The cosmos is not eternal ... "The cosmos is ... "The infinite ... "The soul is one thing and the body death a Tathagata exists ... ... death a "After
Is it
" "

"...

"

... death a Tathagata both does Tathagata does not exist ... "After ... death a Tathagata neither does nor does not does not exist ... "After
"

&

exist.

Only

this is true;
I

anything otherwise
t

is worthless"?

you

inform me, Uttiya,

haven

declared that

"After

death a Tathagata

neither does nor does not exist.

wise

is worthless."

"Uttiya,

Now is there anything you have declared?" I teach the Dhamma to having directly known
it,

Only

this is true;

anything other

my

disciples for the purification of beings, for the overcoming dis of sorrow lamentation, for the disappearance of pain for the tress, for the attainment of the right method, realization of Unbinding."

&

&

&

"And,

Master Gotama,

teach the
beings, for

Dhamma

when having directly known it, you your disciples for the purification of the overcoming of sorrow & lamentation, for the dis
to

appearance of pain & distress, for the attainment of the right method, & for the realization of Unbinding, will all the cosmos be led to release, or a half of it, or a third?"

When this was said, the Blessed One was silent.
Then the thought occurred to Yen. Ananda: "Don t let Uttiya the wanderer acquire the evil viewpoint that, When I asked him an all-encompassing question, Gotama the contemplative faltered and didn t reply. Perhaps he was unable to. That would be for his long-term harm & suffering." So he said to Uttiya, that case, my friend, I will give you an analogy, for there are cases where it is through the use of analogy that intelligent people can understand the meaning of what is being said.

"In

314

Tens

were a royal frontier city with strong walls & arches, and a single gate. In it would ramparts, strong be a wise, competent, & knowledgeable gatekeeper to keep out those he didn t know and to let in those he did. Walking along the path around the city, he wouldn t see a crack or an opening in the walls big enough for even a cat to slip through. Although he wouldn t know that So-and-so many creatures enter or leave the city/ he would know this: Whatever large creatures enter or leave the city all enter or leave it through this gate. the same way, the Tathagata doesn t endeavor to have all the cosmos or half of it or a third of it led to release by means of [his Dhamma]. But he does know this: All those who have been led, are being led, or will be led to release from the cosmos have done so, are doing so, or will do so after having abandoned the those defilements of awareness that weaken five hindrances discernment having well-established their minds in the four
"Suppose

that there

"In

frames of reference, and having developed, as they actually are, the seven factors for awakening. When you asked the Blessed One this question, you had already asked it in another way. 1 That s why he didn t respond."

NOTE: 1. The question as to whether all the cosmos or only a part of it would be led to release is another way of asking whether the cosmos is eternal or not. Notice that Ven. Ananda mentions those who have been led to release from the cosmos. He doesn t mention the cosmos as being led to release. For his use of the word, "cosmos," here, see SN XXXV.82.
See also:

DN 12; SN VI.l; AN 111.22; AN IV.45

X.96 Kokanuda (On Viewpoints)

On

one occasion Ven. Ananda was staying near Rajagaha, at Tapoda monastery. Then, as night was ending, he got up & went to the Tapoda Hot Springs to bathe his limbs. Having bathed his limbs and having gotten out of the springs, he stood wearing only his lower robe, drying his limbs. Kokanuda the wanderer,
as night

was ending,

also got

up

&

went

to the

Springs to bathe his limbs. He saw Ven. Ananda from afar, on seeing him said to him, "Who are you, friend?"
"I

Tapoda Hot and

am a monk, my

my

friend."

ens Tc

"Which
"A

kind of

monk?"

son-of-the-Sakyan contemplative." like to ask you about a certain point, if you would me leave to pose a question." give "Go ahead and ask. Having heard [your question], I ll
"I

would

inform

you."

anything otherwise

The cosmos is eternal Only this is true; worthless/ Is this the sort of view you have?" "No, my friend, I don t have that sort of view." then: The cosmos is not eternal. Only this is true; any "Very well, otherwise is worthless/ Is this the sort of view you have?" thing "No, my friend, I don t have that sort of view." then: The cosmos is finite ... ... The cosmos is infi "Very well, ... nite ... The soul & the body are the same ... ... The soul is one thing and the body another ... ... After death a Tathagata exists ...
"How is it,

my

friend:

is

After death a Tathagata does not exist ... ... After death a Tathagata both does does not exist ... ... After death a Tathagata neither does nor does not exist. Only this is true; anything otherwise is worth

&

less/ Is this the sort of
"No,

view you

have?"
view."

my friend, I don t have that sort of
see."

"Then
"No,

t know, I don t my do know. I do cosmos is "But on being asked, How is it, my friend: eternal. Only this is true; anything otherwise is worthless." Is this the sort of view you have? you inform me, No, my friend, I don t have that sort of view/ On being asked, Very well then:

in that case, do you not know or see?" friend. It s not the case that I don

see.

I

"The

"The "The cosmos is "The cosmos is not eternal ... finite ... ... "The soul & the ... cosmos is infinite ... body are the same ... "The soul is one thing and the body another ..."... "After death a
"...

"...

"

"

... death a Tathagata does not exist ... ... Tathagata exists ... "After ... death does not exist ... death a Tathagata both does "After "After a Tathagata neither does nor does not exist. Only this is true; any thing otherwise is worthless." Is this the sort of view you have?

"

"

&

"

you inform me, No, my friend, I don t have that sort of view/ But on being asked, Then in that case, do you not know, I don t see? you inform me, No, my friend. It s not the case that I don t know or see. I do know. I do see/ Now, how is the meaning of
this

is

statement to be understood?" The cosmos is eternal. Only this is true; anything otherwise worthless, is a viewpoint. The cosmos is not eternal ... ... The
"

lens

cosmos

is

finite

...

...

"The

cosmos

is

infinite

...

...

The soul

&

the

body are the same ... ... The soul is one thing and the body another ... ... After death a Tathagata exists ... ... After death a Tathagata does does not exist not exist ... ... After death a Tathagata both does

&

After death a Tathagata neither does nor does not exist. Only this is true; anything otherwise is worthless/ is a viewpoint. The extent to which there are viewpoints, view-stances, the taking the up of views, obsessions with views, the cause of views,
...

&

uprooting of views: that s what I know. That s what I see. Knowing that, I say I know/ Seeing that, I say I see/ Why should I say T don t know, I don t see ? I do know. I do see."
"What is

your name,
you?"

my

friend?

What do your

fellows in

the holy
"My

life call

name

is

Ananda,
me."

my friend, and that s what my fellows

in the holy life call
"What?

Have

I

been talking with the great teacher without

was Ven. Ananda? Had I recognized that he was Ven. Ananda, I wouldn t have cross-examined him so much. May Ven. Ananda please forgive
realizing that he
me."

See also:

DN 15; MN 63; MN 72; AN IV.24; Sn IV.ll

X.108

A Purgative

"Monks, doctors give a purgative for warding off diseases caused by bile, diseases caused by phlegm, diseases caused by the internal wind property. There is a purging there; I don t say that there s not, but it sometimes succeeds and sometimes fails. So I will teach you the noble purgative that always succeeds and never fails, a purgative whereby beings subject to birth are freed from birth; beings subject to aging are freed from aging; beings subject to death are freed from death; beings subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress & despair are freed from

sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress
attention.
"As

&

despair. Listen

& pay close

I

will
say,

speak."
lord,"

you

the

monks responded.

The Blessed One said: "Now, what is the noble purgative that always succeeds and never fails, a purgative whereby beings subject to birth are freed from birth; beings subject to aging are freed from aging; beings subject to death are freed from death;

lens

317

beings subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress & despair are freed from sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress & despair? one who has right view, wrong view is purged away,
"In

and the many evil, unskillful mental qualities that come into play in dependence on wrong view are purged away as well, while the many skillful mental qualities that depend on right view go to the culmination of their development. one who has right resolve, wrong resolve is purged
"In

away

....

"In

"In

"In

one who has right speech, wrong speech is purged away .... one who has right action, wrong action is purged away .... one who has right livelihood, wrong livelihood is

purged away .... one who has right effort, wrong effort is purged away .... one who has right mindfulness, wrong mindfulness is purged away .... one who has right concentration, wrong concentration is
"In

"In

"In

purged away .... one who has right knowledge, wrong knowledge is purged away .... one who has right release, wrong release is purged away, and the many evil, unskillful mental qualities that come into play in dependence on wrong release are purged away as well, while the many skillful mental qualities that depend on right release go to the culmination of their development. "This, monks, is the noble purgative that always succeeds and never fails, a purgative whereby beings subject to birth are freed from birth; beings subject to aging are freed from aging; beings subject to death are freed from death; beings subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress & despair are freed from
"In
"In

sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress
See also:

&

despair."

SN XLV.8; AN 111.22; Iti 112
the Silversmith

X.176 Cunda
I

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Pava in Cunda the silversmith s mango grove. Then Cunda the silversmith went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having

bowed down

to him, sat to

one

side.

As he was

sitting there, the

-$18

Tens

One said to him: "Cunda, of whose rites of purification do you appro those who carry "The brahmans of the Western lands, lord water pots, wear garlands of water plants, worship fire, & purify with water: they have declared purification rites of which
Blessed
ve?"
7

I

approve/

"And what kind of purification rites have they declared, those brahmans of the Western lands who carry water pots, wear

garlands of water plants, worship
"There

fire,

& purify with
of the

water?"
...

Western lands get their disciples to undertake their practice thus: Come, now, my good man: Get up at the proper time from your bed and touch the earth. If you don t touch the earth, touch wet cow dung. If you don t touch wet cow dung, touch green grass. If you don t touch green grass, worship a fire. If you don t worship a fire, pay homage to the sun with clasped hands. If you don t pay homage to the sun with clasped hands, go down into the water three times by nightfall/ These are the purification rites declared by the brahmans of the Western lands of which I approve."
is

the case

where the brahmans

...

the purification rites declared by the brahmans of the Western lands ... are one thing; the purification in the disci pline of the noble ones is something else entirely." "But how is there purification in the discipline of the noble ones, venerable sir? It would be good if the Blessed One would teach me how there is purification in the discipline of the noble ones."
"Cunda,
"In

that case,

Cunda,
lord,"

listen

& pay close attention.

I

will

speak."

the silversmith responded. The Blessed One said: "There are three ways in which one is made impure by bodily action, four ways in which one is made impure by verbal action, and three ways in which one is made
"As

you

say,

Cunda

impure by mental

action.

UNSKILLFUL BODILY ACTION
one made impure in three ways by bodily where a certain person takes life, is devoted to killing & slaying, showing no brutal, bloody-handed, mercy to living beings. He takes what is not given. He takes, in
"And

how

is

action? There

is

the case

the

manner

of a thief, things in a village or a wilderness that

belong

to others

gets sexually involved with those who are protected by their mothers, their fathers, their brothers, their sisters, their relatives, or their Dhamma; those with husbands,

and have not been given by them. He engages

in

sensual misconduct.

He

ens

those
ers

by another man. This is how one ways by bodily action. UNSKILLFUL VERBAL ACTION
"And

who entail punishments, or even those crowned with flow is made impure in three

There

is

When

one made impure in four ways by verbal action? where a certain person engages in false speech. he has been called to a town meeting, a group meeting, a
is

how

the case

gathering of his relatives, his guild, or of the royalty court proceeding], if he is asked as a witness, Come
:

[i.e.,

good man, what you know If he doesn t know, he says, I know. If he does know, he says, I don t know. If he hasn t seen, he says, I have seen. If he has seen, he says, I haven t seen. Thus he con
tell,

&

a royal

sciously tells lies for his own sake, for the sake of another, or for the sake of a certain reward. He engages in divisive speech. What he has heard here he tells there to break those people apart from these

people here. What he has heard there he tells here to break these people apart from those people there. Thus breaking apart those who are united and stirring up strife between those who have broken apart, he loves factionalism, delights in factionalism, enjoys
factionalism, speaks things that create factionalism. He engages in abusive speech. He speaks words that are harsh, cutting, bitter to
others, abusive of others, provoking anger and destroying concen tration. He engages in idle chatter. He speaks out of season, speaks

what

isn

t

factual,

what

isn

t

in accordance with the goal, the

Dhamma, & the Vinaya, words that are not worth treasuring. This is how one is made impure in four ways by verbal action. UNSKILLFUL MENTAL ACTION
one made impure in three ways by mental action? There is the case where a certain person is covetous. He covets the belongings of others, thinking, O, that what belongs to others would be mine! He bears ill will, corrupt in the resolves of his heart: May these beings be killed or cut apart or crushed or destroyed, or may they not exist at all! He has wrong view, is warped in the way he sees things: There is noth ing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed. There is no fruit or result of good or bad actions. There is no this world, no next world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously reborn beings; no
"And

how

is

priests or contemplatives
rightly,

proclaim

this

who, faring rightly & practicing world & the next after having directly

jzo

Tens

known &
impure

realized

it

for themselves/ This is
action.

how one

is

made

in three
is

ways by mental

"These,

Cunda, are the ten courses of unskillful

action.

When

endowed with these ten courses of unskillful action, then even if he gets up at the proper time from his bed and
a person

he

is still impure. If he doesn t touch the earth, he touches wet cow dung, he is still impure. If he doesn t touch wet cow dung, he is still impure. If he touches green grass ... If he doesn t touch green grass ... If he worships a fire ... If he doesn t worship a fire ... If he pays homage to the sun with clasped hands ... If he doesn t pay homage to the sun with clasped hands ... If he goes down into the water three times by nightfall ... If he doesn t go down into the water three times by nightfall, he is still impure. Why is that? Because these ten courses of unskillful action are impure and cause impurity. Furthermore, as a result of being endowed with

touches the earth, he
is still

impure.

If

these ten courses of unskillful action, [rebirth in] hell is declared, [rebirth in] an animal womb is declared, [rebirth in] the realm of hungry shades is declared that or any other bad destination. "Now, Cunda, there are three ways in which one is made pure by bodily action, four ways in which one is made pure by verbal action, and three ways in which one is made pure by

mental action.

SKILLFUL BODILY ACTION
There

how is one made pure in three ways by bodily action? the case where a certain person, abandoning the taking of life, abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compas sionate for the welfare of all living beings. Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He does not take, in the manner of a thief, things in a vil lage or a wilderness that belong to others and have not been given by them. Abandoning sensual misconduct, he abstains
"And

is

from sensual misconduct. He does not get sexually involved with those who are protected by their mothers, their fathers,
their brothers, their sisters, their relatives, or their Dhamma; those with husbands, those who entail punishments, or even

those crowned with flowers

by another man. This
bodily action.

is

how one

is

made pure in

three

ways by

lens

32,1

SKILLFUL VERBAL ACTION
There

how is one made pure in four ways by verbal action? the case where a certain person, abandoning false speech, abstains from false speech. When he has been called to a town meeting, a group meeting, a gathering of his relatives, his guild, or of the royalty, if he is asked as a witness, Come & tell,
"And

is

good man, what you know If he doesn t know, he says, I don t know. If he does know, he says, I know. If he hasn t seen, he says, I haven t seen/ If he has seen, he says, I have seen. Thus he doesn t consciously tell a lie for his own sake, for the sake of
:

another, or for the sake of

any reward. Abandoning

false speech,

he abstains from

false speech. He speaks the truth, holds to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world. Abandoning

divisive speech he abstains from divisive speech. What he has heard here he does not tell there to break those people apart from these people here. What he has heard there he does not tell here to break these people apart from those people there. Thus reconciling those who have broken apart or cementing those who are united, he loves concord, delights in concord, enjoys

concord, speaks things that create concord. Abandoning abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. He speaks words that are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that go to the heart, that are polite, appealing & pleasing to people at large. Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks in season, speaks what is factual, what is in accordance with the goal, the Dhamma, & the Vinaya. He speaks words worth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, con nected with the goal. This is how one is made pure in four ways by verbal action.

SKILLFUL MENTAL ACTION

how is one made pure in three ways by mental action? the case where a certain person is not covetous. He t covet the belongings of others, thinking, O, that what belongs to others would be mine! He bears no ill will and is not corrupt in the resolves of his heart. [He thinks,] May these
"And

There doesn

is

beings be free from animosity, free from oppression, free from trouble, and may they look after themselves with ease! He has There is right view and is not warped in the way he sees things: what is given, what is offered, what is sacrificed. There are fruits

Tens

& results of good & bad actions. There is this world & the next world. There is mother & father. There are spontaneously reborn beings; there are priests & contemplatives who, faring rightly & practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after having directly known & realized it for themselves/ This is how one is made pure in three ways by mental action. "These, Cunda, are the ten courses of skillful action. When a person is endowed with these ten courses of skillful action, then even if he gets up at the proper time from his bed and touches the earth, he is still pure. If he doesn t touch the earth, he is still pure. If he touches wet cow dung ... If he doesn t ... If he touches green grass ... If he doesn t ... If he worships a fire ... If he doesn t ... If he pays homage to the sun with clasped hands ... If he doesn t ... If he goes down into the water three times by nightfall ... If he doesn t go down into the water three times by nightfall, he is still pure. Why is that? Because these ten courses of skillful action are pure and cause purity. Furthermore, as a result of being endowed with these ten courses of skillful action, [rebirth among] the devas is declared, [rebirth among] human
beings
is

declared
this

that or

any other good

destination."

When

was

said,

Cunda

Blessed One:

"Magnificent,

the silversmith said to the venerable sir! Magnificent! Just as if

he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has the Blessed One through many lines of rea

made the Dhamma clear. I go to the Blessed One for Dhamma, and to the Community of monks. May the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for
soning
refuge, to the
life."

See also:

MN 135; SN XLII.6; AN V.175; AN VIII.40; Dhp 165

Elevens

XI.l

What

is

the Purpose?

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi in Jeta s Grove, Anathapindika s monastery. Then Ven. Ananda went to the Blessed One and on arrival, having

bowed down

to him, sat to

one

side.

said to the Blessed One:

"What is

As he was sitting there he the purpose of skillful virtues?

What is their reward?"
"Skillful

pose, Ananda,
"And

virtues have freedom from remorse as their pur and freedom from remorse as their reward." what is the purpose of freedom from remorse? What is

its reward?"

"Freedom
reward."
"And
"Joy

from remorse has joy as

its

purpose, joy as

its

what is the purpose of joy? What is its reward?" has rapture as its purpose, rapture as its reward." "And what is the purpose of rapture? What is its reward?" reward." "Rapture has serenity as its purpose, serenity as its "And what is the purpose of serenity? What is its reward?" reward." "Serenity has pleasure as its purpose, pleasure as its "And what is the purpose of pleasure? What is its reward?" "Pleasure has concentration as its purpose, concentration as
"And

its reward."

what is the purpose of concentration? What is its reward?" "Concentration has knowledge & vision of things as they actually are as its purpose, knowledge & vision of things as they
actually are as
"And

its reward."

vision of things is the purpose of knowledge as they actually are? What is its reward?" vision of things as they actually are has dis "Knowledge enchantment as its purpose, disenchantment as its reward." "And what is the purpose of disenchantment? What is its

what

&

&

reward?"

Elevens

"Disenchantment

has dispassion as

its

purpose, dispassion

as

its reward."
"And

the purpose of dispassion? What is its reward?" vision of release as its pur "Dispassion has knowledge vision of release as its reward. pose, knowledge "Thus in this way, Ananda, skillful virtues have freedom from remorse as their purpose, freedom from remorse as their reward. Freedom from remorse has joy as its purpose, joy as its reward.

what is

&

&

Joy has rapture as its purpose, rapture as its reward. Rapture has serenity as its purpose, serenity as its reward. Serenity has plea sure as its purpose, pleasure as its reward. Pleasure has concentration as its purpose, concentration as its reward. Concentration has knowledge & vision of things as they actually
are as

they actually they actually are has disenchantment as its purpose, disenchantment as its reward. Disenchantment has dispassion as its purpose, dispassion as its reward. Dispassion has knowledge & vision of release as its purpose, knowledge & vision of release as its reward. this way, Ananda, skillful virtues lead step-by-step to
its

are as

its

purpose, knowledge reward. Knowledge

& vision of things as & vision of things as

"In

the

consummation
See also:

of

arahantship."

DN 2; MN 24; SN XII.23

XI.lAnActofWill
"For

a person

endowed with virtue, consummate

in virtue, there

is no need for an act of will, May freedom from remorse arise in me/ It is in the nature of things that freedom from remorse arises in a person endowed with virtue, consummate in virtue. "For a person free from remorse, there is no need for an act

of will, May joy arise in me/ It is in the nature of things that joy arises in a person free from remorse. "For a joyful person, there is no need for an act of will, May rapture arise in me/ It is in the nature of things that rapture
arises in a joyful person.

a rapturous person, there is no need for an act of will, May my body be serene/ It is in the nature of things that a rap turous person grows serene in body.
"For

Ele vens

"For

a person serene in body, there
I

is

no need

for

an

act of

will,

May

experience pleasure/

It is

in the nature of things

that a person serene in body experiences pleasure. "For a person experiencing pleasure, there is no
act of will, May of things that the

need

for

an

my mind grow concentrated/ It is in the nature mind of a person experiencing pleasure grows

concentrated. "For a person whose mind is concentrated, there is no need for an act of will, May I know & see things as they actually are/ It is in the nature of things that a person whose mind is concen trated knows & sees things as they actually are. "For a person who knows & sees things as they actually are, there is no need for an act of will, May I feel disenchantment/ It is in the nature of things that a person who knows & sees things as they actually are feels disenchantment. "For a person who feels disenchantment, there is no need for an act of will, May I grow dispassionate/ It is in the nature of things that a person who feels disenchantment grows dispassionate. "For a dispassionate person, there is no need for an act of will, May I realize the knowledge & vision of release/ It is in the nature of things that a dispassionate person realizes the knowledge & vision of release. this way, dispassion has knowledge & vision of release as its purpose, knowledge & vision of release as its reward. Disenchantment has dispassion as its purpose, dispassion as its reward. Knowledge & vision of things as they actually are has disenchantment as its purpose, disenchantment as its reward. Concentration has knowledge & vision of things as they actually are as its purpose, knowledge & vision of things as they actually are as its reward. Pleasure has concentration as its purpose, con centration as its reward. Serenity has pleasure as its purpose, pleasure as its reward. Rapture has serenity as its purpose, seren ity as its reward. Joy has rapture as its purpose, rapture as its reward. Freedom from remorse has joy as its purpose, joy as its reward. Skillful virtues have freedom from remorse as their pur pose, freedom from remorse as their reward. this way, mental qualities lead on to mental qualities,
"In

"In

mental qualities bring mental qualities to their consummation, for the sake of going from the near to the Further Shore."

316

Elevens

XI.12
I

Mahanama

(1)

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying among the Sakyans at Kapilavatthu in the Banyan Park. Now at that time many monks were at work making robes for the Blessed One, [thinking], "When the robes are finished, at the end of the three months (of the rains retreat), the Blessed One will set out wandering." Mahanama the Sakyan heard that many monks were at work making robes for the Blessed One, [thinking], "When the robes are finished, at the end of the three months, the Blessed One will set out wandering." So he went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down, sat to one have side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: heard that many monks are at work making robes for the Blessed One, [thinking], When the robes are finished, at the end of the three months, the Blessed One will set out wandering/
"I

For those of us living by means of various dwelling places [for the mind], by means of which dwelling place should we live?"
"Excellent,

Mahanama,

excellent!

It is fitting

for

clansmen

like

you by means of which dwelling place should we
living
"One

to

approach the Tathagata and ask, Tor those of us means of various dwelling places [for the mind], by
live?
is

aroused to practice is one of conviction, not without conviction. One aroused to practice is one with persis tence aroused, not lazy. One aroused to practice is one of established mindfulness, not muddled mindfulness. One aroused to practice is centered in concentration, not uncentered. One aroused to practice is discerning, not undiscerning. "Established in these five qualities, you should further
develop
[1]

who

six qualities:

is the case where you recollect the Tathagata: Indeed, the Blessed One is pure and rightly self-awakened, con summate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, the Teacher of divine & human beings, awakened, blessed/ At any time when a disciple of the noble ones is recol lecting the Tathagata, his mind is not overcome with passion, not
"There

overcome with aversion, not overcome with delusion. His mind heads straight, based on the Tathagata. And when the mind is headed straight, the disciple of the noble ones gains a sense of the

Elevens

goal, gains a sense of the

Dhamma, 1

gains joy connected with the

Dhamma.

In one

turous, the
"Of

who is joyful, rapture arises. In one who is rap body grows calm. One whose body is calmed
does
this,

experiences ease. In one at ease, the

one

who

who

mind becomes concentrated. Mahanama, it is said: Among those

are out of tune, the disciple of the noble ones dwells in among those who are malicious, he dwells without malice; having attained the stream of Dhamma, he develops the recollec tion of the Buddha/ [2] "Then there is the case where you recollect the Dhamma: The Dhamma is well-expounded by the Blessed One, to be seen
tune;

here & now, timeless, inviting verification, pertinent, to be real ized by the wise for themselves/ At any time when a disciple of the noble ones is recollecting the Dhamma, his mind is not over come with passion, not overcome with aversion, not overcome

with delusion. His mind heads

And when the mind

is

headed

straight, based on the Dhamma. straight, the disciple of the noble

ones gains a sense of the goal, gains a sense of the Dhamma, gains joy connected with the Dhamma. In one who is joyful, rapture arises. In one who is rapturous, the body grows calm. One whose body is calmed experiences ease. In one at ease, the

mind becomes concentrated. one who does this, Mahanama,
"Of

who

it is said: Among those are out of tune, the disciple of the noble ones dwells in tune; among those who are malicious, he dwells without malice; having attained the stream of Dhamma, he develops the recol lection of the Dhamma/ [3] "Then there is the case where you recollect the Sarigha: The Sangha of the Blessed One s disciples who have practiced

well

...

ticed methodically

who have practiced straight-forwardly who have prac who have practiced masterfully in other
... ...

words, the four types [of noble disciples] the eight when taken as individual types

taken as pairs, are the Sangha they of the Blessed One s disciples: worthy of gifts, worthy of hospi tality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, the incomparable field of merit for the world/ At any time when a disciple of the

when

noble ones is recollecting the Sangha, his mind is not overcome with passion, not overcome with aversion, not overcome with delusion. His mind heads straight, based on the Sangha. And when the mind is headed straight, the disciple of the noble ones gains a sense of the goal, gains a sense of the Dhamma, gains

Elevens

joy connected with the Dhamma. In one who is joyful, rapture arises. In one who is rapturous, the body grows calm. One whose body is calmed experiences ease. In one at ease, the mind becomes concentrated. "Of one who does this, Mahanama, it is said: Among those who are out of tune, the disciple of the noble ones dwells in tune; among those who are malicious, he dwells without malice; having attained the stream of Dhamma, he develops the recol lection of the Sahgha/ [4] "Then there is the case where you recollect your own
virtues:

[They are] untorn, unbroken, unspotted, unsplattered, by the wise, untarnished, conducive to con centration/ At any time when a disciple of the noble ones is recollecting virtue, his mind is not overcome with passion, not overcome with aversion, not overcome with delusion. His mind heads straight, based on virtue. And when the mind is headed straight, the disciple of the noble ones gains a sense of the goal, gains a sense of the Dhamma, gains joy connected with the Dhamma. In one who is joyful, rapture arises. In one who is rap turous, the body grows calm. One whose body is calmed experiences ease. In one at ease, the mind becomes concentrated. "Of one who does this, Mahanama, it is said: Among those who are out of tune, the disciple of the noble ones dwells in tune; among those who are malicious, he dwells without malice; having attained the stream of Dhamma, he develops the recol
liberating, praised

lection of virtue/

there is the case where you recollect your own a gain, a great gain for me, that among people overcome with the stain of possessiveness I live at home, my awareness cleansed of the stain of possessiveness, freely gener
[5]
"Then

generosity:

It is

ous, openhanded, delighting in being magnanimous, responsive to requests, delighting in the distribution of gifts/ At any time when a disciple of the noble ones is recollecting generosity, his

mind

is

sion, not

not overcome with passion, not overcome with aver overcome with delusion. His mind heads straight,

based on generosity. And when the mind is headed straight, the disciple of the noble ones gains a sense of the goal, gains a sense of the Dhamma, gains joy connected with the Dhamma. In one who is joyful, rapture arises. In one who is rapturous, the body grows calm. One whose body is calmed experiences ease. In one
at ease, the

mind becomes

concentrated.

Elevens

one who does this, Mahanama, it is said: Among those are out of tune, the disciple of the noble ones dwells in tune; among those who are malicious, he dwells without malice; having attained the stream of Dhamma, he develops the recol lection of generosity/ [6] "Then you should recollect the devas: "There are the Devas of the Four Great Kings, the Devas of the Thirty-three, the Devas of the Hours, the Contented Devas, the Devas who delight in creation, the Devas who have power over the creations of others, the devas of Brahma s retinue, the devas beyond them. Whatever conviction they were endowed with that when falling away from this life they re-arose there, the same sort of convic tion is present in me as well. Whatever virtue they were endowed
"Of

who

with that
the

same

when falling away from this life they re-arose there, sort of virtue is present in me as well. Whatever learn

ing they were endowed with that when falling away from this life they re-arose there, the same sort of learning is present in me as well. Whatever generosity they were endowed with that when falling away from this life they re-arose there, the same sort of generosity is present in me as well. Whatever discernment they were endowed with that when falling away from this life they re-arose there, the same sort of discernment is present in me as well. At any time when a disciple of the noble ones is recollecting the conviction, virtue, learning, generosity, and dis cernment found both in himself and the devas, his mind is not overcome with passion, not overcome with aversion, not over come with delusion. His mind heads straight, based on the [qualities of the] devas. And when the mind is headed straight, the disciple of the noble ones gains a sense of the goal, gains a sense of the Dhamma, gains joy connected with the Dhamma. In one who is joyful, rapture arises. In one who is rapturous, the

body grows calm. One whose body is calmed experiences ease. In one at ease, the mind becomes concentrated. one who does this, Mahanama, it is said: Among those
"Of

who

are out of tune, the disciple of the noble ones dwells in tune; among those who are malicious, he dwells without malice; having attained the stream of Dhamma, he develops the recol lection of the devas/"

NOTE:l.SeeANVII.64.
See also:

SN VL2; SN XI.3; AN 11171; AN X.92; Khp 6; Iti 90

Elevens

XI.13
I

Mahanama

(2)

have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying among the Sakyans at Kapilavatthu in the Banyan Park. Now at that time Mahanama the Sakyan had recovered from being ill, was not long recovered from his illness. And at that time many monks were at work making robes for the Blessed One, [think ing], "When the robes are finished, at the end of the three

months

(of the rains retreat), the Blessed

One

will set out

wan

the Sakyan heard that many monks were at dering/ work making robes for the Blessed One, [thinking], "When the robes are finished, at the end of the three months, the Blessed One will set out wandering/ So he went to the Blessed One
7

Mahanama

and, on arrival, having bowed down, sat to one side. As he was have heard that many sitting there he said to the Blessed One: monks are at work making robes for the Blessed One, [think ing], When the robes are finished, at the end of the three months, the Blessed One will set out wandering/ For those of us living by means of various dwelling places [for the mind], by
"I

means
like

of

which dwelling place should we

live?"

"Excellent,

Mahanama,

excellent!

It is fitting

for

clansmen

you by means of which dwelling place should we
living
"One

to

approach the Tathagata and ask, Tor those of us means of various dwelling places [for the mind], by
live?
is

aroused to practice is one of conviction, not without conviction. One aroused to practice is one with persis tence aroused, not lazy. One aroused to practice is one of established mindfulness, not muddled mindfulness. One aroused to practice is centered in concentration, not uncentered. One aroused to practice is discerning, not undiscerning. "Established in these five qualities, you should further
develop
six qualities:
is the case where the preceding discourse) ....
"There

who

you

recollect the Tathagata (as in

"Mahanama, you should develop this recollection of the Buddha while you are walking, while you are standing, while you are sitting, while you are lying down, while you are busy at work, while you are resting in your home crowded with children.

Elevens

751

"Then there is the case where you recollect the Dhamma ... the Sarigha ... your own virtues ... your own generosity ... the

devas

....

you should develop this recollection of the devas while you are walking, while you are standing, while you are sitting, while you are lying down, while you are busy at work, while you are resting in your home crowded with children."
"Mahanama,

XI.16 Good Will
"Monks, for one whose awareness-release through good will is cultivated, developed, pursued, handed the reins, taken as a well-undertaken, eleven benefits basis, steadied, consolidated,

&

can be expected. Which eleven?
"One

sleeps easily,

wakes

easily,

dreams no

evil

dreams.

One

beings, dear to non-human beings. The devas protect one. Neither fire, poison, nor weapons can touch one. One s mind gains concentration quickly. One s complexion if penetrating no higher is bright. One dies unconfused and is headed for the Brahma worlds. "These are the eleven benefits that can be expected for one whose awareness-release through good will is cultivated, devel oped, pursued, handed the reins, taken as a basis, steadied,
is

dear to

human

consolidated,
See also:

& well-undertaken."

SN XLII.8, AN 11166; AN

V.27;

AN VI.13; AN VIII.63;

Khp9;Iti27

Glossary

Pali-English

Abhidhamma: (1) In the discourses of the Pali Canon, this term simply means "higher Dhamma," and a systematic attempt to define the Buddha s teachings and understand their interrela
tionships. (2)

A later collection of treatises collating lists of
to

categories drawn from the teachings in the discourses, added the Canon several centuries after the Buddha s life.

Arahant: A "worthy one" or "pure one;" a person whose mind is free of defilement and thus is not destined for further rebirth. A
title

for the

Buddha and the highest level of his noble

disciples.

Asava: Fermentation; effluent. Four qualities sensuality, views, becoming, and ignorance that "flow out" of the mind and create the flood of the round of death and rebirth.
Bodhisatta:
his
"A

being (striving) for

Awakening;"

the term used

to describe the

Buddha before he actually became Buddha, from first aspiration to Buddhahood until the time of his full

Awakening. Sanskrit form: Bodhisattva.

Brahman: In common usage, a brahman is a member of the priestly caste, which claimed to be the highest caste in India, based on birth. In a specifically Buddhist usage, "brahman" can also mean an arahant, conveying the point that excellence is based, not on birth or race, but on the qualities attained in the mind.

An inhabitant of the realms of form or formlessness. An inhabitant of the heavenly realms. Deva: Literally, "shining
Brahma:
one."

754

Glossary

Dhamma:
(3)

(1)

Event; action;

(2)

a

phenomenon in and

of

itself;

mental quality; (4) doctrine, teaching; (5) nibbana (although there are passages describing nibbana as the abandoning of all

dhammas). Sanskrit form: Dharma.
Jhana: Mental absorption. A state of strong concentration focused on a single sensation or mental notion. This term is

derived from the verb jhayati, which means to burn with a
steady,
still

flame.

Kahapana:

A square copper coin. An ancient sub-commentary
its

(the Vimati-vinodani) estimates of sixth of a troy ounce of gold, but

monetary worth at onefrom the way the term is

used in the Canon

this

seems excessively high.
Sanskrit form: Karma.

Kamma: Intentional act.

Mara: The personification of temptation and all forces, within and without, that create obstacles to release from samsara.
Naga:

A magical serpent, technically classed as a common

animal, but possessing many of the powers of a deva, including the ability to take on human shape.

Nibbana:
aversion,
rebirth.

Literally, the

"unbinding"

of the

mind from passion,
round of death and
fire, it

and delusion, and from the
this

entire

As

term also denotes the extinguishing of a

carries connotations of stilling, cooling, and peace. "Total nibbana" in some contexts denotes the experience of

Awakening; in

others, the final passing

away of an arahant.

Sanskrit form: Nirvana.

Patimokkha: Basic code of monastic discipline, composed of 227 rules for monks and 310 for nuns.
Samatha: Tranquility. See
Sangha:
vipassana.

the communities of Buddhist
(ariya) level,
it

On the conventional (sammati) level, this term denotes monks and nuns. On the ideal
denotes those followers of the Buddha, lay or

ordained,

who have attained at least stream-entry.

Glossary

Tadin:

"Such,"

the goal.

It

an adjective to describe one who has attained indicates that the person s state is indefinable but not

subject to change or influences of

any

sort.

Tathagata: Literally,
agata),"

"one

an epithet used

in ancient India for a person

who has become authentic (tathawho has

attained the highest religious goal. In Buddhism, it usually denotes the Buddha, although occasionally it also denotes any
of his arahant disciples.

Uposatha: Observance day, coinciding with the full moon, new moon, and half moons. Lay Buddhists often observe the eight precepts on this day. Monks recite the Patimokkha on the full

moon and new moon uposathas.
Vinaya: The monastic discipline, whose rules and traditions comprise six volumes in printed text.
Vipassana: Insight. According to the
X.71, vipassana is a of mind that must be developed in tandem with samaiha, quality first for the attainment ofjhana, and then for the attainment of

AN

Awakening. The later tradition that vipassana can lead to Awakening without the development oijhana has no basis in the Canon.

English-Pali
Although
I

have

tried to

be as consistent as possible in render

ing Pali terms into English, there are a few cases where a single English term will not do justice to all the meanings of a Pali

word makes for know that such a
tion.

term. Although the rule of one English equivalent per one Pali consistency, any truly bilingual person will rule can create ludicrous distortions in transla

Thus, while

I

have not consciously used one English term

to translate

two
it

different Pali terms, there are cases

where

I

have found

necessary to render single Pali terms with two or more English terms, depending on context. Citta in some cases is rendered as mind, in others as intent. Similarly, loka is ren

dered either as cosmos or world, manas as

intellect or heart,

-5-56

Glossary

ayatana as medium or dimension, upadana as clinging or suste nance, and dhamma as phenomenon, quality, or principle.
Also, for
I

some

of the Pali terms playing a central role in the teach

ing, have chosen equivalents that do not follow general usage. In the following list I have indicated these equivalents with asterisks. Explanations for these choices are provided at the end of the list.

acquisition

aggregate
alertness

upadhi khandha

sampajanna
yoniso manasikara
bodhi
cetas

appropriate attention

Awakening
awareness

awareness-release

cetovimutti

becoming clear knowing
clinging

bhava
vijja

upadana
papanca
sankhata

complication

compounded

concern ottappa hiri conscience samana contemplative
conviction
saddha
loka

cosmos
craving
desire

tanha
paticca

dependent co-arising
chanda

samuppada

dimension

ayatana directed thought vitakka discern pajanati

discernment
discrimination

panna
pannavimutti vimarhsa
nibbida

discernment-release

disenchantment
dispassion

viraga

sunnata emptiness dhlra enlightened one*

evaluation
fabricated

vicara

sankhata

Glossary

T57

fabrication

sankhara
asava

fermentation*
fetter

sanyojana
satipatthana

frame of reference anna gnosis

good
heart

will

met ta

manas

identity sakkaya inconstant* anicca

insight
intellect

vipassana

manas
citta

intent

intention

cetana

medium
mind
not-self

ayatana
citta

anatta

obsession*
origination

anusaya

samudaya
sanna
viriya

perception
persistence

phenomenon
property
quality release

dhamma

dhatu

dhamma
vimutti

resolve

sankappa sambodhi self-awakening
self-identification

sakkaya

sensuality
skillful

kama
kusala

stream-entry sotapatti stress* dukkha

sustenance

upadana
samatha
lokuttara

theme

nimitta

tranquility

transcendent

Unbinding*
Unfabricated

nibbana
asankhata

world

loka

Glossary

Acquisition: Upadhi literally

means

"belongings,"

"baggage,"

In the suttas, it means the mental baggage that "paraphernalia." the mind carries around. The Culaniddesa, a late canonical

work,

ten types of upadhi: craving, views, defilement, action, misconduct, nutriment (physical and mental), irritation, the four physical properties sustained in the body (earth, water,
lists
fire),

wind, and

the six external sensa media,

and the
state

six

forms

of corresponding sensory consciousness. upadhi or acquisitions is Unbinding.

The

without

of the five types of phenomena that serve as objects of clinging and as bases for a sense of self: form, feeling, perception, mental fabrications, and consciousness.

Aggregate:

Any

Becoming: The processes of giving
states of

rise,

within the mind, to

being that allow for physical or mental birth on any of three levels: the level of sensuality, the level of form, and the level of formlessness.

Enlightened one: Throughout these volumes I have rendered buddha as "Awakened," and dhira as "enlightened." As Jan Gonda points out in his book, The Vision of the Vedic Poets, the word dhira was used in Vedic and Buddhist poetry to mean a
person

who has the heightened powers
"light"

of mental vision

needed

of the underlying principles of the cosmos, with the expertise to implement those principles in the together
to perceive the
affairs of life

and

to reveal

them
so.

to others.

A person enlightened

in this sense
sense, but
is

may

also be

awakened

in the formal Buddhist

not necessarily

Fabrication: Sankhara literally means "putting together," and car ries connotations of jerry-rigged artificiality. It is applied to

physical and to mental processes, as well as to the products of those processes. Various English words have been suggested as

renderings for sankhara, such as
"force,"

"formation,"

"determination,"

and
its

"constructive

both of

senses,

in activity." However, "fabrication," as the process of fabrication and the fabricated

Glossary

T59

things that result, seems the best equivalent for capturing the connotations as well as the denotations of the term.

Inconstant: The usual rendering for anicca

is "impermanent."

However, the antonym of the term, nicca, carries connotations of constancy and reliability; and as anicca is used to emphasize the
point that conditioned

phenomena
is

are unreliable as a basis for true
for

happiness, this

seems a useful rendering

conveying

this point.

Obsession: Anusaya
dency"

usually translated as

"underlying

ten

or

"latent

tendency."

These translations are based on the
"to

lie etymology of the term, which literally means, with." However, in actual the related verb (anuseti) usage,

down

to

"lie

be obsessed with something, for one over and over again. down with
it"

s

thoughts to

means return and

term dukkha, which is traditionally translated in the commentaries as, "that which is hard to bear," is notorious for having no truly adequate equivalent in English, but stress seems as close as in its basic sense as a strain on body or mind English can get. In the Canon, dukkha applies both to physical and to mental phenomena, ranging from the intense stress of acute anguish or pain to the innate burdensomeness of even the most subtle mental or physical fabrications.
Stress:

The

Pali

is used to denote not only the Buddhist goal, but also the extinguishing of a fire, it is usually rendered as "extinguishing" or, even worse, "extinction." However, a close look at ancient Indian views of the workings of fire (see The Mind Like Fire Unbound) shows that people of the Buddha s time felt that a fire, in going out, did not go out of exis tence but was simply freed from its agitation and attachment to its fuel. Thus, when applied to the Buddhist goal, the primary connotation of nibbana is one of release and liberation. According

Unbinding: Because nibbana

to the

meaning of the word nibbana is and as this is a rare case where the literal and con "unbinding," textual meanings of a term coincide, this seems to be the ideal
commentaries, the
literal

English equivalent.

Index

Subjects

If a phrase or

paragraph is repeated verbatim several times across multi
ple discourses, only the first occur rence appears in the index.

adeptness at affairs of the Sangha, 289 adversity, knowledge of another
115-117
affection, 120, 190

s,

A
abandoning
of arrogance, 285 of aversion, 12, 44-47 of food, 104-105

aggregates, five, 240-241

aging

Buddha

s

awareness

of,

13-15

as danger for a

monk in the

of conceit, 105-106 of craving, 104-105

wilderness, 164 as fact to reflect on, 147-148 as unavoidable, 143

of delusion, 12, 44-47 of evil deeds, 34-35 of five hindrances, 155-156, 161-162, 205-206 four kinds, 104-106

agony, killing as cause the All, Allness of, 2
to,

of,

173

amiability, six conditions

conducive

193-194

anger
for ara hantship, 285 seven wishes associated with, 231-234 in three types of individuals, 65-66 animosity, five forms of, 304-307 anusaya, 221 anuseti, 221

necessary for arahantship, 45-46,

abandoning necessary

285-286
of passion, 12, 44-47

perception

of,

298

of unskillful actions, 3-4, 320-322 abiding in the here and now, 78-80

abstinence, 37-43, 252-253 acquisitions, freedom from, 12, 15 action, four courses of, 103-104 actions

appreciation, as awareness-release,

abandoning three kinds, 9
fact to reflect on, 148-150
fruit of, 34-35

ownership

of,

295

skillful/unskillful, 318-322

194-195 apprenticeship to a teacher, 239 arahants avoiding consumption of sen sual things, 267-268

Index

dedication to six things, 208-210 emulating, 37-40 nine necessary abandonings, 285-286 arahantship, attainment of, 106-107, 285-286 arousal of energy, eight grounds for, 261-264 arrogance, abandoning
of,

fruit of right view,

128

good

will as, 194, 331
in,

remaining

275
"I

the signless as, 196 uprooting of the conceit
as,

am"

196

285

B
beauty, as one of five welcome things, 141 becoming, as yoke, 70-72 beds, high, abstaining from, 41

asceticism, skillful /unskillful,

310-312 assurances, four, 34-35 atta-bhava, 117

attainment false claims to, 290-293 of the four jhanas, 302 superior human, 295 attention, appropriate, 29-33 aversion abandoning, 12, 44-47, 285 as cause of harm, 31

behavior for one gone forth, 295 beings, non-human, 164
benefits of awareness-release

through good

will, 331. See also

awareness-release

bereavement, dealing with, 142-145
"Between-the-Eights",

11-12

going off-course through, 267268
origin, 120-121

subduing, 96-97
transgression of the

Dhamma, 73

awareness
in a disciple of the noble ones,

33-34
in the fourth jhana, 131 imbued with unskillful qualities,

blamelessness, bliss of, 85 bliss, four kinds, 85-86 bodily misconduct, 202-205, 318319 body, break-up of after death, 14, 34, 92-93, 135, 138 bondage, of masculine and femi nine qualities, 223-224 bonds of fellowship, four grounds for, 76

Brahma-uposatha, 37

35-36
internal tranquility of, 151-152,

Brahma worlds, 331
brahman, definition, 68 brahmans, feeble old, 20-22
break-up of body after death,
34, 92-93, 135, 138 Buddha, faith in
14,

197-198
of other beings, 133
five hin 146 drances, peace of, 12 unrestricted, 304 awareness-release appreciation as, 195 benefits of, 331 compassion as, 195 equanimity as, 195 in four types of people, 108-110

overwhelmed by

as dwelling place for the mind, 36-37, 326-327, 330-331 as factor of stream entry, 305-306 as pleasant mental abiding in

the here

and now, 182

Buddha-range, 90 Buddhas, seven most recent, 88 businesses to be avoided, 181

Index

343

confrontational speech, avoiding,

calm, development
castelessness, 294

of,

301-303

230 conscience
as quality guarding the world, 3 sense of, in a monk, 240

celibacy, 40, 152-162

censure, as a worldly condition, 242-243 cessation of stress. See dependent
co-arising cessation, perception of, 298

charms, protective, 86 chattering, frivolous, 254

clansman of conviction, 19-20 clarity as reward of listening to

strength of, 127-128 as treasure, 219-221 consciousness, infinitude of, 272 consciousness without feature, 1-2 consumption of stored-up sensual things, 267-268 contact, as cause, 211-215 contemplation, subjects for, 147150, 266

Dhamma,

192

cleansing of the mind, 37-40 clinging-aggregates, as stress, 216 commitment, to mental calm, 301-303 companionship, evil, as drain on wealth, 256-257

contentedness, as quality creating a protector, 289-290

contentment, 300, 302
conversation, appropriate, 172, 300-301 conviction as dwelling place for the mind,
326, 330

compassion, 194-195, 259 composure, rapture born of, 130 conceit, as obsession, 221-222
concentration
as dwelling place for the mind, 326, 330 five-factored noble, 129-134

person

four developments fruits of, 78-80 immeasurable, 129
limitless,

of,

78-80

202-205 quality leading to a lay person happiness, 257 rewards of, 137-138, 205-206 strength of, 127-128 as treasure, 219-221 as type of noble growth, 150
of, 138,

s

cosmos
as a governing principle, 16-18 reaching the end of, 81-82

273

of a

monk in training, 48-53

practice, 258-260

purpose and reward, 323-325
requires attention, 59-61 as topic of proper conversation,

views of, 312-316 courses of action, four, 103-104 craving, as cause of stress, 216 craving-verbalizations, 118-120
creeping things, 87

300
tranquility

and

insight, 93-95,

106-107

D
dangers, 163-170 darkness, people headed for, 92-93 death. See also the Deathless

concern
as quality guarding the world, 3

strength of, 127-128 as treasure, 219-221 conduct, good, 7

break-up of body
92-93, 135, 138

after, 14, 34,

Buddha

s

awareness

of,

13-15

T44

Index

as fact to reflect on, 148-150 fear of, 113-115

mindfulness

of,

199-202

painful for one who is worried, 196-198 as unavoidable, 143 the Deathless, 66, 199-202
deathlessness, 275-276

abiding in the here and now, 182 five qualities needed for teach ing, 179
as a governing principle, 17-18 orderliness of, 66 sense of, in a monk, 235-238

taught

first to

people of con

debauchery, 256-257 debt, 202-206
debtlessness, bliss of, 85, 205-206 decline among monks, seven con
ditions for avoiding, 222-223 deeds, evil, 17-18, 34-35, 53-56 deeds, five grave, 173 defilements, 1-2, 5, 37-40 delusion abandoning, 12, 44-47, 285 as cause of harm, 31 subduing, 96-97
transgression of the

viction, 138

unrefuted, 26-29 why it lasts or does not last, 228 Dhamma explanation, 210-217 Dhamma-uposatha, 37-38 directed thought, 268-269, 271, 278-279

discernment
developing, 5 dull, 217-218
as dwelling place for the mind, 326, 330 eight requisite conditions for,

Dhamma, 73

dependence on others, 295 dependent co-arising, 27-29, 306307
desire
for the

239-242
as factor for exertion, 147 of five-factored noble right concentration, 133

Dhamma,

289

going off-course through, 267268
transgression of the destruction, 143, 178

Dhamma, 73

Deva-uposatha, 39-40
devas, recollection of, 39-40, 329, 331 development, lack of, as danger for a monk, 166-168

heightened, 93-95 knowledge of another s, 115, 117-118 manifestation of, 7 of a monk in training, 48-53 as prerequisite for self-awak ening, 265-266 quality creating a protector, 290
quality leading to a lay person s

Dhamma
corrupt,

from undeveloped

monks, 166-168
dwelling in, 37-38, 151-152, 327, 331
in the eight thoughts of a great

happiness, 257-258 strength of, 127-128 of stress, 216 as topic of proper conversation,

300
as treasure, 219-221 as type of noble growth, 150

person, 245-251
faith in, as factor of

weakened by
stream
146

five hindrances,

entry, 305-306 faith in, as pleasant

discernment-release, remaining

mental

in,

275

Index

diseases, 297-298

role in the penetrative teaching,

disenchantment, purpose and reward, 323-325
disgrace, as a worldly condition,

216-217 eleven benefits, 331

endearment, feelings
the Ender, 18

of,

193-194

242-243
dispassion, perception of, 298 dispassion, purpose and reward,

ending, what is subject to, 143 endurance, 115-117, 178
energy, eight grounds for arousal,

323-325
displeasure, 76, 302
distaste for every world, percep tion of, 298
distinctions,

261-264
energy, uplifted, 59-61

among

individuals,

235-237 divine ear-element, 132 divine eye, 133-134 divisive tale-bearing, 253-254 doubt, getting rid of, 192 drains on one s wealth, 256-257 drawbacks, perception of, 297

entertainment and adornment, abstaining from, 41 envy, 285

equanimity
attention to perceptions dealing with, 269, 279 as awareness-release, 195, 259

as a form of concentration
practice, 259 in the jhanas, 269, 272, 279 pleasure of, as a drawback, 280

dreams,

five, of

unawakened

Buddha, 188-190
drinking liquors. See intoxication drowsiness, overcoming, 229-230 duties, 52, 52-53 dwelling attainments, nine stepby-step, 276-283

requires attention, 59-61 escape, means of, 194-196
evil

deeds abandoning, 34-35

kamma and, 53-56
no escape from, 17-18
excellence, constant striving for,

eating,

moderation

in,

77-78

eight factors, 40-41
eight grounds for laziness, 261-262 eight individuals, 183, 185

185-188 expectations of others, 303 explorations for the intellect, eighteen, 27

eight requisite conditions, 239-242 eight rewards of merit, 251-253 eight thoughts of a great person,

fabricated
istics of,

phenomena, character
19

245-251
eight worldly conditions, 117,

fabrications, cessation of, 306-307
factors, eight, 40-41 factors, five

242-243
eighteen explorations for the
intellect,

27

eightfold path
for

for exertion, 147 in a virtuous person, 23

abandoning passion, aver sion, and delusion, 45-46

of a well-spoken statement, 190
facts to reflect on, five, 147-150
faith, in

for cessation, 210-216

the Buddha. See Buddha,

defined, 29

faith in

Index

faith, in

the

Dhamma.

See

Dhamma
faith, in the

five gifts, 251-252 five grave deeds, 173
five hindrances, 146, 155-156,

Sangha. See Sahgha

false claims to attainment, 290-293

161-162, 286, 314

false speech, abstaining from, 40 famine, as danger for a monk, 165

fear

mental faculties, 266 five oblations, 139-140 five obstacles, 146
five five properties leading to escape,

of death, 113-115
five

forms

of,

304-307

191-192
five sensuality strings, 136, 211,

going off-course through, 267268
transgression of the Dhamma, 73 wish for overcoming, 302
feeling, 210-213 fellowship, 76, 193-194

268-269
five training rules, 182-185 five types of growth, 150-152
five

unavoidable things, 142-145

females
disciples acting in accordance

enemy

with the precepts, 197-198 in monks battle with
7

welcome things, 140-142 flow, going against, 68-69 focus, in concentration practice, 260 food, fine, as danger for a monk,
five

169
fools, 4, 6,

celibacy, 152-162, 169 literacy of in pre-modern

7

form
attention to perceptions deal ing with, 269, 280

Theravada countries, 150 feminine qualities, bondage to, 223-224 fermentations cause of, 214
ending, 78-80, 134, 214-215, 271-276 knowledge of, 210, 214-215 fetters, five, 276
fetters, ten,

287

escape from, 191-192 in the jhanas, 269, 280 foundations of mindfulness, four, 258 four abandonings, 104-106 four assurances, 34-35 four courses of action, 103-104 four developments of concentra
tion, 78-80 four factors of stream entry, 304-

fevers, three kinds, 11-12 five aggregates, 240-241
five benefits of wealth, 139-140 five dreams of the unawakened

307
four foundations of mindfulness,

Buddha, 188-190
five factors

258
four frames of reference, 258, 286,

for exertion, 147 in a virtuous person, 23 of a well-spoken statement, 190 five facts to reflect on, 147-150
five fetters, 276 five forms of fear

314
four four four four four four four
fruits of generosity, 134-136 inconceivables, 90 kinds of bliss, 85-86 kinds of thunderheads, 97-98 noble truths, 27-29

and animosity,

304-307
five future dangers, 163-170

pairs, 183, 185, 305, 307 paths to arahantship, 106-107

Index

747

four perversions of perception, 82-83 four qualities for a lay person s happiness, 255-258 leading to happiness in a lay

gnosis-penetration, 276
goal, important factors for attain
ing, 29 going off-course, impossibility of for arahants, 267-268

good

will

person, 257
of a monk, 110-111 in the presence of Unbinding, 77-78 four traditions of the noble ones,

acts of, 193-194

as awareness-release, 194-195, 259, 331 factor of a well-spoken state

ment, 190
as a

74-75 four traits, 115-118 four types of people, 68, 92-98, 101-102, 108-110, 113-115 four unyokings, 70-72 four ways of answering ques tions, 80-81 frames of reference, four, 258,
286, 314
friends, admirable, 29, 265-266,

form of concentration

practice, 258-259 gossip, divisive, 253-254

governing principles, 15-18 grave deeds, five, 173 greed, 31, 64
dealing with, 142-145 growing separate from what dear, 148-150 growth, five types, 150-152
grief,
is

289
friendship, evil, as drain

on

wealth, 256-257 frivolous chattering, 254 fruit of actions, 34-35 fruits of concentration, 78-80 future dangers, five, 163-170

H
happiness, as one of five welcome things, 141 haimrulness, escape from, 191-192 harmony, 193-194, 222 hatred, subduing, 303 having, bliss of, 85
needfulness, 287 hell, 173

gain, as a worldly condition, 242-

243 gambling, as drain on wealth, 256-257
generosity four fruits
of,

high beds and
from, 41

seats, abstaining

134-136

quality leading to a lay person s

happiness, 257
recollection of, 328, 331 as treasure, 219-221

as type of noble growth, 150

giving
gifts, 22-24,

higher knowledges, six, 131-132, 273-275 hindrances, five abandoning, 155-156, 161-162, 205-206, 286 destruction of, 178 identified, 146 householder-celibacy, 197 husband and wife, 84

136-137, 251-252

meals, 137 motivations and results, 224-227

Index

I
"I

J
am",

uprooting of the conceit, 196

Jains,

uposatha

of,

36

ignorance cause of fermentations, 214 as obsession, 221-222
as yoke, 70-72
ill

jhana-range, 90 jhanas, levels of, 108-110 and ending of fermentations, 271-283
in experienced

will, 146,

illicit

191-192 sexual behavior, 253-257, 305
s

and inexperi

enced monks, 270-275
in five-factored noble right concentration, 129-134 of a monk in training, 48-52

illness

13-15 as danger for a monk, 165 as fact to reflect on, 148-150 instruction for a sickly monk, 172-173 as unavoidable, 143 imperturbability, dedication of arahants to, 209-210
of,

Buddha

awareness

and pleasure, 268-269
prerequisites for mastering, 301 and release through discern

ment, 283-285
result of thinking eight thoughts

of a great person, 246-248

inconceivables, four, 90

and supernatural powers, 283285

inconstancy, 297 individuals, three types, 65-66 inexperience in monks, 270-271
infinitude of consciousness, 269,
272, 280-281 infinitude of space, 269, 272, 280-

wish
joy,

for attainment of, 302

323-325

K
kamma
cause of, 215 dark and bright results, 123-124 diversity in, 215 fact to reflect on, 148-150 inconceivability of, 90 knowledge of, 211, 215-216
origination

281
initiative,

255

insight (vipassana), 4-5, 93-95, 106107, 301-303
insolence, 285
integrity, 5,
intellect,
for,

89

eighteen explorations

27

and cessation

of,

215-216
result of, 215 trifling evil deeds and, 53-56

internal assurance, in the jhanas,

271
intoxication

cause of fear and animosity, 305 as drain on wealth, 256-257 result of, 254
three kinds, 14-15

kamma
killing

obstruction, 217-218

cause of agony, 173 cause of fear and animosity, 305

Index

impossibility of for arahants,

267-268

and kamma
218

obstructions, 217-

results of, 253-254 kindness, 6 kingship, over human beings, 40-43

lodgings, fine, as danger for a monk, 169 long life, as one of five welcome things, 141 longing, evil, 290-293 loss, as a worldly condition, 242-

243
lying, 253-254, 267-268, 305

knowledge
direct, 63, 78-80

necessary for Dhamma explana tion, 210-217 purpose and reward, 323-325 and vision of release, 300

M
masculine 223-224
qualities,

bondage

to,

knowledges, higher. See supra-

normal powers

lay follower, 180, 244-245 laziness, eight grounds for, 261-262
learning, 150, 192 liquors. See also intoxication

meals, after midday, abstaining from, 41 meals, giving, 137 memory, meticulousness of, 290 mental abidings, 182-185 mental faculties, five, 266

mental

qualities, skillful

and

unskillful

abstaining from, 41, 305 result of using, 254, 305
listening to Dhamma,

increasing /decreasing, 111-112 lack of, as debt, 202-205 taking on /abandoning, 265-266 merit, eight rewards of, 251-253

rewards

of,

192

mind
bhavanga-citta, 1

obstacles to, six, 218 prerequisite to self-awakening,

265
as protector, 289-293
qualities

needed

for,

218

quality needed by monks, 178 requisite condition for discern ment, 239-241 as treasure, 219-221
literacy, female, in

cleansing through proper tech nique, 37-40 developing, 5 impurities of, 57 luminosity of, 1-2 reading one s own, 295-296 Such (tadin), 18 The Mind Like Fire Unbound, 52

pre-modern Theravada countries, 150
255-256

livelihood, maintaining in tune,

livelihoods to be avoided, 181

mindfulness and alertness as defense against temptation, 161, 172 as dwelling place for the mind, 326, 330

Index

fruit of concentration, 78-80

in the jhanas, 269, 272, 279 necessary for penetrating the

obstructions for a monk in the wilderness, 163-170
to skillful

Unprovoked, 170-171
mindfulness of in-and-out
breathing, 298-299 7, 14 misrepresentation, of the

mental

qualities,

217-218
old age. See aging on/off course, 72-73
origination. See

misconduct,

dependent co-

words, 22-24, 194-196 moderation, sense of, 235-236 modest requirements for living,
s

Buddha

arising origination of stress, 28

289-290

modesty, as topic of proper con versation, 300

pain, as worldly condition, 242-243 palaces of the Buddha, 13

N
Nandana, 136
neither perception nor non-per
ception, 282 neither-pleasure-nor-pain, 269, 272, 279-280 nine principles for monks, 267-268

passing

away and re-appearance

of beings, 133-134,274

passion abandoning, 11-12, 44-47, 285
for

becoming, as obsession,

221-222
in the five higher fetters, 287

nine qualities for self-awakening, 265-266 nine step-by-step dwelling attain ments, 276-283 noble ones, four pairs, 307 noble eightfold path. See eightfold

subduing, 96-97 past lives, recollection of, 133, 274 patience, as quality creating a
protector, 289 Patimokkha, 48, 50, 171-172, 239,

241 penetrative explanation, 210-217

path noble method, 304-307 non-afflictiveness, 208-210 non-deludedness, 208-210 non-entanglement, 300 not-self, perception of, 297
nothingness, dimension 270, 272, 281-282
of, 269,

people
foolish, see fools

nun, visited by Ananda, 104-106 nuns, maintaining celibacy, 152

o
oblations, five, 139-140

obsessions, 221-222
obstacles, five, 146

four types, 68, 92-98, 101-102, 108-110, 113-115 kind, 6 in light and darkness, 92-93 sick, 9-10 skillful mental qualities of, 9-10 tamable and not tamable, 98-100 thoroughbred, 101-102 who do not fear death, 114-115 who have crossed over, 68-69 who stand fast, 68-69 wise, 4, 7, 32-33 perception, 82-83, 213-214 perception/ feeling, cessation of,
273, 276, 282

Index

perception/non-perception, in the jhanas, 272, 276 perceptions, ten, 296-299
persistence in abandoning unskillful quali
ties,

Q
qualities

bright, 3

289

arousing, as topic of proper conversation, 300 as dwelling place for the mind,
326, 330 as prerequisite for self-awak ening, 265-266 requisite condition for discern ment, 240-241
right pitch for, 207

creating a protector, 288-290 eleven, as dwelling places for the mind, 326-331

171-172 the penetrating Unprovoked, 170-171 five, for teaching the Dhamma,
five, for

new monks,

five, for

179
five, of

five, of five,

good lay follower, 180 monk, 128 of an

a a

strength of, 127-128 personal identity, 117 perversions, four, of perception, 82-83

undeserving / deserving

monk, 174-179
four, for a lay

person

s

happi

phenomenon, meaning

of, 66 pleasurable abiding, in the jhanas, 272 pleasure, 242-243, 323-325 possessions, acquiring, as danger for a monk, 169

ness, 255-258 four, in the presence of
four, leading to

Unbinding, 77-78 happiness in a 257 lay person,

four, of a monk, 110-111 needfulness, 287-288

powers, supranormal. See supra-

normal powers
praise, as a

insight (vipassana), 4-5, 93-95, 106-107, 301-303 leading to Unbinding, 238

worldly condition,

242-243
precepts, perfecting, ten reasons
for,

mental, 111-112, 325

needed by monks
dwellings, 126

in forest

301-303

principles for

monks, nine, 267-268

nine, for self-awakening, 265-266

principles, governing, 15-18 properties, five, leading to escape,

191-192
prosperity, kinds of, 19-20

of one lacking integrity, 89 of one with integrity, 89-90 for self-awakening, 265-266 seven, in a worthy monk, 235-

238
skillfulness/unskillfulness, 3233, 311-312, 317-322 ten, creating a protector, 288-290 tranquility (samatha), 4-5, 93-95,

protective charms, 86 protector, ten qualities creating,

288-290

Punnaka

s

Question, 80

Pure Abodes, 276
purgative, noble, 316-317 purification of discipline, 318-322 purity, knowledge of another s, 115-116

106-107, 301-303 questions, four ways of answering, 80-81 questions not to be asked, 107-

108

Index

R
rapture
attention to perceptions deal ing with, 269 in five-factored noble right
sagacity, three forms, 62-63

Sangha
causing a split agony, 173
faith in
in,

as cause of

concentration, 129-134
five possibilities that exist in, 181

do not

in the jhanas, 269 reward of joy, 323-325

as dwelling place for the mind, 38, 327, 331 as factor of stream entry,

305-306
as pleasant mental abiding in the here and now, 182-183
splitting of as

seeing the drawbacks of, 279 rebirth in heaven, 141 recollection of past lives, 133 reflection, theme of, 131
reflections, ten, 294-295

danger for a

monk, 165
as support in maintaining
celibacy, 158-160

refuge in the Buddha, as reward of merit, 251 refuge in the Dhamma, as reward of merit, 251 refuge in the Sarigha, as reward of merit, 251 refutation of wanderers, 307-316
release, 170-171, 304. See also

searches, ignoble, 125

seasonable
seclusion

gifts, five,

136-137
172

encouraged

for

new monks,
do not

five possibilities that exist in, 181

awareness-release

remorse, freedom from, 323-325 renunciation, 208-210 requisite conditions, 239-242, 306307 resentment, 285
resilience to sensory passions,

necessary for dwelling in the Dhamma, 152 requisite condition for discern ment, 239, 241
as retreat for practicing mindfulness, 155-156, 161-162 as topic of proper conversation,

300
sectarian guilds, refutation of

174-179
resistance, 221-222, 302

teachings, 24-26
self

respect, 193-194, 223, 289 restlessness and anxiety, 146
restlessness, avoiding, 230 restraint, 21-22, 161, 178

as a governing principle, 15-18 mistaken assumptions about,

rewards of conviction, five, 137-138 rewards of merit, eight, 251-253
right time, as factor of a well-spo ken statement, 190 right view, 128, 172
rivers, great,

121-123 self-awakened ones, 88
self-awakening, 265-266, 304-307 self-identification, 108-109, 191-192 sensual desire, 146 sensual passion, 221-222 sensual pleasures freedom from, 12

288

robes, fine, as

danger for a monk,

168-169

overcoming through
life,

celibate

15

Index

resilience to, 174-179

sloth

and drowsiness, 146

sensuality. See also sensual pleas

snake lineages, 87
social gatherings, sense of, 235-237

ures as debt, 202-205 escape from, 191-192 five strands of, 136, 211, 268-269 in the jhanas, 268, 278 knowledge of, 210-212 passion for resolves, 211
result of, 212

space, dimension of infinitude of,

272
speech, confrontational, avoiding,

230
speech, harsh, result status, 141, 242-243 status, as one of five things, 141
stealing
of,

253-254

welcome

and reward of renunciation, 278 seeing the drawbacks of, 277278
as yoke, 70-72 separation from what
is

cause of fear and animosity, 305
impossibility of, for arahants,

appealing,

267-268
result of, 253-254

295
serenity, 192, 323-325 seven factors for awakening,

314 seven most recent Buddhas, 88 sexual behavior, illicit, 253-257, 305 sexual intercourse, as cutting off of the bridge, 105 sharing, as condition conducive to amiability, 193-194
sick people, 9-10 the signless, as awareness-release,

stinginess, 285 stream entry, four factors of, 305-306

strengths, five, 127-128
stress,

309

defined, 28, 216
diversity in, 216 ending, as goal of a

monk, 15-18
216
of,

knowledge
origination 97-98, 216

of, 211,

and cessation

196
silence, respect for, six higher knowledges, 131, 273-

240-241

result of, 216 striving for excellence, 185-188

275
six

subduing hatred, ten ways of, 303 Such (tadin), one who is, 18, 73-74,
136, 209-210
suffering, debt and, 202-206

media of sensory contact

defined, 27

how a monk guards the doors
77-78 yoke of ignorance and, 70-72 six properties, defined, 26-27
to,

supranormal powers
contemplatives 16

endowed

with,

skillfulness, recognizing and developing, 3-4, 29-33, 310-312,

of five-factored noble right concentration, 132-134

and

318-322 slander of the Tathagata, 4

six higher knowledges, 273-275 through jhana, 283

Index

through purification of the mind, 58-59, 61

Unbinding at ending of mental fermenta
tions,

276

taking taking

life.

See killing
is

phenomenon, 66 and pleasure, 268-270
as

what

not given, 40, 305.

sought in noble search, 125
uncelibacy, 40, 267-268 uncertainty, 146, 221-222 understanding, lack of as cause of transmigration, 67 undesirability of all fabrications,

See also stealing

Tathagata. See tathagate, 74

Buddha

teachings, retention of, 289 ten courses of skillful /unskillful
action, 318-322

perception

of,

298

ten-factored uposatha, 293-294 ten fetters, 287 ten perceptions, 296-299

ten reflections, 294-295 ten topics of proper conversation, 300-301 ten ways of subduing hatred, 303 themes, three, attention to, 59-61 three kinds of training, 48-53
three themes, 59-61

the Unprovoked, 170-171 unskillfulness, recognizing /aban doning, 3-4, 29-33, 35-36, 318-322 unyokings, four, 70-72

uposatha, ten-factored, 293-294 uposathas, 35-40, 42-43, 293-294

victory, in battle to

maintain

celibacy, 155-156, 161-162

thunderheads, four kinds, 97-98 time, equivalents in the realm of various Devas, 41-42 time, sense of, 235-236 trades, success and failure in, 92 traditions, four, of the noble ones,
74-75
training for monks, five things that weaken, 286
training in the

views
fabricated, 307-316 as obsession, 221-222

as yoke, 70-72

views made

straight, 192

vigilance, 255-256 virtue

Dhamma,

98-100

training rules, five, for

house

holders, 182-185
trainings, three, 48-53 traits, means of knowing, 115-118

tranquility (samatha), 4-5, 93-95, 106-107, 301-303
treasures, seven, 219-221 truth as factor of a well-spoken

condition conducive to amia bility, 193-194 how a monk is consummate in, 77-78 knowledge of another s, 115-116 of a monk in training, 48-53 of one gone forth, 295 as prerequisite for self-awak ening, 265-266 quality creating a protector, 289
quality leading to a lay person s

statement, 190

happiness, 257
recollection of, 328, 331 as topic of proper conversation,

u
unattractiveness, perception of, 297

300
as treasure, 219-221

Index

as type of noble growth, 150
virtues, skillful, 323-324

W
wakefulness, 77-78 wanderers, refutation of, 307-312 war or unrest, as danger for a monk, 165
warriors, five types, in battle to maintain celibacy, 152-162 the Way to the Far Shore, 80

wilderness, living in condition for monks, 223 dangers of, 163-164

encouraged for new monks, 172 The Wings to Awakening, 53 wings to self-awakening, 265-266 wise people, 4, 29-33 withdrawal, 130 women. See females

worldly conditions, eight,
242-243

117,

wealth
85 drains on, 256-257 five benefits of, 139-140 reasons for loss, 125 welcome, what is, 140-142
bliss of,

worrying, avoiding at time of death, 196-198

wrong

livelihoods, 181

Y
yokes, four, 70-72

Index

Names

Ananda, Venerable, 283-285 advocates abandoning passion, aversion, and delusion, 43-47

wanderers views, 307-309 Ahgirasa (Gotama), 88 Anuruddha, 245-251
refutes

Buddha
instructs

tells

the story of

Gavesin, 185-188

B
Bahuna, Venerable, 304 Bhaggas, 196-198
Bhoja, 81

Kokanuda on views

of the cosmos, 314-316 instructs a nun on abandoning

food, craving,

and

conceit,

104-106
instructs Uttiya

on views

of

c
Chabyaputtas, 87 Channa the wanderer, 43-46 Cunda the silversmith, 317-322 Cunda, Venerable Maha, 290-293

the cosmos, 312-314 learns instructions for

new

monks, 171-172
learns the ten perceptions,

296-299

on paths

to arahantship, 104-106 receives instruction on renun

D
Dark Gotamakas, 87
Dighajanu (LongShin), 255-258

ciation,

276-283

receives instruction
virtue,

on

skillful

323-324

teaches the

Dhamma to
welcome

E
Erapathas, 87

Mahanama, 48-49
Anathapindika the householder

Buddha
Buddha

explains five

things, 140-142

Fatalists (Ajivakas),

46

explains the five bene fits of wealth, 139-140 Buddha explains the four

G
Gavesin, 185-188 General Siha, 134-135 Girimananda, Venerable, 296-299

kinds of

bliss,

85-86

Buddha

explains the unpro

tected mind, 61-62 Buddha explains the
self-awakening,

way

to

304-307

H
Hatthaka of Alavi, 11-12
Janussonin the brahman, 112-115

Buddha

instructs to enter

seclusion

and

rapture,

180-181 hears Buddha

s teachings for householders, 182-185

Index

Jivaka Komarabhacca, 244

Sariputta, Venerable asks the Buddha about giving,

K
Kakusandha, 88
Kassapa, 88, 186-188 Kesin the horse trainer, 98-100 Kimila, 228 Kokanuda the wanderer, 312-314 Konagamana, 88 Kotthita, Venerable Maha, 107-108

225-227
asks the 91

Buddha about trades,

Buddha instructs to enter seclu sion and rapture, 180-181 hears Buddha s teachings for
householders, 182-185 Maha Kotthita, 107-108 Siha, General, 134-135 Sikhin, 88 Sona, Venerable, 206 Sutavant the wanderer, 255-258
teaches

M
Magadhans, 171

Mahanama
326-331

the Sakyan, 48-49,

Mahapajapati Gotami, 254-255 Mallika, Queen, 142 Migara Rohaneyya, 220 Moggallana, Venerable Maha, 228-231

Tapussa the householder, 276-283 TigerPaw, 255-258

u
Udayin, Venerable, 179, 283-285 Ugga, 220-221 Upali, Venerable, 238 Uttiya the wanderer, 312-314

N
Nakula
s father

and mother,
36

84,

196-198

Niganthas

(Jains),

V
Vaccha. see Vacchagotta the wan derer Vacchagotta the wanderer, 22-24 Vajjiya Mahita the householder, 310-312 Vassakara the brahman, 111-112 Vessabhu, 88 Vipassin, 88 Virupakkhas, 87-88 Visakha, Migara s mother, 35

Pacetana, King, 7-9 Pasenadi, King, 142-145

R
Rohitassa, 81-82

Sakyans, 293-294

Index

Figures of Speech

If a figure of speech appears in iden
tical

phrases throughout multiple

discourses, only the first occurrence appears in the index.

firebrand from a funeral pyre, 95 fish rising from water, 118
flame, flexed
flies

unbound, 52

arm

of strong

man, 206

around

carrion, 64

archer practicing on a straw man,

275

B
ball of

bath powder, 130
tree

flower fragrances, 288 footprints of legged animals, 287 fragrances, 288 frontier city with a single gate, 314 fruit-tree eater, 256

banyan

where four roads
gatekeeper of frontier city, 314 ghee from cow milk, 95 gold, impurities of, 56-57, 59-60 great rivers, 288

meet, 138

bed on a spread of grass, 247 birds, coming from four direc
tions, 189-190 black aloes-root, 288

bull,

tame and strong, 23, 184 butcher, of goats, 55-56

H
hand grasping a branch, 109
Himalayas as pillow of the una wakened Buddha, 189 horses and goad-sticks, 100-102 horses, tamable and not tamable,
98-100

chariot at crossroads, harnessed
to thoroughbreds, 132

chariot wheels, two, 7-9
city, frontier,

314 288

constellations, light of,

house aflame, 22
house, poorly roofed, 60
i
inscription in rock, soil,

cow, inexperienced and experi enced, 270-271

D
dwelling
at foot of a tree,

and water,

247

65

elephant worthy /not worthy of a king, 173-178 excrement, giant mountain of, 189-190

J jasmine fragrance, 288

lake of cool waters, 130

Index

light of the tions, 288

moon and

constella

sandalwood, red, 288
stench of carrion, 64

lotuses

immersed

in water, 130-

storm of wind and
strong

rain,

209

131, 304

man s flexed or extended
sky, 288

M
man wrapped in white cloth,
meal of almsfood, 247
medicine of strong-smelling urine, 247
131

arm, 206-207

sun in the

monk as warrior,

110-111

moon, light of, 288 mountain of excrement, 189-190 mountain of rock, 20, 209

the goad-stick and thoroughbred horses, 100-102 the ocean foremost among bodies of water, 288 tree, dwelling at foot of, 247

u
uprooted palm
pillow of the unawakened Buddha, 189
tree, 11

poisoned arrow of sorrow, 143-145 poor person talking about riches,
291
putrefaction, 64

vina in tune and playable, 207208

w
warriors in battle, 152-162 waste-water pool, 109-110 water jar, filled to brim, 131 water tank, filled to brim, 132 wattie-and-daub-town princes, 288 weighing scales, 256 wheel-turning emperor, 288 wheels, of a chariot, 7-9 wood fragrances, 288 woody vine growing out of navel
of the

R
peak-roofed house, 287 of, 288 red sandalwood, 288
rafters in a

rains, last

month

river flowing

down from the

mountains, 146
rock,
roof,

mountain of, 20 soggy and rotting, 60

root fragrances, 288

unawakened Buddha,
the

189-190
sal trees in

dependence on the

worms crawling up

unawak

Himalayas, 19-20 salt crystal in the River Ganges, 54

ened Buddha, 189-190

The
is

Sati

Center Book Fund
to

dedicated to bringing a long-standing

America by making high-quality books of scholarly and practical inter est on Buddhist teachings
Buddhist tradition
available for free distribution.

For further information, or to request copies of books printed under the aegis of the fund,
write
to:

Center Book Fund c/o Sati Center for Buddhist Studies PO Box 2021 Santa Cruz, CA 95063-2021 USA

The

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