1
AASHTO LRFD B id D i AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design
Specifications
Prestressed Concrete
RICHARD A. MILLER, PhD, PE, FPCI
PROFESSOR PROFESSOR
UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4th Edition
This module covers prestressed concrete superstructure
elements.
General
Segmental boxes are NOT covered.
Topics which are related to reinforced concrete only are
covered in another module.
Concrete structures are covered in Chapter 5. Chapter 5
uses a unified approach – reinforced concrete and
prestressed concrete are covered in the same chapter.
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Loads and load combinations related to concrete are
covered in Chapter 3.
Analysis of concrete structures is covered in Chapter 4.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #2
2
General
LRFD equations are in KSI units!
Example Modulus of Rupture: Example Modulus of Rupture:
In most cases, the equations are simply the old Standard
Specifications equations converted to ksi units.
. . 530 5000 5 . 7
530 . 0 5 24 . 0
SPEC STD psi psi f
LRFD ksi ksi f
r
r
= =
= =
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ksi
ksi ksi
ksi psi
psi
5 24 . 0
1000
5 5 . 7
1000
5 1000 5 . 7
/ 1000
5000 5 . 7
= = =
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #3
§ 5.4 – Material Properties
Materials must meet AASHTO LRFD Bridge
Construction Specifications. Construction Specifications.
Unless specified otherwise, all provisions apply for
strengths up to 10 ksi (Art. 5.4.2.1).
Some provisions allow up to 15 ksi.
There is an effort to extend all provisions to 18 ksi.
If a provision does not allow higher strength, use a
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maximum of 10 ksi in the calculations.
Decks must have a minimum strength of 4 ksi.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #4
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§ 5.4 – Material Properties
A current problem with the LRFD Specifications is that some
provisions allow strengths up to 18 ksi, but many are limited to 15
ksi or the default of 10 ksi.
So what do you do if you are using a high strength concrete and a
specific provision does not allow that strength?
Use the highest strength allowed by that provision. For
example, assume a 15 ksi strength is specified but a particular
provision has not been verified for that strength. For that
particular provision, you must use a concrete strength of 10
ksi for your calculations (you may still use 15 ksi concrete in
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ksi for your calculations (you may still use 15 ksi concrete in
the structure, you just cannot take advantage of the additional
strength for that particular provision). However, if other
provisions allow the use of 15 ksi concrete, you can use 15 ksi
for those provisions.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #5
§ 5.4 – Material Properties
§ 5.4.2.3 – Shrinkage and Creep
For calculation of creep and shrinkage, the engineer may
use:
Articles 5.4.2.3.2 and 5.4.2.3.3
CEBFIP Model Code
ACI 209
For prestressed concrete – the loss equations include
creep and shrinkage.
The main use of these provisions for prestressed
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The main use of these provisions for prestressed
concrete is for calculating restraint moments for
continuous for live load bridges.
These are verified to 15 ksi. The creep equations do not
work for strengths over 15 ksi.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #6
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§ 5.4 – Material Properties
§ 5.4.2.3 – Shrinkage and Creep
( ) =
−
t k k k k t t
Art t Coefficien Creep
i td f hc vs i
9 . 1 ,
: ) 2 . 3 . 2 . 4 . 5 . (
118 . 0
ψ
H = Relative Humidity
t = time from first loading to
( )


+
=
− =
≥ 
.

\

− =
t
k
f
k
H k
S
V
k
ci
f
hc
vs
i td f hc vs i
' 1
5
008 . 0 56 . 1
0 . 1 13 . 0 45 . 1
, ψ
t = time from first loading to
time being considered
t
i
= time of first loading
V/S = volume to surface
f
ci
= concrete strength at time of
prestress transfer or time of
first load (RC)
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.
\
+ −
=
t f
k
ci
td
' 4 61
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #7
first load (RC).
If unknown, assume = 0.8f
c
’.
Std. Spec did not have a creep coefficient. Previous versions of LRFD use a
different equation. It is similar to the ACI equation using ∆t
0.6
/(10+ ∆t
0.6
).
§ 5.4 – Material Properties
§ 5.4.2.3 – Shrinkage and Creep
( ) − =
−
x k k k k
Art Shrinkage
td f hs vs sh
10 48 . 0
: ) 3 . 3 . 2 . 4 . 5 . (
3
ε
H = Relative Humidity
t = time from end of cure to
( )


+
=
− =
≥ 
.

\

− =
t
f
k
H k
S
V
k
ci
f
hs
vs
td f hs vs sh
' 1
5
014 . 0 2
0 . 1 13 . 0 45 . 1
t = time from end of cure to
time being considered
V/S = volume to surface
f
ci
= concrete strength at time of
prestress transfer or time of
first load (RC).
If unknown, assume = 0.8f
c
’.
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.

\

+ −
=
t f
t
k
ci
td
' 4 61
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #8
Std. Spec. set shrinkage = 0.002. Previous editions of LRFD used an ACI type
equation with a term of t/(35+t).
5
§ 5.4 – Material Properties
§ 5.4.2.6 – Modulus of Rupture
There are now 3 defined Moduli of Rupture for normal
weight concrete: g
For Arts. 5.7.3.4 (crack control) and 5.7.3.3.2 (I
eff
):
0.24 √f
c
’ksi (= 7.5√f
c
’ in psi units)
For Art. 5.7.3.3.2 (minimum reinforcement):
0.37 √f
c
’ksi (= 11.5√f
c
’ in psi units)
For Art. 5.8.3.4.3 (shear) (this is new in 2007):
√ √
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0.20 √f
c
’ksi (= 6 √f
c
’ in psi units)
Note that the value for Article 5.8.3.4.3 (shear) ONLY
applies to the new, “simplified” method.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #9
§ 5.4 – Material Properties
§ 5.4.2.4 – Modulus of Elasticity & § 5.4.2.5 – Poisson’s Ratio
(5.4.2.41)
(5 4 2 5)
1.5
c 1 c c
E 33, 000K w f '
0 2
=
u
Where:
K
1
= Aggregate factor. Taken as 1.0 unless determined by
testing or as approved by a jurisdiction.
w = concrete unit weight in kcf
f
c
’ = concrete strength ksi
(5.4.2.5) 0.2 u =
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E is basically the old Standard Specifications equation converted to
ksi units and with an aggregate correction factor added.
u is unchanged from Standard Specifications.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #10
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§ 3.4  Loads and Load Factors
§3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations
For prestressed girders, the following service load combinations are most
common:
Service I: Used for compression and transverse tension in prestressed
concrete.
Service III: Used for longitudinal tension in prestressed concrete
girders.
Service IV: Used for tension in prestressed columns, for crack control.
Strength I: Basic load combination.
Fatigue : Fatigue of reinforcement does NOT need to be checked for
fully prestressed components designed using Service III
(A 3 1)
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(Art. 5.5.3.1)
Strength IIV and Extreme Event I and II are checked as warranted.
Service II is for steel and never applies to prestressed concrete.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #11
DC
DD LL
Use One of These at a Time
§ 3.4  Loads and Load Factors
§3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations
Table 3.4.11 Load Combinations and Load Factors
Load Combination
DW
EH
EV
ES
EL
IM
CE
BR
PL
LS WA WS WL FR
TU
CR
SH TG SE EQ IC CT CV
STRENGTH I
(unless noted) γ
p
1.75 1.00   1.00 0.50/1.20 γ
TG
γ
SE
   
STRENGTH II γ
p
1.35 1.00   1.00 0.50/1.20 γ
TG
γ
SE
   
STRENGTH III γ
p
1.00 1.40  1.00 0.50/1.20 γ
TG
γ
SE
   
STRENGTH IV γ
p
1.00   1.00 0.50/1.20      
STRENGTH V γ
p
1.35 1.00 0.40 1.0 1.00 0.50/1.20 γ
TG
γ
SE
   
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γ
p
γ
TG
γ
SE
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #12
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§ 3.4  Loads and Load Factors
§3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations
Table 3.4.11 Load Combinations and Load Factors (cont.)
DC
DD LL
Use One of These at a Time
Load Combination
DW
EH
EV
ES
EL
IM
CE
BR
PL
LS WA WS WL FR
TU
CR
SH TG SE EQ IC CT CV
EXTREME EVENT I γ
p
γEQ 1.00   1.00    1.00   
EXTREME EVENT II γ
p
0.50 1.00   1.00     1.00 1.00 1.00
FATIGUE – LL, IM,
& CE ONLY  0.75           
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #13
§ 3.4  Loads and Load Factors
§3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations
Table 3.4.11 Load Combinations and Load Factors (cont.)
DC
DD LL
Use One of These at a
Ti
Load
Combination
DW
EH
EV
ES
EL
IM
CE
BR
PL
LS WA WS WL FR
TU
CR
SH TG SE
Time
EQ IC CT CV
SERVICE I 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.30 1.0 1.00 1.00/1.20 γ
TG
γ
SE
   
SERVICE II 1.00 1.30 1.00   1.00 1.00/1.20      
SERVICE III 1.00 0.80 1.00   1.00 1.00/1.20 γ
TG
γ
SE
   
SERVICE IV 1.00  1.00 0.70  1.00 1.00/1.20  1.0    
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #14
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§ 3.4  Loads and Load Factors
§3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations
Service III applies only to LONGITUDINAL TENSION in
prestressed girders. The modifier to (LL+IM) is 0.8. The prestressed girders. The modifier to (LL IM) is 0.8. The
modifier is < 1 because it was found that the tensile
capacity of prestressed girders is underestimated. This is
largely because the loss of prestressing force is usually
overestimated and a lower bound is used for the tensile
strength (modulus of rupture).
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #15
AASHTO LRFD AASHTOLRFD
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed
Concrete Elements
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4th Edition
9
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
The simplified distribution factors may be used if:
Width of the slab is constant
Number of beams, N
b
> 4
Beams are parallel and of similar stiffness
Roadway overhang d
e
< 3 ft
Central angle < Article 4.6.1.2
Cross section conforms to AASHTO Table 4.6.2.2.11
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #17
Note: Multiple presence factors are NOT used with simplified distribution factors.
This is part of
Table 4.6.2.2.11
showing common
precast/
prestressed
concrete bridge concrete bridge
types.
The letter below
the diagram
correlates to a set
of distribution
factors.
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #18
factors.
10
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Beam and Slab Bridges would be a Type “k” bridge.
Moment distribution factors  LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2b1:
T l l d d
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Two or more lanes loaded:
DFM = 0.075+(S/9.5)
0.6
(S/L)
0.2
(K
g
/12.0Lt
s
3
)
0.1
One lane loaded:
DFM= 0.06+( S/14 )
0.4
( S/L )
0.3
(K
g
/12.0Lt
s
3
)
0.1
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #19
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
S = girder spacing (ft) 3.5 < S < 16.0
L = span length (ft) 20 < L < 240
t = slab thickness (in) 4 5 < t < 12 0 t
s
= slab thickness (in) 4.5 < t
s
< 12.0
N
b
= Number of Beams N
b
> 4
K
g
= n(I
g
+ A
g
e
g
2
) (in
4
) 10,000 < K
g
< 7,000,000
n = E
c,beam
/E
c,slab
I
g
= gross moment of inertia, non composite girder (in
4
)
A
g
= gross area, non composite girder (in
2
)
e
g
= distance between centers of gravity of the non composite beam
d l b (i )
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and slab. (in)
If N
b
= 3, use the lesser of the equations above with N
b
= 3
and the lever rule.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #20
11
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Beam and Slab Type “k” bridge
Shear Distribution Factors  LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3a1:
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Two or more lanes loaded:
DFV = 0.2 + ( S/12 )  ( S/35 )
2
One lane loaded:
DFV = 0.36 + ( S/25 )
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #21
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
3.5 < S < 16.0 ft.
20 < L < 240 ft 20 < L < 240 ft.
4.5 < t
s
< 12.0 in.
N
b
> 4
If N
b
= 3; use the lever rule.
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #22
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Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Beam and Slab Bridge Type “k” – Exterior – Moment
Two or more lanes loaded:
One lane loaded – use the Lever Rule
LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d1
1 . 9
77 . 0
int
e
ext
d
e
eg g
+ =
=
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g = DFM
d
e
= distance from edge of the traffic railing to the exterior web of the
exterior beam. The term d
e
is positive when the railing is outboard
(shown) and negative when the railing is inboard. 1.0 < d
e
< 5.5 ft.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #23
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Beam and Slab Bridge Type “k” – Exterior – Shear
Two or more lanes loaded: Two or more lanes loaded:
One lane loaded – use the Lever Rule
LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3b1
10
6 . 0
int
e
ext
d
e
eg g
+ =
=
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g = DFV
1.0 < d
e
< 5.5 ft.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #24
13
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Beam and Slab Bridge – Type “k” Longitudinal Beams
on Skewed Supports
Any number of lanes loaded; multiply DFM by:
(LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2c1)
θ = Angle of skew; 30
o
< θ < 60
o
;
( )
5 . 0
25 . 0
1
5 . 1
1
12
25 . 0
tan 1

.

\



.

\

=
−
L
S
Lt
K
c
c
s
θ
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θ Angle of skew; 30 < θ < 60 ;
if θ<30
o
, c
1
= 0; if θ>60
o
then θ=60
o
L = Span, 20 < L < 240 ft
S = Beam Spacing, 3.5 < S < 16 ft
N
b
> 4
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #25
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Beam and Slab Bridge – Type “k” Longitudinal Beams
on Skewed Supports on Skewed Supports
Correlation Factor for Load Distribution Factor for Support Shear at
Obtuse Corner  (LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3c1)
θ = Angle of skew; 0
o
< θ < 60
o
;
θ tan
12
20 . 0 0 . 1
3 . 0
3


.

\

+
g
s
K
Lt
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L = Span, 20 < L < 240 ft
S = Beam Spacing, 3.5 < S < 16 ft
N
b
> 4
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #26
14
Lever Rule: Assume a hinge develops over each interior girder and solve for the
reaction in the exterior girder as a fraction of the truck load.
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
1.2 0
1.2 1.2
H
M Pe RS
Pe e
R DF
S S
→ − =
= ∴ =
∑
This is for one lane loaded. Multiple
Presence Factors apply 1.2 is the MPF
In the diagram P/2 are the wheel loads; P
1.5’
36k 36k
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #27
In the diagram, P/2 are the wheel loads; P
is the resultant force. All three loads are
NOT applied at the same time.
Note that truck cannot be closer than 2’
from the barrier
8 ft
(3.6.1.3)
Minimum Exterior DFM: (Rigid Body Rotation of Bridge Section)
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
N
L
 Number of loaded lanes under consideration
N
b
 Number of beams or girders
E t i it f d i t k l d f CG f tt f
∑
∑
+ =
b
L
Min Ext
N
N
Ext
b
L
x
e X
N
N
DF
2
,
(C4.6.2.2.2d1)
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #28
e  Eccentricity of design truck or load from CG of pattern of
girders (ft.)
x  Distance from CG of pattern of girders to each girder (ft.)
X
Ext
 Distance from CG of pattern of girders to exterior girder (ft.)
15
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Adjacent Box Girders
Adjacent box girders with shear keys and a cast in place Adjacent box girders with shear keys and a castinplace
overlay are Type “f” sections.
Adjacent box girders with shear keys, but no castin
place deck, are Type “g” sections. Type “g” sections
may or may not be laterally posttensioned.
Lack of lateral posttensioning causes a reduction of the
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distribution factor.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #29
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Interior Box Girders
The following distribution factors may be used for a Type g y yp
“f” (composite deck) or a Type “g” (noncomposite)
bridge IF the girders are “sufficiently connected together”
– meaning they achieve transverse flexural continuity.
This can be done with lateral posttensioning of at least
250 psi (Commentary 4.6.2.2.1; paragraph 12).
The Commentary further states that bridges without a
t t l l d hi h t i d t
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structural overlay and which use untensioned transverse
rods should NOT be considered as sufficient to achieve
transverse flexural continuity, unless demonstrated by
testing or experience (Commentary 4.6.2.2.1, paragraph
14).
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #30
16
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Interior Box Girders
Type “f” (composite deck) or “g” with lateral PT  Type f (composite deck) or g with lateral PT
LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2b1
Moment:
Two lanes loaded
DFM = k ( b/305 )
0.6
( b/12.0L )
0.2
( I/J )
0.06
One lane loaded
DFM = k(b/33.3L)
0.5
(I/J)
0.25
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #31
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Interior Box Girders
k = 2 5 ( N ) 0 2 > 1 5 k = 2.5 ( N
b
)0.2 > 1.5
N
b
= number of beams 5 < N
b
< 20
b = width of beam, in 35< b < 60 in
L = span of beam, ft 20< L < 120 ft
I = moment of inertia of beam, in
4
J = St. Venant torsional constant, in
4
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J St. Venant torsional constant, in
For preliminary design, ( I/J )
0.06
= 1.0
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #32
17
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Interior Box Girders
Distribution Factors for Shear  LRFD Table 4.6.2.2..3a1
Two Lanes Loaded:
DFV = (b/156)
0.4
(b/12L)
0.1
(I/J)
0.05
(b/48)
One Lane Loaded:
DFV = (b/130L)
0.15
(I/J)
0.05
5 < N
b
< 20
These are used for
both composite and
noncomposite;
even if the girders
are NOT sufficiently
connected.
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5 N
b
20
35< b < 60 in
20< L < 120 ft
25,000 < J < 610,000 in
4
40,000 < I < 610,000 in
4
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #33
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Type “g” box with NO lateral PT
DFV (distribution factor for shear) does not change. It is the same
for Type “g” structures with and without lateral PT.
DFM is different. For Type “g” structures without lateral PT, the old
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Standard Specifications equations are used.
NOTE: The Standard Specifications equations were based on wheel loads and
the LRFD equations are based on axle loads; so the equations changed by a
factor of 2.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #34
18
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Distribution Factor for Moment  LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2b1
DFM = S/D
S = width of precast beam (ft)
D = (11.5  N
L
)+1.4N
L
(10.2C)
2
when C < 5
D = (11.5  N
L
) when C > 5
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Where:
N
L
= number of traffic lanes
C = K(W/L) < K
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #35
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
For Preliminary Design
Beam Type K
N id d t l b 0 7
C = K(W/L) < K
Where:
Nonvoided rectangular beams 0.7
Rectangular beams with circular voids: 0.8
Box section beams 1.0
Channel beams 2.2
Tbeam 2.0
Double Tbeam 2.0
J
I
K
) 1 ( u +
=
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W= overall width of bridge measured perpendicular to the
longitudinal beam (ft)
L = span (ft)
u = Poisson’s ratio = 0.2 for concrete (5.4.2.5)
J
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #36
19
≈
S
A 4
J
2
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
∑
t
S
J
Where:
A = Area enclosed by the centerline of the webs and flanges.
l h f b fl li
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #37
S = length of a web or flange centerline.
t = thickness of the corresponding web or flange.
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
The bending moment for exterior beams is determined by
multiplying the distribution factor for interior beams by a multiplying the distribution factor for interior beams by a
factor, e, which accounts for the distribution of load to the
exterior girder. Note that this applies to type “g” even if
there is no lateral posttensioning. Lack of lateral post
tensioning is accounted for in the DVM.
Minimum exterior distribution factor based on rigid body
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #38
Minimum exterior distribution factor based on rigid body
rotation does not apply to adjacent box girders.
20
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Exterior Box Girders
Multiplier for Moment – Types “f” and “g”  LRFD Table 4 6 2 2 2d1 Multiplier for Moment Types f and g LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d 1
Two or more lanes loaded:
g
ext
= eg
interior
Where:
e = 1.04 + ( d
e
/ 25 ) > 1
d
e
=distance from edge of the traffic railing to the exterior web of
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
e
the exterior beam. The term d
e
is positive when the railing is
outboard (shown) and negative when the railing is inboard.
d
e
< 2.0 UNIT IS FEET!
g= DFM
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #39
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Exterior Box Girder
Multiplier for Moment – Types “f” and “g”  LRFD Table 4 6 2 2 2d1 Multiplier for Moment Types f and g LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d 1
One lane loaded:
g
ext
= eg
interior
e = 1.125 + ( d
e
/ 30 ) > 1
d
e
< 2.0 ft.
e accounts for the
distribution of load to
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
e
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #40
the exterior girder
21
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Exterior Box Girders
Multiplier for Shear – Types “f” and “g”  LRFD Table 4 6 2 2 3b1 Multiplier for Shear Types f and g LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3b 1
Two or more lanes loaded:
1
48
48
5 . 0
int
 
≤ 
.

\


.

\

=
b
b
b
eg g
ext
d < 2 0
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
0 . 1
40
0 . 2
12
1 ≥




.

\

− +
+ =
b
d
e
e
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #41
d
e
< 2.0
35 < b < 60 in
g = DFV
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Multiplier for Shear – Types “f” and “g”  LRFD Table
4.6.2.2.3b1 4.6.2.2.3b 1
One lane loaded:
g
ext
= eg
interior
e = 1.125 + ( d
e
/ 20 ) > 1
d
e
< 2.0 ft.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #42
22
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Skewed Box Girders
Multiplier for Moment LRFD Table 4 6 2 2 2c 1 Multiplier for Moment  LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2c1
1.05  0.25 ( tan θ) < 1.0
θ = skew angle
If θ > 60
0
use θ = 60
0
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
This is optional.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #43
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
When the skew angle of a bridge is small, say, less than 20
o
, it is
often considered safe to ignore the angle of skew and to analyze the
bridge as a zeroskew bridge whose span is equal to the skew span.
This approach is generally conservative for moments in the beams,
and slightly unsafe (<5%) for slabongirder decks for longitudinal
shears.
The LRFD Specifications Table 4.6.2.2.e1 lists reduction multipliers
for moments in longitudinal beams.
The previous slide illustrates the multiplier for spread box beams,
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
adjacent box beams with concrete overlays or transverse post
tensioning and double tees in multibeam decks or Types (b), (c), (f)
and (g).
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #44
23
Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
§ 4.6.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear
Correlation Factor for Load Distribution Factor for Support
Shear at Obtuse Corner – Types “f” and “g”  (LRFD Table yp g (
4.6.2.2.3c1) – This is mandatory.
0
o
< θ < 60
o
20 < L < 240 ft
θ tan
90
0 . 12
0 . 1
d
L
+
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
20 < L < 240 ft.
17 < d < 60 in d is depth of the girder
35 < b < 60 in b is width of the flange
5 < N
b
< 20
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #45
S TO AASHTOLRFD
Flexure and Axial Loads
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4th Edition
24
Flexure and Axial Loads
Definitions of various “d” terms for
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #47
Flexure and Axial Loads
AASHTO LRFD now uses the same terminology as ACI
31805.
This is a unified method for prestressed and reinforced
concrete members.
Article 5.7.2.1 defines 3 states:
Tension Controlled
Compression Controlled
Transition
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July 2007
Transition
In all cases, extreme fiber compressive strain = 0.003
(Article 5.7.2.1).
Values above 0.003 are allowed for confined cores.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #48
25
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States
Definition of Section Types
Extreme tensile steel strain when the extreme
concrete compressive strain = 0.003
Type of section
ε
t
> 0.005 Tension controlled
ε
t
< f
y
/ E
s
(may use = 0.002) Compression controlled
0.005 > ε
t
> f
y
/ E
s
Transition
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #49
For all prestressing or Grade 60 nonprestressed steel, ε
t
may be
assumed = 0.002 in place of f
y
/E
s
for compression controlled.
The ACI 318 code, upon which this provision is based, requires flexural
members (that is, members with a superimposed axial load of < 0.1f
c
’A
g
) to
have ε
s
> 0.004. AASHTO does not impose this requirement.
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States
Definition of strain conditions for determining tension or compression
control. Note that tensile strain in the steel closest to the tensile
face is used
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
face is used.
Balanced condition is when ε
t
= ε
y
. For Grade 60 steel and all
prestressing steel, ε
y
may be taken as 0.002.
Note that for prestressing steel, ε
t
is the tensile strain which occurs
in the steel after the precompression in the concrete is lost.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #50
26
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States
For a prestressed beam, it is
important to understand the important to understand the
definition of ε
t
.
Begin by considering the strain
condition of the beam at the
point where the only loads are
the prestressing force and the
beam self weight.
d
t
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #51
In this condition, the top of the beam is usually in tension (due to the
prestressing). There is a net tensile strain in the prestressing steel of
ε
p1
. This is the initial pull minus any strain lost due to prestress losses.
At the level of the steel, there is a compressive strain the concrete, ε
c
.
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States
As load is applied, the strain
profile changes, the bottom
d d t ll decompresses and eventually
reaches a point where the
CONCRETE strain at the level
of the steel is 0. This is called
“decompression”.
If there were no losses (except
for elastic shortening), the strain
in the steel ε at this point
d
t
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
in the steel, ε
p2
at this point
would be the initial pull. The
actual strain in the steel, with
losses, can be calculated by
mechanics.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #52
27
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.7.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States
This is the condition at M
n
. The
compressive strain in the concrete
is 0 003 The total strain in the is 0.003. The total strain in the
prestressing steel is the sum of the
strain in the steel at
decompression, ε
p2
, and the strain
developed between
decompression and the ultimate
state, ε
t
.
The specifications only regulate the
d
t
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
The specifications only regulate the
strain developed between
decompression and the ultimate
state, ε
t
. The additional strain in
the prestressing steel, ε
p2
is not
part of the specification.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #53
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.5.4.2 Resistance Factors
Φ = 0.9 tension controlled reinforced concrete members
1 0 tension controlled prestressed concrete members 1.0 tension controlled prestressed concrete members
0.75 compression controlled members with spirals or
ties (except for members in Seismic Zones 3 & 4)
0.90 shear and torsion
0.70 shear and torsion lightweight concrete
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
For transition members, use a linear interpolation of the Φ
factor based on the extreme tensile steel strain.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #54
28
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.5.4.2 Resistance Factors
1
1.05
Prestressed:
Strain = 0 004
Prestressed
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
0 0 001 0 002 0 003 0 004 0 005 0 006 0 007
P
h
i
F
a
c
t
o
r
Compression
Controlled
Transition
Tension
Controlled
Strain = 0.004
Phi = 0.92 Reinforced
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Prestressed Members
Reinforced Members
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007
Extreme Steel Strain
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #55
(5.5.4.2.11)
(5.5.4.2.12)
0.75 0.583 .25 1 1.0
0.75 0.65 .15 1 1.0
 
≤ = + − ≤

\ .
 
≤ = + − ≤

\ .
t
t
d
c
d
c
φ
φ
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.5.4.2 Resistance Factors
Effect of New Resistance Factors
It is allowable to design flexural members with extreme It is allowable to design flexural members with extreme
fiber steel strains < 0.005. This is done by increasing the
area of steel. However, in general, the Φ factor is
reduced at a slightly lower rate than moment resistance
is gained. There is a slight increase in M
n
but it is
minimal.
Thus there is little effect on the allowable moment by
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Thus, there is little effect on the allowable moment by
increasing the amount of steel above that required to
bring the extreme fiber steel strains to 0.005.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #56
29
Flexure and Axial Loads
§ 5.5.4.2 Resistance Factors
For tension controlled partially prestressed members:
(5 5 4 2 1 3)
0 90 0 10PPR φ +
PPR = Partial prestressing ratio
A
ps
= Area of prestressing steel
(5.5.4.2.13)
(5.5.4.2.14)
ps py
ps py s y
0.90 0.10PPR
A f
PPR
A f A f
φ = +
=
+
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
A
ps
Area of prestressing steel
f
py
= Yield strength of the prestressing steel
A
s
= Area of mild steel
f
y
= Yield strength of the mild steel
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #57
Flexure and Axial Loads
The stress block remains the same as Standard
Specifications.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Analysis of reinforced concrete RECTANGULAR beams
is the same as Standard Specifications.
HOWEVER, there are some differences with prestressed
concrete.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #58
30
AASHTO LRFD AASHTOLRFD
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4th Edition
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
The value of f
ps
can be found from (if f
pe
> 0.5f
pu
):
5 7 3 1 1 1)
c
f f 1 k
 

py
f
k 2 1 04
 

(5 7 3 1 1 2)
Then:
(5.7.3.1.11)
ps pu
p
c
f f 1 k
d
= −


\ .
c ps ps
1
c 1 ps pu
p
0.85f ' ba A f
a c
c
0.85f ' b c A f 1 k
d
=
= β
 
β = −


\ .
py
pu
k 2 1.04
f
= −


\ .
(5.7.3.1.12)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Stress in the steel, f
ps
, can also be found from strain compatibility analysis.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #60
ps pu
pu
c 1 ps
p
A f
c
f
0.85f ' b kA
d
\ .
=
β +
31
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
pu ps
f
f A
c =
c = depth of neutral axis
b = width of compression block
A
ps
= area of TENSILE prestressing steel
p
pu
ps c
d
f
kA b f +
1
' 85 . 0 β
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
d
p
= depth to centroid of tensile prestressing steel
f
pu
= tensile strength of prestressing steel
f
py
= yield strength of prestressing steel
β
1
= stress block factor – same as Std. Spec.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #61
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
If there is mild (nonprestressed) tensile steel, A
s
and mild
compression steel A
s
’ both with a yield stress of f
y
, the p
s
y
y
equation for c becomes:
(5.7.3.1.14)
1
.85 ' ' ' 1
c s y s y ps pu
p
c
f b c A f A f A f k
d
β
 
+ = + −


\ .
' '
ps pu s y s y
A f A f A f
c
f
+ −
=
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
The engineer must do an analysis to see if the compression steel yields. If the
compression steel does not yield, the actual stress is substituted for f
y
’ into
equation 5.7.3.1.14.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #62
1
0.85 '
pu
c ps
p
f
f b kA
d
β +
32
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
Sometimes, things change for the better!!!!
Std. Spec
And
LRFD 2005
Interim
Editions 1
th h 3 f
In Editions 13 of the
LRFD Specifications, the
β factor was applied to
the flange as well as to
the web. This made no
sense. It was changed
with the 2005 Interim
back to the old definition
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #63
through 3 of
LRFD
back to the old definition.
Now it is the same
definition as ACI 318 and
Std. Spec.
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
The T beam equation returns to normal:
a a
   
(5.7.3.1.11)
( )
2 2
' ' ' 0.85 '
2 2 2
n ps ps p s y s
f
s y s c w f
a a
M A f d A f d
h
a a
A f d f b b h
   
= − + − −
 
\ . \ .
 
 
− + − −
 
\ .
\ .
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Again the engineer must do an analysis to see if the compression steel
yields. If the compression steel does not yield, the actual stress is
substituted for f
y
’ into equation 5.7.3.1.11.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #64
33
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
( )
f
n ps ps p s y s s s s c w f
a a a a h
M A f d A f d A' f ' d' 0.85f ' b b h
2 2 2 2 2
       
= − + − − − + − −
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
The LRFD Specifications give only this equation:
2 2 2 2 2
\ . \ . \ . \ .
a a
M A f d A f d
   
+
 
n ps ps p s y s s s s
a a a
M A f d A f d A' f ' d'
2 2 2
     
= − + − − −
  
\ . \ . \ .
If the section is NOT a “T” beam, b = b
w
and:
If there is no compression steel:
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
n ps ps p
a
M A f d
2
 
= −

\ .
n ps ps p s y s
M A f d A f d
2 2
= − + −
 
\ . \ .
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #65
If there is no nonprestressed tensile steel:
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
For prestressed T Beams:
b
w
= web width
(5.7.3.1.13)
( )
1
' ' 0.85 '
0.85 '
ps pu s y s y c w f
pu
c w ps
p
A f A f A f f b b h
c
f
f b kA
d
β
+ − − −
=
+
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
w
b = flange width
h
f
= flange thickness
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #66
34
AASHTO LRFD AASHTOLRFD
Prestressed Beams with Unbonded Tendons
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4th Edition.
Prestressed Beams with Unbonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
The stress in the prestressing steel can be found from:
  d
e
= effective tendon length
i
= length of tendon between anchorages
l


.

\

+
=
<


.

\
 −
+ =
s
i
e
py
e
p
pe ps
N
f
c d
f f
2
2
900
l
l
l
(5.7.3.1.21)
(5.7.3.1.22)
l
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
i
length of tendon between anchorages
N
s
= Number of support hinges crossed by the tendon between
anchorages or discretely bonded points.
f
pe
= Effective stress in the steel after losses.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #68
35
Prestressed Beams with Unbonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
For rectangular beams:
For Tbeams:
(5.7.3.1.24)
1
' '
0.85 '
ps ps s y s y
c
A f A f A f
c
f b β
+ −
=
( )
' ' 0.85 '
ps ps s y s y c w f
A f A f A f f b b h
c
+ − − −
=
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #69
(5.7.3.1.23)
1
0.85 '
c w
f b β
Prestressed Beams with Unbonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
For unbonded tendons, the equations for “c” require the
value of f , but the equation for f requires the value of value of f
ps
, but the equation for f
ps
requires the value of
“c”.
The two equations can be solved simultaneously in a
closed form, but most people will not do this.
Thus, finding f
ps
becomes an iterative procedure.
The Commentary (C5.7.3.1.2) gives an equation for a
first estimate of f (in ksi):
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
first estimate of f
ps
(in ksi):
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #70
(C5.7.3.1.21)
15
ps pe
f f = +
36
AASHTO LRFD AASHTOLRFD
Components with Both Bonded and
Unbonded Tendons
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4th Edition
Components with Both Bonded and Unbonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
Article 5.7.3.1.3 allows two methods:
Article 5.7.3.1.3a “Detailed Analysis”
In this method, a detailed, strain compatibility is used.
Article 5.7.3.1.3b “Simplified Analysis”
Shown on the following slide
A
psb
= area of bonded tendons
A f b d d t d
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
A
psu
= area of unbonded tendons
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #72
37
Components with Both Bonded and Unbonded Tendons
§ 5.7.3 Flexural Members
Simplified Analysis  The stress in the UNBONDED tendons may be
conservatively taken as the effective stress after losses: f
pe
.
p
For Tbeams:
For rectangular beams:
( )
p
pu
ps w c
f w c y s y s pe psu pu psb
d
f
kA b f
h b b f f A f A f A f A
c
+
− − − + +
=
1
' 85 . 0
' 85 . 0 ' '
β
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
For rectangular beams:
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #73
1
0.85 '
psb pu psu pe
pu
c ps
p
A f A f
c
f
f b kA
d
β
+
=
+
S TO AASHTOLRFD
Moment Capacity
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4
th
Edition
38
Moment Capacity
§ 5.7.3.2 Flexural Resistance
For Tbeams (where a>h
f
):
    a a
For rectangular beams, b=b
w
; thus equation 5.7.3.2.21
( )


.

\

− − +

.

\

− −

.

\

− +

.

\

− =
2 2
' 85 . 0
2
' ' '
2 2
f
f w c s y s
s y s p ps ps n
h
a
h b b f
a
d f A
a
d f A
a
d f A M
(5.7.3.2.21)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
w
becomes:

.

\

− −

.

\

− +

.

\

− =
2
' ' '
2 2
a
d f A
a
d f A
a
d f A M
s y s s y s p ps ps n
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #75
Moment Capacity
§ 5.7.3.2 Flexural Resistance
In the preceding equations:
d
p
= distance from the extreme compression fiber to the
prestressing steel.
d
s
= distance from the extreme compression fiber to the
nonprestressed tensile steel.
d
s
’ = distance from the extreme compression fiber to the
non prestressed compression steel
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
nonprestressed compression steel.
f
y
= yield strength of the nonprestressed tensile steel.
f
y
’ = yield strength of the nonprestressed compression
steel.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #76
39
Moment Capacity
§ 5.7.3.3 Limits for Reinforcement
Minimum reinforcement (Article 5.7.3.3.2):
It is the smaller of:
φM
n
> 1.2 M
cr
– same as in Std. Spec.
φM
n
> 1.33M
u
– LRFD added
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #77
Moment Capacity
§ 5.7.3.3 Limits for Reinforcement
For the minimum reinforcement requirement, the cracking moment M
cr
is found from:
S
c
= composite section modulus
f
r
= modulus of rupture = 0.37√f
c
’ (ksi units)
f
cpe
= compressive stress in the concrete due to effective
prestressing force, at the extreme tensile fiber for applied
(5.7.3.3.21)
( )
1
c
cr c r cpe dnc c r
nc
S
M S f f M S f
S
 
= + − − ≥

\ .
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
prestressing force, at the extreme tensile fiber for applied
loads.
M
dnc
= Unfactored dead load moment on the noncomposite or
monolithic section.
S
nc
= Noncomposite section modulus.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #78
40
Moment Capacity
§ 5.7.3.3 Limits for Reinforcement
Maximum reinforcement provision was dropped with 2005
Interim Interim
No longer needed with new definitions of tension controlled,
compression controlled and transition.
LRFD previously used a c/d ratio. This can still be used:
3
8
t
c
d
≤
Tension Controlled
ε
t
> 0.005
3
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3 3
5 8
t
c
d
> >
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #79
Compression Controlled
ε
t
<0.002
Transition
3
5
t
c
d
≥
Moment Capacity
§ 5.7.3.3 Limits for Reinforcement
Maximum reinforcement is now controlled by ε
t
.
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ODOT Short Course
July 2007
To determine ε
t
, calculate c. Then, using similar triangles:

.

\
 −
=
c
c d
t
t
003 . 0 ε
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #80
41
Moment Capacity
§ 5.7.3.3 Limits for Reinforcement
Maximum Reinforcement
This is more restrictive that Std. Specification or previous editions of p p
LRFD.
For reinforced sections, 0.75ρ
bal
was used. This was a strain of 0.0037
in the steel.
For prestressed, Std. Spec. c/d
e
ratio was limited to 0.42. This
corresponded to a strain of 0.0041
0.375
t
c
d
≤
Tension Controlled
ε
t
> 0.005
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42 . 0 ≤
e
d
c
0.45
e
c
d
≤
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #81
t
Previous Editions
ε
t
>0.0041
Std. Specifications, RC.
Moment Capacity
§ 5.7.3.4 Control of Cracking by Distribution of Reinforcement
c
s s
e
d
f
s − ≤ 2
700
β
γ
(5.7.3.41)
s = spacing of reinforcement closest to the tension face.
γ
e
= exposure factor; 1 for Class 1 and 0.75 for Class 2
ODOT uses 0.75 for decks, 1 for everything else
d
c
= cover to extreme tension fiber
f
s
= Steel stress @ service limit state
h = overall thickness or depth
( )
c
c
s
d h
d
−
+ =
7 . 0
1 β
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July 2007
h = overall thickness or depth
Does not apply to slabs designed using the empirical method
(ODOT does not allow empirical design).
It applies to all other concrete components where the service tensile stress
exceeds 0.8f
r
= 0.8(0.24)√f
c
’ = 0.20√f
c
’
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #82
42
Moment Capacity
§ 5.7.3.5 Moment Redistribution
ODOT does not permit moment redistribution
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #83
Moment Capacity
§ 5.7.3.6.2 Deflection and Camber
Prestressed members are usually designed as
uncracked at service loads. Instantaneous deflections
and cambers are then calculated using the gross
moment of inertia, I
g
.
If the deflection is calculated using I
g
, long term
deflection can be found by multiplying the instantaneous
deflection by 4.
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For prestressed members, the Commentary (C5.7.3.6.1)
allows the multipliers given in the PCI Design Handbook
to be used for long term camber/deflection values.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #84
43
Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.3 Stress Limitations for Prestressing Tendons
Tendon Type
Table 5.9.31 Stress Limits for Prestressing Tendons
f
py
= yield stress of prestressing steel
Condition
StressRelieved
Strand and
Plain High
Strength Bars
Low
Relaxation
Strand
Deformed
HighStrength
Bars
Pretensioning
Immediately prior to transfer (f
pbt
) 0.70 f
pu
0.75 f
pu
__
At service limit state after all losses (f
pe
) 0.80 f
py
0.80 f
py
0.80 f
py
PostTensioning
Prior to seating – shorttermf
bt
may be allowed 0 90 f 0 90 f 0 90 f
f
pu
= ultimate strength of prestressing steel
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Prior to seating short term f
pbt
may be allowed 0.90 f
py
0.90 f
py
0.90 f
py
At anchorages and couplers immediately after anchor
set
0.70 f
pu
0.70 f
pu
0.70 f
pu
Elsewhere along length of member away from
anchorages and couplers immediately after anchor set
0.70 f
pu
0.74 f
pu
0.70 f
pu
At service limit state after losses (f
pe
) 0.80 f
py
0.80 f
py
0.80 f
py
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #85
Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.4 Stress Limits for Concrete
Table 5.9.4.21 Temporary Tensile Stress Limits in Prestressed Concrete Before Losses, Fully
Prestressed Components. (Partial)
Bridge Type Location Stress Limit
Other than
Segmentally
Constructed
Bridges
•In precompressed tensile zone without
bonded reinforcement
•In areas other than the precompressed tensile
zone and without bonded reinforcement
•In areas with bonded reinforcement
(reinforcing bars or prestressing steel)
sufficient to resist the tensile force in the
N/A
0.0948√f’
ci
<0.2(ksi)
0.24√f’
ci
(ksi)
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concrete computed assuming an uncracked
section, where reinforcement is proportioned
using a stress of 0.5 f
y
, not to exceed 30 ksi.
•For handling stresses in prestressed piles 0.158√f’
ci
(ksi)
Compression Limit at Transfer 0.6 f’
ci
(ksi)
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #86
44
Debonding and Harping
If the tensile stresses at the end of girder are above
0.24√f
ci
’ , then the stress must be reduced either by 0.24√f
ci
, then the stress must be reduced either by
debonding the strand or harping the strand.
If debonding is used, no more than 25% of the total
number of strands may be debonded and not more than
40% in any single row may be debonded. (Art. 5.11.4.3)
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Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.4 Stress Limits for Concrete
Location Stress Limit
Table 5.9.4.2.11 Compressive Stress Limits in prestressed Concrete at Service Limit State After
Losses, Fully Prestressed Components.
Location Stress Limit
• In other than segmentally constructed bridges due to the
sum of effective prestress and permanent loads
• In segmentally constructed bridges due to the sum of
effective prestress and permanent loads
• In other than segmentally constructed bridges due to live
load and onehalf the sum of effective prestress and
permanent loads
• Due to the sum of effective prestress permanent loads
0.45f’
c
(ksi)
0.45f’
c
(ksi)
0.40f’
c
(ksi)
0 60φ f’ (ksi)
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• Due to the sum of effective prestress, permanent loads,
and transient loads and during shipping and handling
0.60φ
w
f’
c
(ksi)
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #88
45
Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.4 Stress Limits for Concrete
B id T L ti St Li it
Table 5.9.4.2.21 Tensile Stress Limits in Prestressed Concrete at Service Limit State After Losses,
Fully Prestressed Components. (Partial)
Bridge Type Location Stress Limit
Other than
Segmentally
Constructed
Bridges
Tension in the Precompressed Tensile Zone
Bridges, Assuming Uncracked Sections
• For components with bonded prestressing
tendons or reinforcement that are subjected to
not worse than moderate corrosion conditions
• For components with bonded prestressing
tendons or reinforcement that are subjected to
severe corrosive conditions
F t ith b d d t i
0.19√f’
c
(ksi)
0.0948√f’
c
(ksi)
N T i
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• For components with unbonded prestressing
tendons
No Tension
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #89
Again, these are Std. Spec. limits in ksi units.
0.19(1000)
0.5
= 6
S TO AASHTOLRFD
Loss of Prestressing Force
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4
th
Edition
46
§ 5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.5 Loss of Prestress
Loss of prestressing force was changed with the 3
rd
Edition. Edition.
Like creep and shrinkage, the changes are based on the
results NCHRP Report 496 “Prestressed Losses in
Pretensioned High Strength Concrete Bridge Girders”
These provisions are applicable up to 15 ksi concrete
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§ 5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.5 Loss of Prestress
The basic equations:
Pretensioned Members: Pretensioned Members:
Posttensioned Members:
f f f f f ∆ + ∆ + ∆ + ∆ = ∆
pLT pES pT
f f f ∆ + ∆ = ∆
(5.9.5.11)
(5 9 5 12)
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #92
pLT pES pA pF pT
f f f f f ∆ + ∆ + ∆ + ∆ = ∆
(5.9.5.12)
47
§ 5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.5 Loss of Prestress
∆f
pT
= Total loss of prestressing force (ksi).
∆f = Loss due to friction (ksi) ∆f
pF
= Loss due to friction (ksi).
∆f
pA
= Loss due to anchorage set (ksi).
∆f
pES
= Loss due to elastic shortening (ksi).
∆f
pLT
= Loss due to long term shrinkage and creep of the
concrete and relaxation of the steel (ksi).
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∆f
pA
is usually given by the manufacturer.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #93
§ 5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.5 Loss of Prestress
Friction losses:
Loss due to friction between an internal tendon and a
duct wall:
Loss due to friction between an external tendon and a
( )
( )
uα + −
− = ∆
kx
pj pF
e f f 1
(5.9.5.2.2b1)
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single deviator pipe:
( )
( )
04 . 0
1
+ −
− = ∆
α u
e f f
pj pF
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #94
(5.9.5.2.2b2)
48
§ 5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.5 Loss of Prestress
f
pj
= initial jacking stress in the tendon (ksi).
x = length of tendon from the jacking point to the point x = length of tendon from the jacking point to the point
being considered (ft).
K = wobble friction coefficient (per ft. of tendon)
u = friction coefficient.
α = sum of the absolute value of angular change of
prestressing steel path from jacking end (or nearest
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prestressing steel path from jacking end (or nearest
jacking end if jacked from both ends) to point under
consideration. (radian)
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #95
§ 5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.5 Loss of Prestress
Steel Duct K u
Table 5.9.5.2.2b1 Friction Coefficients for PostTensioning Tendons.
Wire or
Strand
Rigid or Semi rigid galvanized
metal sheathing
0.0002 0.150.25
Polyethylene 0.0002 .23
Rigid steel deviator bar for
external tendons
0.0002 .25
HS Bar Galvanized metal sheathing 0.0002 .30
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #96
Values for K and u should be found from experimental data. If such
data is absent, values from the table above may be used.
49
§ 5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.5 Loss of Prestress
Elastic Shortening, pretensioned members:
E
ct
= modulus of elasticity of the concrete at transfer or at time of
load
Elastic Shortening, Posttensioned Members:
= ∆ f
E
E
f
cgp
ct
p
pES
E
1 N
(5.9.5.2.3a1)
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #97
f
E
E
2N
1 N
∆f
cgp
ci
p
pES
−
=
(5.9.5.2.3b1)
§ 5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.5 Loss of Prestress
f
cgp
= concrete stresses at the center of gravity of the prestressing
tendons due to prestressing force immediately after transfer
(pretensioning) or immediately after jacking (posttensioning)
and the selfweight of the member at the sections of maximum
moment (ksi).
In pretensioned members, at transfer, f
cgp
may be calculated by
assuming the stress in the prestressing tendon after release = 0.9f
pi
;
where f
pi
is the initial prestressing stress (jacking stress) in the
tendons.
f ( )
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E
p
= Elastic Modulus of the prestressing strand (ksi).
E
ci
= Elastic Modulus of the concrete at the time of transfer or time of
load application (ksi).
N = number of identical strands.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #98
50
§ 5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.5 Loss of Prestress
Long Term Losses
For standard precast pretensioned members subject to For standard, precast, pretensioned members subject to
normal loading and environmental conditions:
(5.9.5.31)
(5.9.5.32)
10 12
1 7 0 01
= + +
= −
pi ps
pLT h st h st pR
g
h
f A
f f
A
. . H
∆ γ γ γ γ ∆
γ
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #99
( )
(5.9.5.33)
5
1
=
+
st
ci
f
γ
§ 5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.5 Loss of Prestress
f
pi
= prestressing steel stress immediately PRIOR to
transfer transfer.
H = Average annual relative humidity in percent
(e.g.70 not 0.7)
∆f
pR
= 2.5 ksi for LoLax
10 ksi for stress relieved
γ
h
= humidity factor
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h
γ
st
= strength factor
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #100
51
§ 5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.5 Loss of Prestress
To use the ∆f
pLT
equation, the following criteria must be
met: met:
Members are pretensioned
Normal weight concrete is used
Members are moist or steam cured
Prestressing is by bar or strand with normal and low
relaxation properties
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Average exposure conditions and temperatures.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #101
§ 5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.5 Loss of Prestress
This table can be used to estimate time dependent losses in
prestressed members which do not have composite slabs and are
stressed after attaining a compressive strength of at least 3.5 ksi.
Type of Beam
Section
Level For wires and Strands with
f
pu
= 235,250 or 270 ksi
For Bars with f
pu
= 145
or 160 ksi
Rectangular Upper Bound
Average
29.0 + 4.0PPR 19.0 + 6.0 PPR
Box Girder Upper Bound
Average
21.0 + 4.0PPR
19.9 + 4.0PPR
15.0
Table 5.9.5.31 TimeDependent Losses in ksi.
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #102
PPR
f
PPR
f
c
c
0 . 6
0 . 6
0 . 6 '
15 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 33
0 . 6
0 . 6
0 . 6 '
15 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 39
+
−
−
+
−
−
PPR
f
c
0 . 6
0 . 6
0 . 6 '
15 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 31 +
−
−
Single T, Double
T, Hollow core
and Voided Slab
Upper Bound
Average
PPR is the partial prestressing ratio.
52
§ 5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.5 Loss of Prestress
Lump Sum Losses:
For lightweight concrete the stresses in the table are For lightweight concrete, the stresses in the table are
increased 5 ksi.
For low relaxation strand, the values in the table are
reduced by:
4 ksi for box girders
6 ksi for rectangular beams and solid slabs
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8 ksi for single T’s, double T’s, hollow core and voided
slabs.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #103
§ 5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing
§ 5.9.5 Loss of Prestress
For posttensioned members, the “Refined Method” for
estimation of time dependent losses must be used. estimation of time dependent losses must be used.
However, this method is based on NCHRP 496, but
requires a large amount of calculation.
Since longitudinal posttensioning is not common in
Ohio, the method is not presented here. However, it can
be found in Article 5 9 5 4 of the LRFD Specifications
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be found in Article 5.9.5.4 of the LRFD Specifications.
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #104
53
S TO AASHTOLRFD
Bond/Development Length
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4
th
Edition
§ 5.11 – Bond and Development Length
§ 5.11.4.1 – Transfer Length
F f ll b d d t d th t f l th f For fully bonded strands, the transfer length from
the end of the girder is assumed to be 60d
b
,
where d
b
is the bar or strand diameter.
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #106
54
§ 5.11 – Bond and Development Length
§ 5.11.4.2 – Development Length
Development length for fully bonded strand is given by:
d ps pe b
2
f f d
3
 
= κ −

\ .
l
(5.11.4.21)
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #107
§ 5.11 – Bond and Development Length
§ 5.11.4.2 – Development Length
Where:
l
d
= development length
f
ps
= steel stress at strength limit state
f
pe
= effective prestressing stress after all losses
d
b
= strand diameter
κ =1.0 for pretensioned panels, piles and other
pretensioned members with a depth < 24 inches.
1 6 f t i d b ith d th 24 i h
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= 1.6 for pretensioned members with a depth > 24 inches
= 2.0 for debonded strand
55
§ 5.11 – Bond and Development Length
§ 5.11.4.2 – Development Length
In previous editions of the LRFD Specifications, bond
stress was assumed linear – e.g, if the bonded length was
only ½ the development length, it was assumed that the
strand could only develop 0.5f
ps
.
This assumption is still true for TRANSFER LENGTH; e.g
at ½ the transfer length it is assumed only 0.5f
pe
is
developed.
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #109
However, stress in the steel beyond the transfer length, but
less than the development length, can now be calculated
by a bilinear formula.
§ 5.11 – Bond and Development Length
§ 5.11.4.2 – Development Length
( )
60
px b
px pe ps pe
d
f f f f
d
−
= + −
l
( )
60
px pe ps pe
d b
f f f f
d − l
Where:
f
px
= stress at “x” from the end of the girder
f = effective stress in the steel after all losses
(5.11.4.24)
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #110
f
pe
effective stress in the steel after all losses
f
ps
= stress in the steel at the strength limit state
l
px
= length were the stress is being calculated
l
d
= development length
d
b
= strand diameter
56
§ 5.11 – Bond and Development Length
§ 5.11.4.2 – Development Length
Within the transfer length (which is 60d
b
):
60
px pe
px
b
f
f
d
=
l
(5.11.4.23)
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #111
§ 5.11 – Bond and Development Length
§ 5.11.4.2 – Development Length
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #112
1
S TO AASHTOLRFD
Shear
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4
th
Edition.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.6 Design Considerations
Important things about the shear section
This section has the provisions of the LRFD This section has the provisions of the LRFD
Specifications, through the 2007 changes.
This section concentrates the provisions as they apply to
prestressed concrete; both pretensioned and post
tensioned.
Segmental box girder bridges and spliced girders are
NOT covered
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #2
NOT covered.
Reinforced concrete is covered in another section.
2
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.6.3 StrutandTie Model
Strut and Tie Model
Strut and tie can be used for analysis of anchorage Strut and tie can be used for analysis of anchorage
zones and support regions.
It is also useful for deep footings, pile caps and sections
where the depth is more than ½ the span.
This model is covered in Article 5.6.3.
Strut and tie will not be discussed as part of this module.
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #3
It will be covered in another presentation.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.2 General Requirements
n r
V V =φ
(5.8.2.12)
V
n
= nominal shear resistance given in Article 5.8.3.3
(kip)
φ = 0.9 normal weight concrete
φ = 0 7 lightweight concrete
r u
V V ≤
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #4
φ = 0.7 lightweight concrete
V
u
= Factored shear at the cross section being
considered. If there is significant torsion present,
this term is modified for torsion.
3
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance
The nominal shear resistance, V
n
, can be assumed to be
the sum of three forces, the forces in the stirrups, the the sum of three forces, the forces in the stirrups, the
vertical component of the force in the concrete and the
vertical component of any harped or draped prestressing
strand. This leads to the basic equation:
V
n
= V
c
+ V
s
+ V
p
(5.8.3.31)
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #5
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance
Assumptions about Shear Strength:
The beam fails when the concrete in the struts reaches The beam fails when the concrete in the struts reaches
its crushing strength.
At failure, the beam has shear cracks and the cracks
have opened
This would cause the stirrups to yield.
The compressive strength of concrete between the
( )
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #6
shear cracks (struts) is not f
c
’. As will be shown, it
may be greater than or less than f
c
’.
4
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance
Assume that the angle
of the strut is θ and the of the strut is θ and the
distance between the
compressive and
tensile forces is jd
where d is effective
depth and j<1. Thus
the horizontal distance
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #7
is jd/tanθ = jdcotθ.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance
The stirrup contribution is:
Force per stirrup times the number of stirrups. Force per stirrup times the number of stirrups.
If the stirrups are spaced at “s”, the number of stirrups in
the length jd cotθ is (jd cotθ)/s
The force per stirrup is A
v
f
y
so:
v y v y v
A f jd cot A f d cot
V
θ θ
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #8
(Note that if j = 1 and θ = 45
o
, we get the old, familiar equation: V
s
= (A
v
f
y
d) / s .
Also note that jd = d
v
)
= =
y y
s
V
s s
5
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance
The LRFD Specifications consider the most general case
where the stirrups may be inclined at an angle of α from the where the stirrups may be inclined at an angle of α from the
longitudinal axis. Thus, the equation becomes:
( ) +
=
v y v
s
A f d cot cot sin
V
s
θ α α
(5.8.3.34)
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #9
However, in almost all cases, α = 90
o
; thus cotα = 0 and
sinα = 1. The equation reverts the one shown on the
previous slide.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance
If a line is cut
perpendicular to perpendicular to
the cracks, it has a
length of jdcosθ. It
may cross several
struts. The total
force in the struts
will be the
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #10
concrete stress
times the area.
F
c
= f
c
(jd cosθ) b
v
where f
c
is the concrete stress and b
v
web width.
6
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance
The force triangle shows that
the force along the struts is the force along the struts is
V / sinθ.
Substituting into the previous equation and assuming V
c
is
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #11
Substituting into the previous equation and assuming V
c
is
the shear force carried by the concrete:
V
c
= f
c
(jd cosθ) sinθ b
v
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance
( ) cos sin
c c v
V f jd b θ θ =
1, 45
4 '
2 ' ( ) 0.0632 ' ( )
o
c c
c c v c v
Note that if j
and f f
V f b d lbs f b d kips
θ = =
=
= =
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #12
This is the ACI 318 equation and the old Standard Specification
equation.
The V
c
equation, in ksi units, may be used for NON
PRESTRESSED concrete members (LRFD 5.8.3.4).
7
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance
The basics of these equations were developed by
research done at the University of Illinois in the 1920’s. research done at the University of Illinois in the 1920 s.
They found that the actual angle varies along the beam
and that the angle can be anywhere from 25 to 65
degrees.
While it is possible to calculate the angle, it is difficult. In
the days before computers or calculators, it was nearly
impossible. Therefore, the value of 45 degrees was
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #13
impossible. Therefore, the value of 45 degrees was
chosen for simplification. The value of the crushing
strength was also chosen as a simplification.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance
In the 1980’s, Vecchio and Collins (University of Toronto)
proposed a method for finding the shear strength of a proposed a method for finding the shear strength of a
beam. This method required the calculation of the actual
angle, θ, and the crushing strength of the concrete struts.
The crushing strength is a function of the strain
perpendicular to the strut.
The original theory was called “Compression Field
Theory”. Later the theory was improved to account for
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #14
Theory . Later the theory was improved to account for
additional mechanisms, such as aggregate interlock, and
was renamed “Modified Compression Field Theory”.
8
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
Modified Compression Field Theory
The basis of the Modified Compression Field Theory
(MCFT) is to determine the point at which the diagonal
compressive struts fail and to determine the angle of the
struts. From the crushing strength and the angle, the
contribution of the concrete, V
c
, can be found.
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§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
Why isn’t the crushing strength f
c
’ ? The value of f
c
’ is for
uniaxial load. The concrete fails by cracking parallel to the uniaxial load. The concrete fails by cracking parallel to the
load. If a lateral (biaxial) force is applied, it changes the
apparent compressive strength. Lateral compression holds
cracks together and increases compressive strength.
Lateral tension pulls them apart and decreases the
compressive strength.
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #16
9
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
Vecchio and Collins proposed that the compressive
strength of the strut is a function of both the compressive g p
stress along the strut and the tensile stress
perpendicular to the strut. They wrote several equations
in terms of the applied average shear stress, v = V/bd,
the principal tensile strain (perpendicular to strut), ε
1
, and
the angle of the strut, θ.
To use MCFT values of ε and θ are assumed It then
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #17
To use MCFT, values of ε
1
and θ are assumed. It then
takes 17 steps and 15 equations to recalculate ε
1
and θ.
If these are not close to the assumed values, then
iterations are needed.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
Sectional Design Model
Obviously, no one wanted to use an iterative procedure Obviously, no one wanted to use an iterative procedure
involving 17 steps and 15 equations. As a result the
LRFD Code simplified the method to use a table. This is
called the “Sectional Design Model”.
Unfortunately, soon after the 1
st
Edition came out, there
was controversy with the Sectional Design Model. The
equations provided low values of shear strength. It was
found that simplifying the method created inaccuracies
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #18
found that simplifying the method created inaccuracies.
Editions after the 2
nd
Ed. still use(d) the Sectional Design
Model, but have new equations and tables with more
realistic values of shear resistance.
10
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance
The shear strength of the beam is:
V = V + V + V (5 8 3 31) V
n
V
c
V
s
V
p
V
c
= contribution of the concrete
V
s
= contribution of the stirrups
V
p
= vertical component of the force in harped strands.
Note that there is a limit:
V < 0 25f ’ b d + V (5 8 3 3 2)
(5.8.3.3 1)
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V
n
< 0.25f
c
’ b
v
d
v
+ V
p
b
v
= effective web width
d
v
= effective depth for shear
d
v
= d
e
– a/2 > greater of 0.9d
e
or 0.72 h
(5.8.3.32)
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance
According to Articles 5.8.2.5 and 5.8.2.9, the web width,
b , must be adjusted for the presence of ducts. b
v
, must be adjusted for the presence of ducts.
b
v
= Effective web width, defined as the minimum web
width, parallel to the neutral axis, between the
compressive and tensile flexure resultants. For
circular sections, it is the diameter of the section.
At a particular level, one half the diameter of ungrouted
ducts and one quarter the diameter of grouted ducts is
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #20
ducts and one quarter the diameter of grouted ducts is
subtracted from the web width.
11
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance
The nominal shear resistance is the lesser of:
n c s p
V V V V = + + (5.8.3.31)
V
c
and V
s
are defined as:
d is the shear depth = d – a/2
( )sin cot cot
' 0316 . 0
+
=
=
s
d f A
V
L d b f V
v y v
s
v v c c
α α θ
β
p
n c v v
V 0.25f ' b d ≤
(5.8.3.33)
(5.8.3.32)
(5.8.3.34)
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d
v
is the shear depth = d
e
– a/2
the greater of 0.9d
e
or 0.72 h
s = stirrup spacing
A
v
= stirrup area.
The 0.0316 converts psi to ksi units.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance
In all of the preceding equations, the factors β and θ are
unknown and must be determined. unknown and must be determined.
The LRFD Specifications require a sectional approach.
The girder is divided into sections along the length, the
factors β and θ are determined at each section.
Traditionally, the sections are every 0.1L and important
points like harp points, debond points, etc.
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The first sections must be the critical section from the
face of the support.
12
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.2 Sections Near Supports
Critical Section
The critical section is defined in Article 5.8.3.2.
The beam must be checked using Article 5.8.1.2 to determine if it
is a deep beam.
The critical section is taken as d
v
from the face of the support IF the
reaction is compressive.
The term d
v
has limits of the greater of 0.72h and 0.9d
e
.
Previous editions defined critical section as the larger of d
v
and 0 5d cotθ but this made the process iterative
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #23
and 0.5d
v
cotθ, but this made the process iterative.
Otherwise it is taken at the face of the support.
At interior supports, the critical section on each side of the support
must be determined separately based on loading conditions.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.2 Sections Near Supports
In 2007, Article 5.8.3.2 introduces a limit on average shear stress, v
u
, at
any design section:
If the value of v
u
> 0.18f
c
’, AND the flexural element is NOT integral with
the support then strut and tie model (Article 5 6 3) must be used for
−
=
d b
V V
v
v v
p u
u
φ
φ
(5.8.2.91)
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #24
the support, then strut and tie model (Article 5.6.3) must be used for
analysis.
13
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
The first step in the Sectional Design Model is to
determine if the section has at least the minimum amount
of transverse steel (stirrups).
Minimum transverse reinforcing (stirrups) are needed if:
V
u
> 0.5φ(V
c
+ V
p
)
However, V
c
cannot be determined until β is found from
(5.8.2.41)
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However, V
c
cannot be determined until β is found from
tables, but the tables used to find β are different
depending on whether there are minimum stirrups or not.
It is probably best to put minimum stirrups throughout the
entire beam to avoid excessive iterations.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
The previous slide shows the first problem with this
method. The term θ is found in a table which depends method. The term θ is found in a table which depends
on whether or not there are minimum stirrups. However,
to find if minimum stirrups are needed, it is necessary to
know V
c
which depends on θ. Thus, the engineer must
make an assumption about whether minimum stirrups
are needed to determine which table is needed for θ.
The table for θ depends on whether or not minimum
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #26
stirrups are PROVIDED, not whether or not they are
required. Thus, by always specifying minimum stirrups,
iterations between the tables can be avoided.
14
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.2.7 Maximum Spacing of Transverse Reinforcement
The maximum spacing of stirrups is, s
max
is:
If v
u
< 0.125 f
c
’
−
=
V V
v
p u
φ
u c
s
max
= 0.8 d
v
< 24”
If v > 0.125 f
c
’
s
max
= 0.4 d
v
< 12”
The minimum area of stirrups is:
d b
v
v v
u
φ
s b
(5.8.2.91)
(5.8.2.71)
(5.8.2.72)
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Note: If torsion must be considered, V
u
in the equation for v must be modified for torsion
(as given in Eq’ns 5.8.2.16 and 7). This will be explained later in the torsion section.
This provision does NOT apply to segmental boxes. Different equations are used.
' 0316 . 0
min ,
=
f
s b
f A
y
v
c v (5.8.2.51)
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.2.5 Minimum Transverse Reinforcement
For sections with at least the minimum amount of
transverse steel (stirrups): transverse steel (stirrups):
A value of θ is assumed and this is used to find the
term ε
x
(the formulae for ε
x
are shown on the following
slides).
The LRFD Tables, which are based on v
u
/f
c
’ and ε
x
, are used
to find values of β and θ. If θ is close to the assumed value,
then V
n
can be calculated. If it is not close, iteration is
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #28
needed.
15
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
To avoid iteration, it is permissible to assume the term
0.5(V V )cotθ = (V V ) in the following equations (i.e. 0.5(V
u
V
p
)cotθ (V
u
V
p
) in the following equations (i.e.
0.5cotθ = 1). (Commentary – C5.8.3.4.2 paragraph 4).
This means cotθ can be assumed = 2. For cotθ = 2, θ =
26
o
, the most conservative, reasonable angle.
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§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
cot 5 . 0 5 . 0 − − + + f A V V N
d
M
po ps p u u
u
θ
(5 8 3 4 2 1)
ε
x
= longitudinal strain at 0.5d
v
. The initial value should
be < 0.001.
This equation ASSUMES cracked section and is only for
beams where at least the minimum amount of transverse
reinforcing (stirrups) is provided.
( ) 2 +
=
A E A E
d
ps p s s
v
x
ε
(5.8.3.4.21)
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g ( p ) p
Note: If torsion must be considered, V
u
in the equation must be modified for torsion (as
given in Eq’ns 5.8.2.16 and 7). This will be explained later in the torsion section.
Again, this equation is used if at least minimum stirrups are provided, not whether or not
they are required.
16
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
Really Important Definitions:
The flexural tension side of a beam is the (½ h) on the
flexural tension side.
In all the equations for shear which require a value of the
area of the longitudinal tensile steel, A
s
or A
ps
, ONLY the
steel on the flexural tension side counts. Tensile steel
on the flexural compression side (the ½ h on the flexural
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on the flexural compression side (the ½ h on the flexural
compression side) or compression steel is NOT counted
for shear strength.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
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Definition of “flexural tension side”, the term A
c
, and the
term ε
x
for cases with and without minimum stirrups.
17
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
po ps p u u
v
u
f A V V N
d
M
− − + + cot 5 . 0 5 . 0 θ
The first term in the numerator, M
u
/ d
v
, is the tensile force
in the flanges due to the moment. The d
v
is shear depth =
d
e
– a/2.
( )
ps p s s
v
x
A E A E +
=
2
ε
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§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
po ps p u u
v
u
f A V V N
d
M
− − + + cot 5 . 0 5 . 0 θ
The second term in the numerator, N
u
, is any APPLIED
axial force (not prestressing force). It is assumed that ½ of
the axial load is taken by each flange. If the load is
compressive, N
u
is negative.
( )
ps p s s
v
x
A E A E +
=
2
ε
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18
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
( )
po ps p u u
v
u
x
A E A E
f A V V N
d
M
+
− − + +
=
2
cot 5 . 0 5 . 0 θ
ε
The third term in the numerator, (V
u
– V
p
)cotθ, is the axial force
component of strut force and the inclined force from any harped
tendons, as shown in the force triangle. Half the force is assumed to
be taken by the tensile flange and the other half by the compression
flange.
( )
ps p s s
A E A E + 2
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§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
po ps p u u
v
u
f A V V N
d
M
− − + + cot 5 . 0 5 . 0 θ
The last term in the numerator, A
ps
f
po
corrects for the strain
in the prestressing steel due to prestressing. The term f
po
is the “locked in” stress in the prestressing steel, usually
taken as 0.7f
pu
(LRFD Art. 5.4.8.3.2), unless the section
( )
ps p s s
v
x
A E A E +
=
2
ε
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pu
being considered is within the transfer length. If the section
is within the transfer length, the value of f
po
must be
reduced to reflect the lack of development (e.g. if the
section is at ½ the transfer length, f
po
= 0.35f
pu
).
19
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
po ps p u u
v
u
f A V V N
d
M
− − + + cot 5 . 0 5 . 0 θ
The denominator is the stiffness of the tensile side. Notice
that this equation ASSUMES cracking. If the section
doesn’t crack (ε
x
is negative), the effect of the uncracked
concrete must be considered.
( )
ps p s s
v
x
A E A E +
=
2
ε
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§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
If Equation 5.8.3.4.21 is used and ε
x
< 0; the section has
not cracked. The effect of the uncracked concrete must be not cracked. The effect of the uncracked concrete must be
considered and the equation becomes:
A
c
is the area of concrete on the tension half of the section.
( ) 2
cot 5 . 0 5 . 0
+ +
− − + +
=
A E A E A E
f A V V N
d
M
c c ps p s s
po ps p u u
v
u
x
θ
ε
(5.8.3.4.23)
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A
c
is the area of concrete on the tension half of the section.
Note: If torsion must be considered, V
u
in the equation must be modified for
torsion (as given in Eq’ns 5.8.2.16 and 7). This will be explained later in the
torsion section.
20
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4 Determination of β and θ
Once the values of v
u
/f
c
’ and ε
x
are calculated, use the table in the
LRFD Specifications to find θ and β. If the value of θ is close to the
original assumption, use the β given. If not, use the table value of θ as
the next estimate and repeat the calculations of ε
x
.
22.3 20.4 21.0 21.8 24.3 26.6 30.5 33.7 36.4 40.8 43.9
6.32 4.75 4.10 3.75 3.24 2.94 2.59 2.38 2.23 1.95 1.67
18.1 20.4 21.4 22.5 24.9 27.1 30.8 34.0 36.7 40.8 43.1
3.79 3.38 3.24 3.14 2.91 2.75 2.50 2.32 2.18 1.93 1.69
19.9 21.9 22.8 23.7 25.9 27.9 31.4 34.4 37.0 41.0 43.2
3.18 2.99 2.94 2.87 2.74 2.62 2.42 2.26 2.13 1.90 1.67
0.1
0.05 0.00 0.125 0.20 0.10
0.125
v/f'c
0.075
1.00 1.50 2.00
εx * 1,000
0.25 0.50 0.75
≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤
≤
≤
≤
≤
Table 5.8.3.4.21 Values of θ and β for Sections with Transverse Reinforcement
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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21.6 23.3 24.2 25.0 26.9 28.8 32.1 34.9 37.3 40.5 42.8
2.88 2.79 2.78 2.72 2.60 2.52 2.36 2.21 2.08 1.82 1.61
23.2 24.7 25.5 26.2 28.0 29.7 32.7 35.2 36.8 39.7 42.2
2.73 2.66 2.65 2.60 2.52 2.44 2.28 2.14 1.96 1.71 1.54
24.7 26.1 26.7 27.4 29.0 30.6 32.8 34.5 36.1 39.2 41.7
2.63 2.59 2.52 2.51 2.43 2.37 2.14 1.94 1.79 1.61 1.47
26.1 27.3 27.9 28.5 30.0 30.8 32.3 34.0 35.7 38.8 41.4
2.53 2.45 2.42 2.40 2.34 2.14 1.86 1.73 1.64 1.51 1.39
27.5 28.6 29.1 29.7 30.6 31.3 32.8 34.3 35.8 38.6 41.2
2.39 2.39 2.33 2.33 2.12 1.93 1.70 1.58 1.50 1.38 1.29
0.225
0.25
0.15
0.175
0.2
≤
≤
≤
≤
≤
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4 Determination of β and θ
Notes:
It is NOT necessary to interpolate the previous table It is NOT necessary to interpolate the previous table.
The terms β and θ apply to the range of strains and
shear in the table. Taking higher values of ε
x
is
acceptable.
Example from the Commentary: θ = 34.4
o
and β=2.26 can
be used provided that ε
x
< 0.75x 10
3
and v
u
/f
c
’ < 0.125
(Commentary – C5 8 3 4 2 paragraph 9)
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #40
(Commentary – C5.8.3.4.2 paragraph 9).
If 0.5cotθ was assumed = 1, the values of θ and β
obtained from the table may be used without further
iteration.
21
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4 Determination of β and θ
After finding the value of β and θ :
V
n
= V
c
+ V
s
+ V
p
< 0.25f
c
’ b
v
d
v
+ V
p
s
d f A
V
d b f V
v y v
s
v v c c
θ
β
cot
' 0316 . 0
=
= (5.8.3.33)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #41
V
n
V
c
V
s
V
p
0.25f
c
b
v
d
v
V
p
Then V
u
< φ V
n
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
If the section does NOT have at least the minimum
required transverse steel (stirrups), two modifications are
d Fi t th t i i th i l it di l made. First, the strain, ε
x
, is the maximum longitudinal
strain in the web. It can be calculated by:
The initial value of ε
x
should < 0.002
( )
ps p s s
po ps p u u
v
u
x
A E A E
f A V V N
d
M
+
− − + +
=
θ
ε
cot 5 . 0 5 . 0
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #42
x
As before, the section is assumed to be cracked and
0.5cotθ may be taken = 1
Note: If torsion must be considered, V
u
in the equation must be modified for
torsion (as given in Eq’ns 5.8.2.16 and 7). This will be explained later in the
torsion section.
22
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
If the section is not cracked:
u
f A V V N
M
+ + θ t 5 0 5 0
( )
c c ps p s s
po ps p u u
v
u
x
A E A E A E
f A V V N
d
+ +
− − + +
=
θ
ε
cot 5 . 0 5 . 0
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #43
Note: If torsion must be considered, V
u
in the equation must be modified for
torsion (as given in Eq’ns 5.8.2.16 and 7). This will be explained later in the
torsion section.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
The second modification is that a crack spacing
parameter, s
xe
, is used in place of v in the table. parameter, s
xe
, is used in place of v in the table.
s
x
= lesser of d
v
or the spacing of longitudinal steel
placed in the web to control cracking. The area of
. 80
63 . 0
38 . 1
in
a
s s
g
x xe
≤
+
=
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #44
longitudinal steel in each layer must be at least
0.003 b
v
s
x
a
g
= maximum aggregate size – inch.
23
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #45
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4 Determination of β and θ
Once the values of s
xe
and ε
x
are calculated, use the table
in the LRFD Code for this case to find θ and β. If the value in the LRFD Code for this case to find θ and β. If the value
of θ is close to the original assumption, use the β given. If
not, use the table value of θ as the next estimate and
repeat the calculations of ε
x
. Iterate (unless 0.5cotθ is
assumed = 1). Again, interpolation is not necessary. After
finding the value of β and θ :
d b f V
v v c c
β ' 0316 . 0 =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #46
V
n
= V
c
+ V
s
+ V
p
< 0.25f
c
’ b
v
d
v
+ V
p
Then V
u
< φ V
n
s
d f A
V
v y v
s
θ cot
=
24
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4 Determination of β and θ
Here is the table for beam with less than minimum stirrups:
β
* 1 000
Table 5.8.3.4.22 Values of θ and β for Sections without Transverse Reinforcement
25.4 25.5 25.9 26.4 27.7 28.9 30.9 32.4 33.7 35.6 37.2
6.36 6.06 5.56 5.15 4.41 3.91 3.26 2.86 2.58 2.21 1.96
27.6 27.6 28.3 29.3 31.6 33.5 36.3 38.4 40.1 42.7 44.7
5.78 5.78 5.38 4.89 4.05 3.52 2.88 2.50 2.23 1.88 1.65
29.5 29.5 29.7 31.1 34.1 36.5 39.9 42.4 44.4 47.4 49.7
5.34 5.34 5.27 4.73 3.82 3.28 2.64 2.26 2.01 1.68 1.46
31.2 31.2 31.2 32.3 36.0 38.8 42.7 45.5 47.6 50.9 53.4
4.99 4.99 4.99 4.61 3.65 3.09 2.46 2.09 1.85 1.52 1.31
34 1 34 1 34 1 34 2 38 9 42 3 46 9 50 1 52 6 56 3 59 0
s
XE
(in)
εx
* 1,000
0.20 0.10 0.05 0.00 0.125 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.50 2.00
5
10
15
20
< < < < < < < < < < <
<
<
<
<
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #47
34.1 34.1 34.1 34.2 38.9 42.3 46.9 50.1 52.6 56.3 59.0
4.46 4.46 4.46 4.43 3.39 2.82 2.19 1.84 1.60 1.30 1.10
36.6 36.6 36.6 36.6 41.2 45.0 50.2 53.7 56.3 60.2 63.0
4.06 4.06 4.06 4.06 3.20 2.62 2.00 1.66 1.43 1.14 0.95
40.8 40.8 40.8 40.8 44.5 49.2 55.1 58.9 61.8 65.8 68.6
3.50 3.50 3.50 3.50 2.92 2.32 1.72 1.40 1.18 0.92 0.75
44.3 44.3 44.3 44.3 47.1 52.3 58.7 62.8 65.7 69.7 72.4
3.10 3.10 3.10 3.10 2.71 2.11 1.52 1.21 1.01 0.76 0.62
30
40
60
80
<
<
<
<
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model
Some final notes:
The shear must be checked at the critical sections and The shear must be checked at the critical sections and
then at intervals along the beam, usually every 0.1L,
and any important points (like harp points) . The values
of d
v
, β and θ must be calculated at each section.
As with all concrete members, minimum stirrups are
required when V
u
> 0.5φ(V
c
– V
p
)
For reinforced concrete members β and θ may be
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #48
For reinforced concrete members, β and θ may be
taken as 2 and 45
o
, respectively. Previously, there was
a depth limit of 16 inches on this, but this is removed in
2007.
25
S TO AASHTOLRFD
Coming in 2007!  Simplified Shear
(or, what goes around, comes around –
again, and again and again.)
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4th Edition.
again, and again and again.)
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Article 5.8.3.4.3 – new in 2007
Well, not really new , y
V
ci
and V
cw
return from the Standard Specifications with some
modification.
This is the result of a National Cooperative Highway Research
Program (NCHRP) study.
Report 549
Available on line at www.trb.org – follow the NCHRP links.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #50
Note: Simplified shear has been accepted by the AASHTO Subcommittee on Bridges.
However, no change is official until it is actually published. Article and equation numbers
are from the proposed article, but these may change for editorial reasons in the final
publication.
26
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Why the change?
According to NCHRP 549: According to NCHRP 549:
Sectional Design Model, as given in the current LRFD
Specifications, is still considered too complex.
Designers said the process has to be automated.
Automated processes cause the engineers to “lose the feel” of
designs.
The old V and V orked ell for man ears
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #51
The old V
ci
and V
cw
worked well for many years.
Still the ACI 318 method.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Not exactly the old Standard Specifications method.
NCHRP 549 suggested 4 changes: NCHRP 549 suggested 4 changes:
Change 1 – The expression for web shear cracking,
V
cw
, is made more conservative and now also applies
to partially prestressed members.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #52
27
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Change 2 – The variable angle truss model is used for
calculating the contribution of shear reinforcement in calculating the contribution of shear reinforcement in
web shear regions. For flexural shear regions where M
u
> M
cr
, the 45
o
truss model is used.
Change 3  Maximum shear stress is substantially
increased.
Change 4  Minimum shear reinforcement is the same as
for the Sectional Design Model
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #53
for the Sectional Design Model.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Rules:
No significant axial tension No significant axial tension
Provide minimum shear reinforcement as given in Art.
5.8.2.5 (same as Sectional Design Model).
Take V
p
= 0 when finding V
n
in Eq’n 5.8.3.31.
Then, V
c
is the lesser of:
V
cw
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #54
cw
V
ci
As before, the beam is divided into sections and shear is
investigated at each section. The critical section is the
same as for Sectional Design Model.
28
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
V
cw
Nominal shear resistance provided by concrete when Nominal shear resistance provided by concrete when
inclined cracking results from excessive principal
tensions in the web.
“Web Shear”
V
ci
Nominal shear resistance provided by concrete when
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #55
inclined cracking results from combined shear and
moment.
“Flexural Shear”
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
A quick reminder.
Exactly what are V
ci
and V
cw
?
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #56
29
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
There are two types of shear:
Flexural shear where shear cracks grow from flexural Flexural shear where shear cracks grow from flexural
cracks. This is V
ci
.
Web shear where thin webs crack due to high
principal tensile stresses. This is V
cw
.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #57
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Flexural Shear  V
ci
A prestressed beam will form a flexural crack when the A prestressed beam will form a flexural crack when the
moment at a section reaches M
cre
. The shear at the
section which exists at the time of cracking is called V
cre
.
The shear does NOT cause the cracking. The cracking
is caused by the moment, M
cre
. V
cre
is simply the shear
which is associated with M
cre
.
So how is V found?
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #58
So how is V
cre
found?
The simplifying assumption is made that V and M
increase proportionally.
30
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Thus, if V and M increase proportionally, V
cre
can be found
from this proportionality. Since M is known, it is possible from this proportionality. Since M
u
is known, it is possible
to find V
u
FOR THE LOADING CASE WHICH CAUSES M
u
.
The equation becomes:
cre
cre
u
u
M
V
M
V
=
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #59
cre
u
u
cre
M
M
V
V =
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Experiments have shown that if the shear at the section
increases by (0.02√f ’)b d ksi, the flexural crack will grow increases by (0.02√f
c
)b
v
d
v
ksi, the flexural crack will grow
into a shear crack.
The flexural shear at the time the crack grows into a shear
crack can be written as:
' 02 . 0
M
d b f V V
v v c cre ci
+ =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #60
This form of the equation is valid for noncomposite
members with uniform loads. It is NOT valid for bridges.
) ( ' 02 . 0 ksi V
M
M
d b f V
u
u
cre
v v c ci
+ =
31
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Flexural Shear  V
ci
It was assumed that the shear and moment increase It was assumed that the shear and moment increase
proportionally. However, in a composite section or a
section with other than uniform loads, the dead load
doesn’t increase proportionally, so subtract it out of the
proportionality part of the equation.
Two new terms are defined:
M = Maximum moment at a section caused by all
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #61
M
max
= Maximum moment at a section caused by all
FACTORED superimposed loads.
V
i
= Shear at the section associated with M
max
.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
If the dead load is taken separately, the equation is:
M V
V
d
= shear due to UNFACTORED dead load – noncomposite
section
M
max
= maximum moment at the section due all superimposed
FACTORED loads.
V FACTORED h t th ti di t M
max
' 02 . 0
M
M V
V d b f V
cre i
d v v c ci
+ + =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #62
V
i
= FACTORED shear at the section corresponding to M
max
.
b
v
= minimum web width
d
v
= effective shear depth
32
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
There is a lower limit to V
ci
:
Near simple supports, the V
ci
equation goes to infinity
' 06 . 0 ' 02 . 0
max
≥ + + = d b f
M
M V
V d b f V
v v c
cre i
d v v c ci
(5.8.3.4.31)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #63
Near simple supports, the V
ci
equation goes to infinity
because M
max
goes to 0. However, the V
cw
equation is
finite at supports, so it will control.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
How is the cracking moment found?
In a prestressed beam, what will eventually be the tensile
fiber will be in compression due to prestressing forces, f
cpe
.
The beam cracks when enough moment is applied to the
beam to remove the compressive stress and add enough
tension to crack the beam. The usual cracking strength in
flexure is the modulus of rupture, f
r
.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #64
33
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Assuming an elastic system:
Where S
c
is the section modulus to the tension fiber.
( )
r cpe c cre
c
cre
cre
r cpe
f f S M
S
M
I
c M
f f
+ =
= = +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #65
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
M
cre
must be adjusted to reflect the fact that the dead load
effect has been accounted for. In the LRFD equation, only effect has been accounted for. In the LRFD equation, only
the noncomposite DL is subtracted:
M
dnc
= Moment due to UNFACTORED dead loads applied
to the noncomposite or monolithic section
12


.

\

− + =
S
M
f f S M
nc
dnc
cpe r c cre
(5.8.3.4.32)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #66
to the noncomposite or monolithic section.
S
dnc
= Section modulus to the tensile fiber of the non
composite or monolithic section.
In the LRFD equation, M
cre
is in inchk, but M
dnc
is in ftk. The 12 converts feet to inches.
34
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Web Shear  V
cw
In a beam, there are shear stresses from flexure. The maximum shear ,
stress occurs at the neutral axis. For most beams, there is no normal
stress at the neutral axis. However, in a prestressed beam there is a
normal stress from the P/A term in the stress equation. In a composite
beam, the neutral axis of the composite is not the same as in the non
composite. At the neutral axis of the composite section, there will also
be normal stresses from bending, caused by the prestressing and the
dead load applied to the noncomposite section.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #67
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Web Shear  V
cw
The normal stress, f
pc
is:
The top sign is used
above the noncomposite
pc
P
eff
= effective prestressing force
A
nc
= noncomposite area
I
nc
= noncomposite moment of inertia
y = distance between neutral axis of composite and
dl,nc c
eff eff c
pc
nc nc nc
M y
P P ey
f
A I I
= ± m
neutral axis, the bottom
sign is used below the
noncomposite neutral
axis.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #68
y
c
= distance between neutral axis of composite and
noncomposite sections
= 0 for noncomposite beams
M
dl,nc
= noncomposite dead loads
e = eccentricity of prestressing
35
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Web Shear  V
cw
V can be calculated using the shearing stress formula:
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #69
V
cw
can be calculated using the shearing stress formula:
v = (V
cw
Q)/(It)
where v is the shear stress which causes a maximum principal
tensile stress of 4(f
c
’)
1/2
when the normal stress is f
pc
.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Web Shear  V
cw
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #70
An approximate equation is provided to find V
cw
:
( ) 3 . 0 ' 06 . 0 + + = V d b f f V
p v v pc c cw
(5.8.3.4.33)
36
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
The shear strength of the beam is:
V = V + V + V < 0.25f ’ b d + V
(5.8.3.31 &
5 8 3 32)
V
n
V
c
V
s
V
p
0.25f
c
b
v
d
v
V
p
For the simplified method, V
p
is taken = 0 in this equation,
so:
V
n
= V
c
+ V
s
< 0.25f
c
’ b
v
d
v
V is the lesser of V and V
5.8.3.32)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #71
V
c
is the lesser of V
ci
and V
cw
.
V
p
is taken = 0 only in Equations 5.8.3.31 and 5.8.3.32 and when the
simplified method is used. It is NOT taken = 0 in the equation for V
cw
,
5.8.3.4.33
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
' 06 . 0 ' 02 . 0
max
≥ + + = d b f
M
M V
V d b f V
v v c
cre i
d v v c ci (5.8.3.4.31)
This is the old V
ci
equation, just adjusted to ksi units, rounded off and
max
12


.

\

− + =
S
M
f f S M
nc
dnc
cpe r c cre (5.8.3.4.32)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #72
with new notations.
0.02√f
c
’ ksi = 0.63√f
c
’; 0.06√f
c
’ ksi = 1.9√f
c
’
37
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
V
d
= Shear force at the section from UNFACTORED
dead load (includes DC and DW) (kin). dead load (includes DC and DW) (k in).
M
cre
= Moment causing flexural cracking at a section
due to externally applied load (kin).
M
max
= Maximum factored moment at a section due to
externally applied loads (kin).
V
i
= Shear force at a section due to factored
superimposed loads which occurs simultaneously
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #73
superimposed loads, which occurs simultaneously
with M
max
(kip).
M
max
and V
i
are found from the load combination causing
maximum moment at the section.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
f
cpe
= compressive stress in concrete due to effective
prestressing forces only (after loss) at the extreme prestressing forces only (after loss) at the extreme
fiber of the section where externally applied loads
cause tensile stress.
f
r
= modulus of rupture. For this provision:
f f
( ) ksi f f
c r
' 2 . 0 =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #74
Note that this definition of f
r
is a new bullet in Article
5.4.2.6 (2007).
This is the old 6√f
c
’ just converted to ksi units.
38
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
M
dnc
= total unfactored dead load moment acting on the
non composite or monolithic section (k ft) noncomposite or monolithic section (kft).
Note that this is kft. That’s why there’s a 12 in the numerator – converts ft. to in.
S
c
= Section modulus to the extreme fiber of the
composite section where tensile stress is caused
by externally applied loads (in
3
).
S f f
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S
nc
= Section modulus to the extreme fiber of the non
composite or monolithic section where tensile
stress is caused by externally applied loads (in
3
).
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
For composite members, the commentary allows for a
simplification: simplification:
M
max
= M
u
– M
d
V
i
= V
u
– V
d
(C5.8.3.4.3) 7
th
Paragraph
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Note: The ACI318 code allows a simplification for noncomposite
members, however, this simplification was developed for building
beams with UNIFORM loads. This simplification should NOT be
applied to bridge girders, which are loaded with point (axle) loads.
39
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
( ) 3 . 0 ' 06 . 0 + + = V d b f f V
p v v pc c cw
(5.8.3.4.33)
This is an approximate equation for finding the condition
where the principal tensile stress is 4√f
c
’
Note that V
p
is NOT = 0 in this equation. V
p
is only set =
0 when finding V
n
in equations 5.8.3.31 and 2 and when
using the simplified shear method.
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using the simplified shear method.
Again, this is the old V
cw
equation, converted to kip units.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
f
pc
= compressive stress in concrete (after allowance for all
prestress loses) at centroid of cross section resisting prestress loses) at centroid of cross section resisting
externally applied loads or at the junction of the web
and the flange when the centroid lies within the flange
(ksi). In a composite section, f
pc
is the resultant
compressive stress at the centroid of the composite
section (or at the junction of the web and the flange if
the centroid lies in the flange) due to both prestress
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and the moments resisted by the precast member
acting alone.
40
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Stirrups:
Recall that if α = 90
o
(and it almost always is) then: Recall that, if α = 90
o
(and it almost always is), then:
If V
ci
< V
cw
(in other words, V
ci
controls), then:
cotθ = 1
s
d f A
V
v y v
s
θ cot
=
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If V
cw
< V
ci
, (V
cw
controls) then:
8 . 1
'
3 0 . 1 cot ≤


.

\

+ =
f
f
c
pc
θ
(5.8.3.4.34)
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed
Sections
Simplified Shear  Summary
Basically it is the old V and V method from the Std Basically, it is the old V
ci
and V
cw
method from the Std.
Specifications (and ACI 318).
The equations are slightly different.
Be sure to use the new version of the equations.
The biggest change is needing to find cotθ for finding V
s
and longitudinal steel requirements.
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If V
ci
controls, cotθ = 1
If V
cw
controls, cotθ must be calculated.
41
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
Lightweight Concrete
This applies to all shear methods, If the splitting strength is
known the term √f ’ is replaced by : known the term √f
c
is replaced by :
If the splitting strength is not known, substitute:
' 7 . 4
c ct
f f ≤
' 75 . 0 f
All lightweight
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'
' 85 . 0
75 . 0
c
c
c
f of place In
f
f
g g
Sanded lightweight
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
Deep Components
Deep Components:
Components may be considered as deep components if: Components may be considered as deep components if:
There is a point of zero shear within a distance of 2d
from the face of the support.
A load causing more than ½ the shear at the support
is within 2d of the face of the support (for segmental
boxes, the limit is 1/3 the shear).
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Design with strut and tie (Article 5.6.3)
Detail according to Article 5.13.2.3
42
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.5 Longitudinal Reinforcement
As shown in the previous slides, the shear forces cause As shown in the previous slides, the shear forces cause
tensile forces in the longitudinal reinforcement. According
to the commentary in the LRFD Specifications, this tension
becomes larger as θ becomes smaller and V
c
gets larger.
Therefore, the tensile steel doesn’t only have to resist
moment, but it also must resist the tensile component of
the shear. It is possible that these tensile forces might be
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great enough, when combined with the tensile forces due
to moment and axial load, to fail the longitudinal tensile
steel. Therefore, a check must be made to assure that
there is sufficient tensile steel to resist all the forces.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.5 Longitudinal Reinforcement
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The longitudinal tensile steel must be able to resist the
tension due to bending and axial load, along with the
tensile component of shear force in the concrete.
43
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.5 Longitudinal Reinforcement
 
≥ +
V N
M
f A f A
y s ps ps
Note that φ is the appropriate strength reduction factor for
that specific load effect (e.g. 1.0 for M
u
in prestressed
concrete, 0.9 for shear, etc.).
cot 5 . 0 5 . 0


.

\

− − + + V V
V N
d
M
s p
u u
v
u
θ
φ φ φ
(5.8.3.51)
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There is also a limit of V
s
< V
u
/ φ
Note: If torsion must be considered, V
u
in the equation must be modified for
torsion. This will be explained later in the torsion section.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.5 Longitudinal Reinforcement
At the inside edge of the bearing area of a simple end
support to the section of critical shear: support to the section of critical shear:
cot 5 . 0


.

\

− − ≥ + V V
V
f A f A
p s
u
y s ps ps
θ
φ
(5.8.3.52)
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44
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.5 Longitudinal Reinforcement
In Equations 5.8.3.51 and 5.8.3.52, there is a cotθ term.
The value of cotθ depends on the method used. If the The value of cotθ depends on the method used. If the
Sectional Design Model is used, then cotθ is found using
the value of θ found from the table.
If the simplified method is used, the value of cotθ depends
on which value controls. If V
ci
controls, then cotθ=1. If V
cw
controls then cotθ must be calculated:
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controls, then cotθ must be calculated:
cotθ=1.0+3(f
pc
/√f
c
’) < 1.8.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.5 Longitudinal Reinforcement
Finally, it is necessary to account for any lack of
development of the tensile steel. In the diagram below, the development of the tensile steel. In the diagram below, the
strand/bar may not be fully developed before it reaches the
crack. If so, the terms f
y
and f
ps
must be reduced by the
ratio of the actual length/development length.
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45
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.5 Longitudinal Reinforcement
The longitudinal reinforcement does not have to be greater
than that required to carry M
u
in cases where there is a
compressive reaction on the flexural compression face.
In other words – it is not necessary to check this provision at
the interior supports of a continuous girder. However, it IS
necessary to check this provision for a continuous for live
l d i d
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load girder.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction
Interface (horizontal) shear must be considered at:
An existing or potential crack An existing or potential crack
An interface between dissimilar materials
An interface between two concretes cast at different
times
The interface between different elements of a cross
section
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This provision appears to be for the vertical interface between
flanges and webs of box girders – especially segmental
boxes.
46
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction
The factored interface shear resistance. V
ri
shall be taken as:
ri ni
V V = φ
(5.8.4.11)
The design shall satisfy:
ri ui
V V ≥
(5.8.4.12)
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§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction
Where:
V
ni
= Nominal Shear Resistance (kip)
V
ui
= Factored interface shear force due to total load
based on the applicable strength and extreme
event load combinations in Table 3.4.11 (kip)
φ = Resistance factor for shear specified in Article
ff f
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5.5.4.2.1. In cases where different weights of
concrete exist on different sides of the interface, the
lower of the two values of φ shall be used.
47
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction
The strength of the interface, V
ni
, is:
But not greater than the lesser of:
( 8 4 1 )
(5.8.4.14)
(5.8.4.13)
ni cv vf y c
ni 1 c cv
V cA A f P
V K f ' A
V K A
= + u +
≤
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(5.8.4.15)
ni 2 cv
cv vi vi
V K A
A b L
≤
=
(5.8.4.16)
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction
V
ni
= Nominal shear resistance (k)
A = area of concrete engaged in shear transfer (in
2
) A
cv
area of concrete engaged in shear transfer (in )
A
vf
= area of shear reinforcement crossing the shear
plane (in
2
)
f
y
= yield strength of reinforcement
c = cohesion factor
µ = friction factor
P = permanent net compressive force normal to the
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P
c
= permanent net compressive force normal to the
shear plane (k). If tensile, P
c
= 0.
f
c
’ = 28 day compressive strength of the WEAKER
concrete
48
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction
b
vi
= interface width considered to be engaged in shear
transfer (inch) transfer (inch)
L
vi
= interface length considered to be engaged in shear
transfer (inch)
K
1
= fraction of the concrete strength available to resist
interface shear, as specified in Article 5.8.4.3
K
2
= limiting interface shear resistance specified in
Article 5 8 4 3 (ksi)
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Article 5.8.4.3 (ksi)
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction
Based on consideration of a free body diagram and utilizing the
conservative, envelope value of the factored, vertical shear force at
u1
ui
vi v
V
v
b d
=
the section, V
u1
.
(5.8.4.21)
Where d
v
is the previously defined shear depth.
The factored interface shear force in kips/ft for a concrete girder/slab
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The factored interface shear force in kips/ft for a concrete girder/slab
bridge may be determined as:
ui ui cv
V v A =
(5.8.4.22)
49
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction
If the net (normal) force, P
c
, across the interface shear plane is tensile,
additional reinforcement shall be provided: additional reinforcement shall be provided:
c
vpc
y
P
A
f
=
φ
(5.8.4.23)
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For beams and girders, the longitudinal spacing of the rows of interface
shear transfer reinforcing bars shall not exceed 24 inches.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.4.2 Cohesion and Friction
For concrete placed monolithically
c = 0.40 ksi
u = 1.4
K
1
= 0.25
K
2
= 1.5 ksi
For normal weight concrete placed against a clean concrete surface,
free of laitance and intentionally roughened 0.25 inches
c = 0.24 ksi
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u = 1.0
K
1
= 0.25
K
2
= 1.5 ksi
50
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.4.2 Cohesion and Friction
For concrete anchored to asrolled structural steel by headed studs
or by rebar where all the steel in contact with the concrete is clean
and free of paint:
c = 0.025 ksi
u = 0.7
K
1
= 0.2
K
2
= 0.8 ksi
For concrete placed against clean, hardened concrete not
intentionally roughened but free of laitance and clean
c 0 075 ksi
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c = 0.075 ksi
u = 0.6
K
1
= 0.2
K
2
= 0.8 ksi
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.4.2 Cohesion and Friction
For lightweight concrete placed against a clean concrete surface,
free of laitance and intentionally roughened 0.25 inches
c = 0.24 ksi
u = 1.0
K
1
= 0.25
K
2
= 1.0 ksi
For a castinplace concrete slab on clean concrete girder surfaces,
free of laitance and intentionally roughened 0.25 inches
c = 0.28 ksi
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u = 1.0
K
1
= 0.3
K
2
= 1.8 ksi – normal weight
K
2
= 1.3 ksi  lightweight
51
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction
A
vf
has a minimum:
(5.8.4.41)
cv
vf
y
0.05A
A
f
≥
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§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction
For a castinplace concrete slab on a clean concrete
girder surface, free of laitance: g
The minimum interface shear reinforcement, A
vf
, need
not exceed the lesser of the amount determined from
equation 5.8.4.11 and the amount needed to resist
1.33V
ui
/φ as determined using equation 5.8.4.13.
The minimum reinforcement provisions shall be
waived for girder/slab interfaces with surface
roughened to an amplitude of 0 25 inches where the
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roughened to an amplitude of 0.25 inches, where the
factored interface shear stress, v
ui
< 0.210 ksi and all of
the vertical shear reinforcement required by Article
5.8.1.1 is extended across the interface and
adequately anchored in the slab.
52
S TO AASHTOLRFD
Torsion
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4th Edition.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.2.1 General
Torsion causes a condition of pure shear, as shown by
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element “a”. However, element “a” can be rotated to show
principal stresses, as shown in element “c”. For principal
stress, two of the normal stresses are tensile and two are
compressive.
53
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.2.1 General
In a torsion test brittle materials, which are weaker in
tension than in shear, will break along surfaces forming a
45 degree angle with the longitudinal axis.
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CONCRETE IS A BRITTLE MATERIAL!!!!!!
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.2.1 General
Because concrete is brittle and tension weak, torsion forces
will crack the member diagonally, perpendicular to the
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maximum principal tensile stress. As a result, concrete
members under torsional loads tend to ‘unwrap’.
54
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.2.1 General
As with shear, compression struts will occur.
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Stirrups will arrest the cracks. As with shear, the presence
of stirrups (in tension) and compression struts forms a
truss, but here the truss is 3D.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.2.1 General
The important part is this:
Torsion causes shear stresses which are additive to the
flexural shear stresses.
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55
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.2.1 General
General Requirements:
T
u
= factored torsional moment
T
r
= factored torsional resistance
T
n
= nominal torsional resistance given in Article 5.8.3.6
= T T
n r
φ (5.8.2.11)
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T
n
nominal torsional resistance given in Article 5.8.3.6
(kin)
φ = 0.9 normal weight concrete
φ = 0.7 lightweight concrete
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.2.1 General
In many cases, torsional stresses are not significant.
Article 5.8.2.1 states that torsional effects may NOT BE Article 5.8.2.1 states that torsional effects may NOT BE
ignored if:
25 . 0 ≥ T T
cr u
φ
(5.8.2.13)
1 ' 125 0
2
+


=
f A
f T
pc cp
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(5.8.2.14)
' 125 . 0
1 125 . 0 +
.
\
=
f p
f T
c c
c cr
56
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.2.1 General
' 125 0
1 ' 125 . 0
2
pc cp
c cr
f
f A
f T +



=
(5.8.2.14)
T
cr
= Cracking torsion (kin)
A
cp
= Total area enclosed by the outside perimeter of
the concrete cross section (in
2
)
p
c
= length of the outside perimeter of the concrete cross
section (in)
f i t i t ( ft ll f
' 125 . 0
c c
c cr
f
p
f
.
\
(5.8.2.1 4)
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f
pc
= compressive stress in concrete (after allowance for
all prestress loses) at centroid of cross section
resisting externally applied loads or at the junction of
the web and the flange when the centroid lies within
the flange (ksi). (This is the same as for V
cw
).
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.2.1 General
2
A 789 i
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2
cp
2 2 2 2
c
c
A 789 in
p 26 20 2 8 9 9 23 6 6 8
p 166.4 in
=
= + + + + + + + +
=
57
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.2.1 General
For cellular structures:
A
2
A
0
= Area enclosed by the shear flow path, including any
holes therein.
v
c
cp
b A
p
A
0
2
2 ≤
(5.8.2.15)
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§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.2.1 General
Torsional Design
For torsion, the area of ADDITIONAL transverse
reinforcement is calculated.
The required area of stirrups for shear must be added to
the required area of stirrups for the concurrent torsion
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(Article 5.8.3.6.1).
58
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
The Commentary (C5.8.3.6.1) explains the use of the
word “concurrent”. word concurrent .
It is not appropriate to design for the maximum shear
and the maximum torsion (unless they are concurrent).
It is appropriate to examine the area of transverse
reinforcement required for the maximum shear with the
concurrent torsion and the maximum torsion with the
concurrent shear Use the largest area required
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concurrent shear. Use the largest area required.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
When calculating the shear resistance, V
n
, several
equations require the term V
u
. When considering shear q q
u
g
and torsion, the EQUIVALENT factored shear force, V
u
shall be taken as equal to:
(5.8.2.16)
2
2
0
:
0.9
2
h u
u
Solid Sections
p T
V
A
B S i
 
+

\ .
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p
h
= perimeter of the centerline of the closed, transverse torsion reinforcement.
(5.8.2.17)
:
2
u
u
o
Box Sections
T d
V
A
+
59
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.6.2 Torsional Resistance
The nominal torsional resistance is:
f A A θ 2
A
t
= Area of one leg of closed transverse reinforcement
provided for torsion in solid members or the total area
of transverse torsion reinforcement in the exterior web
of a cellular member.
s
f A A
T
y t
n
θ cot 2
0
=
(5.8.3.6.21)
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CAUTION: The Specifications require that the area of transverse
reinforcement for shear be added to that for torsion. However, the transverse
reinforcement for shear, A
v
, includes ALL legs of the stirrups which cross the
plane of the shear crack. For torsion, A
t
is the area of ONE leg. Thus, when
detailing the reinforcement, it is important to add these areas correctly.
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.6.3 Longitudinal Reinforcement
The longitudinal steel requirements are modified if torsion
must be considered. must be considered.
Solid Sections:
2
45 . 0
5 . 0 cot 5 . 0
2 2

.

\

+

.

\

− − + +
≥ +
A
T p
V V
V N
d
M
f A f A
u h
s p
u u
u
y s ps ps
φ φ
θ
φ φ
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2
0 .
\ .
\
A d
s p
v
φ φ φ φ
(5.8.3.6.31)
60
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
§ 5.8.3.6.3 Longitudinal Reinforcement
In box sections, the required amount of ADDITIONAL
longitudinal steel is: longitudinal steel is:
2
0
=
f A
p T
A
y
h n
l (5.8.3.6.32)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #119
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
Design for Shear and Torsion
Step 1
Determine if torsion must be considered Determine if torsion must be considered.
IF T
u
< 0.25ΦT
cr
, torsion may be ignored.
Step 2
Determine the maximum factored shear and
concurrent factored torsion.
Determine the maximum factored torsion and
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concurrent factored shear.
61
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
Design for Shear and Torsion (cont.)
Step 3
Modify V to reflect the presence of torsion Modify V
u
to reflect the presence of torsion.
This is the equivalent factored shear force.
Equations 5.8.2.16 or 7
For the Sectional Design Model is used for shear, the
equivalent factored shear force is used for V
u
in the
equations for v
u
and ε
x
.
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§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
Design for Shear and Torsion (cont.)
Step 4
Determine the area of transverse shear reinforcement Determine the area of transverse shear reinforcement
needed to resist the maximum value of V
u
.
Determine the area of transverse shear reinforcement
needed to resist the value of V
u
concurrent with the
maximum torsion.
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62
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
Design for Shear and Torsion (cont.)
Step 5
Determine the area of transverse torsion Determine the area of transverse torsion
reinforcement needed to resist the maximum value of
T
u
.
Determine the area of transverse torsion
reinforcement needed to resist the value of T
u
concurrent with the maximum shear.
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§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
Design for Shear and Torsion (cont.)
Step 6
Add together the areas of transverse reinforcement Add together the areas of transverse reinforcement
required for torsion and shear.
Add the required areas for the cases of maximum shear and
concurrent torsion and maximum torsion and concurrent
shear. Use the maximum.
Remember, the calculated shear area is for ALL the stirrup
legs; the calculated torsion area is for ONE leg. Be sure to
dd th tl
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add the areas correctly.
63
§ 5.8  Shear and Torsion
Design for Shear and Torsion (cont.)
Check the requirements for longitudinal steel using the
equations modified for torsion. equations modified for torsion.
5.8.3.6.31 or 2
Finally, although the specifications do not say it
specifically, it appears that if torsion is present, sectional
design model must be used.
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1
S TO AASHTOLRFD
Continuous for Live Load
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4th Edition.
New in 2007
§ 5.14.1.4 Bridges Composed on Simple Span Precast Girders
Made Continuous
Article 5.14.1.3 has been extensively revised for 2007.
Results of NCHRP Study 1253. Results of NCHRP Study 12 53.
NCHRP Report 519 (available on the web at TRB.org)
This article only applies to bridges intended to be
continuous for live load.
This does not apply to bridges designed as simple
spans.
Some states use “poor boy” continuity. A negative
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #2
Some states use poor boy continuity. A negative
moment connection is provided in the slab, but no
positive moment connection is provided. The bridge
is designed as simple spans. 5.14.1.3 does NOT
apply to this type of bridge.
2
New in 2007
§ 5.14.1.4 Bridges Composed on Simple Span Precast Girders
Made Continuous
Construction Sequence
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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New in 2007
§ 5.14.1.4 Bridges Composed on Simple Span Precast Girders
Made Continuous
Negative moment reinforcement over a diaphragm
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3
New in 2007
§ 5.14.1.4 Bridges Composed on Simple Span Precast Girders
Made Continuous
A bent strand positive moment connection
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New in 2007
§ 5.14.1.4 Bridges Composed on Simple Span Precast Girders
Made Continuous
Girders carry self weight and slab weight as simple, non
composite spans. composite spans.
All superimposed DL and LL carried as continuous,
composite spans.
Negative moment connection over pier is usually
reinforced slab.
Creep, shrinkage and temperature may cause girders to
camber up causing positive moment
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camber up, causing positive moment.
Usually in young girders
Positive moment connection required.
4
New in 2007
§ 5.14.1.4 Bridges Composed on Simple Span Precast Girders
Made Continuous
Over time, creep and shrinkage of the girders may cause additional
camber in the girders. This creates a positive moment at the
diaphragm which often causes cracking, so positive moment
connections are needed. These moments are called “restraint”
moments.
Experimental evidence shows that this behavior is most prevalent
when the girders are very young.
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when the girders are very young.
When the girders are old, theory says shrinkage of the slab causes
the girders to decamber, resulting in a negative restraint moment at
the diaphragm. However, this is not seen in field measurements.
Field measurements show the girders camber up until the slab is
cast, then every thing “locks up” – no cambering or decambering is
seen.
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.2 Restraint Moments
Methods of analysis are NOT covered in the LRFD
Specifications. Specifications.
Many commercial bridge analysis programs will
calculate positive moments from creep/shrinkage.
PCA EB14 is a popular hand method.
QCon Bridge is available for free from WSDOT.
Current analysis methods are questionable.
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Creep and shrinkage properties are extremely
variable.
Analysis results do not match field data for older
girders.
5
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.2 Restraint Moments
The MOST important variable is the age of the girders at
the time continuity is established (Art 5.14.1.4.4). the time continuity is established (Art 5.14.1.4.4).
If the girders are less than 90 days old when continuity
is established:
The engineer must estimate or specify the girder age at
continuity.
Restraint moments must be calculated.
If the girders are SPECIFIED to be no less than 90
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If the girders are SPECIFIED to be no less than 90
days old when continuity is established:
Provide a specified positive moment connection
No calculations of restraint moments are needed.
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.4 Age of Girder when Continuity is Established
The 90 day specification
At 90 days approximately 70% of the creep and At 90 days, approximately 70% of the creep and
shrinkage has occurred in the girder. This limits
positive moment formation.
Experimental evidence shows that girders with a
positive moment connection which will resist 1.2M
cr
can still provide continuity even if some cracking is
present
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present.
Using the 90 day rule greatly simplifies design.
The 90 day rule is verified by experience in several
states.
6
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.4 Age of Girder when Continuity is Established
To use the 90 day rule, the 90 day wait must be in the
contract documents.
Waiting 90 days may not be practical
Precasters do not want to store for 90 days.
Production schedules may be significantly altered if a
long lead is needed.
In some states, precasters are paid for storage.
The commentary allows the owner to change the 90 day
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Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #11
The commentary allows the owner to change the 90 day
wait to the time when k
td
= 0.7 (Art. 5.4.2.3.2 and
5.4.2.3.3).
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.5 Degree of Continuity at Various Limit States
When the positive moment connection cracks, some degree of
continuity may be lost.
In general, the girders act as simple spans until the cracks close;
then act as continuous after the crack closes.
The design must consider possible loss of continuity.
If the calculated stress at the bottom of the continuity diaphragm for
the combination of superimposed permanent loads, settlement,
creep, shrinkage, 50% live load and temperature gradient, if
applicable, is compressive, the spans may be considered as fully
continuous for all limit states.
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If the girders are specified to be at least 90 days old when continuity
is established, the spans may be assumed fully continuous for all
limit states.
Negative moment deck cracking may be neglected.
7
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.6 Service Limit State for Girder Stress Limits
For loads carried as simple spans (including release of
prestressing force), the girders must satisfy the tensile prestressing force), the girders must satisfy the tensile
stress requirements for prestressed girders (Art. 5.9.4).
For the top of the girder at an interior support at service
limit state after losses, either:
Treat it as a prestressed girder. Use the prestressed
tensile limits and Service III, as applicable.
Treat it as a reinforced concrete section
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Treat it as a reinforced concrete section.
A castinplace composite deck slab shall not be subject
to the tensile stress limits for the service limit state after
losses specified in Table 5.9.4.2.21.
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.7 Strength Limit State
The negative moment connection must be able to resist
the factored negative moment at the section. the factored negative moment at the section.
The positive moment connection must be able to resist
the factored restraint moments.
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8
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.8 Negative Moment Connections
The most common negative moment connection is a
reinforced concrete slab on top the girders. reinforced concrete slab on top the girders.
This is designed as a reinforced concrete section and
must meet all applicable provisions.
Bars must be properly anchored and splices must be
staggered.
Other types of connections are permitted if verified by
testing
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testing.
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.9 Positive Moment Connections
Positive moment connections resist restraint moments
caused by creep and shrinkage of the girders. caused by creep and shrinkage of the girders.
Without positive moment connections, the
girder/diaphragm interface cracks and continuity is lost.
Continuous for Live Load Bridges MUST have positive
moment connections.
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9
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.9 Positive Moment Connections
Three types permitted:
Leave some of the strand extended from the end of Leave some of the strand extended from the end of
the girder and bend it to a 90
o
angle.
Embed mild steel bars in the end of the girder. These
bars have either 90
o
or 180
o
hooks into the
diaphragm.
Any connection verified by analysis/testing to provide
adequate resistance Mechanical connections would
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adequate resistance. Mechanical connections would
be permitted under this section.
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.9 Positive Moment Connections
The positive moment connection must be designed to
resist the factored restraint moments unless the 90 day resist the factored restraint moments unless the 90 day
rule is used.
If the connection is designed using restraint moments,
the capacity of the connection must be between 0.6 M
cr
and 1.2 M
cr
.
M
cr
is the cracking moment of the gross composite
girder cross section at the diaphragm
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girder cross section at the diaphragm.
M
cr
is calculated using the strength of the diaphragm
concrete.
10
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.9 Positive Moment Connections
If the connection is designed using the 90 day rule, the
capacity of the connection must be at least 1.2 M . capacity of the connection must be at least 1.2 M
cr
.
IMPORTANT – The 1.2 M
cr
capacity referred to here IS
NOT the same 1.2 M
cr
referred to in Art. 5.7.3.3.2 (which
states that prestressed elements must have a minimum
capacity of 1.2 M
cr
). Art. 5.7.3.3.2 does NOT apply to
positive moment connections.
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Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.9 Positive Moment Connections
Bent Bar Type Connection:
Connection is made by embedding mild steel in the end Connection is made by embedding mild steel in the end
of the girder.
Use the provisions for development of straight and bent
bar (Art. 5.11) to design the bars. The critical section is
the girder/ diaphragm interface.
Stagger the ends of the bars in the girder to prevent
stress concentrations
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stress concentrations.
11
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.9 Positive Moment Connections
Bent Bar type
connection.
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Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.9 Positive Moment Connections
Bent Bar Type Connection:
Often the bars cannot be installed pre bent (especially Often, the bars cannot be installed prebent (especially
in BulbT and I sections). It may be necessary to field
bend. Field bend specifications are needed.
Embedded bars may increase end zone congestion.
To mesh the bars in the diaphragm, the bars must be
offset. However, an excessively asymmetrical
connection detail will cause uneven bar stress The
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connection detail will cause uneven bar stress. The
connection should be kept as symmetrical as possible
while still allowing meshing.
12
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.9 Positive Moment Connections
This shows that bent
bars extend above the
top of the flange.
They cannot be
installed bent or the
forms cannot be
closed. They must be
installed straight and
field bent.
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Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.9 Positive Moment Connections
Bent Strand Type Connection:
This connection is made by leaving a length of strand This connection is made by leaving a length of strand
extend from the end of the beam.
The strand may be left straight and developed into the
diaphragm.
The strand may be bent into a 90
o
hook.
This connection develops the strand for the purposes of
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Art. 5.8.3.6.3 (Longitudinal reinforcement).
The strands should be symmetrical about the vertical
axis of the cross section.
13
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.9 Positive Moment Connections
Strand stress in bent strand connections is found from:
f
psl
= (ℓ
dsh
– 8)/0.228 < 150 ksi
(5.14.1.4.91)
psl
(
dsh
)
f
pul
= (ℓ
dsh
– 8)/0.163
where:
ℓ
dsh
= total length of extended strand (IN)
f
psl
= stress in the strand at the SERVICE limit state.
Cracked section shall be assumed. (KSI)
f = stress in the strand at the STRENGTH limit state
(5.14.1.4.92)
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f
pul
= stress in the strand at the STRENGTH limit state.
(KSI)
Strands shall project at least 8 IN from the face of the
girder before they are bent.
Continuous for Live Load
§ 5.14.1.4.10 Continuity Diaphragms
The design of continuity diaphragms at interior supports may be
based on the strength of the concrete in the precast girders.
Precast girders may be embedded into continuity diaphragms.
If horizontal diaphragm reinforcement is passed through holes in the
precast beam or is attached to the precast element using
mechanical connectors, the end precast element shall be designed
to resist positive moments caused by superimposed dead loads, live
loads, creep and shrinkage of the girders, shrinkage of the deck
slab, and temperature effects. Design of the end of the girder shall
account for the reduced effect of prestress within the transfer length.
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Where ends of girders are not directly opposite each other across a
continuity diaphragm, the diaphragm must be designed to transfer
forces between girders. Continuity diaphragms shall also be
designed for situations where an angle change occurs between
opposing girders.
1
AASHTO AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications –
Design Example 1
Simple Span Prestressed
Adjacent Box Bridge
RICHARD MILLER
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4
th
Edition.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
Problem Statement and Assumptions
This design example demonstrates the design of a single span, 65 ft. long
adjacent box girder bridge with a 30
o
right forward skew, as shown below. This
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #2
References:
•“Precast Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Manual,” Published by Precast/Prestressed concrete Institute
j g g g ,
example illustrates the design of typical interior and exterior beams at the critical
sections in positive flexure, shear and deflection due to prestressing, dead load,
and live load.
2
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
Problem Statement and Assumptions
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Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
Problem Statement and Assumptions
This problem was chosen to illustrate skew bridge design.
Note: Table 4.6.2.2.2e1 has an inconsistency. It does not
include this type of bridge in the description in the first
column, but names it as a cross section type in the second
column.
It is assumed the skew factor applies to this structure.
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It is assumed the skew factor applies to this structure.
3
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.2.1 Precast Beams
Ohio B3348 box girder as shown
f
c
’ = 7.0 ksi @ 28 days
f ’ 5 0 k i f
ci
’ = 5.0 ksi
ODOT Bridge
Design Manual
(BDM) allows a
range of strengths.
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g g
These are chosen
from that range.
[BDM 302.5.1.7]
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
Selecting the Girder Size
The LRFD Specifications were checked
against the old Standard Specifications against the old Standard Specifications.
LRFD should give a more refined design, but
not a radically different design.
For prestressed concrete, the difference is
usually a few strands one way or the other.
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Design tables developed for Standard
Specifications can usually be used to
approximate the section for initial sizing.
4
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
Selecting the Girder Size
When using tables based on the Standard
Specifications try to stay in the middle of the design Specifications, try to stay in the middle of the design
range. Sections near either end of the design range
may be inadequate.
The Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI)
publishes preliminary design tables in their Bridge
Design Manual.
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These work when ODOT uses the AASHTO standard
section (e.g. Type IV)
It will give an approximate section for cases where the
ODOT section is not AASHTO standard (boxes).
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
Selecting the Girder Size
The B3348 section was chosen from preliminary
design charts in ODOT Design Data Sheets Group design charts in ODOT Design Data Sheets. Group
“B” Design (roadway width 36 ft. to 48 ft.).
The span of 65 ft is the midrange for this section.
The design data sheet suggests using 20 strands,
½” diameter.
ODOT requires the use of minimum span to depth
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #8
ODOT requires the use of minimum span to depth
ratios given in LRFD Article 2.5.2.6.3. For a precast
box, the limit is 0.03L = 0.03(65ft)(12in/ft) =23.4
inches < 33 inches OK
5
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.2.3 Prestressing Strand
½ in diameter, lowrelaxation ASTM A 415
[ODOT BDM 302.5.1.2a]
ODOT BDM allows either ½ inch or 0.6 inch. Here, ½
inch diameter is chosen.
Area of one strand = 0.153 in
2
Ultimate strength, f
pu
= 270.0 ksi
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1.2.4 Reinforcing Bars
GR 60; Yield strength, f
y
= 60 ksi [BDM 302.5.1.8]
Modulus of elasticity, E
s
= 29,000 ksi
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.2.5 Loads
Diaphragms: 2  12” wide at 1/3 points
(ODOT Std. Drawings)
Future wearing g
surface: 0.060 ksf (ODOT Std. Drawings)
Barriers: 0.090 k/ft each (ODOT Design Data Sheets)
Truck: HL 93, including dynamic allowance
1 2 6 Bridge Parameters
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Single Span
Overall Length: 67 ft.
c/c Span: 65 ft.
Support: Elastomeric Bearing Pad
1.2.6 Bridge Parameters
6
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.3.1 NonComposite Section Properties
Area in
2
733.5
Weight (k/ft) 0.764
h (in) 33
y
b
(in) 16.61
y
t
(in) 16.39
I (in
4
) 108,150
S
b
(in
3
) 6,511
S
t
(in
3
) 6,599
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1.5
1
33, 000 '
C C c
E K w f =
(5.4.2.41)
1.5
33, 000 1.0 0.150 5.0 4, 300
C
E ksi = × × =
1.5
33, 000 1.0 0.150 7.0 5, 072
C
E ksi = × × =
At Transfer
At Service Loads
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
Material Properties
It is important to remember that the LRFD
Specifications use KSI units The formula Specifications use KSI units. The formula
given for E is the old E=33w
1.5
√f
c
’, just
adjusted to ksi units.
The K
1
factor was added for high strength
concrete, but it applies to all concrete. E is
heavily influenced by aggregates. At high
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y y gg g g
strengths, E is limited by aggregate stiffness.
The K
1
factor allows the owner or designer to
adjust E based on experimental evidence.
7
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.3.2 Assumptions
The current ODOT standard is to tie the girders
together with tie rods tightened enough to bring the together with tie rods, tightened enough to bring the
girders together, but not providing significant lateral
posttensioning. According to the commentary in the
LRFD Specifications, for this bridge to be considered
to have the girders “sufficiently connected”, a lateral
posttensioning force causing a stress of 0.25 ksi
across the keyway is needed Therefore this bridge
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across the keyway is needed. Therefore, this bridge
will be considered as not being “sufficiently
connected”. This changes the distribution factor
significantly.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.1 Dead Loads
DC = Dead load of structural components and
non structural attachments nonstructural attachments
DC Dead Loads carried by the girders:
Beam Weight: 0.764 klf
Diaphragms: 2 at each 1/3 point
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
d 2 2
33in 10.5in 48in 11in
DC 1 ft 2 diaphragms 0.150kcf 1.75k
− −
= =
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ODOT specifies a MINIMUM of 3 inches in the Bridge Design Manual, but
the Design Data Sheets use a 3.5 inch average to account for camber
along the length of beam.
( ) ( ) ( )
d 2 2
DC 1 ft 2 diaphragms 0.150kcf 1.75k
144in / ft
8
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.1 Dead Loads
DC Dead Loads carried by the girders (con’t):
Asphalt Wearing Surface: at Construction Asphalt Wearing Surface: at Construction
DW= future wearing surfaces and future DL
( )( )
3.5
4 0.120 0.140
12 /
ws
in
DC ft kcf klf
in ft
= =
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DW future wearing surfaces and future DL
FWS: (0.060 ksf)(4 ft) = 0.240 klf
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.1 Dead Loads
An important note on the asphalt wearing surface:
The ODOT standards call for a minimum 3 inch
asphalt surface.
However, the ODOT Design Data Sheets call for a
3.5 in surface. Actually, this is the average surface
thi k D t b th f b
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thickness. Due to camber, the surface may be
thicker at the ends of the girder. The surface may
be thicker on an individual girder due to differential
camber.
9
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.1 Dead Loads
f Rails: 0.090 klf applied to exterior girders.
In other example problems, barrier/railing loads are
distributed equally to all the girders, but Article 4.6.2.2
appears to require a deck to distribute the load equally to
all girders. Here, assume the railing load is applied only
to the exterior girders
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #17
to the exterior girders.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.1.1 DLUnfactored Shear Forces & Bending Moments
Since this is a simple span beam, the most critical moment
is at midspan: s at dspa
( )( )
( )( )
ft k 8 . 126
8
ft 65 klf 240 . 0
M
ft k 3 . 515 k 75 . 1
3
ft 65
8
ft 65 klf 140 . 0 klf 764 . 0
M
2
DW
2
DC
− = =
− =

.

\

+
+
=
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #18
8
10
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2 Live Loads
According to LRFD Article 4.6.1.2.1 vehicular live loading
on the roadways of bridges or incidental structures, y g
designated HL93, shall consists of a combination of the:
Design truck or design tandem with dynamic allowance. The
design truck shall consists of an 8.0 kip front axle and a pair of
32.0 kip back axles. The first and second axle are spaced 14’0”
apart. The space between the rear axles shall be varied between
14.0’ and 30.0’ to produce extreme force effects. The design
tandem shall consist of a pair of 25 0 kip axles spaced 4 0’ apart
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tandem shall consist of a pair of 25.0 kip axles spaced 4.0 apart.
[LRFD Article 3.6.1.2.2 and 3.6.1.2.3]
Design lane load shall consist of a load of 0.64 kip/ft uniformly
distributed in the longitudinal direction. [LRFD Article 3.6.1.2.4]
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2 Live Loads
Since this is a simple span, the maximum moment from the
LANE LOAD occurs when the girder is fully loaded. Thus: LANE LOAD occurs when the girder is fully loaded. Thus:
The HL93 truck controls for this span length and, since this
is a simple span, the maximum moment is:
( )( )
ft k 338
8
ft 65 klf 640 . 0
M
2
Lane , LL
− = =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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896
LL,Truck
M k ft = −
11
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2 Live Loads
A note on live loads:
The lane load is just a uniform load, so for a simple
span the moment is:
M = 0.5wx(Lx)
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w = load (klf)
L = total span
x = point where moment is calculated.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2 Live Loads
The HL93 Truck is treated as a series of axle loads. For a
SIMPLE SPAN (only), the maximum moment occurs when
th id f th b i ½ b t th lt t the midspan of the beam is ½ way between the resultant
load and the nearest axle load:
The resultant is used
only for positioning the
loads. It is NOT
included in the
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #22
analysis.
Don’t you wish you would have
paid more attention in Structural
Analysis?????
12
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2 Live Loads
The HL93 has the same axle loads as the old HS20 truck.
The Standard Specifications published moments for simple p p p
spans under the old HS20 loading in Appendix B.
BE CAREFUL – Appendix B gives the moment for the
controlling load case which might be either the truck load or
the lane load!! Recall that the Standard Specifications use
EITHER Lane or Truck; LRFD uses BOTH.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #23
The HS 20 lane load is NOT the same as the HL93 truck
or HL93 lane!!! (Standard Specification Lane Load has a
point load!)
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2.1 Distribution Factors
The live load bending moments and shear forces are
determined by using the simplified distribution factor
f l [LRFD 4 6 2 2] T th i lifi d li l d formulas [LRFD 4.6.2.2]. To use the simplified live load
distribution factor formulas, the following conditions must
be met [LRFD 4.6.2.2.1]
Width of deck is constant. OK
Number of beams, N
b
> 4. OK
Overhang part of the roadway < 3 ft OK
d
e
= 0.23 ft
Curvature in plan < Article 4.6.1.2 OK
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Curvature in plan Article 4.6.1.2 OK
Beam parallel and of same stiffness OK
Cross Section listed in Table 4.6.2.2.11 OK
For a precast concrete box beam with an asphalt
surface , the bridge type is (g).
13
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2.1 Distribution Factors
The number of design lanes should be
determined by taking the integer part of the ratio determined by taking the integer part of the ratio
w/12, where w is the clear roadway width in feet
between curbs and/or barriers.
w = 48 feet
Number of design lanes = integer part of (48/12) = 4
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(3.6.1.1.1)
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2.1.1 Distribution Factors for Bending Moment
DFM = S/D
S = width of precast beam (ft) S = width of precast beam (ft)
D = (11.5 N
L
)+1.4N
L
(10.2C)
2
when C < 5
D = (11.5 N
L
) when C > 5
Range of Applicability:
(Table 4.6.2.2.2b1)
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6
L
N ≤
45 Skew≤ °
14
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2.1.1 Distribution Factors for Bending Moment
Where:
N
L
= Number of Lanes = 4
C = K(W/L) < K
W= Clear width of the bridge = 48 ft.
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( )
J
I 1
K
u +
=
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2.1.1 Distribution Factors for Bending Moment
J is not published for ODOT girders. However, it
can be approximated by: can be approximated by:
( )
= = =
 
+ +

\ .
∑
2
2
2
4
4 1180in
4A
J 211625in
S
27.75in 42.5in 42.5in
2
t
5.5in 5.5in 5in
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A is the area enclosed by the centerline of the box walls.
t is the wall thickness
S is the length of the centerline of a box wall.
15
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2.1.1 Distribution Factors for Bending Moment
( )
+
= =
4
4
1 0.2 108150in
K 0.783
211625in
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
 
= =

\ .
= − + − =
= =
2
211625in
48 ft
C 0.783 0.578
65 ft
D 11.5 4Lanes 1.4 4Lanes 1 0.2 0.578 11.9
S 4 ft
0 336
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= = 0.336
D 11.9
u = Poisson’s Ratio = 0.2 [LRFD 5.4.2.5]
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2.1.1 Distribution Factors for Bending Moment
Note that for boxes, K can be conservatively taken
as 1 The DFM = 0 361 a difference of 8% as 1. The DFM 0.361, a difference of 8%.
Also note that there is only one distribution factor
for this case. This is different from other cases
where there are factors for one lane loaded and
two lanes loaded.
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16
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2.1.2 Distribution Factors for Shear Force
Two Lanes Loaded:
DFV = (b/156)
0.4
(b/12L)
0.1
(I/J)
0.05
(b/48)
One Lane Loaded:
DFV = (b/130L)
0.15
(I/J)
0.05
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DFV (b/130L) (I/J)
(Table 4.6.2.2.3a1)
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2.1.2 Distribution Factors for Shear Force
Where DFV = distribution factor for moment for
interior beam Provided: interior beam. Provided:
5< N
b
< 20 N
b
= 12 OK N
b
= number of beams
35 < b < 60 b = 48 OK b = beam width, in
20 < L < 120 L = 65 OK L = beam span, ft
25,000 < J <
610,000
J = 211,625 OK
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40,000 < I <
610,000
I = 108,150 OK
17
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2.1.2 Distribution Factors for Shear Force
For two or more lanes loaded:
0 1
For one design lane loaded:
( )
0.1
0.4 0.05
48 48 108150 48
0.456
156 12 65 211625 48
 
     
= =

  

\ . \ . \ .
\ .
DFV
0.15
0.05
48 108150
DFV 0 445
 
 


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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #33
Because I/J is raised to a very small power, assuming I/J = 1 changes
the DFV very little. Here, the DFV is about 4% higher if I/J = 1.
( )
DFV 0.445
130 65 211625
 
= =



\ .
\ .
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2.2 Dynamic Allowance
IM = 33%
Where:
IM = dynamic load allowance, applied only to truck load
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18
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2.3 Moment Reduction Factor for Skew
For 0 60 θ ° ≤ ≤ ° 1.05 0.25tan 1.0 g θ = − ≤
The specifications state that the MOMENT
DISTRIBUTION FACTOR in a skewed bridge MAY
( )
1.05 0.25tan 30 0.905 = − =
o
g
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g
be reduced by this factor.
(Table 4.6.2.2.2e1)
Note: Table 4.6.2.2.2e1 has an inconsistency. It does not include this type of
bridge in the description in the first column, but names it as a cross section type
in the second column. It is assumed the skew factor applies to this structure.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2.4 Unfactored Bending Moments
Unfactored bending moment due to HL93 truck,
per beam: per beam:
M
LL,Truck
= (bending moment per lane)(DFM)(1+IM)(skew factor)
= (bending moment per lane)(0.336)(1.33)(0.905)
= (bending moment per lane)(0.404)
= 896 kft (0.404) = 362.3 kft
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( )
19
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.2.4 Unfactored Bending Moments
U f d b di d HL 93 l l d Unfactored bending moment due to HL93 lane load,
per beam:
M
LL,Lane
= (bending moment per lane)(DFM)(skew factor)
= (bending moment per lane)(0.336)(0.905)
= 338 kft (0.304) = 102.7 kft
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(Impact is not applied to lane loads.)
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.4.3 Load Combinations
The following limit states are applicable:
Service I:
(3.4.1)
Q = 1.00(DC + DW) + 1.00 (LL + IM)
Service III:
Q = 1.00(DC + DW) + 0.80(LL + IM)
Strength I:
Maximum Q = 1.25(DC) + 1.50(DW) + 1.75(LL + IM)
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Fatigue: Does not need to be checked for pretensioned
beams designed using the Service III load combination.
20
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.5.1 Service Load Stresses at Midspan
Bottom tensile stress due to applied dead and live loads using load
combination Service III:
Where:
b
I LL DW DC
b
S
M 8 . 0 M M
f
+
+ +
=
f
b
= Bottom tensile stresses ksi
M
DC
= Unfactored bending moment due to DC loads kipft
M
DW
= Unfactored bending moment due to DW loads kipft
M
LL+I
= Unfactored bending moment due to design vehicular live kipft
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #39
Box girders are usually controlled by Strength I, but it is difficult to estimate number of
strands using Strength I. It is easier to estimate the number of strands using Service III
and add a few strands. Final strand patterns can be adjusted, if needed, later.
load including impact,
S
b
= Section modulus to the bottom fiber in
3
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.5.1 Service Load Stresses at Midspan
( )
{ }
( ) 515 3 126 8 0 8 362 3 102 7 12 k f i / f
( )
{ }
( )
3
515 3 126 8 0 8 362 3 102 7 12
1 87
6511
b
. . . . . k ft in / ft
f . ksi
in
+ + + −
= =
Remember! For Service III (which applies ONLY to tension
in fully prestressed members), the LL factor is 0.8!
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21
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.5.2 Tensile Stress Limits for Concrete
'
0.19
r c
f f =
(Table 5.9.4.2.21)
0.19 7.0 0.503
r
f ksi = =
1.5.3 Required Number of Strands
The first step is determine the required amount of
prestressing stress at the tensile fiber:
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( )
(1.87 0.503) 1.37
pb b r
pb
f f f
f ksi
= −
= − =
prestressing stress at the tensile fiber:
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.5.3 Required Number of Strands
Assume the strands are 2 inches from the bottom
of the girder So the strand eccentricity at the of the girder So the strand eccentricity at the
midspan is:
If P
pe
is the total prestressing force, the stress at
the bottom fiber due to prestress is:
( ) (16.61 2.0) 14.61
c b bs
e y y in = − = − =
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p
pe pe c
pb
b
P P e
f
A S
= +
22
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.5.3 Required Number of Strands
Now plug in the required recompression stress, f
pb
and solve for P : and solve for P
pe
:
kips 380
in 6511
in 61 . 14
in 5 . 733
1
ksi 37 . 1
P
3 2
pe
=

.

\

+
=
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Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.5.3 Required Number of Strands
Final prestress force per strand
( f t d)(f )(1 l %) = (area of strand)(f
pi
)(1losses, %)
where f
pi
= initial prestressing stress before
transfer, ksi = 0.75f
pu
= 202.5 ksi
Assuming 25% loss of prestress the final
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #44
Assuming 25% loss of prestress the final
prestressing force per strand after losses is:
(0.153)(202.5)(1 0.25) 23.2kips − =
23
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.5.3 Required Number of Strands
Number of strands required:
This shows a need for at least (18) ½ in
380
16.4
23.2
=
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This shows a need for at least (18) ½ in
diameter, 270 ksi, lowlax strands as the
strand pattern must be symmetrical.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.5.4 Strand Pattern
At midspan:
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #46
The ODOT design data sheets recommend 20 strands.
Use 20 strands.
24
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
1.5.4 Strand Pattern
Why 20 strands?
1) Boxes tend to be controlled by strength design, but it is
hard to use that for strand estimation. It is easier to use
Service III and add a few extra strands.
2) The exterior girders will probably require more strand
(maybe starting with the exterior would be a better idea!).
It is poor design practice to have the exterior girders have
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #47
more strand than the interior. This causes fabrication
problems. The interior and exterior girders cannot be
made on the same bed at the same time.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.1 Prestress Losses
Total Prestress Losses:
f f f ∆ ∆ ∆
Where:
∆f
pES
= loss due to elastic shortening, ksi
∆f = loss due to longterm shrinkage and creep of
(5.9.5.11)
pT pES pLT
f f f ∆ = ∆ + ∆
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∆f
pLT
loss due to long term shrinkage and creep of
concrete, and relaxation of the steel, ksi
25
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.1.1 Elastic Shortening
Where:
p
pES cgp
ct
E
f f
E
∆ =
(5.9.5.2.3a1)
Where:
f
cgp
= The concrete stress at the center of gravity of
prestressing tendons due to the prestressing
force immediately after the transfer and the self
weight of the member at the section of the
maximum moment (ksi).
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2
g c
i i c
cgp
M e
P Pe
f
A I I
= + −
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.1.1 Elastic Shortening
E
p
= Elastic Modulus of the prestressing steel (ksi).
E
ct
= Elastic Modulus of the concrete at the time of
transfer or time of load application (ksi).
M
g
= girder self weight at release
( )( )
2
0 764 65
65
1 75 441 4 5300
. klf ft
ft
M k k ft k in
 
= + = =

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1 75 441 4 5300
8 3
g
M . k . k ft k in = + = − = −

\ .
26
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.1.1 Elastic Shortening
In the calculation of M
g
c/c bearing is used for length. Some
designers use overall length, based on the assumption that
th i d ill it it d h l d O ll l th the girder will sit on its ends when released. Overall length
gives “a more accurate M
g
”. But consider this:
In this case, the difference in the moment between overall
length and c/c bearing is 6%.
M is used for ES losses which includes E E is based on
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M
g
is used for ES losses, which includes E
ci
. E
ci
is based on
release strength, which is unknown (what is specified is the
MINIMUM; the actual will be above this). The formula for E
is accurate to, at best, + 10%.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.1.1 Elastic Shortening
The ES loss is added to the long term losses and the creep
and shrinkage equations used to find the long term losses and shrinkage equations used to find the long term losses
are stated in the commentary to only be accurate + 50%.
The weight of the beam is based on ideal cross section and
a UW of 150 pcf. Real concrete has UW varying from 140
160 pcf and there are tolerances in the cross section.
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #52
M
g
based on c/c bearing is conservative (the M
g
term
subtracts, so using c/c bearing INCREASES ES) and it will
be needed later – so why not just use it here??
27
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.1.1 Elastic Shortening
( )( )
( )
2
20 0.9 202.5 0.153 558
i
P strands ksi in k = =
( ) ( )
( )
2
2 4 4
558 14.61 5300 14.61
558
1.15
733.5 108150 108150
28500
1 15 7 6
cgp
k in k in in
k
f ksi
in in in
ksi
f ksi ksi
−
= + − =
∆ = =
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( )
1.15 7.6
4300
pES
f ksi ksi
ksi
∆ = =
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.1.1 Elastic Shortening
In the calculation of f
cgp
, the initial stress is assumed to be
Thi i i d b A i l 9 2 3 0.9 f
pi
. This is permitted by Article 5.9.5.2.3a.
In lieu of this, the commentary permits the calculation of the
elastic shortening losses using transformed section. The
commentary gives the following equation:
2
( ) + −
∆
ps pi g m g m g g
A f I e A e M A
f
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2
( )
( )
∆ =
+ +
ps pi g m g m g g
pES
g g ci
ps g m g
p
f
f
A I E
A I e A
E
(C5.9.5.2.3a1)
28
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.1.2 LongTerm Losses
For standard, precast, pretensioned members subject to
normal loading and environmental conditions: g
In which:
(5.9.5.31)
(5.9.5.32)
10 12
pi ps
pLT h st h st pR
g
f A
f f
A
γ γ γ γ ∆ = + + ∆
1.7 0.01
h
H γ = −
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(5.9.5.33)
h
5
1 '
st
ci
f
γ =
+
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.1.2 LongTerm Losses
H = The average annual ambient relative humidity (%)
γ
h
= Correction factor for relative humidity of the ambient
air
γ
hst
= Correction factor for specified concrete strength at
time of Prestress transfer to the concrete member
∆f
pR
= An estimate of relaxation loss taken as 2.5 ksi for
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low relaxation strand
29
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.1.2 LongTerm Losses
Assume H = 70%
1 7 0 01(70) 1 00 γ
So:
1.7 0.01(70) 1.00
h
γ = − =
5
0.83
1 5.0
st
γ = =
+
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
202.5 20 0.153
10 1 00 0 83 12 1 00 0 83 2 5
ksi in
f ∆ = + +
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( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
10 1.00 0.83 12 1.00 0.83 2.5
733.5
7.0 10.0 2.5 19.5
pLT
pLT
f
in
f ksi
∆ = + +
∆ = + + =
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.1.3 Total Losses at Service Loads
Total Prestress Losses:
f f f ∆ ∆ ∆ (5.9.5.11)
( )
7 6 19 5 27 1
27 1
100 13 3
202 5
202 5 27 1 175 4
pT pES pLT
pT
f f f
f . . . ksi
. ksi
Loss % . %
. ksi
f ksi ksi ksi
∆ = ∆ + ∆
∆ = + =
= =
= =
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Loss is less than the 25% initially assumed, so OK.
202 5 27 1 175 4
pe
f . ksi . ksi . ksi = − =
30
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.2 Compression Stress Limit States
(Table 5.9.4.2.11)
Sum of effective prestress + permanent
loads
< 0.45f
c
’
1/2(Sum of effective prestress +
permanent loads) + live load
< 0.4 f
c
’
Sum of effective prestress + permanent < 0 6φ f ’
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Sum of effective prestress + permanent
loads + transient loads
< 0.6φ
w
f
c
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.2 Compression Stress Limit States
So what is this φ
w
term?
It is a modifier for sections with thin webs or
flanges. It is actually defined in the section for
hollow, rectangular compression members (Art.
5.7.4.7).
It i b d th fl b l th/thi k
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It is based on the flange or web length/thickness
ratio. Since this is for sections with thin
webs/flanges, φ
w
term will usually be = 1 for most
beams.
31
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.2 Compression Stress Limit States
u
w
X
t
λ =
(5.7.4.7.11)
(5.7.4.7.2c1)
( )
w w
w w w
w w
If 15 1.0
If 15 25 1 0.0025 15
If 25 35 0.75
λ φ
λ φ λ
λ φ
≤ =
< ≤ = − −
< ≤ =
( )
(5.7.4.7.2c2)
(5.7.4.7.2c3)
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( )
u
X b lesser of 2z or 2y = −
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.2.1 Φ
w
Find the web and flange slenderness ratios:
(5.7.4.7.11)
X
u
= λ
Where:
(5.7.4.7.1 1)
t
w
= λ
X
u
= the clear length of the constant thickness portion of the wall
between other walls or fillets
t = wall thickness
( ) ( ) 48 2 5 5 2 3
6 2
in . in in
. Bottom Flange λ
− −
= =
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The top flange λ
w
< 15 by inspection. If λ
w
< 15, φ
w
= 1.0 (5.7.4.7.2c1)
( ) ( )
6 2
5
33 5 5 5 2 3
2 9
5 5
w
w
. Bottom Flange
in
in . in in in
. Web
. in
λ
λ
− − −
= =
32
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.2.2 Service Load Stresses
P
e
=20 strand (0.153in
2
)(202.5 ksi – 27.1 ksi) = 537 kips
( )  ( )
ksi 17 . 1
in 6599
ft / in 12 ft k 8 . 126 3 . 515
f
3
top , cDL
=
− +
=
( )
cp,top
2 3
537k 14.61in
537k
f 0.457ksi
733.5in 6599in
= − = −
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( ) { }( )
3
362 3 102 7 12
0 85
6599
cLL,top
. . k ft in / ft
f . ksi
in
+ −
= =
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.2.3 Service Load Compression Stress Check Service I
( )
0 457 1 17 0 713
0 45 0 45 7 3 15
cp,top cDL,top
c
f f . ksi . ksi . ksi
. f ' . ksi . ksi
+ = − + =
< = = ( )
0 713
0 85 1 21
2 2
0 4 7 2 8
c
cp,top cDL,top
cLL,top
f
f f
. ksi
f . ksi . ksi
. ( ksi ) . ksi
+
+ = + =
< =
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Compression stresses OK
( )( )
0 713 0 85 1 56
0 6 1 0 7 4
cp,top cDL,top cLL,top
f f f . ksi . ksi . ksi
. . ksi
+ + = + =
< = 2 . ksi
33
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.3.4 Service Load Tensile Stress Check Service III
The Service III stress at the bottom due to dead and live
loads, f
b
, was calculated previously. The allowable tensile loads, f
b
, was calculated previously. The allowable tensile
stress of 0.530 ksi was also calculated previously.
( )
2 3
537 14 61
537
1 94
733 5 6511
1 87
1 94 1 87 0 07 0 07
pb
b
k . in
kips
f . ksi
. in in
f . ksi
f f k i k i k i k i COMPRESSION
= + =
= −
+ +
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The section is in COMPRESSION, so the tensile allowable
does NOT apply.
1 94 1 87 0 07 0 07
pb b
f f . ksi . ksi . ksi . ksi COMPRESSION + = − = + =
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.3.4 Service Load Tensile Stress Check Service III
Because the bottom of the girder is in compression,
check with Service I:
( )
2 3
537 14 61 537
1 94
733 5 6511
2 04
1 94 2 04 0 1 0 1
= + =
= −
pb
b
k . in kips
f . ksi
. in in
f . ksi
f f k i k i k i k i TENSION
( ) { }( )
3
515 3 126 8 362 3 102 7 12
2 04
6511
+ + + −
= =
b
. . . . k ft in / ft
f . ksi
in
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1 94 2 04 0 1 0 1 + = − = − =
pb b
f f . ksi . ksi . ksi . ksi TENSION
Now it’s in tension, which is Service III ?!?!?!?!
34
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.3.4 Service Load Tensile Stress Check Service III
So what gives?? Is this a Service III or Service I load g
case??
Actually, it is sort of both. For all intents and purposes, the
stress at the bottom of the girder is “0” – and this is a
dividing line between Service I and Service III. Because of
the 0.8 factor on the LL, there is an inconsistency between
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the two load cases. However the stress is so low, that really
doesn’t matter – we satisfy all allowables in all cases.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
3.1 Factored Moment
Strength I:
Q 1 25(DC) 1 50(DW) 1 75(LL IM) Q = 1.25(DC) + 1.50(DW) + 1.75(LL + IM)
Since the truck load and lane load have been
distributed and impact is included:
Q = 1.25(DC) + 1.50(DW) + 1.75(Truck + Lane)
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( ) ( ) ( )
1.25 515.3 1.50 126.8 1.75 362.3 102.7
1648 19780
u
u
M
M k ft k in
= + + +
= − = −
35
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
3.2 Steel Stress at Strength Limit State
Average stress in prestressing steel when :
 
Where:
(5.7.3.1.1)
1
ps pu
p
c
f f k
d
 
= −


\ .
f
ps
= Average stress in prestressing steel ksi
k = 0.28 for low relaxation strands
d Di f i fib
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d
p
= Distance from extreme compression fiber to
the centroid of the prestressing tendons = 31 in.
c = Distance between the neutral axis and the
compressive face
in.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
3.2 Steel Stress at Strength Limit State
(5.7.3.1.14)
' '
'
0 85
ps pu s y s y
pu
A f A f A f
c
f
f b kA β
+ −
=
+
Where:
0.85
p
c ps
p
f b kA
d
β +
A
ps
= Area of prestressing steel in
2
f
pu
= Specified tensile strength of prestressing
steel = 270 ksi
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A
s
= Area of mild steel tension reinforcement =
0.0 in
2
f
y
= Yield strength of tension reinforcement =
60.0 ksi
36
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
3.2 Steel Stress at Strength Limit State
A’
s
= Area of compression reinforcement = 0.0 in
2
f’
y
= Yield strength of compression reinforcement
= 60.0 ksi
f’
c
= Compressive strength of concrete = 7.0 ksi
β
1
= Stress block factor specified in LRFD 5.7.2.2
= 0.70
b = Effective width of compression flange = 48 in
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b = Effective width of compression flange = 48 in.
To compute c, assume rectangular section behavior, and check if the depth of the
equivalent compression stress block, a, is equal to or less than t
s
: Where a =β
1
c
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
3.2 Steel Stress at Strength Limit State
( )
2
20 0 153 270 0 0
3 98 5 5
. in ksi
c in in
+ −
= = <
( )( )( ) ( )( )
2
3 98 5 5
270
0 85 7 0 7 48 0 28 20 0 153
31
3 98
270 1 0 28 260
31
ps
c . in. . in.
ksi
. ksi . in . . in
in
. in
f ksi . ksi
in
<
+
 
= − =

\ .
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c is also the neutral axis depth, so the stress block depth,
a = β
1
c = 0.7(3.98) = 2.79 inches. Since c < h
f
, the stress
block is entirely in the flange so the beam may be treated
as rectangular.
37
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
3.3 Flexural Resistance
( )
f
f
h
a a a a
M A f d A f d A' f ' d ' 0.85f ' b b h
 
     
= − + − − − + − −
   
\ . \ . \ .
The moment equation in the LRFD Specification looks like this:
( )
n ps ps p s y s s y s c w f
M A f d A f d A f d 0.85f b b h
2 2 2 2 2
+ +
   
\ . \ . \ .
\ .

.

\

− −

.

\

− +

.

\

− =
2
' ' '
2 2
a
d f A
a
d f A
a
d f A M
s y s s y s p ps ps n
(5.7.3.2.21)
If the section is rectangular (b=b
w
), the equation becomes:
If th i i ild t i t l th ti
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n ps ps p
a
M A f d
2
 
= −

\ .
If there is no compression or mild tension steel, the equation
becomes:
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
3.3 Flexural Resistance
Since c < h
f
, the section may be treated as rectangular.
(5.7.3.2.21)
( )
2.79
2
2 79
n ps ps p
a in
a
M A f d
in
=
 
= −

\ .
 
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( )
( )
2
2.79
20 0.153 260 31 23550
2
n
in
M in ksi in k in
 
= − = −

\ .
38
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
3.3 Flexural Resistance
The nominal flange width of 48 inches was used for “b”.
In reality, the flange area is reduced by the shear key cut
out. However, this is often ignored as this would require
an iterative procedure. If the area is adjusted for the
shear key, the nominal moment, M
n
changes by only
0.10%. It may not be appropriate to reduce the area by
the shear key cutout as this will be filled with grout and
the grout may act with the base concrete to effectively
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the grout may act with the base concrete to effectively
provide the complete flange width. All of this is a matter of
engineering judgment.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
3.4 Determination of Phi
To determine Φ, it is necessary to calculate the steel strain
at the level of the extreme tensile steel. at the level of the extreme tensile steel.
c = 3.98 inches (calculated above)
d
t
is the distance to the extreme tensile steel. Since
there is only one row of steel, d
t
= d
p
.
t
t
d c
0.003
c
−
ε =
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t
c
31in 3.98
0.003 0.0204
3.98
−
ε = =
39
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
3.4 Determination of Phi
Since ε
t
=0.0204 > 0.005,
the section is tension controlled.
Φ = 1.0 (5.5.4.2.1)
(5.7.2.1)
This is a big change from the old ρ
balanced
method.
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However, this now makes the LRFD Specifications
consistent with ACI 318. This replaces the
maximum reinforcement provisions.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
3.5 Determination of Flexural Strength
u n
M M ≤ Φ
( )( )
19, 780 1.0 23550 k in k in OK − < −
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40
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
3.6 Minimum Reinforcement
For minimum reinforcement, the resistance moment, M
r
must be at least the lesser of 1.2 times the cracking g
moment or 1.33 times the factored applied moment.
1.33M
u
= 1.33(19780 kin) = 26310 kin
For the cracking moment, find the modulus of rupture:
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r c
f 0.37 f ' 0.37 7ksi 0.979ksi = = = (5.4.2.6)
Note that this is a new MOR for minimum reinforcement. It is
equal to 11.5√f
c
’ in psi; which is the upper bound for MOR.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
3.6 Minimum Reinforcement
Next, determine the stress at the bottom of the box due
to effective prestressing force: to effective prestressing force:
( )
cpe
2 3
537k 14.61in
537kips
f 1.94ksi
733.5in 6511in
= + =
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41
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
3.6 Maximum and Minimum Reinforcement
Since this is a noncomposite section:
1 2M 1 2(19000k i ) 22800 k i 1 33M
(5.7.3.3.21)
( )
cr b r cpe
M S f f = +
( )
3
cr
M 6511in 0.979ksi 1.94ksi 19000k in = + = −
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1.2M
cr
= 1.2(19000kin) = 22800 kin < 1.33M
u
M
r
= φM
n
= 1.0(23550) kin = 23550 kin >
22800 kin OK
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
3.6 Maximum and Minimum Reinforcement
Note: When the number of strands was selected it Note: When the number of strands was selected, it
was determined that 18 strands would be needed,
but 20 were used. If 18 strands had been used,
φM
n
= 21400 kin, so 18 strands would NOT meet
the minimum requirement.
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42
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
4.1 Steel Stress at Transfer
Assume the stress at transfer is 0.9f
pi
P
i
= 20 strand(0.153in
2
)(0.9)(202.5 ksi)=558 kips
Tension:
4.2 Allowable Stress at Transfer
(Table 5.9.4.1.21)
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Tension:
0.0948√f
ci
’ < 0.2 ksi w/o bonded reinforcement
0.24√f
ci
’ w/ bonded reinforcement
Compression: 0.6f
ci
’
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
4.3 End Stress at Transfer
( )
ksi 474 . 0
in 6599
in 61 . 14 k 558
in 5 733
kips 558
f
3 2
pt
− = − =
These stresses should be calculated at the end of the
( )
ksi 01 . 2
in 6511
in 61 . 14 k 558
in 5 . 733
kips 558
f
in 6599 in 5 . 733
3 2
pb
= + =
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transfer length = 60d
b
=30 in. The dead load stresses 30
inches from the support should be added. However, these
stresses will not be large so it is conservative to use just the
stress due to prestressing.
(5.11.4.1)
43
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
4.3 End Stress at Transfer
f
pt
= 0.474 ksi tension < 0.24√f
ci
’ = 0.24√5 ksi = 0.537 ksi
OK w/bonded steel
f
pb
= 2.01 ksi compression < 0.6f
ci
= 0.6(5 ksi) = 3 ksi OK
Because the stress is OK, no debonding is needed. If this calculation had
shown debonding was needed, it would have been prudent to recalculate
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shown debonding was needed, it would have been prudent to recalculate
stresses at the end of the transfer length (include the gravity moment) to
see if debonding is still needed. If debonding is needed, no more that
25% of the total number of strands could be debonded and no more than
40% in one row can be debonded.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
4.3.1 Bonded Steel
Bonded steel is needed at the top of the girder at the end to
take the tensile forces. This steel must resist the total
t i i th t fl ith t f th 0 5f tension in the top flange with a stress of no more than 0.5f
y
but not more than 30 ksi. (Table 5.9.4.1.21)
The first step it to find the tension in the flange. This requires
the location of the neutral axis to be determined. From the
top and bottom stresses at the end, the neutral at the end is:
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( )
in 30 . 6
ksi 01 . 2 474 . 0
in 33 ksi 474 . 0
x =
+
=
44
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
4.3.1 Bonded Steel
The top flange is 5.5 inches, so the stress at the bottom of
the top flange is: the top flange is:
( ) ksi 0602 . 0 in 5 . 5 in 3 . 6
in 30 . 6
ksi 474 . 0
= −
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Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
4.3.1 Bonded Steel
( )( )( )( )
0.5 6.30 0.474 5.5 2 T in ksi in =
Again, this tension could be reduced by
calculating the force at the end of the
transfer length (including the gravity
( )( )( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0.474 0.060
5.5 48 2 5.5
2
70.8
ksi ksi
in in in
T kips
+
+ −
=
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g ( g g y
moment). Including the gravity moment will
reduced the calculated tension, but because
bars only come in certain sizes, the
reduction may not change the number of
bars needed.
45
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
4.3.1 Bonded Steel
The bonded steel must resist the total tensile force with a
stress not exceeding the lesser of 0.5f or 30 ksi. stress not exceeding the lesser of 0.5f
y
or 30 ksi.
Use 8 #5
(5.9.4.1.21)
2
s
in 36 . 2
ksi 30
kips 8 . 70
A = =
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The length of the bar is determined by the point where
bonded steel is no longer required. Since 0.0948√f
ci
’ =
0.212 ksi > 0.2ksi; find the point where the dead load drops
the stress below 0.2 ksi.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
4.3.1 Bonded Steel
For simplicity, just consider the beam weight and ignore
diaphragms. p g
M = ∆f
c
S
t
= (0.474 ksi – 0.200 ksi) 6599 in
3
= 1808 kin = 150.7 kft
( ) ( )
x 382 . 0 x 83 . 24 ft k 7 . 150
x ft 65 x klf 764 . 0 5 . 0 ft k 7 . 150 M
2
− = −
− = − =
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This is from center of bearing, so extend steel 7.75 ft. from
each end and then add development length.
ft 25 . 58 ; ft 75 . 6 x
x 382 . 0 x 83 . 24 ft k 7 . 150
=
46
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
4.3.1 Bonded Steel
(5.11.2.1.1)
y b
c
y b
d
f d 4 . 0
' f
f A 25 . 1
≥ = l
Where:
A
b
= Area of the bar
d
b
= diameter of bar
f’ = compresive strength of concrete at release
( )
( )( )
2
d
1.25 0.31in 60ksi
10.4in 0.4 0.625in 60ksi 15in
5ksi
= = < = l
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f
c
= compresive strength of concrete at release
Top bar factor = 1.4 : 1.4(15 inches) = 21 inches
So the minimum bar length = 7’ 9” + 1’ – 9” = 9’ – 6”
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
4.4 Midspan Stress at Transfer
M
g
= 5300 kin (previously calculated)
in k 5300
ksi 329 . 0 ksi 803 . 0 ksi 474 . 0 f
ksi 814 . 0
in 6511
in k 5300
f
ksi 803 . 0
in 6599
in k 5300
f
top
3
DL , b
3
DL , t
= + − =
− =
− −
=
=
−
=
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By inspection, both are below the compression limit.
ksi 20 . 1 ksi 814 . 0 ksi 01 . 2 f
f
bot
top
= − =
47
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.1 Critical Section  Shear
The critical section is at d
v
from the face of the support for a
section where the reaction force in the direction of the section where the reaction force in the direction of the
applied shear introduces compression into the end region
of the member.
For this member with only a single layer of prestressing
steel:
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(5.8.3.2)
v e
a 2.79in
d d 31in 29.6inches
2 2
= − = − =
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.1 Critical Section  Shear
The term d
v
is not taken less than:
0.9d
e
= 0.9(31 inches) = 27.9 inches < 29.6 inches
or
0.72h = 0.72(33 inches) = 23.76 inches < 29.6 inches
Assuming a 1 ft. long bearing pad, the critical section is:
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29.6 + 6 = 35.6 inches from center of bearing.
For calculations, use 36 inches = 3 ft. The difference is
only a few percent.
48
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.2.1 Basic Shear Forces and Moments at the Critical Section
DC:
For beam weight: For beam weight:
For the diaphragm, V = 1.75k (shear is constant),
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )( )( ) ft k 0 . 71 ft 3 ft 65 ft 3 klf 764 . 0 5 . 0 x L wx 5 . 0 M
k 54 . 22 ft 3 ft 65 5 . 0 klf 764 . 0 x L 5 . 0 w V
g
g
− = − = − =
= − = − =
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #95
For the diaphragm, V 1.75k (shear is constant),
M = 1.75(3) = 5.25kft
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.2.1 Basic Shear Forces and Moments at the Critical Section
For the DC wearing surface:
( ) ( )
( )( )( )
0.140 0.5 65 3 4.13
0.5 0.140 3 65 3 13
ws
ws
V klf ft ft k
M klf ft ft ft k ft
= − =
= − = −
For the DW wearing surface:
( ) ( )
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( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
fws
fws
V 0.240klf 0.5 65 ft 3 ft 7.08k
M 0.5 0.240klf 3 ft 65 ft 3 ft 22.3k ft
= − =
= − = −
49
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.2.1 Basic Shear Forces and Moments at the Critical Section
The shear at x is maximized
Live Load: Consider the influence line for shear
The shear at x is maximized
by placing the rear wheel of
the truck at x and loading
the right part of the beam
with the uniform load. (Note
that influence lines are NOT
used for dead loads.
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #97
Obviously, it is not possible
to have the DL on only part
of the beam!)
Now don’t you REALLY wish you wouldn’t have slept in Analysis class?????
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.2.1 Basic Shear Forces and Moments at the Critical Section
Using a standard structural analysis program, at the critical
section: section:
V
LL,Lane
= 18.92 k
V
LL,Truck
= 58.33 k
M
LL,Lane
= 56.76 kft
M
LL,Truck
= 175.0 kft
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LL,Truck
50
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.2.2 Skew Factor
This is a multibeam bridge. The shear at the obtuse corner
of each girder MUST be increased by: of each girder MUST be increased by:
Note that this factor applies to the distribution factor.
(Table 4.6.2.2.3c1)
( )
( )
( ) 20 . 1 30 tan
in 33 90
ft 65 12
1 tan
d 90
L 12
1 = + = + θ
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Since the critical section is only 3 feet from the support,
apply the skew factor.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.2.3 Factored Moments and Shears
As calculated in Section 1.4.2.1.1 of this example:
DFV 0 456 DFV = 0.456
DFM = 0.336
The moment MAY be multiplied by the skew factor
for moment, 0.905.
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The shear MUST be increased by skew factor,
1.20.
51
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.2.3 Factored Moments and Shears
Maximum Q = 1.25(DC) + 1.50(DW) + 1.75(LL + IM)
V 0 456(1 2)[58 33(1 33) 18 92] 52 5 ki V
LL+IM
= 0.456(1.2)[58.33(1.33)+18.92] = 52.5 kips
V
u
= 1.25(22.54k + 1.75k + 4.13 k) + 1.50(7.08 k) + 1.75(52.5 k)=
138.0 kips
M
LL+IM
= DF(SF)[Truck x IM + Lane]
M = 0 336(0 905)[175 k ft(1 33)+56 76] = 88 0 k ft
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M
LL+IM
= 0.336(0.905)[175 kft(1.33)+56.76] = 88.0 kft
M
u
= 1.25(71.0 kft + 5.25 kft + 13.0 kft)
+1.5(22.3 kft) +1.75(88.0 kft) = 299.0 kft = 3588 kin
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3 Shear Design
For shear design, the shear forces at various points along
the girder should be calculated. Normally, this is done at the girder should be calculated. Normally, this is done at
the critical section, at points where strands are debonded
or harped and then at every 0.1L.
For this design example, only the shear at the critical
section is analyzed. The same procedure for the remaining
points would be used
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points would be used.
52
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3 Shear Design
The LRFD Specifications adopted the modified compression
field theory for shear design with Version 1. This was called
the Sectional Design Model.
In Version 4 (2007), the Simplified Method was added. The
Simplified Method restores the old V
ci
and V
cw
from the
Standard Specifications.
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #103
Both methods will be illustrated in this example.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3 Sectional Design Model
The sectional design model requires the calculation of two
factors: factors:
Concrete strain at : ε
x
Average shear stress in the concrete: v
These two values are used to find β and θ; which are then
2
v
d
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These two values are used to find β and θ; which are then
used to find the strength of the concrete and the strength of
the stirrups.
53
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3.1.1 Finding ε
x
Strain at is:
2
v
d
(5.8.3.4.21)
0.5 0.5 ( ) cot
0.001
2( )
+ + − −
= ≤
+ +
u
u u p ps po
v
x
s s p ps c c
M
N V V A f
d
E A E A E A
θ
ε
This equation assumes the section is uncracked. If the
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q
section is cracked, A
c
in the equation above is =0.
This equation also assumes at least minimum stirrups are
used.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3.1.1 Finding ε
x
N
u
= Applied factored normal force at the specified
section = 0
kips
section 0
V
p
= Component of the effective prestressing force in
the direction of the applied shear = 0
kips
f
po
= ksi
A
ps
= Area of prestressing steel on the flexural
t i id f th b 20(0 1 3) 3 06
in
2
.70 0.70(270.0) 189
pu
f = =
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tension side of the member = 20(0.153) = 3.06
A
s
= Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural
tension side of the member = 0
in
2
54
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3.1.1 Finding ε
x
E
p
= 28,500 ksi
A = Area of concrete on the tension half of the in
2
A
c
Area of concrete on the tension half of the
beam
2(5.5in)(33in)(0.5) + (48in11in)(5in) = 366.5
in
d
v
= 29.6 in
Tension Half of the Box
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Tension Half of the Box
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3.1.1 Finding ε
x
Note that θ is unknown at this point. However, the
commentary allows 0 5cotθ=1 as a simplification commentary allows 0.5cotθ=1 as a simplification.
Assuming the section is uncracked, the strain at d
v
/2 is:
( )
( ) ( )
2
6 3
2 2
3588
138 3.06 189
29.6
82 10 0.08 10
2 28500 3.06 5072 366.5
− −
−
+ −
= = − ≈ −
+
x
k in
k in ksi
in
x x
ksi in ksi in
ε
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Negative means “uncracked”, so the assumption of
uncracked is correct.
( ) ( )
55
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3.1.2 Finding v
u
u p
u
V V
v
b d
φ
φ
−
=
(5.8.2.9)
Where:
v v
b d φ
v
u
= Shear stress in concrete Ksi
b
v
= Effective web width of the beam = 5.5 in
V
p
= Component of the effective prestressing
force in the direction of the applied shear = 0
kips
( )
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force in the direction of the applied shear = 0
138
0.469 0.18 ' 1.26
0.9(2)(5.5)(29.6)
= = < =
u c
v ksi f ksi
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3.1.3 β and θ
From LRFD Table 5.8.3.4.21:
 
'
0.469
0.067
7.0
u
c
v
f
 
= =

\ .
3
0.08 10
x
x ε
−
= −
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θ = 21.0
◦
β = 4.10
56
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3.1.3 β and θ
v/f'c
εx
* 1,000
22.3 20.4 21.0 21.8 24.3 26.6 30.5 33.7 36.4 40.8 43.9
6.32 4.75 4.10 3.75 3.24 2.94 2.59 2.38 2.23 1.95 1.67
18.1 20.4 21.4 22.5 24.9 27.1 30.8 34.0 36.7 40.8 43.1
3.79 3.38 3.24 3.14 2.91 2.75 2.50 2.32 2.18 1.93 1.69
19.9 21.9 22.8 23.7 25.9 27.9 31.4 34.4 37.0 41.0 43.2
3.18 2.99 2.94 2.87 2.74 2.62 2.42 2.26 2.13 1.90 1.67
21.6 23.3 24.2 25.0 26.9 28.8 32.1 34.9 37.3 40.5 42.8
2.88 2.79 2.78 2.72 2.60 2.52 2.36 2.21 2.08 1.82 1.61
23.2 24.7 25.5 26.2 28.0 29.7 32.7 35.2 36.8 39.7 42.2
2.73 2.66 2.65 2.60 2.52 2.44 2.28 2.14 1.96 1.71 1.54
<0.2 <0.1
<0.125
<0.15
<0.175
v/f c
<0.075
<0.1
<2 <0.25 <0.5 <0.75 <0.05 <0 <0.125 <1 <1.5
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24.7 26.1 26.7 27.4 29.0 30.6 32.8 34.5 36.1 39.2 41.7
2.63 2.59 2.52 2.51 2.43 2.37 2.14 1.94 1.79 1.61 1.47
26.1 27.3 27.9 28.5 30.0 30.8 32.3 34.0 35.7 38.8 41.4
2.53 2.45 2.42 2.40 2.34 2.14 1.86 1.73 1.64 1.51 1.39
27.5 28.6 29.1 29.7 30.6 31.3 32.8 34.3 35.8 38.6 41.2
2.39 2.39 2.33 2.33 2.12 1.93 1.70 1.58 1.50 1.38 1.29
<0.25
<0.2
<0.225
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3.2 Shear Strength of Concrete
The contribution of the concrete to the nominal shear
resistance is: resistance is:
(5.8.3.33)
'
0.0316 =
c c v v
V f b d β
( ) ( )( )
c
V 0.0316 4.1 7ksi 11in 29.6in 111.6k = =
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #112
Since V
u
= 138k > φV
c
= 0.9(111.6k) = 100 k; at least
minimum stirrups are needed for strength.
The equations for β and θ assumed minimum stirrups.
57
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3.3 Minimum Stirrups
(5.8.2.7) ( )
u c
v 0.469ksi 0.125f ' 0.125 7ksi 0.875ksi = < = =
s
max
= 23.7 in.
Calculate minimum area of steel using a 12 inch
spacing to get area of steel per foot:
( )
max v
s 0.8d 0.8 29.6in 23.7in 24in = = = < (5.8.2.5)
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( )( )
2 v
v c
y
11in 12in
b s
A 0.0316 f ' 0.0316 7ksi 0.184in
f 60ksi
≥ = =
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3.3 Minimum Stirrups
ODOT uses #4 bars with 2 legs as standard (A
v
= 2(0.2
in
2
) = 0.4 in
2
) @ 12 inch o.c.
This is adequate to meet minimum.
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58
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3.4 Shear Strength of the Girder
( )
v y v
s
A f d cot cot sin
V
θ + α α
=
(5.8.3.34)
The stirrups are perpendicular to the main steel so α = 90
o
;
cotα = 0, sinα=1; θ = 21
o
s
s
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
v y v
s
2
A f d cot cot sin
V
s
0 4in 60ksi 29 6 cot 21 0 1
θ + α α
=
+
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( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
s
s
0.4in 60ksi 29.6 cot 21 0 1
V
12in
V 154.2k
+
=
=
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3.4 Shear Strength of the Girder
n c s p
V V V V 111.6k 154.2k 0 265.8k = + + = + + =
( )
p
u n
V 138k V 0.9 265.8k 239.2k = < φ = =
#4 @12 inches is OK. Girder is OK in shear.
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #116
#4 @ 12 inches is OK. Girder is OK in shear.
59
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.3.5 Maximum Nominal Shear Resistance
The upper limit of V
n
, given by following equation,
is intended to ensure that the concrete in the web is intended to ensure that the concrete in the web
of the beam will not crush prior to yield of the
transverse reinforcement.
With V
p
=0:
(5.8.3.32)
'
0.25
n c v v p
V f b d V ≤ +
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OK
'
0.25
111.6 154.2 0.25(7)(11)(29.6)
265.8 569.8
+ ≤
+ ≤
≤
c s c v v
V V f b d
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4 Simplified Shear
In the 2007 LRFD Specification, the simplified shear
method is introduced.
This method brings back V
ci
and V
cw
from the Standard
Specification.
V
cw
(web shear) usually controls near the support, so
V
cw
will be checked at the critical section.
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V
ci
(flexural shear) doesn’t control near the support,
so for this example, V
c
will be calculated at 0.2L.
However, in practice V
c
and V
cw
must be checked at
all appropriate sections.
60
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.1 V
cw
( )
cw c pc v v p
V 0.06 f ' 0.3f b d V = + +
(5.8.3.4.33)
Where:
f
pc
= compressive stress in concrete (after allowance for
all prestress loses) at centroid of cross section
resisting externally applied loads or at the junction
of the web and the flange when the centroid lies
within the flange (ksi)
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within the flange (ksi).
For a composite section, this is the compressive stress in the
noncomposite section at the composite centroid. For a non
composite section, it is the stress at the centroid.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.1 V
cw
Since this is a noncomposite section, the only stress at
the centroid is the compressive stress due to the axial the centroid is the compressive stress due to the axial
component of prestressing:
e
pc
2
P 537k
f 0.732ksi
A 733.5in
= = =
( )
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( )
( )
( ) ( )
cw
V 0.06 7ksi 0.3 0.732ksi 11in 29.6in 123.2kips = + =
61
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.1 V
cw
The critical section is 29.6 inches from the face of the
support. Assuming a 1 ft bearing pad, the critical section is support. Assuming a 1 ft bearing pad, the critical section is
approximately 3.5 feet from the end of the beam. The
transfer length is 60 bar diameters = 30 inches. Thus, the
critical section is past the transfer length, so f
pc
does not
have to be reduced for lack of bond.
If the critical section is within the transfer length f is
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #121
If the critical section is within the transfer length, f
pc
is
reduced linearly.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.1 V
cw
One difference between LRFD and Standard Specifications
is that LRFD uses cotθ in the V calculation For V the
(5.8.3.4.34)
is that LRFD uses cotθ in the V
s
calculation. For V
cw
, the
term cotθ must be calculated:
pc
c
f
cot 1.0 3 1.8
f '
θ = + ≤
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o
0.732ksi
cot 1.0 3 1.83 1.8; so use 1.8
7ksi
29
θ = + = >
θ =
62
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.1 V
cw
The minimum stirrup area and maximum spacing
calculated in the Sectional Model still apply here. calculated in the Sectional Model still apply here.
Assuming #4 stirrups @ 12 in:
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
s
0.4in 60ksi 29.6in 1.8
V 106.5k
12in
= =
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( )
u
V 138k 0.9 123.2k 106.5k 207k = < + =
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2 V
ci
V
ci
does not control near supports of simply supported
beams. It will be calculated at 0.2L = 13 ft from the beams. It will be calculated at 0.2L 13 ft from the
center of the support.
DC:
Beam Selfweight:
( ) ( ) ( )
V w 0 5L x 0 764klf 0 5 65ft 13ft 14 9k = = =
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( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )( )( )
g
g
V w 0.5L x 0.764klf 0.5 65ft 13ft 14.9k
M 0.5wx L x 0.5 0.764klf 13ft 65ft 13ft 258k ft
= − = − =
= − = − = −
63
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.1 Unfactored Dead Loads
DC:
For the diaphragm: V = 1 75 k (shear is constant) For the diaphragm: V = 1.75 k (shear is constant),
M = 1.75(13) =22.8 kft
For the wearing surface:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
ws
V 0.140klf 0.5 65ft 13ft 2.73k = − =
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( ) ( ) ( )
ws
M 0.5 0.140klf 13ft 65ft 13ft 47.3k ft = − = −
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.1 Unfactored Dead Loads
DW:
( ) ( )
V 0 240klf 0 5 65ft 13ft 4 68k
The total UNFACTORED dead load shears and
moments are:
( ) ( )
( )( )( )
fws
ws
V 0.240klf 0.5 65ft 13ft 4.68k
M 0.5 0.240klf 13ft 65ft 13ft 81.1k ft
= − =
= − = −
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V
d
= 14.9k + 1.75k + 2.73k + 4.68k = 24.1k
M
d
= 258.0kft + 22.8kft +47.3kft + 81.1kft
= 409.2 kft = 4910 kin
64
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.1 Factored Dead Loads
The FACTORED shears and moments are:
V
ud
= 1.25(14.9 k + 1.75 k + 2.73 k) + 1.50(4.68 k) = 31.3 k
M
ud
= 1.25(258.0kft + 22.8kft +47.3kft) + 1.5(81.1kft)
531 8 k ft 6381 k i
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= 531.8 kft = 6381 kin
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.2 Live Load
This method requires two sets of shears and moments for
Live Load. The first is the loading where the shear is
maximum and the second is where the moment is
maximum.
For the lane load, the shear is maximum when the lane
load is on the right 52 ft. of the girder (see the influence line
from the sectional model):
V
Lane1
= 13.3k and M
Lane1
= 173 kft = 2076 kin
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The maximum moment occurs when the lane load is on the
entire girder:
V
Lane2
= 12.5k and M
Lane2
= 216.3 kft = 2596 kin
65
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.2 Live Load
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Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.2 Live Load
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #130
Clearly, the moment is maximum when the lane load is placed along the entire
beam. The truck load is less certain. The moment at “X” is the value of the
point load times the ordinate of the influence line. Unfortunately, it is not clear
where this product will be maximum!
66
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.2 Live Load
For the truck, it is again necessary to consider two
placements: p
Placed for maximum shear
Placed for maximum moment
In this case, it just happens that both are the same – the
rear axle placed at 0.2L as shown in the previous slide.
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However, this is not always the case. It just happened that
way in this example.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.2 Live Load
For the truck load, the maximum shear at the section and
the maximum moment at the section happen to occur the maximum moment at the section happen to occur
under the same loading – the rear wheel of the truck 13 ft.
from the support. In this case, the maximum shear loading
and the maximum moment loading are the same, but that is
NOT always the case. Be sure to carefully check all
reasonable load conditions.
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67
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.2 Live Load
V
Truck
= 47.2 k and M
Truck
= 613 kft = 7356 kin
V
u,LL
= 1.75[V
truck
(1+IM) + V
Lane
](DFV)
V
u,LL
= 1.75[47.2k(1.33) + 13.3k]( 0.456) = 60.7k
Note that the skew factor is NOT applied. The
skew factor is applied only at the obtuse corner
and at 0 2L the section is not at the obtuse corner
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and at 0.2L, the section is not at the obtuse corner.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.2 Live Load
M
u,LL
= 1.75[M
truck
(1+IM) + M
Lane
](DFM)(skew factor)
M
LL
= 1 75[613 kft(1 33) + 216 3 kft](0 336)(0 905) M
u,LL
1.75[613 k ft(1.33) + 216.3 k ft](0.336)(0.905)
= 549.0 kft = M
max
Note that the Skew Factor IS Applied to moment
The shear associated with maximum moment is:
V
i
= 1.75[47.2k(1.33) + 12.5k]( 0.456) = 60.0 k
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Why isn’t V
i
= V
u
? V
i
is the shear associated with maximum moment. For the
truck, the same position produced both maximum moment and shear, so V
i
for
the truck is the same. For the lane, maximum shear occurs with the beam
partially loaded, but maximum moment occurs when the beam is fully loaded.
Thus, V
i
is different for the lane load.
68
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.3 Determination of Cracking Load for Shear
First, find the modulus of rupture:
(5 4 2 6)
f 0 2 f ' 0 2 7k i 0 529k i
Note that LRFD has 3 different MORs – be sure to use the
correct one!
Next, determine the stress at the bottom of the box due to
(5.4.2.6)
r c
f 0.2 f ' 0.2 7ksi 0.529ksi = = =
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effective prestressing force:
( )
cpe 2 3
537k 14.61in
537kips
f 1.94ksi
733.5in 6511in
= + =
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.3 Determination of Cracking Load for Shear
(5.8.3.4.32)
dnc
cre c r cpe
12M
M S f f
S
 
= + −

\ .
Where:
( )
nc
S
\ .
M
dnc
=
Unfactored moment due to dead load on the non
composite or monolithic section = 409.2 kft
(note – in kft; 12 in numerator converts to inches)
S
nc
= noncomposite section modulus
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #136
S
c
= composite section modulus = S
nc
since this is a non
composite structure
69
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.3 Determination of Cracking Load for Shear
( )
( )
3
cre
3
cre
12 409.2k ft
M 6511in 0.529ksi 1.94ksi
6511in
M 11165k in 930.5k ft
−  
= + −

\ .
= − = −
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Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.4 V
ci
i cre
i d
VM
V 0.02 f 'b d V 0.06 f 'b d = + + ≥
ci c v v d c v v
max
V 0.02 f b d V 0.06 f b d
M
+ + ≥
(5.8.3.4.31)
( )( )
( )( )
ci
60.0k 930.5k ft
V 0.02 7ksi 11in 29.6in 24.1k 143.0k
549k ft
−
= + + = >
−
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( )( )
549k ft
0.06 7ksi 11in 29.6in 51.7k =
70
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.5 Check Shear Strength
u
V 31.3k 60.7k 92k = + =
Assuming #4 @ 12; It is stated that cotθ=1 for V
ci
(5.8.3.4.3)
( )
( )( )( )
2
s
0.4in 60ksi 29.6in 1.0
V 59.2k
12in
= =
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The section is adequate in shear.
( )
u n
V 92.0k V 0.9 143.0k 59.2k 182.0k = < φ = + =
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.4.2.5 Check Shear Strength
If s=18”
s
V 39.5kips =
( )
u n
V 92.0k V 0.9 143.0k 39.5k 164k = < φ = + =
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71
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
Shear Strength
Why are there different values for V
s
?
Sectional Model: V = 154 2k Sectional Model: V
s
= 154.2k
Simplified Model for V
cw
; V
s
= 105k
Simplified Model for V
ci
; V
s
= 59.2k
The answer is the θ angle. For sectional model, θ=21
o
. For
V
cw
, θ =29
o
and for V
ci
, θ=45
o
. This affects the number of
stirrups which cross the shear crack. The smaller the angle,
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p g ,
the more stirrups which cross the crack and the higher V
s
.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel
At each section:
M
0 5N V
 
For this example, the minimum longitudinal steel will be
checked at the critical section. The critical section 29.6
inches from the face of the support. Allowing for a 1 ft.
bearing pad and one foot from center of bearing to the end
(5.8.3.51)
u
u u
ps ps s y p s
v
M
0.5N V
A f A f V 0.5V cot
d
 
+ ≥ + + − − θ

φ φ φ
\ .
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of the girder, the critical section is 47.6 inches from the end
of the girder. However, it is necessary to see if the strand
stress is reduced by lack of development.
72
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel
The development length equation is unchanged for strand
from Standard Specifications, except that a factor, κ is
dd d Thi f t i th lt f O t b 1988 FHWA
(5.11.4.2)
added. This factor is the result of an October, 1988 FHWA
memorandum suggesting the need for this conservative
multiplier because of strand/bond problems:
( ) ( )
2 2
1 6 260 175 4 0 5 114 5
3 3
d ps pe b
f f d . . . . in κ
   
= − = − =
 
\ . \ .
l
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( )
The terms f
ps
(steel stress at strength limit) and f
pe
(effective
prestressing stress after losses) were calculated previously.
κ = 1.6 for member over 24 inches deep (5.11.4.2).
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel
The critical section occurs at 47.6 inches from the end of
the beam, but the development length is 114.5 inches.
Thus, the steel stress MUST be reduced to account for
lack of development.
( )
px b
px pe ps pe
60d
f f f f
−
= + −
l
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(5.11.4.24)
( )
px pe ps pe
d b
60d − l
73
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel
( )
px b
60d
f f f f
−
+
l
( )
47 6 30
174 5 260 0 174 5 192 0
114 5 30
−
= + − =
−
px
. in in
f . ksi . ksi . ksi . ksi
. in in
( )
p
px pe ps pe
d b
f f f f
60d
= + −
− l
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Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel
The following values were previously calculated or
determined:
A = (0 153in
2
)(20)(260ksi)= 3 06 in
2
A
ps
= (0.153in
2
)(20)(260ksi)= 3.06 in
2
M
u
= 3588 kin
V
u
= 138 k
θ = 21
o
(Sectional Design Model)
V
s
= 153 k (Sectional Design Model)
N
u
= V
p
= 0
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φ = 1 for moment; 0.9 for shear
A
s
f
y
= assumed 0 (ignore any mild steel)
f
pe
= 175.4 ksi
f
ps
= 260.0 ksi
74
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel
u
u u
ps ps s y p s
M
0.5N V
A f A f V 0.5V cot
d
 
+ ≥ + + − − θ

φ φ φ
\ .
OK
( )
( )
( )
2
3 06 192 0 588
3588 138
0 5 153 21 321
1 0 29 6 0 9
=
−
 
> + − =

\ .
. in . ksi k
k in k
. ( k ) cot k
. . in .
v
d φ φ φ
\ .
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OK
Note that before the 2005/06 interim, the steel stress was assumed linear with
development length, not bilinear. If the stress were assumed linear here, mild
steel would need to be added. Also note that V
s
< V
u
/φ = 153k
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel
Check the inside face of the bearing pad. Assuming a 12 in
pad and one foot from center of bearing to the end, the
i id f th d i 12 6 18 i h f th d f th
0 5 ≥ −
u
p ps s
V
A f . V cot θ
φ
18
174 5 104 7
30
 
= =

\ .
px
in
f . ksi . ksi
in
inside of the pad is 12+6 = 18 inches from the end of the
girder. This is inside the transfer length:
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( ) ( )
2
138
3 06 104 7 320 0 5 153 21 199
0 9
 
= > − =

\ .
p p
k
. in . ksi k . ( k ) cot k
.
φ
OK
75
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel
If the stirrup spacing is increased to 18”, V
s
= 103 k
( ) ( )
2
0 5
138
3 06 104 7 320 0 5 103 21 265
0 9
≥ −
 
= > − =

\ .
u
p ps s
V
A f . V cot
k
. in . ksi k . ( k ) cot k
.
θ
φ
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OK
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
5.7 Anchorage Zone Bursting Stirrups
As in the Standard Specification, LRFD requires
bursting stirrups which can resist at least 4% of the
20(0.153)(202.5)(0.04) 24.8
r
P = =
g p
initial prestressing force, with a stress of no more
than 20ksi:
24.8
1.24
20
= =
s
A
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This steel must be distributed over h/4 from the end. For this girder,
h/4=33/4=8.25 inches. Four #4 double leg stirrups @ 3” provides 1.60
in
2
over 8 inches.
76
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
6.1 Exterior Girder  Moment
The exterior girder takes the railing load (DC):
( )
2
0 090 65 klf ft ( ) 0 090 65
47 5 570
8
b
. klf ft
M . k ft k in = = − = −
Note: Article 4.6.2.2.1 allows the rail load to be equally
distributed to all the girders. However, it does not have to
be and, in this case, it is probably more correct to assign the
railing to the exterior girder.
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g g
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
6.1 Exterior Girder  Moment
The live load moments must be multiplied by the exterior
girder factor.
ext int
e
g eg
d
e 1.04 1
25
=
= + >
Two or more lanes loaded:
Since the rail is right at the edge of the box d = half the
(Table 4.6.2.2.2d1)
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Since the rail is right at the edge of the box, d
e
= half the
web width = 2.75 inches = 0.23 ft.
0.23
e 1.04 1.049
25
= + =
77
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
6.1 Exterior Girder  Moment
One lane loaded:
ext int
g eg =
(Table 4 6 2 2 2d1)
Controls
e
d
e 1.125 1
30
= + >
(Table 4.6.2.2.2d1)
0.23
e 1.125 1.133
30
= + =
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Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
6.1 Exterior Girder  Moment
( ) ( ) ( )( ) 1 25 515 3 47 5 1 50 126 8 1 75 362 3 102 7 1 133
1815 21790
u
M . . . . . . . . .
M k ft k in
= + + + +
= − = − 1815 21790
u
M k ft k in = =
For the interior box with 20 strands, φM
n
= 23550 kin so
OK for M
u
.
Note that there is only one DFM, so the one lane e is multiplied by the
DFM. In the equation above, the truck load (362.3 kft) is already
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t e equat o abo e, t e t uc oad (36 3 t) s a eady
multiplied by the interior DFM and the impact factor; the lane load
(102.7 kft) is multiplied by the DFM (no impact on lane load). Thus, it
is only necessary to multiply by the increasing factor.
78
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
6.1 Exterior Girder  Moment
Stresses at transfer do not need to be checked as
these stress occur during fabrication are independent
of the railing load and the live load.
The check performed on the interior girders is
sufficient.
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #155
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
6.1 Exterior Girder  Moment
Service load stresses should be checked. It is clear by
inspection that service load compression stresses are OK inspection that service load compression stresses are OK
(see Section 2.3.3). Check Service III:
( ) ( ) ( )( )
3
515 3 47 5 126 8 0 8 362 3 102 7 1 133 1111 13330
13330
2 05
6511
bottom
M . . . . . . . k ft k in
k in
f . ksi
in
= + + + + = − = −
−
= =
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f
pb
= 1.94 ksi compression (previously calculated)
f
bottom
= 1.94 ksi – 2.05 ksi = 0.110 ksi = 0.110 tension <
0.503 ksi tension OK
79
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
6.1 Exterior Girder  Shear
This check must be performed at all sections. Only the
critical section is shown here. The check is also made critical section is shown here. The check is also made
using Sectional Model.
At the critical section:
( ) ( ) ( )
r
V w 0.5L x 0.090klf 0.5 65ft 3ft 2.65k = − = − =
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( ) ( )( )( )
r
M 0.5wx L x 0.5 0.090klf 3ft 65ft 3ft 8.37k ft = − = − = −
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
6.1 Exterior Girder  Shear
Two or more lanes loaded:
(Table 4.6.2.2.3b1)
48  
ext int
0.5
e
48
g eg
b
b
d 2
12
e 1 1
40
 
=

\ .
 
+ −

= + ≥


\ .
0 5
 
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0.5
48
0.23 2
12
e 1 1.234
40
 
+ −

= + =


\ .
80
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
6.1 Exterior Girder  Shear
One Lane Loaded:
(Table 4.6.2.2.3b1)
i
g eg =
ext int
e
g eg
d
e 1.125 1
20
= + ≥
0.23
e 1.125 1.137
20
= + =
Check:
Two or more lanes: *DFV 1 234(0 456) 0 562 controls
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Two or more lanes: e*DFV = 1.234(0.456) = 0.562 controls
One Lane: e*DFV = 1.137(0.445) = 0.506
Because there are two DFV, each must be checked!
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
6.1 Exterior Girder  Shear
V
u,LL
= 0.562(1.2)[58.33(1.33) + 18.92] = 65.08k
V
LL,truck
= 58.33k
V
LL,lane
= 18.92k
IM = 0.33
Skew Factor = 1.2
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V
u
= 1.25(22.54k + 1.75k + 4.13 k+2.65)
+ 1.50 (7.08 k) + 1.75(65.08k)= 163.3 k
Using the Sectional Design Model, M
u
= 3714kin, β= 3.24,
θ=21.4
o
, φV
n
= 215 k, so OK.
81
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
6.1 Exterior Girder
What about the minimum exterior girder distribution
factor?
L
N
factor?
∑
∑
+ =
b
Min Ext
N
Ext
b
L
x
e X
N
N
DF
2
,
This DOES NOT apply to
adjacent box girder bridges. It
only applies to slab/beam
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only applies to slab/beam
bridges (Types a, e and k) with
diaphragms or cross braces.
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.5.2.6.2 Deflection
ODOT invokes Article 2.5.2.6.2,which limits Live Load
d fl ti t L/800 f t i l i d deflection to L/800 for precast, simple span girders.
Camber calculations are not directly addressed in LRFD
(They were not directly addressed in the Standard
Specifications, either).
The same methods used for finding camber and deflection
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The same methods used for finding camber and deflection
used for Standard Specifications apply for LRFD Designs.
82
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.5.2.6.2 Deflection
Since this is a limit on FLEXURAL deflection, it is
appropriate to use the MDF.
MDF = 0.336(0.905) = 0.304
Lane Load = 0.640(0.304) = 0.194klf
Axle Load (rear) = 32k(1.33)(0.304)=12.9k (includes impact)
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Axle Load (front) = 8k(1.33)(0.304) = 3.22k (includes impact)
Design Example  SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge
2.5.2.6.2 Deflection
Here are the live loads positioned for maximum deflection.
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Using analysis software:
( )
65ft 12
0.654in 0.975in
800
δ = < =
1
AASHTO AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications –
Design Example 2
2 Span Continuous Prestressed IGirder Bridge
RICHARD MILLER
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4th Edition.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Problem Statement and Assumptions
98’0”
CL to CL of Bearings CL to CL of Bearings
98’0”
1’9”
96’3” 96’3”
This design example demonstrates the design of a twospan (98 ft. each)
AASHTO T pe IV I girder ith no ske as sho n This e ample ill strates the
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References:
•“Precast Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Manual,” Published by Precast/Prestressed concrete Institute
AASHTO Type IV – I girder with no skew, as shown. This example illustrates the
design of typical interior beam at the critical sections for positive flexure, negative
flexure, shear, and the continuity connection.
2
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Problem Statement and Assumptions
34’0”
8.5” structural+ 1.0”
4 Spaces @ 8’0” = 32’0”
2.5’
Type IV
2.5’
wearing
37’0”
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #3
Actual thickness, t
s
= 9.5 in Structural thickness = 8.5 in.
Note that 1.0 in wearing surface is considered to be an integral part of the 8.5 in deck.
f
c
’ = 4.5 ksi @ 28 days Concrete unit weight, w
c
=0.150 kcf
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Precast Beams
AASHTO Type IV girder shown
f
c
’ = 7.0 ksi @ 28 days
8”
6”
1’8”
f
ci
’ = 4.5 ksi
Concrete unit weight, w
c
=0.150 kcf
4’6”
1’11”
9”
8” 6”
9”
The ODOT Bridge Design
Manual (BDM) gives a range of
strengths for the precast.
These strengths are chosen
fromthat range The BDM
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9
8”
2’2”
from that range. The BDM
also gives the deck strength
(302.5.2.8).
3
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Prestressing Strand
½ in diameter, lowrelaxation
Area of one strand = 0.153 in
2
Ultimate strength, f
pu
= 270.0 ksi g ,
pu
Reinforcing Bars
Yield strength, f
y
= 60 ksi
Modulus of elasticity, E
s
= 29,000 ksi
(BDM 302.5.2.9)
The ODOT BDM allows ½ inch, ½ inch special or 0.6 inch diameter strand
(302.5.2.2a). For this girder, ½ inch diameter is chosen.
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Loads
Future wearing surface: 0.060 ksf (ODOT Std. Drawings)
Barriers: 0.640 k/ft each
Truck: HL 93, including dynamic allowance
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
NonComposite Section Properties
Area in
2
789
Weight (lb/ft) 822
LRFD uses ksi
units.
h (in) 54
y
b
(in) 24.73
y
t
(in) 29.27
I (in
4
) 260,741
S
b
(in
3
) 10,542
S
t
(in
3
) 8,909
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1.5
1
33, 000 '
C C c
E K w f = (5.4.2.41)
1.5
33, 000 1.0 0.150 4.5 4, 067
C
E ksi = × × =
1.5
33, 000 1.0 0.150 7.0 5, 072
C
E ksi = × × =
At Transfer
At Service Loads
4
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Effective Flange Width
(1/4) Span = (96.25 ft)(12in/ft)/4 = 289 in
12t
s
plus the greater of the web thickness or ½ the beam
s
p g
top flange width:
t
s
= 8.5 in (slab thickness  use structural thickness
only)
web thickness = 8 in
½ top flange = 0.5(20 in) = 10 in (Greatest)
12(8.5 in) + 10 in = 112 in
Average spacing between beams = 8 ft = 96 in
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #7
Average spacing between beams = 8 ft = 96 in
(CONTROLS)
EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH = 96 in Interior Girder
(4.6.2.6)
96”
76.98”
8.5”
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Transformed Section Properties
Transformed flange width =
n(effective flange width) =
54”
n(effective flange width)
(0.8019)(96) = 76.98 in
Transformed flange area =
n(effective flange width)(t
s
) =
(0.8019)(96)(8.5) = 654.35 in
2
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #8
26”
Note that only the structural thickness of the deck, 8.5 in, is considered.
A 2” haunch is assumed for calculating weight but not for finding
composite properties (ODOT BDM 302.5.2.3).
5
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Properties of Composite Section
A
c
= Total area of composite section = 1,443 in
2
h
c
= Overall depth of the composite section = 62.5 in
I
c
= Moment of inertia of the composite section = 666,579 in
4
y
bc
= Distance from the centroid of the composite section to the
extreme bottom fiber of the precast beam
= 39.93 in
y
tg
= Distance from the centroid of the composite section to the
extreme top fiber of the precast beam
= 14.07 in
y
tc
= Distance from the centroid of the composite section to the
extreme top fiber of the slab
= 22.57 in.
S
b
= Composite section modulus for the extreme bottom fiber of the = 16,694 in
3
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #9
S
bc
Composite section modulus for the extreme bottom fiber of the
precast beam
16,694 in
S
tg
= Composite section modulus for the top fiber of the precast beam = 47,376 in
3
S
tc
= Composite section modulus for extreme top fiber of the deck slab = 29,534 in
3
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Dead Loads
DC = Dead load of structural components and non
structural attachments structural attachments
DC Dead Loads carried by the girders:
Beam Weight: 0.822 klf
Slab: (96 in)(9.5 in)(0.150 kcf)/(144 in
2
/ft
2
) = 0.95 klf
Haunch: (2 in)(20 in)(0.150 kcf)/(144 in
2
/ft
2
) = 0.042 klf
[ODOT BDM 302.5.2.3]
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #10
Note: The actual slab thickness of 9.5” is used in
calculating dead loads. The 2” haunch thickness is also
used in calculating dead loads.
6
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Dead Loads
The intermediate diaphragms are assumed as steel “X”
braces These are ignored in these dead load braces. These are ignored in these dead load
calculations. The weight of each brace is less than 0.3
kips. The moment caused by these braces is << 1% of
the total DL moment.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #11
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Dead Loads
DC Dead Loads carried by the continuous structure, composite section:
According to LRFD Article 4.6.2.2.1 permanent loads may be
distributed uniformly amount all beams if the following conditions are distributed uniformly amount all beams if the following conditions are
met:
Width of deck is constant. OK
Number of beams, N
b
> 4. OK
Overhang part of the roadway < 3 ft OK
d
e
= 2.5 ft – 1.5 ft = 1.0 ft
Curvature in plan < Specified in Article 4.6.1.2 OK
Cross Section listed in Table 4 6 2 2 11 OK
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #12
Cross Section listed in Table 4.6.2.2.1 1 OK
The section meets the criteria, so the loads may be uniformly
distributed to the girders.
7
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Dead Loads
Future Wearing Surface = 0.060 ksf
(0.060 ksf)(34 ft)/5 beams = 0.408 kips/ft/girder
ODOT Std. Drawings
Partial of Table 4.6.2.2.11  This example is a Type “k”
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #13
ODOT Std. Drawings
Barrier = 0.640 klf
2 each (0.640)/5 girders = 0.256 kips/ft/girder
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Dead Loads
LRFD Article 4.6.2.2.1 allows the slab weight to be evenly
distributed to the girders in the same manner as the wearing distributed to the girders in the same manner as the wearing
surface and the barriers. In this case, the decision has been
made to use tributary areas to distribute the slab weight to the
girders. Either method is allowable.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #14
8
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
DLUnfactored Shear Forces & Bending Moments
Location
Beam Weight
[Simple Span]
Deck plus
Haunch
[Simple Span]
Barrier Weight
[Continuous Span]
Future Wearing
Surface
[Continuous Span]
Sh M Sh M Sh M Sh M
x ft. x/L
Shear
kips
M
g
,
kipft
Shear
kips
M
s
,
kipft
Shear
kips
M
b
,
kipft
Shear
kips
M
ws
,
kipft
0.00 0.00 39.6 0 47.7 0 9.2 7.7 14.7 12.4
9.26 0.10 31.9 331 38.5 399.3 6.8 81.8 10.9 130.5
18.97 0.20 24 602.6 28.9 727 4.3 136 6.9 217
28.69 0.30 16 796.5 19.3 961.1 1.8 166 2.9 264.9
38.41 0.40 8 912.9 9.6 1101.5 0.6 171.9 1 274.2
48.13 0.50 0 951.9 0 1148.4 3.1 153.6 5 245.1
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57.84 0.60 8 912.9 9.6 1101.5 5.6 111.2 8.9 177.5
67.56 0.70 16 796.5 19.3 961.1 8.1 44.7 12.9 71.3
77.28 0.80 24 602.6 28.9 727 10.6 46 16.9 73.4
86.99 0.90 31.9 331 38.5 399.3 13.1 160.8 20.8 256.7
96.25 Brg. 39.6 0 47.7 0 15.4 292.7 24.6 467.1
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Live Loads
According to LRFD Article 4.6.1.2.1 vehicular live loading on
the roadways of bridges or incidental structures, designated
HL93, shall consists of a combination of the: ,
Design truck or design tandem with dynamic allowance.
The design truck shall consists of an 8.0 kip front axle and
a pair of 32.0 kip back axles. The first and second axle are
spaced 14’0” apart. The space between the rear axles
shall be varied between 14.0’ and 30.0’ to produce extreme
force effects. The design tandem shall consist of a pair of
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #16
g p
25.0 kip axles spaced 4.0’ apart. [LRFD Article 3.6.1.2.2
and 3.6.1.2.3]
Design lane load shall consist of a load of 0.64 kip/ft
uniformly distributed in the longitudinal direction. [LRFD
Article 3.6.1.2.4]
9
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Live Loads
For negative moment between inflection points,
90% of the effect of two design trucks (HL93 90% of the effect of two design trucks (HL 93
with 14 ft. axle spacing) spaced at a minimum of
50 ft. combined with 90% of the design lane
load.
Inflection points are determined by loading all
spans with a uniform load.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Note: See the Loads Module for a complete
explanation of how this is applied.
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #17
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factors
The live load bending moments and shear forces are
determined by using the simplified distribution factor
formulas [LRFD 4 6 2 2] To use the simplified live load formulas [LRFD 4.6.2.2]. To use the simplified live load
distribution factor formulas, the following conditions must
be met [LRFD 4.6.2.2.1]
Width of deck is constant. OK
Number of beams, N
b
> 4. OK
Overhang part of the roadway < 3 ft OK
d
e
= 2.5 ft – 1.5 ft = 1.0 ft
Curvature in plan
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #18
< Specified in Article 4.6.1.2 OK
Beam parallel and of same stiffness OK
Cross Section listed in Table 4.6.2.2.11 OK
For a precast concrete Igirder with cast in place deck,
the bridge type is (k).
10
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factors
The number of design lanes should be determined by
taking the integer part of the ratio w/12, where w is the taking the integer part of the ratio w/12, where w is the
clear roadway width in ft between curbs and/or barriers.
w = 34 feet
Number of design lanes = integer part of (34/12) =
2
N t It ld b d th t thi h ld b d i d th l
(3.6.1.1.1)
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #19
Note: It could be argued that this should be designed as a three lane
bridge because 3 – 11 ft lanes would fit and the minimum lane width is
10ft. However, the distribution factor is for 2 or more lanes loaded and
the number of lanes isn’t in the equation so it doesn’t matter.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factors for Bending Moment
For all limit states except for fatigue limit state.
For two or more lanes loaded:
Where DFM = distribution factor for moment for interior beam. Provided:
(Table 4.6.2.2.2b1)
0.1
0.6 0.2
3
0.075
9.5 12
g
s
K
S S
DFM
L Lt
 
   
= +
  
\ . \ .
\ .
3.5 < S < 16.0 S = 8 OK S = Spacing, ft
4.5 < t
s
< 12.0 t
s
= 8.5 OK t
s
= slab thickness, in
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #20
20 < L < 240 L = 98 OK L = beam span, ft
N
b
> 4 N
b
= 5 OK N
b
= number of beams
10,000 < K
g
<
7,000,000
K
g
= See next
slide
K
g
= longitudinal stiffness
parameter, in
4
11
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factors for Bending Moment
Where:
( )
2
g g
K n I Ae = + (4.6.2.2.11)
Where:
n = modular ratio between beam and deck materials
A = crosssection area of the beam (noncomposite), in
2
= 789
( ) 5, 072
1.247
( ) 4, 067
c
c
E beam
E slab
= = =
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #21
789
I = moment of inertia of the beam (noncomposite), in
4
= 260,741
e
g
= Distance between the c.g. of beam and slab, in
= (8.5/2+2.0+29.27) = 35.52
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factors for Bending Moment
( )
( )
2
1 247 260 741 789 35 52 = + K
( )
( )
4
1.247 260, 741 789 35.52
1, 566, 480
= +
=
g
g
K
K in
10,000 < K
g
< 7,000,000 OK
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #22
g
12
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factors for Bending Moment
For two or more lanes loaded:
0.1
0.6 0.2
3
8 8 1, 566, 480
0.075
9.5 98 12*98*8.5
0.665
DFM
DFM
 
   
= +
  
\ . \ .
\ .
=
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #23
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factors for Bending Moment
For one design lane loaded:
0.1
0.4 0.3
K
S S
 
   
3
0.1
0.4 0.3
3
0.06
14 12
8 8 1, 566, 480
0.06
14 98 12*98*8.5
0.467
g
s
K
S S
DFM
L Lt
DFM
DFM
 
   
= +
  
\ . \ .
\ .
 
   
= +
  
\ . \ .
\ .
=
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #24
The case of two or more design lanes loaded controls,
DFM = 0.665 lanes/beam
0.467 DFM
13
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factors for Shear Force
For two or more lanes loaded:
2
S S
   
Where DFV = distribution factor for moment for interior beam.
Provided:
0.2
12 35
S S
DFV
   
= + −
 
\ . \ .
(4.6.2.2.11)
3.5 < S < 16.0 S = 8 OK S = Spacing, ft
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #25
p g,
4.5 < t
s
< 12.0 t
s
= 8.5 OK t
s
= slab thickness, in
20 < L < 240 L = 98 OK L = beam span, ft
N
b
> 4 N
b
= 5 OK N
b
= number of beams
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factors for Shear Force
For two or more lanes loaded:
2
8 8
0.2
12 35
0.814
DFV
DFV
   
= + −
 
\ . \ .
=
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #26
14
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factors for Shear Force
For one design lane loaded:
S
 
0.36
25
8
0.36
25
0.68
S
DFV
DFV
DFV
 
= +

\ .
 
= +

\ .
=
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #27
The case of two or more design lanes loaded controls,
DFV = 0.814 lanes/beam
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Dynamic Allowance
IM = 33%
Where: IM = dynamic load allowance applied only to truck Where: IM = dynamic load allowance, applied only to truck
load
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #28
15
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Unfactored Shear Force and Bending Moments
Unfactored shear forces and bending moment due to HL
93 truck, per beam: 93 truck, per beam:
V
LT
= (shear force per lane)(DFV)(1+IM)
= (shear force per lane)(0.814)(1.33)
= (shear force per lane)(1.083) kips
M
LT
= (bending moment per lane)(DFM)(1+IM)
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #29
LT
= (bending moment per lane)(0.665)(1.33)
= (bending moment per lane)(0.884) kipsft
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Unfactored Shear Force and Bending Moments
Unfactored shear forces and bending moment due to HL
93 lane load, per beam: 93 lane load, per beam:
V
LANE
= (shear force per lane)(DFV)
= (shear force per lane)(0.814) kips
M
LANE
= (bending moment per lane)(DFM)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #30
LANE
= (bending moment per lane)(0.665) kipft
16
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Unfactored Shear Force and Bending Moments
Location HL93 Live Load
Di t S ti
Max
Sh
Max. Positive
M t
Max. Negative
M t Distance
x ft.
Section
x/L
Shear
kips
Moment
M
LL+I,
kipft
Moment
M
LL+I,
kipft
0.00 0.00 89.4 48.5 5.6
9.26 0.10 76.3 624.6 83.3
18.97 0.20 62.7 1049.3 163.4
28.69 0.30 50.1 1300.5 243.6
38.41 0.40 39.9 1412.4 323.7
48.13 0.50 48.3 1386.2 403.9
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57.84 0.60 60.3 1239.1 484
67.56 0.70 72.2 961.1 564.2
77.28 0.80 83.8 577.5 776.2
86.99 0.90 95 215.9 877.6
96.25 Brg. 104.6 14.8 1380.7
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Unfactored Shear Force and Bending Moments
Shown in the preceding table are maximum values of
shear positive moment and negative moment The shear, positive moment, and negative moment. The
maximum values at a given location are not necessarily
from the same load case.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #32
17
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Load Combinations
The following limit states are applicable:
Service I:
(3.4.1)
Service I:
Q = 1.00(DC + DW) + 1.00 (LL + IM)
Service III:
Q = 1.00(DC + DW) + 0.80(LL + IM)
Strength I:
Maximum Q = 1 25(DC) + 1 50(DW) + 1 75(LL + IM)
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Maximum Q = 1.25(DC) + 1.50(DW) + 1.75(LL + IM)
Minimum Q = 0.90(DC) + 0.65(DW) + 1.75(LL + IM)
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Load Combinations
A reminder:
This is a continuous bridge so both maximum and minimum load This is a continuous bridge, so both maximum and minimum load
combinations must be considered.
Remember, in some cases loads mitigate load effects in other
spans, but it is not appropriate to use different load factors for the
same analysis. For example, the DC in one span mitigates the
positive moment in the other span; but it is not appropriate to use
different load factors in this case!
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #34
different load factors in this case!
18
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Load Combinations
The required number of strands is usually governed by Service III load
combination at the section of maximum moment or harp points.
In a continuous for live load structure, the maximum moments do not
occur at the same place for each load. The point of maximum moment
depends on whether the load was applied to the continuous or simple
structure. Thus, each point must be checked for the combinations of
loads.
In this structure, the maximum flexural stresses occur at Midspan (48.13)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #35
feet for Service I and Service III (although this is NOT where the
continuous load moments are maximum). The Strength I maximum is at
0.4L. It is inappropriate to simply take maximum moments without regard
to location along the length of the girder.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Load Combinations
Service 1 Service 3 Strength 1 Length
V M V M V M
k kft k kft k kft ft.
200 6 68 6 182 72 58 9 299 125 113 1 Bearing 0 200.6 68.6 182.72 58.9 299.125 113.1 Bearing 0
192.6 431.7 175.3 393.72 287.45 644.925 Trans. 2.04
189.8 549.9 172.7 502.76 283.375 817.925 H/2 2.73
164.4 1567.2 149.14 1442.28 246.375 2303.925 0.10L 9.26
126.8 2731.9 114.26 2522.04 191.575 3993.775 0.20L 18.97
90.1 3489 80.08 3228.9 138.4 5077.725 0.30L 28.69
55.9 3872.9 47.92 3590.42 89.575 5615.875 0.40L 38.41
56.4 3885 46.74 3607.76 95.9 5610.625 MidSpan 48.13
92.4 3542.2 80.34 3294.38 147.875 5091.675 0.60L 57.84
128 5 2834 7 114 06 2642 48 199 95 4041 75 0 70L 67 56
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128.5 2834.7 114.06 2642.48 199.95 4041.75 0.70L 67.56
164.2 434 147.44 589.24 251.375 329.31 0.80L 77.28
199.3 564.8 180.3 389.28 301.825 1464.58 0.90L 86.99
222.3 1614.4 201.94 1375.8 334.65 2795.88 H/2 93.52
224.8 1742.2 204.3 1494.76 338.2 2961.82 Trans. 94.21
231.9 2140.5 210.98 1864.36 348.325 3482.75 Bearing 96.25
19
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Determining Number of Strands from Service Load Stresses at
Midspan
At this point it is necessary to determine the needed At this point, it is necessary to determine the needed
number of strands. Box girders tend to be controlled by the
Strength Limit State, but “I” girders (this example) tend to be
controlled by service load tensions.
The initial estimate of number of strands will be found from
the Service III combination. Recall that Service III ONLY
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #37
applies to tension in prestressed sections.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Service Load Stresses at Midspan
Bottom tensile stress due to applied dead and live loads using load
combination Service III:
Where:
(0.8)( )
g s
b ws LL I
b
b bc
M M
M M M
f
S S
+
+
+ +
= +
f
b
= Bottom tensile stresses ksi
M
g
= Unfactored bending moment due to beam selfweight, kipft
M
s
= Unfactored bending moment due to slab and haunch
i ht
kipft
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #38
weights,
M
b
= Unfactored bending moment due to due to barrier weights, kipft
M
ws
= Unfactored bending moment due to future wearing surface, kipft
M
LL+I
= Unfactored bending moment due to design vehicular live
load including impact,
kipft
20
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Service Load Stresses at Midspan
 
153.6 245.1 (0.8)(1, 386.2) (12)
(951.9 1,148.4)(12)
10 542 16 694
+ +
+
= +
b
f
10, 542 16, 694
2.39 1.08
3.47
= +
=
b
b
f
f ksi
Stress Limits for Concrete
'
0.19
c
f =
(Table 5.9.4.2.21)
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #39
0.19 7.0 0.503ksi = =
Required Compressive Stress From Strands
(3.47 0.503) 2.97
pb
f ksi = − =
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Required Number of Strands
Assume a strand center of gravity at midspan as 8% of the
height of the girder. g g
So the strand eccentricity at the midspan is:
0.08(54) 4.32
bs
y in = =
( ) (24 73 4 32) 20 41
b b
e y y in = − = − =
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #40
( ) (24.73 4.32) 20.41
c b bs
e y y in = = =
21
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Required Number of Strands
If P
pe
is the total prestressing force, the stress at the bottom
fiber due to prestress is: p
Now plug in the required recompression stress, f
pb
and
solve form P :
( )
pe pe c
pb
b
P P e
f
A S
= +
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #41
solve form P
pe
:
(20.41)
2.97
789 10, 542
927
pe pe
pe
P P
P kips
= +
=
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Required Number of Strands
The required prestressing force after all
losses is 927 kips This is after an assumed losses is 927 kips. This is after an assumed
25% loss. That means the initial prestressing
force will be approximately 1240 kips. Check
with your local precast producer to ensure the
capacity prestressing beds can withstand this
force
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
force.
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #42
22
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Required Number of Strands
Final prestress force per strand
= (area of strand)(f
pi
)(1losses, %)
h f i iti l t i t b f t f k i where f
pi
= initial prestressing stress before transfer, ksi
= 0.75f
pu
= 202.5 ksi
Assuming 25% loss of prestress the final prestressing force
per strand after losses is:
(0.153)(202.5)(1 0.25) 23.2 / F kips strand = − =
927
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #43
Number of strands required = strands
Try (40) ½ in diameter, 270 ksi, lowlax strands.
927
39.9
23.2
=
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Strand Pattern
At midspan:
No.
Strands
Distance from
bottom (in)
7 8
11 6
11 4
11 2
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #44
10 Spa.
@ 2”
2” 2”
23
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Strand Pattern
The distance between the center of gravity of strands and
the bottom concrete fiber of the beam is, y
bs
, is: the bottom concrete fiber of the beam is, y
bs
, is:
Strand eccentricity at midspan:
[(11)2 (11)4 (11)6 (7)8]
4.70
40
bs
y in
+ + +
= =
24 73 4 70 20 0i
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #45
24.73 4.70 20.0
c b bs
e y y in = − = − =
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Prestress Losses
Total Prestress Losses:
(5 9 5 1 1) f f f ∆ ∆ + ∆
Where:
∆f
pES
= loss due to elastic shortening, ksi
∆f
pLT
= loss due to longterm shrinkage and creep of
concrete, and relaxation of the steel, ksi
(5.9.5.11)
pT pES pLT
f f f ∆ = ∆ + ∆
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #46
24
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Elastic Shortening
∆ =
p
pES cgp
ct
E
f f
E
(5.9.5.2.3a1)
Where:
2
g c
i i c
M e
P Pe
+ −
f
cgp
= The concrete stress at the center of gravity of prestressing
tendons due to the prestressing force immediately after the
transfer and the selfweight of the member at the section of
the maximum moment (ksi).
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #47
A I I
+ −
=
E
p
= Elastic Modulus of the prestressing steel (ksi).
E
ct
= Elastic Modulus of the concrete at the time of transfer or
time of load application (ksi).
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Elastic Shortening
According to the LRFD Commentary for pretensioned
members, the loss due to elastic shortening may be members, the loss due to elastic shortening may be
determined by the following alternative equation (this is the
calculation of elastic shortening loss by transformed section):
2
2
( )
( )
+ −
∆ =
+ +
ps pi g m g m g g
pES
g g ct
A f I e A e M A
f
A I E
A I A
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #48
(C5.9.5.2.3a1)
2
( ) + +
g g
ps g m g
p
A I e A
E
25
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Elastic Shortening
A
ps
= Area of prestressing steel, 40(0.153) = 6.12 in
2
f
pi
= Prestressing steel stress immediately prior to transfer,
202.5 ksi
A
g
= Gross area of section, 789 in
2
E
ct
= Elastic Modulus of the concrete at transfer, 4,067 ksi
E
p
= Elastic Modulus of the prestressing steel, 28,500 ksi
e
m
= Average prestressing steel eccentricity at midspan,
20.0 in
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #49
I
g
= Moment of inertia of the gross concrete section,
260,741 in
4
M
g
= Midspan moment due to member selfweight,
951.9(12) = 11,422.8 kipin
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Elastic Shortening
2
6 12*202 5(260 741 20 0 *789) 20 0*11 422 8*789
2
2
6.12*202.5(260, 741 20.0 *789) 20.0*11, 422.8*789
789*260, 741*4, 067
6.12(260, 741 20.0 *789)
28, 500
16.24
+ −
∆ =
+ +
∆ =
pES
pES
f
f ksi
Note: If the self weight moment is calculated using total beam length
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #50
rather than c/c bearing, the moment becomes 11641 kin. The elastic
shortening loss becomes 16.13 ksi; < 1% different.
26
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
LongTerm Losses
For standard, precast, pretensioned members subject to
normal loading and environmental conditions: g
In which:
(5.9.5.31)
(5 9 5 32)
10 12
pi ps
pLT h st h st pR
g
f A
f f
A
γ γ γ γ ∆ = + + ∆
1 7 0 01H γ = −
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #51
(5.9.5.32)
(5.9.5.33)
1.7 0.01
h
H γ = −
5
1 '
st
ci
f
γ =
+
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
LongTerm Losses
Where:
H = The average annual ambient relative humidity (%)
γ
h
= Correction factor for relative humidity of the ambient air
γ
hst
= Correction factor for specified concrete strength at time
of Prestress transfer to the concrete member
∆f = An estimate of relaxation loss taken as 2 5 ksi for low
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #52
∆f
pR
= An estimate of relaxation loss taken as 2.5 ksi for low
relaxation strand
27
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
LongTerm Losses
Assume H = 70%
1 7 0 01*70 1 00 γ
So:
1.7 0.01*70 1.00 = − =
h
γ
5
0.91
1 4.5
st
γ = =
+
202.5*6.12
10 1.00*0.91 12*1.00*0.91 2.5
pLT
f ∆ = + +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #53
ksi
789
14.29 10.92 2.5
27.71
pLT
pLT
pLT
f
f
f
∆ = + +
∆ =
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Total Losses at Service Loads
Total Prestress Losses:
(5.9.5.11)
16.24 27.71
43.95
pT pES pLT
pT
pT
f f f
f
f
f
∆ = ∆ + ∆
∆ = +
∆ =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #54
Losses are approximately 22% < 25% OK
202.5 43.95 158.6
pe
f = − =
28
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Transfer
Force per strand after initial losses:
Stress in tendons after transfer:
Force per strand = f
pt
(strand area) = 186.26(0.153) = 28.50
kips
202.5 16.24 186.26
pt pi pi
f f f ksi = − ∆ = − =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #55
Therefore, the total prestressing force after transfer is, P
i
=
1,140 kips
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Transfer
In this example, P
i
is determined by subtracting the elastic
shortening loss from the initial stress.
In the previous example, P
i
was found by assuming the
stress after transfer was 0.9f
pi
.
Either method is acceptable. If 0.9f
pi
is used, P
i
= 1115
kips The difference is 2%
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #56
kips. The difference is 2%.
29
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stress Limits for Concrete
Compression:
0.60f
i
’ = 0.60(4.5) = +2.700 ksi
(5 9 4 1 1)
0.60f
ci
0.60(4.5) 2.700 ksi
Tension:
1. In areas other than the precompressed tensile zone
and without bonded reinforcement
(5.9.4.1.1)
(5.9.4.1.2)
'
0.0948 0.2
t ci
f f ksi = ≤
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #57
Therefore, 0.200 ksi (CONTROLS)
( )
0.0948 4.5 0.2
0.201 0.2
t
f ksi
ksi ksi
= ≤
≤
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stress Limits for Concrete
2. In areas with bonded reinforcement sufficient to
resist the tensile force in the concrete computed resist the tensile force in the concrete computed
assuming an uncracked section, where
reinforcement is proportioned using a stress of
0.5f
y
, not to exceed 30 ksi.
'
0.24 0.24 4.5 0.509 = = =
t ci
f f ksi
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #58
t ci
f f
(5.9.4.1.2)
30
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses At Transfer Length Section
Stresses at this location need only be checked at release
since this stage almost always governs. Also, losses with since this stage almost always governs. Also, losses with
time will reduce the concrete stresses making them less
critical.
Transfer length = 60(strand diameter)
= 60(0.5) = 30 in = 2.5 ft
(5.8.2.3)
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #59
The bending moment at a distance 2.5 ft from the end of
the beam due to beam selfweight is:
(0.5)(0.822)(2.5)(97.167 2.5) 97.3
g
M k ft = − = −
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses At Transfer Length Section
Compute top stress at the top fiber of the beam:
1,140 1,140(20.0) 97.3(12)
789 8, 909 8, 909
1 44 2 56 0 13 0 99
= − +
= − +
= − + = −
g
i i
t
t t
t
M
P Pe
f
A S S
f
f ksi
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #60
Tensile stress limit for concrete with bonded reinforcement:
0.509 ksi NG
1.44 2.56 0.13 0.99 = + =
t
f ksi
31
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses At Transfer Length Section
Compute bottom stress at the bottom fiber of the beam:
1,140 1,140(20.0) 97.3(12)
789 10, 542 10, 542
1 44 2 16 0 11 3 49
g
i i
t
b b
t
M
P Pe
f
A S S
f
f ksi
= + −
= + −
= + − = +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #61
Compressive stress limit for concrete:
+2.700 ksi NG
1.44 2.16 0.11 3.49
t
f ksi = + − = +
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses At Transfer Length Section
Harp 9 strands at the 0.35L points as shown.
At ends At Midspan At ends
No.
Strands
Distance from
bottom (in)
3 52
3 50
3 48
4 8
8 6
At Midspan
No.
Strands
Distance from
bottom (in)
7 8
11 6
11 4
11 2
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #62
8 4
11 2
32
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses At Transfer Length Section
4”
9 Strands
2’6”
48’7”
50”
14’7”
34’0”
31 Strands
ψ
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #63
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses At Transfer Length Section
The distance between the center of gravity of the 9 harped strands at
the end of the beam and the top fiber of the precast beam is:
in
The distance between the center of gravity of the 9 harped strands at
the harp point and the bottom fiber of the precast beam is:
in
The distance between the center of gravity of the 9 harped strands and
3(2) 3(4) 3(6)
4.00
9
+ +
=
3(4) 3(6) 3(8)
6.00
9
+ +
=
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #64
The distance between the center of gravity of the 9 harped strands and
the top fiber of the beam at the transfer length section is:
in
(54 6 4)
4.00 (2.5) 7.25
34
− −
+ =
33
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses At Transfer Length Section
The distance between the center of gravity of the 31 straight bottom
strands and the extreme bottom fiber of the beam is:
in
The distance between the center of gravity of the total number of the
strands and the bottom fiber of the precast beam at the transfer length
is:
in
11(2) 8(4) 8(6) 4(8)
4.32
31
+ + +
=
9(54 7.25) 31(4.32)
13.87
40
− +
=
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #65
Eccentricity of the strand group at transfer length is:
in
40
24.73 13.87 10.86 − =
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses At Transfer Length Section
The distance between the center of gravity of the total number of the
strands and the bottom fiber of the precast beam at the end of the
beam is:
in
The eccentricity at the end of the beam is:
in
9(54 4) 31(4.32)
14.60
40
− +
=
24.73 14.60 10.13 − =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #66
34
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses At Transfer Length Section
Recompute top and bottom stresses at the transfer length
section using the harped pattern. Concrete stress at the top section using the harped pattern. Concrete stress at the top
fiber of the beam:
1,140 1,140(10.86) 97.3(12)
789 8, 909 8, 909
1.44 1.39 0.13 0.18
t
t
f
f ksi
= − +
= − + = +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #67
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi OK
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses At Transfer Length Section
At the bottom:
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2 700 ksi OK
1,140 1,140(10.86) 97.3(12)
789 10, 542 10, 542
1.44 1.17 0.11 2.50
b
b
f
f ksi
= + −
= + − = +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #68
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi OK
35
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Harp Points
The strand eccentricity at the harp points is the same as at
the midspan, the midspan,
e
c
= 20.0 in
The bending moment due to beam selfweight at a distance
34.00’ from the end of the beam is:
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #69
(0.5)(0.822)(34.00)(97.17 34.00) 882.7
g
M k ft = − = −
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Harp Points
Concrete stress at the top fiber of the beam:
1,140 1,140(20.0) 882.7*12
789 8, 909 8, 909
1.44 2.56 1.19 0.07
= − +
= − +
= − + = +
g
i i
t
t t
t
t
M
P Pe
f
A S S
f
f
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #70
36
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Harp Points
Compute bottom stress at the bottom fiber of the beam:
1,140 1,140(20.0) 882.7*12
789 10, 542 10, 542
1 44 2 16 1 00 2 60
g
i i
b
b b
b
M
P Pe
f
A S S
f
f
= + −
= + −
= + − = +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #71
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi OK
1.44 2.16 1.00 2.60
b
f = + = +
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
The bending moment due to beam selfweight at a distance
48’7” (midspan) from the end of the beam is:
Concrete stress at the top fiber of the beam:
(0.5)(0.822)(48.58)(97.17 48.58) 970.1
g
M k ft = − = −
= − +
g
i i
t
t t
M
P Pe
f
A S S
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #72
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi OK
1,140 1,140(20.0) 970.1*12
1.44 2.56 1.31 0.19
789 8, 909 8, 909
= − + = − + = +
t t
t
f
37
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
Compute bottom stress at the bottom fiber of the beam:
M
P P
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2 700 ksi OK
1,140 1,140(20.0) 970.1*12
1.44 2.16 1.10 2.50
789 10, 542 10, 542
g
i i
b
b b
b
M
P Pe
f
A S S
f
= + −
= + − = + − = +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #73
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi OK
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
HoldDown Forces
Assume that the stress in the strand at the time of
prestressing, before any losses, is: prestressing, before any losses, is:
Then, the Prestress force per strand before any losses is:
0.75 0.75(270) 202.5
pu
f ksi = =
' 0.153(202.5) 31.0 /
i
P k strand = =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #74
Harp angle:
1
54 4 6
tan 6.2
34(12)
ψ
−
  − −
= =

\ .
o
38
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
HoldDown Forces
Therefore, holddown force per strand
= 1 05 (force per strand)(sin ψ) = 1.05 (force per strand)(sin ψ)
=1.05(31.0) sin 6.2
◦
= 3.5 kips per strand
Note that the factor, 1.05, is applied to account for friction.
Total hold down force = 9 strands(3.5) = 31.6 kips
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #75
Total hold down force 9 strands(3.5) 31.6 kips
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
HoldDown Forces
ODOT BDM States that the following limits are not to
be exceeded: be exceeded:
No. of Draped
Strands per Row
P
U
/Strand
(lb)
1 6,000
2 4,000
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #76
So holddown force per strand = 3.5 kips per strand OK
3 4,000
39
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Transfer
At transfer, stresses at the end of girder tend to exceed allowables if
the strand is straight.
Stresses can be brought within the allowable stress range either by
harping or debonding the strand. The question arises as to which is
better, harping or debonding?
Boxes tend to use debonding because harping isn’t practical as the
strand would go through the void. I and Bulb T girders tend to use
harping
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #77
harping.
However, not all fabricators have the ability to harp (the bed won’t take
the hold down force). Therefore, before deciding to harp, contact
probable fabricators or the local PCI section for assistance and advice.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Summary of Stresses at Transfer
Top Stresses
f
t
(ksi)
Bottom
stresses f
t
(ksi) stresses
f
b
(ksi)
At transfer length
section
+0.27 +2.43
At harp points +0.07 +2.60
At midspan +0.19 +2.50
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #78
Note that the bottom stresses at the harp points are more
critical than the ones at midspan.
No Tension! The entire beam is in compression.
40
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Summary of Stresses at Transfer
Top Stress
0.3
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
k
s
i
)
Transfer
Length
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #79
0
0.05
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Length (ft)
g
Harp
Point
Mid
Span
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Summary of Stresses at Transfer
Bottom Stress
3
1
1.5
2
2.5
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
k
s
i
)
Transfer
Length
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #80
0
0.5
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Length (ft)
Length
Harp
Point
Mid
Span
41
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Service Loads
Total loss of prestress at service loads is
Stress in tendon after all losses
43.95
pT
f ksi ∆ =
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #81
202.5 43.95 158.55 = −∆ = − =
pe pi pT
f f f ksi
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Service Loads
Force per strand = (f
pe
)(strand area)
p
= (158.55)(0.153) = 24.3 kips
The total prestressing force after all losses
P
pe
= 24.3(40) = 972.0 kips
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #82
42
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stress Limits for Concrete
Compression:
(5.9.4.2.1)
Due to permanent loads, for service limit states:
For the precast beam: 0.45f
c
’ = 0.45(7.0) = +3.150 ksi
For the deck: 0.45f
c
’ = 0.45(4.5) = +2.025 ksi
Due to one half the permanent loads and live load:
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #83
For the precast beam:0.40f
c
’ = 0.40(7.0) = +2.800 ksi
For the deck: 0.40f
c
’ = 0.40(4.5) = +1.800 ksi
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stress Limits for Concrete
Compression (con’t):
(5.9.4.2.1)
Due to permanent and transient loads for service limit states:
For the precast beam: 0.60Φ
w
f
c
’ = 0.60(1.0)(7.0)
= +4.200 ksi
F th d k 0 60Φ f ’ 0 60(1 0)(4 5) 2 700 k i
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #84
For the deck: 0.60Φ
w
f
c
’ = 0.60(1.0)(4.5) = +2.700 ksi
Note: Φ
w
is a factor for slender webs/flanges. It is not really meant for
“I” girders. If the calculations required for Φ
w
are done, Φ
w
=1.
43
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stress Limits for Concrete
Tension:
For components with bonded prestressing tendons: p p g
For the precast beam:
'
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #85
'
0.19 0.19(7.0) 0.503
c
f ksi = =
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
Concrete stress at the top fiber of the beam, three cases:
1 Under permanent loads Service I: 1. Under permanent loads, Service I:
1
1
( )
( )
972 972(20.0) (951.9 1,148.4) *12 (153.6 245.1) *12
789 8, 909 8, 909 47, 376
1 23 2 18 2 83 0 10 1 98
pe pe c g s
ws b
tg
t t tg
tg
P P e M M
M M
f
A S S S
f
f
+
+
= − + +
+ +
= − + +
+ + +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #86
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +3.150 ksi OK
1
1.23 2.18 2.83 0.10 1.98
tg
f = − + + = +
44
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
2. Onehalf permanent loads plus live loads:
( ) M
2 1
2
2
( )
0.5
1, 386.2*12
0.5(1.98)
47, 376
0.99 0.35 1.34
LL I
tg tg
tg
tg
tg
M
f f
S
f
f
+
= +
= +
= + = +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #87
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.800 ksi OK
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
3. Under permanent and transient loads:
( ) M
3
3
3
( )
1, 386.2*12
1.98
47, 376
1.98 0.35 2.33
LL I
tg tg
tg
tg
tg
M
f f
S
f
f
+
= +
= +
= + = +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #88
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +4.200 ksi OK
45
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
Concrete stress at the top fiber of the deck, three cases:
1. Under permanent loads:
( ) M M ( )
(245.1 153.6) *12
29, 534
0.162
ws b
tc
tc
tc
tc
M M
f
S
f
f
+
=
+
= +
= +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #89
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.025 ksi OK
Note that deck stresses under service loads are almost always well
below allowable for continuous for LL bridges; but they still must be
checked.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
2. Onehalf permanent loads plus live loads:
( )
LL I
M
f f
+
2 1
2
2
( )
1, 386.2*12
0.5(0.162)
29, 534
0.08 0.563 0.64
LL I
tc tc
tc
tc
tc
M
f f
S
f
f
+
= +
= +
= + = +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #90
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +1.800 ksi OK
46
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
3. Under permanent and transient loads:
( )
(245.1 153.6 1, 386.2) *12
29, 534
0.73
ws b LL I
tc
tc
tc
tc
M M M
f
S
f
f
+
+ +
=
+ +
=
= +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #91
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi OK
tc
f
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
Tension stress at the bottom fiber of the beam, Service III:
 
( )
( ) 0.8
(245.1 153.6) (0.8*1, 386.2) *12
972 972(20.0) (951.9 1,148.4) *12
789 10, 542 10, 542 16, 694
1.23 1.84 2.39 1.08 0.40
+
+
+ +
= + − −
+ +
+
= + − −
= + − − = −
pe pe c g s
ws b LL I
b
b b bc
b
b
P P e M M
M M M
f
A S S S
f
f
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #92
Tensile stress limit for concrete: 0.503 ksi OK
Service III has the 0.8LL factor!
b
f
47
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Positive Moment Section
Total Ultimate bending moment for Strength I is:
At point of maximum moment 0.4L:
(Tables 3.4.11&2)
1.25( ) 1.5( ) 1.75( )
u
M DC DW LL IM = + + +
1.25( ) 1.5( ) 1.75( )
1 2 (912 9 1 101 1 1 9) 1 (2 4 2) 1 (1 412 4)
u
M DC DW LL IM = + + +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #93
1.25(912.9 1,101.5 171.9) 1.5(274.2) 1.75(1, 412.4)
5, 615
u
u
M
M k ft
= + + + +
= −
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Positive Moment Section
Average stress in prestressing steel:
 
(5.7.3.1.1)
1
ps pu
p
c
f f k
d
 
= −


\ .
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #94
48
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Positive Moment Section
f
ps
= Average stress in prestressing steel ksi
k =
=
0.28 for low relaxation strands
d
p
= Distance from extreme compression fiber to
th t id f th t i t d
in.
2 1.04
py
pu
f
f
 
−


\ .
(Table C5.7.3.1.11)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #95
= the centroid of the prestressing tendons
h  y
bs
= 62.5 – 4.70 = 57.80
c = Distance between the neutral axis and the
compressive face
in.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Positive Moment Section
' '
A f A f A f +
(5.7.3.1.14)
'
0.85
ps pu s y s y
pu
c ps
p
A f A f A f
c
f
f b kA
d
β
+ −
=
+
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #96
49
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Positive Moment Section
A
ps
= Area of prestressing steel = 40 * 0.153 = 6.12 in
2
f = Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel = 270 ksi f
pu
= Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel = 270 ksi
A
s
= Area of mild steel tension reinforcement = 0.0 in
2
f
y
= Yield strength of tension reinforcement = 60.0 ksi
A
s
‘ = Area of compression reinforcement = 0.0 in
2
f
y
‘ = Yield strength of compression reinforcement = 60.0 ksi
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #97
f
c
‘ = Compressive strength of deck concrete = 4.5 ksi
β
1
= Stress block factor specified in LRFD 5.7.2.2 = 0.83
b = Effective width of compression flange = 96 in.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Positive Moment Section
6.12(270) 0.0 0.0
270
+ −
= c
a = depth of the equivalent stress block = β
1
c
270
0.85(4.5)(0.83)(96) 0.28(6.12)
57.8
5.28
+
= c
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #98
0.83(5.28) 4.39 8.5
s
a in t in = = < =
50
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Positive Moment Section
Therefore, the assumption of rectangular section behavior is
valid and the average stress in prestressing steel is: valid and the average stress in prestressing steel is:
Nominal flexural resistance:
5.28
270 1 0.28 263.3
57.8
ps
f ksi
 
= − =

\ .
4.39
6 12(263 3) 57 80
 
−

 
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #99
6.12(263.3) 57.80
2
2 12
7, 467
n ps ps p
n
a
M A f d
M k ft

 
\ .
= − =

\ .
= −
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Positive Moment Section
M M φ =
Factored flexural resistance:
7 467 5 615 M k ft M k ft φ = − > = −
r n
M M φ =
Where Φ= resistance factor = 1.0 for flexure and
tension of prestressed concrete
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #100
7, 467 5, 615
n u
M k ft M k ft φ = > =
51
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Maximum ReinforcementPositive Moment Section
The old ρ
max
requirement has been deleted. The LRFD
Specifications now require that φ be determined based on
whether the section is tension controlled compression whether the section is tension controlled, compression
controlled or a transition section. In the calculation of M
r
,
tension control was assumed.
Check the strain in the extreme tensile steel:
t
d 54.0 8.5 2 60.5 = + − =
   
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #101
This is a tension controlled section, so φ = 1.0
(5.7.2.1 & 5.5.4.2)
t
t
d c 60.5 5.28
0.003 0.003 0.032 0.005
c 5.28
− −    
ε = = = >
 
\ . \ .
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Reinforcement – Positive Moment Section
At any section, the amount of prestressed and
nonprestressed tensile reinforcement shall be adequate to p q
develop a factored flexural resistance, M
r
, at least equal to
the lesser of:
1.2 times the cracking moment, M
cr
, determined on
the basis of elastic stress distribution and the modulus
of rupture, f
r
,
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #102
1.33 times the factored moment required by the
applicable strength load combinations
(5.7.3.3.2)
52
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Reinforcement  Positive Moment Section
(5.7.3.3.21)
( ) 1
c
cr c r cpe dnc c r
nc
S
M S f f M S f
S
 
= + − − ≥

\ .
Where:
'
0.37 0.37 7.0 0.979
c
f = = f
r
= Modulus of rupture = ksi
f
cpe
=
Compressive stress in concrete due to effective
prestresss forces only (after allowance for all
Prestress losses) at extreme fiber of section where
tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads
ksi
(5.4.2.6)
nc \ .
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #103
tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads
972 972(20.0)
1.23 1.84 3.07
789 10, 542
pe pe c
b
P P e
A S
+ = + = + =
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Reinforcement  Positive Moment Section
M
dnc
= Total unfactored dead load moment acting on
the noncomposite section =
kipft
the non composite section
M
g
+M
s
= 951.9+1,148.4 = 2,100.3
S
c
= Section modulus for the extreme fiber of the
composite section where tensile stress is
caused by externally applied loads = 16,694
in
3
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #104
S
nc
= Section modulus for the extreme fiber of the
noncomposite section where tensile stress is
caused by externally applied loads = 10,542
in
3
53
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Reinforcement  Positive Moment Section
ki ft
16, 694 16, 694 16, 694
(0.98 3.07) 2,100.3 1 (0.979)
12 10, 542 12
4 400 1 362
cr
M
M
 
= + − − ≥

\ .
≥ kipft
kipft
At midspan, the factored moment required by the Strength I load
combination is: M
u
= 5,610 kipft
Therefore, kipft
Since Controls
1.33 7, 461
u
M =
1 2 1 33 M M 1 2M
1.2 5, 290
cr
M =
4, 400 1, 362
cr
M = ≥
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #105
Since , Controls
OK
Note: The LRFD Specifications states that this requirement be met at every section.
1.2 1.33
cr u
M M < 1.2
cr
M
7, 467 1.2
r cr
M M = >
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Design of the Negative Moment Section
Total Ultimate bending moment for Strength I is:
(3 4 11&2) 1 25( ) 1 5( ) 1 75( ) M DC DW LL IM = + + +
At the pier section:
kipft
Notes:
1. At the negative moment section, the compression
face is the bottom flange of the beam and is 26 in
(3.4.11&2) 1.25( ) 1.5( ) 1.75( )
u
M DC DW LL IM = + + +
1.25( 292.7) 1.5( 467.1) 1.75( 1, 380.7) 3, 483
u
M = − + − + − = −
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #106
wide.
2. This section is a nonprestressed reinforced concrete
section, thus Φ = 0.9 for flexure.
54
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Design of the Negative Moment Section
Assume the deck reinforcement is at the midheight of the
deck.
A f  
deck.
'
1.7
s y
u s y
c
A f
M A f d
f b
φ
 
= −

\ .
f
y
= Yield strength of compression reinforcement
= 60.0
in
2
f
c
‘ = Compressive strength of girder = 7.0
ksi
(5.14.1.2.7j)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #107
54 0.5(8.5) 58.25 + =
c
p g g
d = Effective depth to negative moment
reinforcement from bottom of girder =
in
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Design of the Negative Moment Section
(60)
3 483(12) 0 90 (60) 58 25
s
A
A
 
= −

This is the required amount of mild steel reinforcement
2
2
3, 483(12) 0.90 (60) 58.25
1.7(7.0)(26)
0 10.47 3145 41, 796
13.94
s
s s
s
A
A A
A in
=

\ .
= − +
=
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #108
This is the required amount of mild steel reinforcement
required in the slab to resist the negative moment and it is
equal to 18 #5 bars and 19 #6 bars.
55
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Longitudinal Deck Reinforcement
The longitudinal reinforcement in the deck includes
distribution reinforcement and other minimum reinforcement distribution reinforcement and other minimum reinforcement.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #109
2
( )
5.58
s provided
A in =
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Negative Moment Deck Reinforcement
The additional area of deck reinforcement required:
22
, '
13.93 5.58 8.35
s Add l
A in = − =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #110
56
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Negative Moment Deck Reinforcement
Typical longitudinal deck reinforcement No. 5 @ 12” Top 
No. 5 @ 8” Btm.
T l A f l i di l i f 5 58 i
2
Total Area of longitudinal reinforcement
provided
5.58 in
2
Factored negative design moment 3,483 kipft
Total area required to resist negative
moment
13.93 in
2
Additional area of deck reinforcement
required
8.35 in
2
Addi i l i f id d 19 N 6 B
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #111
Additional reinforcement provided 19 No. 6 Bars
Additional area of deck reinforcement
provided
8.36 in
2
Total A
s
provided 13.94 in
2
> 13.93 in
2
OK
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Negative Moment Deck Reinforcement
Location of steel:
Top – 8 #5 + 8 #6 with 2” clear
Note: Epoxy coated
steel assumed. Min.
Top 8 #5 8 #6 with 2 clear
Btm – 10 #5 + 11 #6 with 2 5/8” clear.
in
2
18(0.31) 19(0.44) 13.94
s
A = + =
8(0.31)(2.3125) 8(0.44)(2.375) 10(0.31)(8.5 2.9375) 11(0.44)(8.5 3)
13.94
57.96
4 16
x
x
+ + − + −
=
= =
cover is 1.5 in.
(5.12.4)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #112
We assumed 4.25” from top OK
d = 58.34 in
4.16
13.94
x
57
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Negative Moment Deck Reinforcement
Now check M
n
:
( )( )
( )( )
s y
c
1
A f 13.94 60
a 5.41in
0.85f ' b 0.85 7 26
a 5.41
c 7.72
0.7
41
= = =
= = =
β
 
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #113
( )( )( )
r n
r u
5.41
M M 0.9 13.94 60 58.34
2
M 41, 880k in 3, 490k ft M 3, 483k ft
 
= φ = −

\ .
= − = − > = −
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Effective Tension Flange Width
The effective tension flange width is the lesser of:
The effective flange width = 96 in CONTROLS
A width equal to 1/10 of the average of adjacent spans
between bearings =
(5.7.3.4)
0 10(96 25)(12) 115 5in =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #114
(4.6.2.6)
0.10(96.25)(12) 115.5in
58
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
According to LRFD 5.7.3.4 the spacing of the mild steel
reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall satisfy
equation 5.7.3.41.
The tensile stress in mild reinforcement is computed to be:
700
2
e
c
s s
s d
f
γ
β
≤ −
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #115
sl
s
s
M
f
A jd
=
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
f
y
= Yield strength of reinforcement = 60.0 ksi
M
sl
= (292.7)+(467.1)+(1,380.7)= 2,140.5 kipft
A
s
= Area of negative moment reinforcement =
13.94
in
2
d = Effective depth to negative moment
reinforcement from bottom of girder =
in
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #116
g
62.54.16 = 58.34
j = 1(k/3) = 1(0.275/3) = 0.908
59
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
Where:
2
2 ( ) k n n n ρ ρ ρ = + −
Where:
29, 000
5 718
steel
E
ρ =
M d l R i
2
2(0.00919)(5.718) (0.00919*5.718) 0.00919*5.718
0.275
k
k
= + −
=
13.94
0.00919
(26)(58.34)
s
A
bd
= =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #117
So:
,
5.718
5, 072
steel
girder
E
= =
n = Modular Ratio =
2,140.5(12)
34.8
13.94(0.908)(58.34)
s
f ksi = =
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
The previous calculation made the simplifying assumption
th t th ti t l that the section was rectangular.
If this assumption is NOT made, the neutral axis, calculated
using working stress concepts, can be calculated as 16.45
inches from the bottom of the beam. The cracked,
transformed moment of inertia is 177200 in
4
. The steel stress
is found to be 34 6 ksi which compares to 34 8 ksi using the
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #118
is found to be 34.6 ksi which compares to 34.8 ksi using the
rectangular assumption.
60
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
A quick review of working stress:
1) The cracked, transformed section is used.
2) Th t l i i t th t i t id
s
c
E
n
E
=
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #119
2) The neutral axis is at the geometric centroid.
3) Concrete stress is assumed linear.
4) Steel is converted to an equivalent area of concrete by multiplying
by n.
5) Tension in concrete is ignored
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
The maximum concrete stress is:
The steel stress is:
sl
c
tr
M c
f
I
=
( )
The term M(dc)/I gives
the equivalent concrete
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #120
( )
sl
s
tr
M d c
f n
I
−
=
the equivalent concrete
stress. It is converted to
steel stress by
multiplying by n.
61
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #121
This is the assumed cracked, transformed section. Note
that it is a negative moment section. Based on a previous
iteration, the neutral axis, x, is within the tapered section of
the Type IV flange.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
To determine “x”, the position of
the neutral axis, the first moment
of inertia of the area about the of inertia of the area about the
neutral axis must be = 0. Define
the downward direction as
positive.
It can be shown that b = 422x
( )
1 x 8 −
   
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #122
( ) ( )( )( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
1 x 8
26 42 2x 8 x 4 2 x 8 x 8 x 8
2 3
x
x 42 2x 79.5 58.34 x 0
2
   
− − − + − − − −
 
\ . \ .
 
+ − − − =

\ .
62
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
The equation reduces to:
3 2
0.33x 21x 15.5x 4467.3 0 − + + − =
The roots are 13.55, 16.45 and 60.75.
The only root which makes any sense is
x = 16.45 in. Thus, b = 9.10 inches and
x8 = 8.45 in.
( )( ) ( ) ( )( )
3 2
3
1 1
I 9.10 16.45 2 8.45 8 8.45 8 16.45 4
3 12
= + + −
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #123
( )( ) ( )( )
( )
2
3
2
4
1 1 8.45
2 8.45 8.45 8.45 8.45 16.45 8
36 2 3
79.5 58.34 16.45 177200in
 
+ + − −

\ .
+ − =
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
( )
sl
s
M d c
f n
I
−
=
( )
( )( )
s
tr
s
I
2140.5 12 58.34 16.45
f 5.7 34.6ksi
177200
−
= =
This is lower than the stress found by assuming a
rectangular section Since the steel stress in the
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #124
rectangular section. Since the steel stress in the
denominator of the spacing equation, using the
rectangular assumption is conservative (requires a closer
spacing) in this case.
63
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
The spacing of mild steel reinforcement in the layer closest
to the tension face shall satisfy the following: to the tension face shall satisfy the following:
Where:
(5.7.3.41)
700
2
e
c
s s
s d
f
γ
β
≤ −
γ
e
= Exposure factor = 0.75 for Class 2 exposure
condition
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #125
f
s
= Tensile stress in steel reinforcement at the
service limit state
ksi
β
s
=
1
0.7( )
c
c
d
h d
+
−
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
Where:
d
c
= Thickness of concrete cover measured
from extreme tension fiber to center of
the flexural reinforcement located closest
therto = 2.00+5/8(0.5) = 2.31
in
h = Overall height on the composite section
= 62.5
in
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #126
64
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
2.31
1 1.055
0 7(62 5 2 31)
s
β = + =
700 0.75
2(2.31) 9.67
1.055 34.8
s in
⋅
≤ − =
⋅
0.7(62.5 2.31) −
OK
6.0 9.67 in in ≤
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #127
OK
For this example the tensile stress in the mild
reinforcement is less than its allowable. Thus, the
distribution of reinforcement for control of cracking is
adequate.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Maximum Reinforcement – Negative Moment Section
As before, check the strain in the extreme tensile steel:
This is a tension controlled section, so φ = 0.9
t
t
d c 59.9 7.72
0.003 0.003 0.020 0.005
c 7.72
− −    
ε = = = >
 
\ . \ .
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #128
φ
(5.7.2.1 & 5.5.4.2)
65
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Reinforcement – Negative Moment Section
At any section, the amount of prestressed and
nonprestressed tensile reinforcement shall be adequate to p q
develop a factored flexural resistance, M
r
, at least equal to
the lesser of:
1.2 times the cracking moment, M
cr
, determined on
the basis of elastic stress distribution and the modulus
of rupture, f
r
,
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #129
1.33 times the factored moment required by the
applicable strength load combinations
(5.7.3.3.2)
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Reinforcement – Negative Moment Section
(5.7.3.3.21) ( ) 1
c
cr c r cpe dnc c r
nc
S
M S f f M S f
S
 
= + − − ≥

\ .
Where:
nc \ .
'
0.37 0.37 4.5 0.785
c
f = =
0
g s
M M + =
f
r
= ksi
f
cpe
= 0.0 ksi
M
dnc
= kipft
S = 29 534 in
3
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #130
S
c
= 29,534 in
66
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Reinforcement – Negative Moment Section
29, 534
(0.785)
12
=
cr
M
At bearing, the factored moment required by the Strength I load
combination is: M
u
= 3,483 kipft
Therefore, kipft
1.33 4, 631
u
M =
1, 932 = −
cr
M k ft
1.2 2, 318 = −
cr
M k ft
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #131
Since , Controls
OK
Note: The LRFD Specifications states that this requirement be met at every section.
1.2 1.33
cr u
M M < 1.2
cr
M
3, 490 1.2 2, 318
r cr
M M = > =
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Positive Moment Connection
Continuous for live load bridges are covered in Article
5.14.1.4.4. Much of this article is new in 2007 (4th Ed.).
One requirement of this article is for a positive moment
connection. These positive moments are caused by the upward
camber of the prestressed girders due to creep and shrinkage.
The positive moment connection is needed to provided continuity
at the pier.
Th ti b d ith b t di ild t l t
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #132
The connection can be made either by extending mild steel out
of the end of the girder into the diaphragm or by leaving strand
extend out of the end of the girder into the diaphragm. This
example illustrates bent strand connections.
67
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Positive Moment Connection
Positive moments develop at the connection
between girders at in interior supports due to live between girders at in interior supports due to live
load effects (if more than two spans) and restraint
caused by temperature, creep, and shrinkage.
According to LRFD 5.14.1.4.4, these restraint
moments are negligible when continuity is
established after 90 days.
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #133
y
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Development of Extended Strands
The strands are bent up 90° into the diaphragm so that the hook
extends 8 inches from the end of the girder. The ends of the girders
are placed 10 inches apart With the 8 inch projection this leaves 2 are placed 10 inches apart. With the 8 inch projection this leaves 2
inches of clear allowing for construction tolerances. Typically mild steel
is placed in the corner of the hooks to enhance the development length
of the hooks. These bars should be at least #5.
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #134
68
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Required Area of Strand
The design moment used for the working stress check is
M
cr
while the design moment for the strength check is
1 2M According to LRFD 5 14 1 4 9c the stress in the 1.2M
cr
. According to LRFD 5.14.1.4.9c the stress in the
strands used for design as a function of the total length of
the strand shall not exceed:
where:
( 8)
150
0.288
−
= ≤
dsh
psl
l
f ksi
( 8)
0.163
−
=
dsh
pul
l
f
(5.14.1.4.9c1)
(5.14.1.4.9c2)
ℓ = total length of extended strand in
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #135
ℓ
dsh
= total length of extended strand in
f
psl
= stress in the strand at the service limit state ksi
Cracked section shall be assumed
f
pul
= stress in the strand at the strength limit state ksi
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Required Area of Strand
The design moments, parameters, and results for
the design of the positive moment connection the design of the positive moment connection
using bent strand are found in following table.
The cracking moment is found using the gross,
composite cross section, but assuming that
cracking occurs at the diaphragm. Thus the
diaphragm concrete strength is used. For these
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #136
p g g
calculations the effective width of 96 inches, 0.5
inch strand, and concrete strength of 4.5 ksi were
used.
69
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Required Area of Strand
When using working stress design the number of strands is
assumed to calculate the length of the strand. When using
( )
cr c cb
M 0.24 f ' S 0.24 4.5 16694 8500k in 708k ft
1 2M 850k f
= = = − = −
g g
the strength design method, the length of strand is
assumed to calculate the number of strands required.
Design iterations are performed to determine the most
efficient combination of strand and length.
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #137
cr
e dsh
1.2M 850k ft
L 8
= −
= − l
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Required Area of Strand
Working Stress Design
No of Strand 6 8 10 12 16 No. of Strand 6 8 10 12 16
42.29 33.78 29.36 25.83 21.42
A
s
. 0.92 1.22 1.53 1.84 2.45
Moment 708.00 708.00 708.00 708.00 708.00
n 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00
d 62.50 62.50 60.50 60.50 60.50
dsh
l
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ρ 45E6 52E6 263E6 317E6 422E6
k 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08
j 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.97
f
s
150 113.07 93.68 78.22 58.87
70
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Required Area of Strand
Strength Design
No. of Strand 5.18 6.52 8.00 9.27 13.13
42.00 35.00 30.00 27.00 22.00
A
s
0.79 1.00 1.22 1.42 2.01
Moment 849.70 849.70 849.70 849.70 849.70
d 62.50 62.50 62.50 60.50 60.50
a 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.47
f 209 166 135 117 86
dsh
l
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #139
* Back calculated based on strand length
f
pul
209 166 135 117 86
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Required Area of Strand
In this example working stress design governs. Multiple
iterations are performed to determine the least length of iterations are performed to determine the least length of
extension of the strand required.
If the results indicate an odd number of strands they are rounded
up to an even number to provide symmetry in the connection.
It may be more desirable to have a larger number of shorter
strands as opposed to fewer longer strands. Girder fabrication
may be more difficult with longer strand extensions as this may
require excessive space between girders in the bed In addition
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #140
require excessive space between girders in the bed. In addition,
if a larger number of shorter strands are used the stress can be
distributed throughout a larger area.
71
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Required Area of Strand
The designer chooses from the previous tables. A
reasonable design would be 12 strands extended 26
inches. That would be an 8 inch horizontal extension from
the face of the beam and an 18 inch vertical “tail” to the
hook. Any 12 strands could be extended, but spacing
them out and using different rows makes construction
easier and limits stress concentrations.
Also note that, consistent with the design examples in
NCHRP Report 519, the haunch has been included.
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #141
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Shear Design
The area and spacing of shear reinforcement must be
determined at regular intervals along the entire length of determined at regular intervals along the entire length of
the beam. In this design example, transverse shear design
procedures are demonstrated below by determining these
values at the critical section near the supports.
Transverse reinforcement shall be provided where:
φ
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #142
(5.8.2.41)
0.5 ( )
u c p
V V V φ ≥ +
72
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Shear Design
V
u
= Total factored shear force kips
V
c
= Shear strength provided by concrete kips
V
p
= Component of the effective prestressing force
in the direction of the applied shear
kips
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #143
Φ = Resistance factor (5.5.4.2.1)
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Critical Section
d
v
= Effective shear depth
Distance between resultants of tensile and Distance between resultants of tensile and
compressive forces, d
e
– a/2, but not less
than 0.9d
e
or 0.72h.
(5.8.2.9)
d
e
= The corresponding effective depth from
the extreme compression fiber to the
centroid of the tensile force in the tensile
reinforcement 58 34
in
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reinforcement = 58.34
a = Equivalent depth of the compression
block = 5.41
in
h = Total height of section = 62.5 in
73
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Effective Shear Depth
0 5( ) 58 34 0 5(5 41) 55 63 d d a in = = =
Therefore, d
v
= 55.63 in.
0.5( ) 58.34 0.5(5.41) 55.63
0.9 0.9(58.34) 52.5
0.72 0.72(62.5) 45
v e
e
d d a in
d in
h in
= − = − =
≥ = =
≥ = =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #145
Therefore, d
v
55.63 in.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Calculation of Critical Section
The critical section near the support is d
v
= 55.63 in
from the FACE of the support from the FACE of the support.
Note: Assume the length of the bearing pad is 10
inches.
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #146
Thus the critical section is:
55.63 in + 5 in = 60.63 inches.
74
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Calculation of Critical Section
Using values from previous tables (linearly interpolated),
the factored shear force and bending moment at the critical g
section for shear, according to Strength I load
combinations.
kips
(All shear goes the same way!)
1.25(35.4 42.7 14.1) 1.50(22.6) 1.75(99.4) 323.1
u
V = + + + + =
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0.9(185.2 223.5) 1.25( 219.3) 1.50( 350.0) 1.75( 1, 080.9)
2, 323 27880
u
u
M
M k ft k in
= + + − + − + −
= − − = − −
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Calculation of Critical Section
At this point, there are three choices:
1. Ignore the prestressing steel
Then, this is a reinforced section
β = 2
θ = 45
◦
(This is VERY conservative)
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #148
(This is VERY conservative)
2. Use Sectional Model for RC
3. Include PS Steel
75
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Concrete to Nominal Shear Resistance
1. Ignore prestressing steel:
A #4 h A 0 4 i
2
90 i 1 0
'
0.0316 0.0316(2) 7(8)(55.63) 74.4
c c v v
V f b d k β = = =
323.1
74.4 284.6
0.9
s
V kips = − =
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #149
Assume #4 hoops A
v
= 0.4 in
2
α = 90 sin α =1 cot α =0
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Concrete to Nominal Shear Resistance
cot
0 4(60)(55 63) cot 45
A f d θ
in
Use #4@4 in
cot
0.4(60)(55.63) cot 45
4.7
284.6
v y v
s
A f d
s
V
θ
= = =
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #150
V
s
= 334 kips
76
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Concrete to Nominal Shear Resistance
2. Use Sectional Model but for RC:
M 27 880 kip in M
u
= 27,880 kipin
d
v
= 55.63 in.
N
u
= Applied factored normal force at the specified section = 0 kips
V
u
= 323.1
kips
A
s
= Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension side of the
member = 13.94
in
2
A = 0 in
2
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #151
A
p
0 in
E
p
= 28,500 ksi
E
s
= 29,000 ksi
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Concrete to Nominal Shear Resistance
V
p
=
=
=
Component of the effective prestressing force in the
direction of the applied shear
(force per strand)(number of draped strands)(sin ψ)
0
kips
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #152
f
po
= 0
77
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Concrete to Nominal Shear Resistance
Assume 0.5 cot θ = 1.
3
27, 880
0.5(0) (323.1) 0
55.63
0.001
2(29, 000(13.94))
1.0 10 0.001
x
x
ε
−
+ + −
= ≤
≤
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #153
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Concrete to Nominal Shear Resistance
u p
u
V V
v
b d
φ
φ
−
=
v v
b d φ
v
u
= Shear stress in concrete kips
b
v
=
=
Effective web width of the beam
8
in
V
p
= Component of the effective prestressing force in the
direction of the applied shear
kips
Where:
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #154
=
=
direction of the applied shear
(force per strand)(number of draped strands)(sin ψ)
0
78
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Concrete to Nominal Shear Resistance
ksi
323.1 0.9(0)
0.81
0 9(8)(55 63)
u
v
−
= =
Use (v
u
/ f
c
’) < 0.125 and ε
x
< 1 from LRFD Table
0.9(8)(55.63)
'
0.81
0.115
7.0
 
= =

\ .
u
c
v
f
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #155
(
u c
)
x
5.8.3.4.21:
θ = 37
◦
β = 2.13
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Concrete to Nominal Shear Resistance
kips
'
0.0316 0.0316(2.13) 7(8)(55.63) 79.3
c c v v
V f b d β = = =
kips
Use #4 hoops A
v
= 0.4 in
2
α = 90 sin α =1 cot α =0
323.1 0.9(79.3)
280.0
0.9
s
V
−
= =
cot
0.4(60)(55.63) cot 37.0
6.32
280.0
v y v
s
A f d
s
V
θ
= = =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #156
So #4 hoops at 6 in
V
s
= 295.0 kips
OK
0.9(79.3 295.0 0) 337
r u
V k V = + + = >
79
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Concrete to Nominal Shear Resistance
3. Include Prestressing Steel:
M 27 880 kip in M
u
= 27,880 kipin
d
v
= 53.6 in.
N
u
= Applied factored normal force at the specified section = 0 kips
V
u
= 323.1
kips
A
s
= Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension side of the
member = 13.94
in
2
A = 9(0 153) = 1 38 in
2
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #157
A
p
9(0.153) 1.38 in
E
p
= 28,500 ksi
E
s
= 29,000 ksi
Note, when the prestressing steel in included, d
e
= 57 inches. The
term c = 9.76 in and a = 6.77in. Thus, d
v
= 53.6 in.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Concrete to Nominal Shear Resistance
If d
v
< 60d
b
= 30 in, V
p
and f
po
must be reduced for lack of
bond. d = 53.6 , so the critical section is 70.6 from the end bond. d
v
53.6 , so the critical section is 70.6 from the end
of the girder > 30 in so:
V
p
=
=
=
Component of the effective prestressing force in the
direction of the applied shear
(force per strand)(number of draped strands)(sin ψ)
24.3(9)(sin 6.2
◦
) = 23.6
kips
f
po
= A parameter taken as modulus of elasticity of ksi
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #158
.7 0.7(270.0) 189 = =
pu
f
p
=
prestressing tendons multiplied by the lockedin
difference in strain between the prestressing tendons
and the surrounding concrete
[LRFD
5.8.3.4.2]
80
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Concrete to Nominal Shear Resistance
Assume 0.5 cot θ = 1.
3
27, 880
0.5(0) (323.1 23.6) 1.38(189)
53.6
0.001
2(29, 000(13.94) 28, 500(1.38))
0.63 10 0.001
x
x
ε
−
+ + − −
= ≤
+
≤
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #159
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Concrete to Nominal Shear Resistance
u p
u
V V
v
b d
φ
φ
−
=
v v
b d φ
v
u
= Shear stress in concrete kips
b
v
=
=
Effective web width of the beam
8
in
V
p
= Component of the effective prestressing force in the
direction of the applied shear
kips
Where:
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #160
=
=
direction of the applied shear
(force per strand)(number of draped strands)(sin ψ)
23.6
81
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Concrete to Nominal Shear Resistance
ksi
323.1 0.9(23.6)
0.782
0 9(8)(53 6)
u
v
−
= =
Use (v
u
/ f
c
’) < 0.125 and ε
x
< 0.75 from LRFD
0.9(8)(53.6)
'
0.782
0.111
7.0
u
c
v
f
 
= =

\ .
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #161
(
u c
)
x
Table 5.8.3.4.21:
θ = 34.4
◦
β = 2.26
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Concrete to Nominal Shear Resistance
kips
'
0.0316 0.0316(2.26) 7(8)(55.63) 84.1
c c v v
V f b d β = = =
kips
Use #4 hoops A
v
= 0.4 in
2
α = 90 sin α =1 cot α =0
323.1 0.9(84.1 23.6)
251.3
0.9
s
V
− +
= =
cot
0.4(60)(53.6) cot 34.4
7.5
251.3
v y v
s
A f d
s
V
θ
= = =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #162
So #4 hoops at 6 in
V
s
= 313 kips
OK
0.9(84.1 313.0 23.6) 378.6
r u
V V = + + = >
82
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Reinforcement Requirement
Check which is true:
(5.8.2.7)
or
ksi
ksi
(5.8.2.71)
(5.8.2.72)
'
0.125
u c
v f <
'
0.125
u c
v f ≥
'
0.125 0.125(7.0) 0.875
c
f = =
0.81
u
v =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #163
Since , Then in
24 in CONTROLS
'
0.125
u c
v f <
max
0.8 0.8(55.63) 44.5 24.0 = = = ≤
v
s d
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Reinforcement Requirement
Calculate minimum area of steel using a 6 inch spacing to
get area of steel: get area of steel:
<0.4 in
2
OK
( )( )
2 v
v c
y
8in 6in
b s
A 0.0316 f ' 0.0316 7ksi 0.067in
f 60ksi
≥ = =
(5.8.2.5)
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #164
( )
83
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Critical Section – Positive Moment
Critical Section near the supports is at d
v
.
Where:
Where:
d
v
= Effective shear depth
Distance between resultants of tensile and compressive
forces, d
e
– a/2, but not less than 0.9d
e
or 0.72h.
(5.8.2.9)
d = The corresponding effective depth from the in
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #165
d
e
The corresponding effective depth from the
extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the
tensile force in the tensile reinforcement = 58.2
in
a = Equivalent depth of the compression block = 3.42 in
h = Total height of section = 62.5 in
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Critical Section – Positive Moment
In this area, the positive moment properties are needed. However,
since this section is where the strand is harped, the positive moment
properties must be recalculated using 31 strands. A
p
= 4.74 in
2
and d
p
=
62.5  4.32 = 58.2 inches. The value of 4.32 inches as the centroid of 31
strands was calculated earlier in Section 1.7.2. Refer to Section 1.9.1
for the equations below:
( )( )
( )( )( )( ) ( )
4 74 270
4 11
270
0 85 4 5 0 83 96 0 28 4 74
58 2
.
c . in
. . . . .
= =
+
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #166
( )( )
58 2
4 11
270 1 0 28 264 8
58 2
0 83 4 11 3 42
ps
.
.
f . . ksi
.
a . . . in
 
= − =

\ .
= =
84
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Critical Section – Positive Moment
0.5( ) 58.2 0.5(3.42) 56.5 d d a in = − = − =
Therefore, d
v
= 56.5 in.
0.5( ) 58.2 0.5(3.42) 56.5
0.9 0.9(58.2) 52.4
0.72 0.72(62.5) 45
v e
e
d d a in
d in
h in
≥ = =
≥ = =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #167
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Calculation of Critical Section
The critical section near the support is d
v
= 56.5 in
from the FACE of the support from the FACE of the support.
Note: Assume the length of the bearing pad is 10
inches.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #168
Thus the critical section is:
56.5 in + 5 in ≈ 62 inches.
85
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Calculation of Critical Section
Using values from previous tables, the factored shear force
and bending moment at the critical section for shear, g
according to Strength I load combinations.
It is conservative to take the highest factored moment that
will occur at that section, rather than the moment
corresponding to maximum V Therefore
1.25(35.4 42.7 7.9) 1.50(12.6) 1.75(82.2) 250.0
1.25(185.2 223.5 49.6) 1.50(79.1) 1.75(373.9) 1, 346
u
u
V k
M k in
= + + + + =
= + + + + = −
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #169
corresponding to maximum V
u
. Therefore,
kips
kipft
250.0
u
V =
1, 346
u
M =
(5.8.3.4.2)
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Concrete to Nominal Shear Resistance
The contribution of the concrete to the nominal shear
resistance is: resistance is:
'
0.0316
c c v v
V f b d β =
(5.8.3.33)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #170
86
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Strain in Flexural Tension Reinforcement
Strain in the reinforcement is (assuming uncracked):
(5 8 3 4 2 1)
M
Where:
(5.8.3.4.21)
0.5 0.5 cot
0.001
2( )
u
u u p ps po
v
x
s s p ps c c
M
N V V A f
d
E A E A E A
θ
ε
+ + − −
= ≤
+ +
N
u
= Applied factored normal force at the specified section = 0 kips
V
p
=
=
Component of the effective prestressing force in the direction of the
applied shear
(force per strand)(number of draped strands)(sin ψ)
kips
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #171
=
=
(force per strand)(number of draped strands)(sin ψ)
24.3(9)(sin 6.2
◦
) = 23.6
f
po
=
=
A parameter taken as modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendons
multiplied by the lockedin difference in strain between the
prestressing tendons and the surrounding concrete
ksi
[LRFD
5.8.3.4.2]
.7 0.7(270.0) 189 = =
pu
f
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Strain in Flexural Tension Reinforcement
f f
2
Where (cont.):
A
ps
=
=
Area of prestressing steel on the flexural tension
side of the member, as shown in LRFD Figure
5.8.3.4.21.
31(0.153) = 4.74
in
2
A
s
= Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural
tension side of the member = 0
in
2
A
c
= Area of concrete on the flexural tension half. This in
2
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #172
=
term is calculated as the area on the tension side
(bottom in this case) from the tension fiber to h/2.
475
87
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Strain in Flexural Tension Reinforcement
Note that either θ can be assumed OR 0.5 cot θ can be
assumed =1. Assume 0.5 cot θ = 1: assumed 1. Assume 0.5 cot θ 1:
( ) ( )
3
1, 346(12)
0.5(0) (250 23.6) 4.74(189)
56.5
0.001
2 28, 500(4.74) 5072 475
0.07 10 0.001
x
x
ε
−
+ + − −
= ≤
+
− ≤
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #173
The negative value means the section is uncracked
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Shear Stress
u p
u
V V
v
b d
φ
φ
−
=
Where:
v v
b d φ
v
u
= Shear stress in concrete kips
b
v
= Effective web width of the beam = 8 in
V
p
=
=
Component of the effective prestressing force in the
direction of the applied shear
(force per strand)(number of draped strands)(sin ψ)
kips
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #174
= 23.6
250 0.9(23.6)
0.562
0.9(8)(56.5)
u
v ksi
−
= =
88
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Values of β & θ
0.562
0 0803
u
v  
= =

Use (v
u
/ f
c
’) < 0.1 and ε
x
< 0.05 from LRFD Table 5.8.3.4.21:
θ = 21.4
◦
β = 3.24
'
0.0803
7.0
c
f
= =

\ .
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #175
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Concrete Contribution
The contribution of the concrete to the nominal shear
resistance is:
(5 8 3 3 3)
resistance is:
kips
(5.8.3.33)
'
0.0316
c c v v
V f b d β =
0.0316(3.24) 7.0(8)(56.5) 122.4
c
V = =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #176
89
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Contribution of Reinforcement of Nominal Shear Resistance
Check if:
(5.8.2.41)
kips
At least minimum stirrups are needed.
( )
250 0.5 ( ) 0.5 0.9 (122.4 23.6) 65.7
u c p
V kips V V φ = > + = + =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #177
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Reinforcement Requirement
Check which is true:
(5.8.2.7)
or
ksi
(5.8.2.71)
(5.8.2.72)
'
0.125
u c
v f <
'
0.125
u c
v f ≥
'
0.125 0.125(7.0) 0.875
c
f = =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #178
ksi
Since , Then in : 24 in CONTROLS
0.562
u
v =
'
0.125
u c
v f <
max
0.8 24.0
v
s d = ≤
90
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Reinforcement Requirement
Calculate minimum area of steel using a 12 inch spacing to
get area of steel per foot: get area of steel per foot:
ODOT uses #4 bars with 2 legs as standard;
(A
v
= 2(0.2 in
2
) = 0.4 in
2
)
(5.8.2.5)
( )( )
2 v
v c
y
8in 12in
b s
A 0.0316 f ' 0.0316 7ksi 0.134in
f 60ksi
≥ = =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #179
#4@ 24 inch o.c.= 0.2 in
2
/ft
This is adequate to meet minimum.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Maximum Nominal Shear Resistance
The upper limit of V
n
, given by following equation, is
intended to ensure that the concrete in the web of the intended to ensure that the concrete in the web of the
beam will not crush prior to yield of the transverse
reinforcement.
Comparing this previous equation with equation LRFD
5 8 3 3 1:
(5.8.3.32)
'
0.25
n c v v p
V f b d V ≤ +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #180
5.8.3.3.1:
'
0.25
c s c v v
V V f b d + ≤
91
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Maximum Nominal Shear Resistance
Assume #4 @ 24”:
( )
( )( )( ) ( ) ( )
2
0 4 60 56 5 21 4 0 1
24
144 2
v y v
s
s
s
A f d cot cot sin
V
s
. in ksi . cot .
V
in
V . k
θ α α +
=
+
=
=
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #181
OK ( )
122.4 144.2 266.6 0.25(7.0)(8)(56.5) 791 + = ≤ =
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Maximum Nominal Shear Resistance
( )
V V V V φ = + +
( )
( )
0 9 122 4 144 2 23 6 261 2
250
r c s p
r
r u
V V V V
V . . . . . kips
V V kips
φ + +
= + + =
> =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #182
92
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Factored Horizontal Shear
It will be assumed that the critical section is the same as for
vertical shear Using load combination Strength I: vertical shear. Using load combination Strength I:
kips
in
Both of these values were found in the preceding section.
323.1
u
V =
55.6
v
d =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #183
p g
This is shear at the critical section near the pier.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Required Interface Shear Reinforcement
ri ni
V V φ = (5.8.4.11)
The nominal shear resistance of the interface plane is:
Where:
(5.8.4.13)
[ ]
ni cv vf y c
V cA A f P u = + +
c = Cohesion factor ksi
[LRFD 5.8.4.3]
µ = Friction factor
A
cv
= Area of concrete engaged in shear transfer = b
vi
L
vi
in
2
A f h i f t i th h l i
2
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #184
A
vf
= Area of shear reinforcement crossing the shear plane in
2
P
c
= Permanent net compressive force normal to the shear plane kips
f
y
= Shear reinforcement yield strength ksi
b
vi
= Width of area of concrete engaged in shear transfer in
L
vi
= Length of area of concrete engaged in shear transfer in
93
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Required Interface Shear Reinforcement
For a castinplace concrete placed against clean concrete
girder surfaces, free of laitance with surface intentionally girder surfaces, free of laitance with surface intentionally
roughened to an amplitude of 0.25 in:
(5.8.4.2)
0.28 c =
1.0 u =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #185
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Required Interface Shear Reinforcement
Begin by exploring what happens when the shear
reinforcement is the minimum used anywhere in the girder. reinforcement is the minimum used anywhere in the girder.
The shear reinforcement was previously calculated to be
#4 @ 24 inches minimum. The shear width is b
vi
= 20
inches as this is the width of the top of the girder. If L
vi
= 24
inches:
( )
2
[ ]
20 24 480
ni cv vf y c
V cA A f P
A in
u = + +
= =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #186
( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
20 24 480
0.28 480 1.0 0.4 60 0 158.4
0.9 158.4 142.6
cv
ni
ri ni
A in
V k
V V k φ
= + + =
= = =
94
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Required Interface Shear Reinforcement
ui ui cv
V v A = (5.8.4.22)
142 6
(5.8.4.21)
142 6
0 297
480
ui ,max
.
v . ksi = =
1 u
ui
vi v
V
v
b d
=
( )( )
1
0 297 20 55 6 330
u ,max
V . . kips = =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #187
Therefore, #4 @ 24 is adequate anywhere that V
u
< 330 kips. Note that
the critical section, the reinforcement is actually #4 @ 4 inches or #4 @
6”; depending on the model used. Note that #4 @ 24 would be
adequate for horizontal shear, so it is NOT necessary to extend every
shear stirrup into the slab.
( )( )
,
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Interface Shear Reinforcement
Minimum shear reinforcement,
0 05A
A #4 double leg bar at 24 in spacing is provided
from the beam extending into the deck. Therefore,
A
vf
=0.4 in
2
every 2 ft.
(5.8.4.14)
0.05
≥
cv
vf
y
A
A
f
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #188
OK
0.05(480)
0.40 0.40
60
≥ =
95
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Interface Shear Reinforcement
Article 5.8.4.4 states that A
vf
need not exceed that
required to resist 1 33V /φ The same article also required to resist 1.33V
ui
/φ. The same article also
states that the minimum reinforcement provisions are
waived for girder slab interfaces with surfaces
roughened to an amplitude of 0.25 inches where the
factored interface shear, v
ui
, found in equation 5.8.4.2
1 is less than 0.210 ksi and all of the vertical
(transverse) shear reinforcement required by Article
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #189
(transverse) shear reinforcement required by Article
5.8.1.1 is extended and anchored into the slab.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Maximum Nominal Shear Resistance
V
ni
must be less than:
'
0 3(4 5)(480) 648 K f A k
(5 8 4 1 4)
V
ni
provided = 158.4 k OK
1
0.3(4.5)(480) 648
c cv
K f A k = =
2
1.8(480) 864
cv
K A k = =
(5.8.4.14)
(5.8.4.15)
'
1
2
c cv
cv
K f A
K A
≤
≤
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #190
K
1
= 0.3 and K
2
= 1.8 (for normal weight concrete) are found
in Article 5.8.4.3.
2 cv
96
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
At each section the tensile capacity of the longitudinal
reinforcement on the flexural tension side of the member reinforcement on the flexural tension side of the member
shall be proportioned to satisfy:
0.5 0.5 cot
u
u u
ps ps s y p s
M
N V
A f A f V V
d
θ
φ φ
+ ≥ + + − −
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #191
(5.8.3.51)
v
d φ φ
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
According to Article 5.8.3.5, it is not necessary
to provide any steel beyond that to resist to provide any steel beyond that to resist
moment if there is a compressive reaction on
the flexural compression face; in other words,
in a negative moment zone over a support, the
equation in this article does not need to be
satisfied. However, it makes an exception for a
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #192
continuous for live load bridge; saying that this
equation must be checked for a continuous for
live load bridge.
97
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
This provision will be checked at the simply supported end,
using positive moment properties. The check at the using positive moment properties. The check at the
continuous end is made in a similar manner.
The development length is:
( ) ( )
d ps pe b
2 2
f f d 1.6 264.8 158.6 0.5 127.3in
3 3
   
= κ − = − =
 
\ . \ .
l
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #193
(5.11.4.2)
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
( )
a 3.42
d d 62 5 4 32 56 5in = − = − − =
( )
v p
d d 62.5 4.32 56.5in
2 2
= − = − − =
So the critical section is 56.5 inches from face of support.
Allowing for a 10 inch bearing pad and that the center of
bearing is 12 inches from the girder end, the critical section
is 56.5+10/2+12=73.5 inches from the end of the girder.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #194
Since this is less than the development length, the stress in
the steel must be reduced for lack of development.
98
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
The stress in the undeveloped steel can be found from:
( )
px b
px pe ps pe
d b
60d
f f f f
60d
−
= + −
−
l
l
(5.11.4.24)
( )
73.5in 30in
f 158 6ksi 264 8ksi 158 6ksi 206ksi
−
+
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #195
( )
px
f 158.6ksi 264.8ksi 158.6ksi 206ksi
127.3in 30in
= + − =
−
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
0.5 0.5 cot
+ ≥ + + − −
u
u u
ps ps s y p s
M
N V
A f A f V V θ
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
0.5 0.5 co
4.74 206 977
1346 250
0 23.6 0.5 144.2 cot 21.4 488
1.0 56.5 0.9
= >
+ + − − =
ps ps s y p s
v
f f V V
d
k
k
θ
φ φ φ
This is OK. Note that V
s
may not be taken as greater than
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #196
V
u
/φ [LRFD 5.8.3.5].
250
144 277 8
0 9
u
s
V k
V k . k
. φ
= < = =
99
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
At the inside edge of the bearing area of a simply
supported end: supported end:
The steel is not fully developed. Since the bearing pad is
assumed 10 inches and the center of bearing is 12 inches
from the end of the girder, this section is 12+10/2 =17
inches from the end of the girder This is within the transfer
(5.8.3.52)
0.5 cot
u
ps ps s y p s
V
A f A f V V θ
φ
+ ≥ − −
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #197
inches from the end of the girder. This is within the transfer
length, so:
( )
158 6 17
90
60 30
= = =
l
pe px
px
b
f .
f ksi
d
(5.11.4.23)
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
0.5 cot
≥ − −
u
ps ps p s
V
A f V V θ
φ
Assume #4 bars will be used.
( )( )
( ) ( )
4.74 90 426
250
23.6 0.5 144.2 cot 21.4 464.6
0.9
= <
− − =
k
k
φ
( ) 0 2 60 A f
NG
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #198
( )
( )( )
0 2 60
1 25 1 25 5 7
7
0 4 0 4 0 5 60 12
b y
d
c
b y
A f .
. . . in
f '
. d f . . in
= = =
< = =
l
(5.11.2.1)
100
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
The development length is 12 inches so the bar is fully
developed: developed:
Thus:
2
464 6 426
0 64
60
−
= =
s
.
A . in
# # #
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #199
4 #4 works. 3 #5 also works as a # 5 needs a 15 inch
development length.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
Can also add stirrups. Increase to #4 @ 12:
( )( ) 0 4 60 56 5 21 4 cot
V
Therefore, V
s
= 277.8 for this calculation.
( )( ) 0 4 60 56 5 21 4
288 277 8
12
u
s
. . cot .
V
V k . k
φ
= = > =
0.5 cot
≥ − −
u
ps ps p s
V
A f V V θ
φ
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #200
( )( )
( ) ( )
4.74 90 426
250
23.6 0.5 277.8 cot 21.4 294.2
0.9
= >
− − =
k
k
101
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
In the previous slides, the assumption was made that the
center of bearing was 12 inches from the end of the girder. center of bearing was 12 inches from the end of the girder.
What if the bearing pad is placed right at the end of the
girder? That is, what if the center of bearing is only 5
inches from the end? What effect does that have on
longitudinal steel?
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #201
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
( )
a 3.42
d d 62 5 4 32 56 5in = − = − − =
( )
v p
d d 62.5 4.32 56.5in
2 2
= − = − − =
So the critical section is 56.5 inches from face of support.
Allowing for a 10 inch bearing pad, the critical section is
66.5 inches from the end of the girder.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #202
Since this is less than the development length, the stress in
the steel must be reduced for lack of development.
102
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
The stress in the undeveloped steel can be found from:
( )
px b
px pe ps pe
d b
60d
f f f f
60d
−
= + −
−
l
l
(5.11.4.24)
( )
66.5in 30in
f 158 6ksi 264 8ksi 158 6ksi 198 4ksi
−
+
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #203
( )
px
f 158.6ksi 264.8ksi 158.6ksi 198.4ksi
127.3in 30in
= + − =
−
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
0.5 0.5 cot
u
u u
ps ps s y p s
M
N V
A f A f V V θ
+ ≥ + + − −
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
0.5 0.5 co
4.74 198.4 940.4
1346 250
0 23.6 0.5 144.2 cot 21.4 488
1.0 56.5 0.9
ps ps s y p s
v
f f V V
d
k
k
θ
φ φ φ
= >
+ + − − =
This is OK. Note that V
s
may not be taken as greater than
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #204
V
u
/φ [LRFD 5.8.3.5].
250
144 277 8
0 9
u
s
V k
V k . k
. φ
= < = =
103
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
At the inside edge of the bearing area of a simply
supported end: supported end:
The steel is not fully developed. Since the bearing pad is
assumed 10 inches, this section is 10 inches from the end
of the girder. This is within the transfer length, so:
(5.8.3.52)
0.5 cot
u
ps ps s y p s
V
A f A f V V θ
φ
+ ≥ − −
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #205
( )
158 6 10
52 9
60 30
pe px
px
b
f .
f . ksi
d
= = =
l
(5.11.4.23)
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
( )( )
0.5 cot
u
ps ps p s
V
A f V V θ
φ
≥ − −
Assume #4 bars will be used.
( )( )
( ) ( )
4.74 52.9 250.8
250
23.6 0.5 144.2 cot 21.4 464.6
0.9
k
k
= <
− − =
( ) 0 2 60
1 25 1 25 5 7
7
b y
d
A f .
. . . in
f '
= = = l
(5.11.2.1)
NG
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #206
( )( )
7
0 4 0 4 0 5 60 12
c
b y
f '
. d f . . in < = =
104
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
The development length is 12 inches so:
10
The #4 can only develop 50 ksi. Thus:
( )
10
60 50
12
sx
f ksi = =
2
464 6 250 8
4 3
50
s
. .
A . in
−
= =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #207
This would be 22 #4! Clearly unrealistic!
50
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
Add stirrups. Increase to #4 @ 12:
( )( ) 0 4 60 56 5 21 4 cot
V
Therefore, V
s
= 277.8 for this calculation.
( )( ) 0 4 60 56 5 21 4
288 277 8
12
u
s
. . cot .
V
V k . k
φ
= = > =
0.5 cot
u
ps ps p s
V
A f V V θ
φ
≥ − −
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #208
( )( )
( ) ( )
4.74 52.9 250.8
250
23.6 0.5 277.8 cot 21.4 294.2
0.9
k
k
= <
− − =
105
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Longitudinal Reinforcement Requirement
This is much more workable:
294 2 250 8
This is 5 #4 bars.
So decrease stirrup spacing from the end of the girder to
2
294 2 250 8
0 87
50
s
. .
A . in
−
= =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #209
So decrease stirrup spacing from the end of the girder to
the critical section (this will be 66.5 inches from the end of
the girder) to #4 @ 12. Add 5 #4 bars longitudinal in the
bottom flange.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Anchorage Zone
The bursting resistance of pretensioned anchorage zones
provided by vertical reinforcement in the ends of the
pretensioned beams at the service limit state shall be take pretensioned beams at the service limit state shall be take
as:
(5.10.10.11)
r s s
P f A =
A
s
= Total area of transverse reinforcement located
within the distance h/4 from the end of the
beam
in
2
f = Stress in steel but not taken greater than 20 ksi
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #210
40(0.153)(202.5)(0.04) 49.6 =
f
s
= Stress in steel, but not taken greater than 20 ksi
P
r
= Bursting resistance, should not be
less than 4% of f
pi
kips
106
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Anchorage Zone
Solving for the required area of steel in
2
49.6
2 47 A = = Solving for the required area of steel, in
2
At least 2.47 in
2
of vertical transverse reinforcement should
be provided at the end of the beam for a distance equal to
onefourth of the depth of the beam, h/4 = 54/4=13.5 in
2.47
20
s
A = =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #211
Therefore, for a distance of 13.5 in from the end of the
member, use 7 #5 bars at 2 inches on center.
The reinforcement provided:
OK.
7(2)0.2 2.8 2.47 = >
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Confinement Reinforcement
For a distance of 1.5d = 1.5(54) = 81 in, from the end of the
beam, reinforcement is placed to confine the prestressing beam, reinforcement is placed to confine the prestressing
steel in the bottom flange. The reinforcement should not
be less than #3 deformed pars, with spacing not exceeding
6.0 in, and shaped to enclose the strands.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #212
(5.10.10.2)
107
AASHTO LRFD B id D i S ifi i AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications –
Design Example 2
2 Span Continuous Prestressed IGirder Bridge
EXTERIOR GIRDER
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4
th
Edition.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Transverse Section
34’0”
Type IV
8.5” structural+ 1.0”
wearing
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #214
4 Spaces @ 8’0” = 32’0”
2.5’
2.5’
37’0”
108
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Effective Flange Width – Exterior Girder
The effective flange width is taken as onehalf the effective
width of the adjacent interior girder plus the least of:
Oneeighth of the effective span length = 0.125(96.25)(12)
= 144 in.
6.0 times the average thickness of the
slab, plus the greater of half the web
thickness
or
onequarter of the width of the top
= 6.0(8.5) + 0.5(8)
=55 in.
= 6.0(8.5) + 0.25(20)
j g p
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #215
one quarter of the width of the top
flange of the basic girder
6.0(8.5) 0.25(20)
= 55 in.
The width of the overhang = 2.5 ft = 30 inches
Therefore, the effective flange width for the exterior girder is:
(96/2) + 30 = 78 in.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Exterior Girder Properties
6.5 ft = 78 in
From the previous calculation of b
eff
, the
center to center distance controls.
b
eff Trans
= nb
eff
= (0.8015) 78 in = 62.5 in
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #216
2.5 ft 4.0 ft
109
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Exterior Girder Properties
y
b=
38.22 in
I 624512 in
4
I = 624512 in
4
A = 50457 in
2
h = 62.5 in
y
TC
= 24.28 in
y
TG
= 15.78 in
S 16340 in
3
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #217
S
b
= 16340 in
3
S
TG
= 39576 in
3
S
TC
= 25721in
3
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Dead Loads
Slab Self Weight:
78 i (8 5 i )(0 150 k f)/144 0 691 klf 78 in (8.5 in)(0.150 kcf)/144 = 0.691 klf
Haunch Weight: (Same as interior girder)
0.042 klf
Recall that tributary area was used for the slab weight.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #218
This will DECREASE the dead load moment on the
exterior girders.
110
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Dead Loads – Deck Plus Haunch – Exterior Girder
Distance
x ft.
Shear
kips
Moment
kipft
0 00 35 3 0 0.00 35.3 0
9.26 28.5 295
18.97 21.4 537
28.69 14.2 710
38.41 7.1 814
48.13 0 849
57.84 7.1 814
67.56 14.2 710
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #219
77.28 21.4 537
86.99 28.5 295
96.25 35.3 0
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Exterior Beams
Exterior Girders:
One Lane Loaded:
Lever Rule
Two or More Lanes Loaded:
g= eg
int
Where:
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #220
1 . 9
77 . 0
e
d
e + =
g = DFM
ext
g
int
= DFM
int
111
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factor for Moment
Positive Moment Region:
Exterior Girder Two or More Lanes Loaded: Exterior Girder – Two or More Lanes Loaded:
DF
Ext
= e DF
Int
0.77
9.1
e
d
e = +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #221
DF
Ext+
= (0.880) (0.665) = 0.585
1.0
0.77 0.880
9.1
= + =
Lever Rule: Assume a hinge develops over each interior girder and
solve for the reaction in the exterior girder as a fraction of the truck
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Exterior Beams
load.
1.2 0
1.2 1.2
H
M Pe RS
Pe e
R DF
S S
→ − =
= ∴ =
∑
This is for one lane loaded. Multiple Presence
Factors apply 1.2 is the MPF
In the diagram P/2 are the wheel loads; P
1.5’
36k 36k
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #222
In the diagram, P/2 are the wheel loads; P
is the resultant force. All three loads are
NOT applied at the same time.
Note that truck cannot be closer than 2’
from the barrier
8 ft
(3.6.1.3)
112
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factor for Moment
One Lane Loaded:
 
1.2(36 ) (10.5 3.5) (10.5 9.5) k
R
− + −
=
Multiple Presence:
MPF = 1.2
N t th t thi l th t k
1.5’
36k 36k
72 (8 )
0.6 /
k ft
R lanes girder =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #223
Note that this only uses the truck.
By dividing by the total truck
weight of 72 kips, R is given in
lanes/girder
8 ft
Minimum Exterior DFM: (Rigid Body Rotation of Bridge Section)
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Exterior Beams Moment
N
L
 Number of loaded lanes under consideration
N N b f b i d
∑
∑
+ =
b
L
Min Ext
N
N
Ext
b
L
x
e X
N
N
DF
2
,
(C4.6.2.2.2d1)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #224
N
b
 Number of beams or girders
e  Eccentricity of design truck or load from CG of pattern of
girders (ft.)
x  Distance from CG of pattern of girders to each girder (ft.)
X
Ext
 Distance from CG of pattern of girders to exterior girder (ft.)
113
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factor  One Lane
2’
1.5’
6’
36k
8’0” 2.5’
36k 36k
e = 12’
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #225
16’0”
Note: Only the truck is used and it cannot be closer than 2’
from the barrier
(3.6.1.3)
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factor for Moment
Minimum Exterior Girder Distribution Factor One Lane:
L
N
X
∑
( )
,
,
2
2 2
1 16(12)
5
Ext Min
b
Ext Min
Ext
L
N
b
X e
N
DFM
N
x
DFM
= +
= +
∑
∑
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #226
( )
,
,
2 2
5
2
0.50
16 8
Ext Min
DFM =
+
,
( ) 1.2(0.5) 0.6
Ext Min
DFM MPF DF = = =
114
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factor  Two Lanes
2’ 1.5’ 6’
6’ 4’ 2’
12’ Lane 12’ Lane
36k 36k
e
1
= 12’
36k 36k
e
2
= 18.5’  1.5’  2’  6’  4’  2’  3’ = 0’
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #227
Note: Truck cannot be closer than 2’ from the barrier and the truck
must be 2 feet from the lane edge.
(3.6.1.3)
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factor for Moment
Minimum Exterior Girder Distribution Factor Two Lane:
N
,
2
2 16(12 0)
L
Ext Min
b
N
Ext
L
N
b
X e
N
DFM
N
x
DFM
= +
+
∑
∑
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #228
,
,
2 2
( )
5 2(16
0.70
8 )
Ext Min
Ext Min
DFM
DFM
= +
=
+
,
( ) 1.0(0.7) 0.7
Ext Min
DFM MPF DF = = = CONTROLS
115
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factor for Moment
DFM
two lanes
= 0.585 lanes/girder
DFM
one lane
= 0.600 lanes/girder (lever rule) DFM
one lane
0.600 lanes/girder (lever rule)
DFM
minimum
= 0.600 lanes/girder (one lanes)
DFM
minimum
= 0.700 lanes/girder (two lanes)
The controlling DFM is the minimum DFM with two lanes
loaded DFM = 0.7
This is a 5% increase from the interior girder (DFM =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
This is a 5% increase from the interior girder (DFM =
0.665)
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #229
Exterior Girders:
One Lane Loaded:
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Exterior Beams Shear
One Lane Loaded:
Lever Rule
Two or More Lanes Loaded:
DF
M Ext
= e DF
M Int
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #230
DF
M,Ext
e DF
M,Int
10
60 . 0
e
d
e + =
116
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factor for Shear
Shear:
Exterior Girder Two or More Lanes Loaded: Exterior Girder – Two or More Lanes Loaded:
DF
Ext
= e DF
Int
0.6
10
1 0
e
d
e = +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #231
DF
Ext+
= (0.70) (0.814) = 0.570
1.0
0.6 0.70
10
= + =
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan Inelastic IGirder Bridge
Distribution Factor for Shear
One Lane Loaded: (Lever Rule)
DFV
EXT
= 0.6
This is the same as moment calculation.
However, the minimum DF = 0.7 (from possible rigid body
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #232
However, the minimum DF 0.7 (from possible rigid body
rotation)  THIS CONTROLS.
117
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
DLUnfactored Shear Forces & Bending Moments  Exterior Girder
Location
Beam Weight
[Simple Span]
Deck plus
Haunch
[Simple Span]
Barrier Weight
[Continuous Span]
Future Wearing
Surface
[Continuous Span]
Sh M Sh M Sh M Sh M
x ft. x/L
Shear
kips
M
g
,
kipft
Shear
kips
M
s
,
kipft
Shear
kips
M
b
,
kipft
Shear
kips
M
ws
,
kipft
0.00 0.00 39.6 0 35.3 0 9.2 7.7 14.7 12.4
9.26 0.10 31.9 331 28.5 295.2 6.8 81.8 10.9 130.5
18.97 0.20 24 602.6 21.4 537.3 4.3 136 6.9 217
28.69 0.30 16 796.5 14.2 710.4 1.8 166 2.9 264.9
38.41 0.40 8 912.9 7.1 814.2 0.6 171.9 1 274.2
48.13 0.50 0 951.9 0 848.8 3.1 153.6 5 245.1
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #233
57.84 0.60 8 912.9 7.1 814.2 5.6 111.2 8.9 177.5
67.56 0.70 16 796.5 14.2 710.4 8.1 44.7 12.9 71.3
77.28 0.80 24 602.6 21.4 537.3 10.6 46 16.9 73.4
86.99 0.90 31.9 331 28.5 295.2 13.1 160.8 20.8 256.7
96.25 Brg. 39.6 0 35.3 0 15.4 292.7 24.6 467.1
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Unfactored Shear Force and Bending Moments
Exterior shear and
bending moments
Length LL+IM
V M
ft. k kft
bending moments.
Maximum envelope
values shown.
The values shown
may not be from the
Bearing 0 76.5 50.9
Trans. 2.04 74.0 199.4
H/2 2.73 73.2 247.5
0.10L 9.26 65.3 655.8
0.20L 18.97 53.7 1101.8
0.30L 28.69 42.9 1365.5
0.40L 38.41 34.2 1483.0
MidSpan 48.13 41.3 1455.5
0.60L 57.84 51.6 1301.1
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #234
may not be from the
same load case.
0.70L 67.56 61.8 1009.2
0.80L 77.28 71.7 815.0
0.90L 86.99 81.3 921.5
H/2 93.52 87.1 1252.7
Trans. 94.21 87.7 1299.1
Bearing 96.25 89.5 1449.7
118
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Load Combinations
The following limit states are applicable:
Service I:
(3.4.1)
Service I:
Q = 1.00(DC + DW) + 1.00 (LL + IM)
Service III:
Q = 1.00(DC + DW) + 0.80(LL + IM)
Strength I:
Maximum Q = 1 25(DC) + 1 50(DW) + 1 75(LL + IM)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #235
Maximum Q = 1.25(DC) + 1.50(DW) + 1.75(LL + IM)
Minimum Q = 0.90(DC) + 0.65(DW) + 1.75(LL + IM)
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Load Combinations – Exterior Beam
Length Service 1 Service 3 Strength 1
V M V M V M
ft. k kft k kft k kft
Bearing 0 175.3 71.0 160.0 60.8 261.1 117.3
Trans. 2.04 168.2 416.2 153.4 376.4 250.8 630.3
H/2 2.73 165.8 528.7 151.1 479.2 247.2 797.3
0.10L 9.26 143.4 1494.4 130.3 1363.2 214.6 2228.5
0.20L 18.97 110.2 2594.7 99.5 2374.3 166.4 3848.5
0.30L 28.69 77.8 3303.3 69.3 3030.2 119.5 4878.1
0.40L 38.41 47.7 3656.2 40.8 3359.6 76.4 5380.4
MidSpan 48.13 49.4 3654.7 41.2 3363.6 83.7 5357.4
0.60L 57.84 81.2 3316.9 70.9 3056.7 129.6 4841.0
0 70L 67 56 113 0 2632 0 100 7 2430 2 175 4 3812 5
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Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #236
0.70L 67.56 113.0 2632.0 100.7 2430.2 175.4 3812.5
0.80L 77.28 144.6 205.5 130.3 368.5 220.8 568.0
0.90L 86.99 175.6 712.8 159.3 528.5 265.4 1635.0
H/2 93.52 195.9 1707.1 178.5 1456.5 294.3 2930.0
Trans. 94.21 198.1 1829.0 180.6 1569.2 297.5 3092.5
Bearing 96.25 204.4 2209.5 186.5 1919.6 306.4 3603.6
119
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stress Limits for Concrete
Compression:
(5.9.4.2.1)
Due to permanent loads, for service limit states:
For the precast girder: 0.45f
c
’ = 0.45(7.0) = +3.150 ksi
For the deck: 0.45f
c
’ = 0.45(4.5) = +2.025 ksi
Due to one half the permanent loads and live load:
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #237
For the precast girder: 0.40f
c
’ = 0.40(7.0) = +2.800 ksi
For the deck: 0.40f
c
’ = 0.40(4.5) = +1.800 ksi
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stress Limits for Concrete
Compression (con’t):
Due to permanent and transient loads for service limit states:
(5.9.4.2.1)
p
For the precast girder:
0.60Φ
w
f
c
’ = 0.60(1.0)(7.0) = +4.200 ksi
For the deck:
0 60Φ f ’ = 0 60(1 0)(4 5) = +2 700 ksi
AASHTOLRFD 2007
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July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #238
0.60Φ
w
f
c
= 0.60(1.0)(4.5) = +2.700 ksi
Note: Φ
w
is a factor for slender webs/flanges. It is not really
meant for “I” girders. If the calculations required for Φ
w
are
done, Φ
w
=1.
120
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stress Limits for Concrete
Tension:
For components with bonded prestressing tendons: p p g
For the precast girder:
'
0.19 0.19(7.0) 0.503
c
f ksi = =
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #239
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
Concrete stress at the top fiber of the girder, three cases:
1 Under permanent loads Service I: 1. Under permanent loads, Service I:
1
1
( )
( )
972 972(20.0) (951.9 848.8) *12 (153.6 245.1) *12
789 8, 909 8, 909 39576
1 23 2 18 2 43 0 12 1 60
pe pe c g s
ws b
tg
t t tg
tg
P P e M M
M M
f
A S S S
f
f
+
+
= − + +
+ +
= − + +
+ + +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #240
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +3.150 ksi OK
1
1.23 2.18 2.43 0.12 1.60
tg
f = − + + = +
121
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
2. Onehalf permanent loads plus live loads:
( ) M
2 1
2
2
( )
0.5
1, 455*12
0.5(1.60)
39576
0.80 0.44 1.24
LL I
tg tg
tg
tg
tg
M
f f
S
f
f
+
= +
= +
= + = +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #241
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.800 ksi OK
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
3. Under permanent and transient loads:
3 1
3
( )
1, 455*12
(1.60)
39576
1 60 0 44 2 04
LL I
tg tg
tg
tg
M
f f
S
f
f
+
= +
= +
= + = +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #242
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +4.200 ksi OK
3
1.60 0.44 2.04
tg
f = + = +
122
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
Concrete stress at the top fiber of the deck, three cases:
1. Under permanent loads:
( ) ( )
(245.1 153.6) *12
25271
0.186
ws b
tc
tc
tc
tc
M M
f
S
f
f
+
=
+
= +
= +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #243
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.025 ksi OK
Note that deck stresses under service loads are almost always well
below allowable for continuous for LL bridges; but they still must be
checked.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
2. Onehalf permanent loads plus live loads:
( )
LL I
M
2 1
2
2
( )
0.5
1, 455*12
0.5(0.186)
25721
0.09 0.68 0.77
LL I
tc tc
tc
tc
tc
M
f f
S
f
f
+
= +
= +
= + = +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #244
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +1.800 ksi OK
123
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
3. Under permanent and transient loads:
( ) M
C f O
3 1
3
3
( )
1, 455*12
(0.186)
25721
0.19 0.68 0.87
LL I
tc tc
tc
tc
tc
M
f f
S
f
f
+
= +
= +
= + = +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #245
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi OK
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
Tension stress at the bottom fiber of the girder, Service III:
 
( )
( ) 0.8
(245.1 153.6) (0.8*1455) *12
972 972(20.0) (951.9 848.8) *12
789 10, 542 10, 542 16, 340
1.23 1.84 2.05 1.15 0.13
pe pe c g s
ws b LL I
b
b b bc
b
b
P P e M M
M M M
f
A S S S
f
f
+
+
+ +
= + − −
+ +
+
= + − −
= + − − = −
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #246
Tensile stress limit for concrete: 0.503 ksi OK
124
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Stresses at Midspan
GIRDER STRESSES INT EXT GIRDER STRESSES INT EXT
COMP – PERMANENT LOADS 1.98 ksi 1.60 ksi
COMP – ½ PERMANENT LOADS
+ LL
1.34 ksi 1.24 ksi
COMP – PERMANENT LOADS +
LL
2.33 ksi 2.04 ksi
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
LL
TENSION 0.40 ksi 0.13 ksi
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #247
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Positive Moment Section
Total Ultimate bending moment for Strength I is:
At point of maximum moment 0.4L:
(Tables 3.4.1
1&2)
1.25( ) 1.5( ) 1.75( )
u
M DC DW LL IM = + + +
,
,
1.25( ) 1.5( ) 1.75( )
1.25(912.9 814.2 171.9) 1.5(274.2) 1.75(1, 483)
u ext
u ext
M DC DW LL IM
M
= + + +
= + + + +
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #248
, ,int
5380 5, 615
u ext u
M k ft M k ft = − < = −
Since exterior M
u
is less than interior M
u
, OK
125
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Positive Moment Section
The positive moment, under the Strength I limit state, for the exterior
girder is less than that for interior girder. Although the LL increases, the
DL decreases due to the flange (slab) being narrower.
The interior girder design met all the checks for positive moment design.
These were: Nominal Strength, tension controlled, and minimum
reinforcement. All of these checks depend on M
u
and/or M
n
. Since
M
U,ext
<M
u,int
, the design for the interior girder for POSITIVE MOMENT is
adequate for exterior girder.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Stresses at transfer of prestressing force is independent of whether the
girder is interior or exterior, so no check is needed.
Loads & Analysis: Slide #249 Do Not Duplicate
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Design of the Negative Moment Section
Total Ultimate bending moment for Strength I is:
(3 4 1 1&2)
1 25( ) 1 5( ) 1 75( ) M DC DW LL IM = + + +
At the pier section:
kipft
This is 4% greater than the moment for the interior girder. This is
because the LL moment increases. At the support, the slab moment is
0 so it has no effect Away from the support the slab moment is
(3.4.11&2)
1.25( ) 1.5( ) 1.75( )
u
M DC DW LL IM = + + +
1.25( 292.7) 1.5( 467.1) 1.75( 1, 450) 3604
u
M = − + − + − = −
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #250
0, so it has no effect. Away from the support, the slab moment is
positive, so it would mitigate the negative moment. Thus, the smaller
slab moment has the effect of INCREASING the negative moment, as
compared to the interior girder.
126
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Design of the Negative Moment Section
(60)
3 604(12) 0 90 (60) 58 25
s
A
A
 
= −

This is the required amount of mild steel reinforcement required in the
slab to resist the negative moment and it is equal to 33 #6 bars.
2
2
3, 604(12) 0.90 (60) 58.25
1.7(7.0)(26)
0 10.47 3145 43248
14.5
s
s s
s
A
A A
A in
=

\ .
= − +
=
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #251
g q
Distributed over a length of 6.5 feet, this would be #6 @ 4 inches top
and bottom! Use 16 bars on the bottom and 17 on the top. A
s
= 14.52
in
2
Note: Only 13.98 in
2
were required for the interior girder.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Negative Moment Deck Reinforcement
Location of steel:
Top – 17 #6 with 2” clear Top 17 #6 with 2 clear
Btm – 16 #6 with 2 5/8” clear.
in
2
33(0.44) 14.52
s
A = =
17(0.44)(2.375) 16(0.44)(8.5 3)
14.52
x
+ −
=
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
We assumed 4.25” from top OK
d = 58.6 in
56.48
3.9
14.52
x = =
Loads & Analysis: Slide #252 Do Not Duplicate
127
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Negative Moment Deck Reinforcement
Now check M
n
:
( )( )
( )( )
s y
c
1
A f 14.52 60
a 5.63in
0.85f ' b 0.85 7 26
a 5.63
c 8.04
0.7
63
= = =
= = =
β
 
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
( )( )( )
r n
r u
5.63
M M 0.9 14.52 60 58.6
2
M 43740k in 3, 645k ft M 3, 604k ft
 
= φ = −

\ .
= − = − > = −
Loads & Analysis: Slide #253 Do Not Duplicate
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
According to LRFD 5.7.3.4 the spacing of the mild steel
reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall satisfy
equation 5.7.3.41.
Based on the check made for the interior girders (requiring a spacing
of 9 inches) #6@4 inches will clearly satisfy this requirement Note
700
2
e
c
s s
s d
f
γ
β
≤ −
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
of 9 inches), #6@ 4 inches will clearly satisfy this requirement. Note
that the service level stress will increase, but not enough to bring the
requirement below 4 inches.
Loads & Analysis: Slide #254 Do Not Duplicate
128
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Maximum Reinforcement – Negative Moment Section
As before, check the strain in the extreme tensile steel:
This is a tension controlled section, so φ = 0.9
t
t
d c 59.9 8.04
0.003 0.003 0.019 0.005
c 8.04
− −    
ε = = = >
 
\ . \ .
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
This is a tension controlled section, so φ 0.9
(5.7.2.1 & 5.5.4.2)
Loads & Analysis: Slide #255 Do Not Duplicate
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Reinforcement – Negative Moment Section
(5.7.3.3.21) ( ) 1
c
cr c r cpe dnc c r
nc
S
M S f f M S f
S
 
= + − − ≥

\ .
Where:
nc \ .
'
0.37 0.37 4.5 0.785
c
f = =
0
g s
M M + =
f
r
= ksi
f
cpe
= 0.0 ksi
M
dnc
= kipft
S = 16340 in
3
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
S
c
= 16340 in
Loads & Analysis: Slide #256 Do Not Duplicate
129
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Minimum Reinforcement – Negative Moment Section
16340
(0.785)
12
cr
M =
At bearing, the factored moment required by the Strength I load
combination is: M
u
= 3604 kipft
Therefore, kipft
1.33 4793
u
M =
1069
cr
M k ft = −
1.2 1282
cr
M k ft = −
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Since , Controls
OK
Note: The LRFD Specifications states that this requirement be met at every section.
1.2 1.33
cr u
M M < 1.2
cr
M
3, 645 1.2 1282
r cr
M M = > =
Loads & Analysis: Slide #257 Do Not Duplicate
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Design of the Negative Moment Section
The design of the exterior section meets all requirements
for positive and negative bending under both Service and for positive and negative bending under both Service and
Strength Limit States.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Loads & Analysis: Slide #258 Do Not Duplicate
130
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge
Design of the Section for Shear
This compares Strength
I shears and moments
for the interior and
Strength I
Length Interior Exterior
V M V M
ft k kft k kft
for the interior and
exterior girders. Note
that the exterior girder
shears are LESS than
the interior girder
shears. Thus, the
previous design works
for vertical and
ft. k k ft k k ft
Bearing 0 299.125 113.1 261.0657 117.3438
Trans. 2.04 287.45 644.925 250.7524 630.3376
H/2 2.73 283.375 817.925 247.1722 797.2625
0.10L 9.26 246.375 2303.925 214.6325 2228.485
0.20L 18.97 191.575 3993.775 166.3629 3848.451
0.30L 28.69 138.4 5077.725 119.4571 4878.126
0.40L 38.41 89.575 5615.875 76.42157 5380.371
MidSpan 48.13 95.9 5610.625 83.733 5357.442
0.60L 57.84 147.875 5091.675 129.581 4841.008
0.70L 67.56 199.95 4041.75 175.438 3812.453
AASHTOLRFD 2007
ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #259
horizontal shear. The
longitudinal steel
requirements are also
met.
0.80L 77.28 251.375 329.31 220.846 567.967
0.90L 86.99 301.825 1464.58 265.37 1635.04
H/2 93.52 334.65 2795.88 294.34 2929.99
Trans. 94.21 338.2 2961.82 297.47 3092.54
Bearing 96.25 348.325 3482.75 306.435 3603.56
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 1 of 35
E3GUIDED DESIGN EXAMPLE
Noncomposite, Skewed, Adjacent Box Girder Bridge; LRFD Specifications
1.1
INTRODUCTION
This design example demonstrates the design of a single span, 65 ft. long adjacent box
girder bridge with a 30
o
right forward skew, as shown below. This example illustrates
the design of typical interior and exterior beams at the critical sections in positive
flexure and shear due to prestressing, dead load, and live load.
1.11
Longitudinal
Section
1.12
Transverse Cross
Section
1.13
Plan View
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 2 of 35
1.2
MATERIALS
Concrete @ release: f
ci
’ = 5000 psi
Concrete @ 28 days: f
c
’ = 7000 psi
ODOT Bridge Design Manual (BDM) allows a range of strengths. These are chosen
from that range [ODOT BDM 302.5.1.7]
1.2.1
Precast
Beams
Ohio B3348 box girder. Chosen from preliminary design charts in ODOT Design
Data Sheets. Group “B” Design (roadway width 36 ft. to 48 ft.).
ODOT requires the use of minimum span to depth ratios given in LRFD Article
2.5.2.6.3. For a precast box, the limit is 0.03L = 0.03(65ft)(12in/ft) =23.4 inches OK.
1.2.3
Prestressing
Strand
AASHTO M203 (ASTM A416) 7 wire, low relaxation, ½ inch dia., Gr. 270.
Here, ½ inch strand is chosen, although the BDM allows both ½ inch and 0.6 inch
diameter. [ODOT BDM 301.5.1.2a]
Area of one strand = 0.153 in
2
Ultimate strength, f
pu
= 270.0 ksi
1.2.4
Reinforcing Bars
AASHTO M31 (ASTM A615), Gr. 60 [ODOT BDM 302.5.1.8].
Yield strength, f
y
= 60 ksi
Modulus of elasticity, E
s
= 29,000 ksi
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 3 of 35
1.2.5
Loads
Diaphragms: Two, 12 inch wide diaphragms at the 1/3 points
[ODOT Std. Drawings]
Future wearing surface: 0.060 ksf (ODOT Design Data Sheets)
Barriers: 0.090 k/ft each (ODOT Design Data Sheets)
Truck: HL 93, including dynamic allowance
1.2.6
Bridge
Parameters
Single Span
Overall Length: 67 ft.
c/c Span: 65 ft.
Support: Elastomeric Bearing Pad
1.3
CROSS
SECTION
PROPERTIES
FOR A
TYPICAL
BEAM
1.3.1
NonComposite
Section
Area in
2
733.5
Weight (k/ft) 0.764
h (in) 33
y
b
(in) 16.61
y
t
(in) 16.39
I (in
4
) 108,150
S
b
(in
3
) 6,511
S
t
(in
3
) 6,599
1.5
c 1 c
E 33, 000K w f ' = [LRFD 5.4.2.41]
Units are kips; w is weight in kcf, f
c
’ is given in ksi.
1.5
c
E 33, 000(1.0)(0.150 kcf ) 5ksi 4, 300 ksi = =  at transfer
K
1
is an aggregate factor = 1.0 unless specified by the owner.
1.5
C
E 33, 000 1.0 0.150 7.0 5, 072 ksi = × × =  service loads
1.3.2
Assumptions
The current ODOT standard is to tie the girders together with tie rods, tightened
enough to bring the girders together, but not providing significant lateral post
tensioning. According to the commentary in the LRFD Specifications, for this bridge
to be considered to have the girders “sufficiently connected”, a lateral posttensioning
force causing a stress of 0.25 ksi across the keyway is needed. Therefore, this bridge
will be considered as not being “sufficiently connected”. In practice, all this does is
change the distribution factor.
1.4
SHEAR
FORCES &
BENDING
MOMENTS
1.4.1
Dead Loads
DC = Dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments
Beam Weight: DC
g
= 0.764 klf
Diaphragms: 2 at each 1/3 point:
( )( )
( )( )( )
d 2 2
33in 10.5in 48in 11in
DC 1ft 2 diaphragms 0.150kcf 1.75k
144in / ft
− −
= =
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 4 of 35
Asphalt Wearing Surface – at construction:
ODOT specifies a MINIMUM of 3 inches in the Bridge Design Manual, but the
Design Data Sheets use a 3.5 inch average to account for camber along the
length of beam.
( )( )
ws
3.5in
DC 4ft 0.120pcf 0.140klf
12in / ft
= =
Rails – 0.090 klf – applied to exterior girders only
(In other examples, barrier/railing loads are distributed equally to all the girders,
but Article 4.6.2.2 appears to require a deck to distribute the load equally to all
girders).
DW = future wearing surfaces and future DL
( )( )
fws
DW 0.060ksf 4ft 0.240klf = =
1.4.1.1
DLUnfactored
Bending
Moments
Since this is a simple span beam, the most critical moment is at midspan.
( )( )
( )( )
2
DC
2
DW
0.764klf 0.140klf 65ft
65ft
M 1.75k 515.3k ft
8 3
0.240klf 65ft
M 126.8k ft
8
+
 
= + = −

\ .
= = −
1.4.2
Live Loads
According to LRFD Article 4.6.1.2.1 vehicular live loading on the roadways of bridges
or incidental structures, designated HL93, shall consists of a combination of the:
• Design truck or design tandem with dynamic allowance. The design truck shall
consists of an 8.0 kip front axle and a pair of 32.0 kip back axles. The first and
second axle are spaced 14’0” apart. The space between the rear axles shall be
varied between 14.0’ and 30.0’ to porduce extreme force effects. The design
tandem shall consist of a pair of 25.0 kip axles spaced 4.0’ apart. [LRFD
Article 3.6.1.2.2 and 3.6.1.2.3]
• Design lane load shall consist of a load of 0.64 kip/ft uniformly distributed in
the longitudinal direction. [LRFD Article 3.6.1.2.4]
Since this is a simple span, the maximum moment from the LANE LOAD occurs when
the girder is fully loaded. Thus:
( )( )
2
LL,Lane
0.640klf 65ft
M 338k ft
8
= = −
The HL93 truck controls for this span length. Since this is a simple span, there is a
simple formula for finding the maximum moment. The position of the resultant load is
found and the midspan of the beam is placed halfway between the resultant and the
nearest axle load. Note that the resultant is NOT used to find the moment, just the
position of the axle loads. Also note that for a simple span, the moment is greatest
when the back axles are as close together as possible, thus the minimum spacing of 14
feet is used.
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 5 of 35
The calculated moment is:
LL,Truck
M 896.0 k ft = −
1.4.2.1
Distribution
Factors
The live load bending moments and shear forces are determined by using the simplified
distribution factor formulas [LRFD 4.6.2.2]. To use the simplified live load
distribution factor formulas, the following conditions must be met [LRFD 4.6.2.2.1]
Width of deck is constant. OK
Number of beams, N
b
> 4. OK
Overhang part of the roadway < 3 ft OK
d
e
= 0.23 ft
Curvature in plan < specified in Article 4.6.1.2 OK
Beam parallel and of same stiffness OK
Cross Section listed in Table 4.6.2.2.11 OK
For a precast concrete box beam with an asphalt surface, the bridge type is (g).
[LRFD 4.6.2.2.11]
The number of design lanes should be determined by taking the integer part of the ratio
w/12, where w is the clear roadway width in ft between curbs and/or barriers.
[LRFD 3.6.1.1.1]
w = 48 ft.
Number of design lanes = integer part of (48/12) = 4
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 6 of 35
1.4.2.1.1
Distribution
Factors for
Bending Moment
This bridge is assumed to have no significant lateral posttensioning.
DFM = S/D
Where:
S = width of precast beam (ft)
D = (11.5 N
L
)+1.4N
L
(10.2C)
2
when C < 5 [LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2b1]
D = (11.5 N
L
) when C > 5
Range of Applicability:
6
L
N ≤
45 Skew≤ °
Where:
N
L
= number of traffic lanes
C = K(W/L) < K
Where:
( )
J
I 1
K
u +
=
J is not published for ODOT girders. However, it can be approximated by:
( )
= = =
 
+ +

\ .
∑
2
2
2
4
4 1180in
4A
J 211625in
S
27.75in 42.5in 42.5in
2
t
5.5in 5.5in 5in
Where:
A = the area enclosed by the centerline of the box walls.
T = wall thickness
S = length of the centerline of a box wall.
u = Poisson’s Ratio = 0.2 [LRFD 5.4.2.5]
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4
4
2
1 0.2 108150in
K 0.783
211625in
48 ft
C 0.783 0.578
65 ft
D 11.5 4Lanes 1.4 4Lanes 1 0.2 0.578 11.9
S 4 ft
0.336
D 11.9
+
= =
 
= =

\ .
= − + − =
= =
Note that for boxes, K can be conservatively taken as 1. The DFM = 0.361, a
difference of 8%.
Also note that there is only one distribution factor for this case. This is different from
other cases where there are factors for one lane loaded and two lanes loaded.
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 7 of 35
1.4.2.1.1
Distribution
Factors for Shear
Force
Shear forces will be calculated in the section on shear design.
The distribution factors will be calculated here.
Two Lanes Loaded:
DFV = (b/156)
0.4
(b/12L)
0.1
(I/J)
0.05
(b/48) [LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3a1]
Where:
1.0
48
b
≥
One Lane Loaded:
DFV = (b/130L)
0.15
(I/J)
0.05
Range of Applicability:
5 < N
b
< 20 Number of beams
35< b < 60 in Beam width
20< L < 120 ft Span
25000 < J < 610000 in
4
40000 < I < 610000 in
4
Two Lanes Loaded:
( )
0.1
0.4 0.05
48 48 108150 48
0.456
156 12 65 211625 48
 
     
= =

  

\ . \ . \ .
\ .
DFV CONTROLS
One Lane Loaded:
( )
0.15
0.05
48 108150
DFV 0.445
130 65 211625
 
 
= =



\ .
\ .
Because I/J is raised to a very small power, assuming I/J = 1 changes the DFV very
little. In this example, the DFV is about 4% higher if I/J = 1.
1.4.2.2
Dynamic
Allowance
IM = 33%
Where: IM = dynamic load allowance, applied only to truck load
1.4.2.3
Moment
Reduction
Factor for
Skew
1.05 0.25tan 1.0 g θ = − ≤ For 0 60 θ ° ≤ ≤ ° [LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2e1]
( )
1.05 0.25tan 30 0.905 = − =
o
g
The specifications state that the MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FACTOR in a skewed
bridge MAY be reduced by this factor.
Note: Table 4.6.2.2.2e1 has an inconsistency. It does not include this type of bridge
in the description in the first column, but names it as a cross section type in the second
column. It is assumed the skew factor applies to this structure.
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 8 of 35
1.4.2.4
Unfactored
Bending
Moments
Unfactored bending moment due to HL93 truck, per beam:
M
LL,Truck
= (bending moment per lane)(DFM)(1+IM)(skew factor)
=(bending moment per lane)(0.336)(1.33)(0.905)
=(bending moment per lane)(0.404)
= 896 kft (0.404) = 362.3 kft
Unfactored bending moment due to HL93 lane load, per beam:
M
LL,Lane
= (bending moment per lane)(DFM)(skew factor)
= (bending moment per lane)(0.336)(0.905)
= 338 kft (0.304) = 102.7 kft (Impact is not applied to lane loads.)
1.4.3
Load
Combinations
The following limit states are applicable: [LRFD 3.4.1]
Service I:
Q = 1.00(DC + DW) + 1.00 (LL + IM)
Service III:
Q = 1.00(DC + DW) + 0.80(LL + IM)
Strength I:
Maximum Q = 1.25(DC) + 1.50(DW) + 1.75(LL + IM)
Fatigue: Does not need to be checked for pretensioned beams designed using the
Service III load combination.
1.5
ESTIMATE
REQUIRED
PRESTRESS
Box girders are usually controlled by Strength I, but it is difficult to estimate number of
strands using Strength I. It is easier to estimate the number of strands using Service III
and add a few strands. Final strand patterns can be adjusted, if needed, later.
1.5.1
Service Load
Stresses at
Midspan
Bottom tensile stress due to applied dead and live loads using load combination Service
III:
DC DW LL I
b
b
M M 0.8M
f
S
+
+ +
=
Where:
f
b
= Bottom tensile stresses ksi
M
DC
= Unfactored bending moment due to DC loads kipft
M
DW
= Unfactored bending moment due to DW loads kipft
M
LL+I
= Unfactored bending moment due to design vehicular live
load including impact,
kipft
S
b
= Section modulus to the bottom fiber in
3
( )
{ }
( )
b 3
515.3 126.8 0.8 362.3 102.7 k ft 12in / ft
f 1.87ksi
6511in
+ + + −
= =
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 9 of 35
Remember! For Service III (which applies ONLY to tension in fully prestressed
members), the LL factor is 0.8!
Box girders are usually controlled by Strength I, but it is difficult to estimate number of
strands using Strength I. It is easier to estimate the number of strands using Service III
and add a few strands. Final strand patterns can be adjusted, if needed, later.
1.5.2
Tensile
Stress Limits for
Concrete
According to LRFD Table 5.9.4.2.21 the tensile stress limit at service loads is
b c
f 0.19 f ' 0.19 7ksi 0.503ksi ≤ = =
1.5.3
Required Number
of Strands
The difference between the bottom fiber tensile stress due to applied loads and the
tensile stress limit is the required precompression stress.
( )
pb
f 1.87ksi 0.503ksi 1.37ksi = − =
Assume the strands are 2 inches from the bottom of the girder.
So the strand eccentricity at the midspan is:
c
e 16.61in 2in 14.61in = − =
If P
pe
is the total prestressing force, the stress at the bottom fiber due to presstress is:
= +
pe pe c
pb
b
P P e
f
A S
Now plug in the required precompression stress, f
pb
and solve form P
pe
:
pe
2 3
1.37ksi
P 380kips
1 14.61in
733.5in 6511in
= =
 
+

\ .
Final prestress force per strand = (area of strand)(f
pi
)(1losses, %) where f
pi
= initial
prestressing stress before transfer, ksi. For Grade 270 strand, f
pi
= 0.75f
pu
= 202.5 ksi.
Assuming 25% loss of prestress the final prestressing force per strand after losses is:
(0.153)(202.5)(1 0.25) 23.2kips − =
380kips
# strands 16.4
23.2kips
= =
This shows a need for at least (18) ½ in diameter, 270 ksi, lowlax strands as the strand
pattern must be symmetrical.
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 10 of 35
1.5.4
Strand Pattern
The ODOT Design Data Sheet for Group “B” roadway widths gives 20 strands at 2”
from the bottom. Use the strand pattern of 20 strands shown at the midspan:
Using 20 strands allows for the possibility that the Strength Limit State controls. This
pattern should work for exterior girders. Recall that the exterior girders will have the
guardrail load and increased live load because of the exterior girder factor. It is NOT
good design practice to have the exterior girder strand patterns be different than that for
the interior girders. By using the same pattern for all girders, the fabricator has the
option to fabricate exterior and interior girders in the same bed at the same time.
2.0
SERVICE
LOAD
LIMIT
STATE
2.1
Prestress Losses
Total Prestress Losses:
∆ = ∆ + ∆
pT pES pLT
f f f [LRFD 5.9.5.11]
Where:
∆f
pES
= loss due to elastic shortening, ksi
∆f
pLT
= loss due to longterm shrinkage and creep of
concrete, and relaxation of the steel, ksi
2.1.1
Elastic
Shortening
p
pES cgp
ct
E
f f
E
∆ = [LRFD 5.9.5.2.3a1]
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 11 of 35
Where:
f
cgp
= The concrete stress at the center of gravity of prestressing tendons due
to the prestressing force immediately after the transfer and the self
weight of the member at the section of the maximum moment (ksi).
For the purpose of estimating f
cgp
, the prestressing force immediately
after transfer may be assumed to be equal to 0.9 of the force just before
transfer; also, change of concrete stress at the center of gravity of
prestressing tendons due to subsequent applied loads, when considered.
2
g c
i c i
cgp
M e
Pe P
f
A I I
= + −
E
p
= Elastic Modulus of the prestressing steel (ksi).
E
ci
= Elastic Modulus of the concrete at the time of transfer or time of load
application (ksi).
M
g
=
=
girder self weight at release
( )( )
2
g
0.764klf 65ft
65ft
M 1.75k 441.4k ft 5300k in
8 3
 
= + = − = −

\ .
( )( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
i
2
cgp 2 4 4
pES
P 20strands 0.9 202.5ksi 0.153in 558k
558k 14.61in 5300k in 14.61in
558k
f 1.15ksi
733.5in 108150in 108150in
28500ksi
f 1.15ksi 7.6ksi
4300ksi
= =
−
= + − =
∆ = =
Note: In many example problems, the gravity moment for elastic shortening losses and
stresses at release are calculated using the overall length of the girder. The thought
here is that the girder will “sit up on its ends” and the span will be the overall length.
In this example, the center of bearing to center of bearing span is used rather than
overall length. This is done for 3 reasons:
1) This value will be needed later for service load calculations. Using it in this
calculation saves a calculation later.
2) It is conservative as it actually results in higher losses and higher stresses in the
concrete.
3) It doesn’t make that much of a difference. In this case, using the overall length
increases the gravity moment 6% and decreases the loss 4%. The concrete unit
weight, modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and the strength are not
known with an accuracy that justifies being concerned over a few percent
differences in the gravity moment.
2.1.2
LongTerm
Losses
For standard, precast, pretensioned members subject to normal loading and
environmental conditions:
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 12 of 35
pi ps
pLT h st h st pR
g
f A
f 10 12 f
A
∆ = γ γ + γ γ + ∆ [LRFD 5.9.5.31]
In which:
h
1.7 0.01H γ = − [LRFD 5.9.5.32]
st
ci
5
1 f '
γ =
+
[LRFD 5.9.5.33]
Where:
H = The average annual ambient relative humidity (%)
γ
h
= Correction factor for relative humidity of the ambient air
γ
hst
= Correction factor for specified concrete strength at time of
Prestress transfer to the concrete member
∆f
pR
= An estimate of relaxation loss taken as 2.5 ksi for low
relaxation strand, 10.0 ksi for stress relieved strand, and in
accordance with manufacturers recommendation for other types
of strand (ksi)
Assume H = 70%
( )
h
1.7 0.01 70 1.00 γ = − =
st
5
0.83
1 5
γ = =
+
So:
( )( )( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
pLT 2
pLT
202.5ksi 20 0.153in
f 10 1.00 0.83 12 1.00 0.83 2.5
733.5in
f 7.0 10.0 2.5 19.5ksi
∆ = + +
∆ = + + =
2.1.3
Total Losses at
Service Loads
Total Prestress Losses:
( )
pT pES pLT
pe
f f f 7.6 19.5 27.1ksi
27.1ksi
Loss 100% 13.3%
202.5ksi
f 202.5 27.1 175.4ksi
∆ = ∆ + ∆ = + =
= =
= − =
[LRFD 5.9.5.11]
Loss is less than the 25% initially assumed, so OK.
2.2
Compression
Stress
Limit
Sum of effective prestress + permanent loads < 0.45f
c
’
1/2(Sum of effective prestress + permanent loads) + live load < 0.4 f
c
’
Sum of effective prestress + permanent loads + transient loads < 0.6φ
w
f
c
’
[LRFD Table 5.9.4.2.11]
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 13 of 35
2.2.1
φ
w
φ
w
is a modifier for sections with thin webs or flanges. It is actually defined in the
section for hollow, rectangular compression members (Art. 5.7.4.7). It is based on the
flange or web length/thickness ratio. Since this is for sections with thin webs/flanges,
φ
w
term will usually be = 1 for most beams.
Find the web and flange slenderness ratios:
t
X
u
w
= λ [LRFD 5.7.4.7.11]
Where:
X
u
= the clear length of the constant thickness
portion of the wall between other walls or fillets
t = wall thickness
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
w
w
48in 2 5.5in 2 3in
6.2 Bottom Flange
5in
33in 5.5in 5in 2 3in
2.9 Web
5.5in
− −
λ = =
− − −
λ = =
The top flange λ
w
< 15 by inspection.
If λ
w
< 15, φ
w
= 1.0 [LRFD 5.7.4.7.2c1]
( )
2 2
u
X b lesser of z or y = −
2.2
Service
Load
Stresses
P
e
=20 strand (0.153in
2
)(202.5 ksi – 27.1 ksi) = 537 kips
( )
cp,top 2 3
537k 14.61in
537k
f 0.457ksi
733.5in 6599in
= − = −
( ) ( )
cDL,top 3
515.3 126.8 k ft 12in / ft
f 1.17ksi
6599in
+ −
= =
( ) { }( )
cLL,top 3
362.3 102.7 k ft 12in / ft
f 0.85ksi
6599in
+ −
= =
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 14 of 35
2.2.3
Service Load
Compression
Stress
Check
Service I
( )
( )( )
cp,top cDL,top c
cp,top cDL,top
cLL,top
cp,top cDL,top cLL,top
f f 0.457ksi 1.17ksi 0.713ksi 0.45f ' 0.45 7ksi 3.15ksi
f f
0.713ksi
f 0.85ksi 1.21ksi 0.4(7ksi) 2.8ksi
2 2
f f f 0.713ksi 0.85ksi 1.56ksi 0.6 1.0 7ksi 4
+ = − + = < = =
+
+ = + = < =
+ + = + = < = .2ksi
Compression stresses OK
2.3.4
Service Load
Tensile
Stress Check
Service III
The Service III stress at the bottom due to dead and live loads, f
b
, was calculated
previously.
The allowable tensile stress of 0.530 ksi was also calculated previously
( )
pb 2 3
b
pb b
537k 14.61in 537kips
f 1.94ksi
733.5in 6511in
f 1.87ksi
f f 1.94ksi 1.87ksi 0.07ksi 0.07ksi COMPRESSION
= + =
= −
+ = − = + =
No Tensile Stresses!!! Compression obviously OK
Because the bottom of the girder is in compression, check with Service I:
Now it’s in tension, which is Service III ? Actually, it is sort of both. For all intents
and purposes, the stress at the bottom of the girder is “0” – and this is a dividing line
between Service I and Service III. Because of the 0.8 factor on the LL, there is an
inconsistency between the two load cases. However the stress is so low, that really
doesn’t matter – we satisfy all allowables in all cases.
( )
2 3
537 14 61 537
1 94
733 5 6511
2 04
1 94 2 04 0 1 0 1
= + =
= −
+ = − = − =
pb
b
pb b
k . in kips
f . ksi
. in in
f . ksi
f f . ksi . ksi . ksi . ksi TENSION
( )
{ }
( )
3
515 3 126 8 362 3 102 7 12
2 04
6511
+ + + −
= =
b
. . . . k ft in / ft
f . ksi
in
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 15 of 35
3.0
STRENGTH
LIMIT STATE
3.1
Factored
Moment
Strength I:
Q = 1.25(DC) + 1.50(DW) + 1.75(LL + IM)
Q = 1.25(DC) + 1.50(DW) + 1.75(Truck + Lane)
( ) ( ) ( )
u
M 1.25 515.3 1.50 126.8 1.75 362.3 102.7 1648k ft 19780k in = + + + = − = −
3.2
Steel Stress
At Strength
Limit State
ps pu
p
c
f f 1 k
d
 
= −


\ .
[LRFD 5.7.3.1.11]
Where:
k = 0.28 for low relaxation strands
Assume the section is rectangular:
ps pu s s s s
pu
c 1 ps
p
A f A f A ' f '
c
f
0.85f ' b kA
d
+ −
=
β +
[LRFD 5.7.3.1.14]
Where:
A
ps
= Area of prestressing steel in
2
f
pu
=
=
Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel
270
ksi
A
s
=
=
Area of mild steel tension reinforcement
0.0
in
2
f
y
=
=
Yield strength of tension reinforcement
60.0
ksi
A
s
‘ =
=
Area of compression reinforcement
0.0
in
2
f
y
‘ =
=
Yield strength of compression reinforcement
60.0
ksi
f
c
‘ =
=
Compressive strength of deck concrete
7.0
ksi
β
1
=
=
=
Stress block factor specified in LRFD 5.7.2.2
0.85 – 0.05(f’
c
– 4.0) > 0.65 for f’
c
> 4.0
0.70
b =
=
Width of compression flange
48
in.
( )
( )( )( ) ( )( )
2
2
ps
20 0.153in 270ksi 0 0
c 3.98in. 5.5in.
270ksi
0.85 7ksi 0.7 48in 0.28 20 0.153in
31in
3.98in
f 270ksi 1 0.28 260ksi
31in
+ −
= = <
+
 
= − =

\ .
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 16 of 35
c is also the neutral axis depth, so the stress block depth, a = β
1
c = 0.7(3.98) = 2.79
inches. Since c < h
f
, the stress block is entirely in the flange so the beam may be
treated as rectangular.
3.3
Flexural
Resistance
The moment equation in the LRFD Specification looks like this
( )
f
n ps ps p s y s s y s c w f
h
a a a a
M A f d A f d A ' f ' d ' 0.85 f ' b b h
2 2 2 2 2
 
     
= − + − − − + − −
   
\ . \ . \ .
\ .
If the section is rectangular (b=b
w
), the equation becomes:
' ' '
2 2 2
n ps ps p s y s s y s
a a a
M A f d A f d A f d
     
= − + − − −
  
\ . \ . \ .
If there is no compression or mild tension steel, the equation becomes:
n ps ps p
a
M A f d
2
 
= −

\ .
Since c < h
f
, the section may be treated as rectangular.
( )( )
n ps ps p
2
n
a 2.79in
a
M A f d
2
2.79in
M 20 0.153in 260ksi 31in 23550k in
2
=
 
= −

\ .
 
= − = −

\ .
[LRFD 5.7.3.2.21]
Note: The nominal flange width of 48 inches was used for “b”. In reality, the flange
area is reduced by the shear key cutout. However, this is often ignored as this would
require an iterative procedure. If the area is adjusted for the shear key, the nominal
moment, M
n
changes by only 0.10%. It may not be appropriate to reduce the area by
the shear key cutout as this will be filled with grout and the grout may act with the
base concrete to effectively provide the complete flange width. All of this is a matter of
engineering judgment.
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 17 of 35
3.4
Determination
Of
Phi
To determine Φ, it is necessary to calculate the steel
strain at the level of the extreme tensile steel.
c = 3.98 inches (calculated above)
d
t
is the distance to the extreme tensile steel. Since
there is only one row of steel, d
t
= d
p
.
t
t
d c 31in 3.98
0.003 0.003 0.0204
c 3.98
− −
ε = = =
Since ε
t
> 0.005, the section is tension controlled. [LRFD 5.7.2.1]
Φ = 1.0 [LRFD 5.5.4.2.1]
This is a big change from the old ρ
balanced
method. However, this now makes the LRFD
Specifications consistent with ACI 318. This replaces the maximum reinforcement
provisions.
3.5
Determination of
Flexural
Strength
( )( )
u n
M M
19, 780k in 1.0 23550k in OK
≤ Φ
− < −
3.6
Maximum and
Minimum
Reinforcement
For minimum reinforcement, the resistance moment, M
r
must be at least the lesser of
1.2 times the cracking moment or 1.33 times the factored applied moment.
1.33M
u
= 1.33(19780 kin) = 26310 kin
For the cracking moment, find the modulus of rupture:
r c
f 0.37 f ' 0.37 7ksi 0.979ksi = = = [LRFD 5.4.2.6]
Note that this is a new MOR for minimum reinforcement. It is equal to 11.5√f
c
’ in psi;
which is the upper bound for MOR.
Next, determine the stress at the bottom of the box due to effective prestressing force:
( )
cpe 2 3
537k 14.61in 537kips
f 1.94ksi
733.5in 6511in
= + =
Since this is a noncomposite section:
( )
cr b r cpe
M S f f = + [LRFD 5.7.3.3.21]
( )
3
cr
M 6511in 0.979ksi 1.94ksi 19000k in = + = −
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 18 of 35
1.2M
cr
= 1.2(19000kin) = 22800kin < 1.33M
u
M
r
= φM
n
= 1.0(23550) kin = 23550kin > 22800 kin OK
Note: When the number of strands was selected, it was determined that 18 strands
would be needed, but 20 were used. If 18 strands had been used, φM
n
= 21400 kin, so
18 strands would NOT meet the minimum requirement.
4.0
STRESSES
AT
TRANSFER
4.1
Steel Stress
At Transfer
Assume the stress at transfer is 0.9f
pi
P
i
= 20 strand(0.153in
2
)(0.9)(202.5 ksi)=558 kips
4.2
Allowable
Stresses at
Transfer
Tension: 0.0948√f
ci
’ < 0.2ksi w/o bonded reinforcement [LRFD Table 5.9.4.1.21]
0.24√f
ci
’ w/bonded reinforcement
Compression: 0.6f
ci
’
4.3
End
Stress
At Transfer
( )
( )
pt 2 3
pb 2 3
558k 14.61in
558kips
f 0.474ksi
733.5in 6599in
558k 14.61in
558kips
f 2.01ksi
733.5in 6511in
= − = −
= + =
These stresses should be calculated at the end of the transfer length = 60d
b
=30 inches.
The dead load stresses 30 inches from the support should be added. However, these
stresses will not be large and it is conservative to use just the stress due to prestressing.
f
pt
= 0.474 ksi tension < 0.24√f
ci
’ = 0.24√5ksi = 0.537 ksi OK w/bonded steel
f
pb
= 2.01 ksi compression < 0.6f
ci
= 0.6(5ksi) = 3 ksi OK
Because the stress is OK, no debonding is needed. However, if debonding was needed,
no more that 25% of the total number of strands could be debonded and no more than
40% in one row can be debonded.
[LRFD 5.11.4.3]
4.3.1
Bonded
Steel
Bonded steel is needed at the top of the girder at the end to take the tensile forces. This
steel must resist the total tension in the top flange with a stress of no more than 0.5f
y
but not more than 30 ksi. [LRFD Table 5.9.4.1.21]
The first step it to find the tension in the flange. This requires the location of the
neutral axis to be determined. From the top and bottom stresses at the end, the neutral
at the end is:
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 19 of 35
From the top and bottom stresses at the end, the
neutral at the end is:
( ) 0.474ksi 33in
x 6.30in
0.474 2.01ksi
= =
+
The top flange is 5.5 inches, so the stress at the
bottom of the top flange is:
( )
0.474ksi
6.3in 5.5in 0.060ksi
6.30in
− =
The total tensile force is:
( )( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0.474ksi 0.060ksi
T 0.5 6.30in 0.474ksi 5.5in 2 5.5in 48in 2 5.5in
2
T 70.8kips
+
= + −
=
Again, this tension could be reduced by calculating the force at the end of the transfer
length (including the gravity moment). Including the gravity moment will reduced the
calculated tension, but because bars only come in certain sizes, the reduction may not
change the number of bars needed.
The bonded steel must resist the total tensile force with a stress not exceeding the lesser
of 0.5f
y
or 30 ksi. [LRFD Table 5.9.4.1.21]
2
s
70.8kips
A 2.36in
30ksi
= =
Use 8 #5
The length of the bar is determined by the point where bonded steel is no longer
required. Since 0.0948√f
ci
’ = 0.212 ksi > 0.2ksi; find the point where the dead load
drops the stress below 0.2 ksi.
For simplicity, just consider the beam weight and ignore diaphragms.
The required moment = ∆f
c
S
t
= (0.474 ksi – 0.200 ksi) 6599 in
3
= 1808 kin
= 150.7kft
( ) ( )
2
M 150.7k ft 0.5 0.764klf x 65ft x
150.7k ft 24.83x 0.382x
x 6.75ft; 58.25ft
= − = −
− = −
=
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 20 of 35
This is from center of bearing, so extend steel 7.75 ft. from each end and then add
development length.
b y
d b y
c
1.25A f
0.4d f
f '
= ≥ l [LRFD 5.11.2.1.1]
( )
( )( )
2
d
1.25 0.31in 60ksi
8.8in 0.4 0.625in 60ksi 15in
7ksi
= = < = l
Where:
A
b
= Area of the bar
d
b
= diameter of bar
Top bar factor = 1.4
1.4(15inches) = 21 inches
So the minimum bar length = 6’ 9” + 1’ – 9” = 9’ – 6”
4.4
Midspan
Stress
At Transfer
M
g
= 5300 kin (calculated in the section on losses  2.1.1)
t ,DL 3
b,DL 3
top
bot
5300k in
f 0.803ksi
6599in
5300k in
f 0.814ksi
6511in
f 0.474ksi 0.803ksi 0.329ksi
f 2.01ksi 0.814ksi 1.120ksi
−
= =
− −
= = −
= − + =
= − =
By inspection, both are below the compression limit.
5.0
SHEAR
5.1
Critical
Section
The critical section is at d
v
from the face of the support for a section where the reaction
force in the direction of the applied shear introduces compression into the end region of
the member. [LRFD 5.8.3.2]
For this member with only a single layer of prestressing steel:
v p
a 2.79in
d d 31in 29.6inches
2 2
= − = − =
The term d
v
is not taken less than:
0.9d
e
= 0.9(31 inches)=27.9 inches < 29.6 inches
or
0.72h = 0.72(33 inches) = 23.76 inches < 29.6 inches
Assuming a 1 ft. long bearing pad, the critical section is:
29.6+6 = 35.6 inches from center of bearing. For calculations, use 36 inches = 3 ft.
The difference is only a few percent.
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 21 of 35
5.2
Shear Forces
And Moments
At the Critical
Section
5.2.1
Basic
Shear
Forces
And
Moments
At the
Critical
Section
DC:
For beam weight:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )( )( )
g
g
V w 0.5L x 0.764klf 0.5 65ft 3ft 22.54k
M 0.5wx L x 0.5 0.764klf 3ft 65ft 3ft 71.0k ft
= − = − =
= − = − = −
For the diaphragm, V = 1.75k (shear is constant), M = 1.75(3) = 5.25kft
For the wearing surface:
( ) ( )
( )( )( )
0.140 0.5 65 3 4.13
0.5 0.140 3 65 3 13
= − =
= − = −
ws
ws
V klf ft ft k
M klf ft ft ft k ft
DW:
( ) ( )
( )( )( )
fws
ws
V 0.240klf 0.5 65ft 3ft 7.08k
M 0.5 0.240klf 3ft 65ft 3ft 22.3k ft
= − =
= − = −
Live Load:
Consider the influence line for shear:
The shear at x is maximized by placing the rear wheel of the truck at x and loading the
right part of the beam with the uniform load. (Note that influence lines are NOT used
for dead loads. Obviously, it is not possible to have the DL on only part of the beam!)
Using a standard structural analysis program, at the critical section:
V
LL,Lane
= 18.92k
V
LL,Truck
= 58.33k
M
LL,Lane
= 56.76 kft
M
LL,Truck
= 175.0 kft
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 22 of 35
5.2.2
Skew
Factor
This is a multibeam bridge. The shear at the obtuse corner of each girder MUST be
increased by:
( )
( )
( )
12 65ft
12L
1 tan 1 tan 30 1.20
90d 90 33in
+ θ = + = [LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3c1]
Note that this factor applies only to the distribution factor.
Since the critical section is only 3 feet from the support, apply the skew factor.
5.2.3
Factored
Moments
And
Shears
As calculated in Section 1.4.2.1.1 of this example:
DFV = 0.456
DFM = 0.336
The moment MAY be multiplied by the skew factor for moment, 0.91.
The shear MUST be increased by skew factor, 1.20.
Maximum Q = 1.25(DC) + 1.50(DW) + 1.75(LL + IM)
V
LL+IM
= 0.456(1.2)[58.33(1.33)+18.92] = 52.5 k
V
u
= 1.25(22.54k + 1.75k + 4.13 k) + 1.50 (7.08 k) + 1.75(52.5 k) = 138.0 k
M
LL+IM
= 0.336(0.905)[175 kft(1.33)+56.8] = 88.0 kft
M
u
= 1.25(71.0 kft + 5.25 kft + 13.0 kft) + 1.5(22.3 kft) + 1.75(88.0 kft)
= 299 kft = 3588 kin
5.3
Sectional
Design
Model
For shear design, the shear forces at various points along the girder should be
calculated. Normally, this is done at the critical section, at points where strands are
debonded or harped and then at every 0.1L.
For this design example, only the shear at the critical section is analyzed. The same
procedure for the remaining points would be used.
The LRFD Specifications adopted the modified compression field theory for shear
design with Version 1. This was called the Sectional Design Model.
In Version 4 (2007), the Simplified Method was added. The Simplified Method
restores the old V
ci
and V
cw
from the Standard Specifications.
Both methods will be illustrated in this example.
5.3.1
Finding
β and θ
The sectional design model requires the calculation of two factors:
• Concrete strain at : ε
x
• Average shear stress in the concrete: v
These two values are used to find β and θ; which are then used to find the strength of
the concrete and the strength of the stirrups.
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 23 of 35
5.3.1.1
Finding
ε
x
The first step is to find the strain at 0.5d
v
in the cross section.
It is assumed the section is uncracked and that at least minimum transverse
reinforcement will be used.
Note that θ is unknown at this point. However, the commentary allows 0.5cotθ=1 as a
simplification. [LRFD C5.8.3.4.2]
[LRFD 5.8.3.4.23]
Where:
N
u
= Applied factored normal force at the specified section
= 0.0
kips
V
p
= Strands are not harped = 0.0 kips
f
po
=
=
A parameter taken as modulus of elasticity of
prestressing tendons multiplied by the lockedin
difference in strain between the prestressing tendons
and the surrounding concrete
.7 0.7(270.0) 189
pu
f = =
ksi
[LRFD
5.8.3.4.2]
A
ps
=
=
Area of prestressing steel on the flexural tension side
of the member, as shown in LRFD Figure 5.8.3.4.21.
20 strands(0.153) = 3.06
in
2
A
s
= Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension
side of the member = 0.0
in
2
A
c
=
=
A
c
is the area of concrete on the tension half of the
beam; it is the area of the bottom half (h/2).
2(5.5in)(33in)(0.5) + (48in11in)(5in) = 366.5 in
2
in
2
E
p
= 28,500 ksi
d
v
= 29.6 in
( )
( ) ( )
2
6 3
x
2 2
3588k in
138k 3.06in 189ksi
29.6in
82x10 0.08x10
2 28500ksi 3.06in 5072ksi 366.5in
− −
−
+ −
ε = = − ≈ −
+
Negative means “uncracked”.
5.3.1.2
Finding v
u
( )( )( )( )
u p
u c
v v
V V
138k
v 0.469ksi 0.18f ' 1.26ksi
b d 0.9 2 5.5in 29.6in
−φ
= = = < =
φ
[LRFD 5.8.2.9]
Where:
V
p
= 0
φ = 0.9 [LRFD 5.5.4.2.1]
( )
c c ps p s s
po ps p u u
v
u
x
A E A E A E 2
f A cot V V 5 . 0 N 5 . 0
d
M
+ +
− − + +
=
θ
ε
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 24 of 35
5.3.1.3
β and θ
Using
u
c
v 0.469ksi
0.067
f ' 7ksi
= = and
x
0.08 ε = −
From LRFD Table 5.8.3.4.21:
θ = 21
◦
β = 4.1
5.3.2
Shear Strength of
Concrete
c c v v
V 0.0316 f 'b d = β [LRFD 5.8.3.33]
( ) ( )( )
c
V 0.0316 4.1 7ksi 11in 29.6in 111.6k = =
Since V
u
= 138k > φV
c
= 0.9(111.6k) = 100 k; at least minimum stirrups are needed for
strength. The equations for β and θ assumed minimum stirrups.
5.3.3
Minimum Stirrups
( )
( )
u c
max v
v 0.469ksi 0.125f ' 0.125 7ksi 0.875ksi
s 0.8d 0.8 29.6in 23.7in 24in
= < = =
= = = <
[LRFD 5.8.2.7]
s
max
= 23.75 in.
Calculate minimum area of steel using a 12 inch spacing to get area of steel per foot:
( )( )
2 v
v c
y
11in 12in
b s
A 0.0316 f ' 0.0316 7ksi 0.184in
f 60ksi
≥ = = [LRFD 5.8.2.5]
ODOT uses #4 bars with 2 legs as standard (A
v
= 2(0.2in
2
) = 0.4in
2
) @ 12 inch o.c.
This is adequate to meet minimum.
5.3.4
Shear Strength of
the Girder
( )
v y v
s
A f d cot cot sin
V
s
θ+ α α
= [LRFD 5.8.3.34]
The stirrups are perpendicular to the main steel so α = 90
o
; cotα = 0, sinα=1; θ = 21
o
( ) ( )( )( ) ( ) ( )
2
v y v
s
s
0.4in 60ksi 29.6 cot 21 0 1
A f d cot cot sin
V
s 12in
V 154.2k
+
θ+ α α
= =
=
( )
n c s p
u n
V V V V 111.6k 154.2k 0 265.8k
V 138k V 0.9 265.8k 239.2k
= + + = + + =
= < φ = =
#4 @ 12 inches is OK. Girder is OK in shear.
5.3.5 Maximum
Nominal Shear
Resistance
The upper limit of V
n
, given by following equation, is intended to ensure that the
concrete in the web of the beam will not crush prior to yield of the transverse
reinforcement.
'
0.25
n c v v p
V f b d V ≤ + [LRFD 5.8.3.32]
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 25 of 35
With V
p
=0:
'
0.25
111.6 154.2 0.25(7)(11)(29.6)
265.8 569.8
c s c v v
V V f b d + ≤
+ ≤
≤
5.4
Simplified
Shear
In the 2007 LRFD Specification, the simplified shear method is introduced.
This method brings back V
ci
and V
cw
from the Standard Specification.
• V
cw
(web shear) usually controls near the support, so V
cw
will be checked at the
critical section.
• V
ci
(flexural shear) doesn’t control near the support, so for this example, V
ci
will be
calculated at 0.2L. However, in practice V
ci
and V
cw
must be checked at all
appropriate sections.
5.4.1
V
cw
[LRFD 5.8.3.4.33]
Where:
f
pc
= compressive stress in concrete (after allowance for all prestress loses)
at centroid of cross section resisting externally applied loads or at the
junction of the web and the flange when the centroid lies within the
flange (ksi).
Since this is a noncomposite section:
e
pc 2
P 537k
f 0.732ksi
A 733.5in
= = =
( )
( )
( )( )
cw
V 0.06 7ksi 0.3 0.732ksi 11in 29.6in 123.2kips = + =
The critical section is 29.6 inches from the face of the support. Assuming a 1 ft
bearing pad, the critical section is approximately 3.5 feet from the end of the beam.
The transfer length is 60 bar diameters = 30 inches. Thus, the critical section is past
the transfer length, so f
pc
does not have to be reduced for lack of bond.
If the critical section is within the transfer length, f
pc
is reduced linearly.
One difference between LRFD and Standard Specifications is that LRFD uses cotθ in
the V
s
calculation. For V
cw
, the term cotθ must be calculated:
pc
c
f
cot 1.0 3 1.8
f '
θ = + ≤ [LRFD 5.8.3.4.34]
( ) cw c pc v v p
V 0.06 f ' 0.3f b d V = + +
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 26 of 35
0.732ksi
cot 1.0 3 1.83 1.8; so use 1.8
7ksi
θ = + = >
θ = 29°
The minimum stirrup area and maximum spacing calculated in the Sectional Model
still applies here. Assuming #4 stirrups @ 12 in:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
s
0.4in 60ksi 29.6in 1.8
V 106.5k
12in
= =
( )
u
V 138k 0.9 123.2k 106.5k 207k = < + =
5.4.2
V
ci
V
ci
does not control near supports of simply supported beams. It will be calculated at
0.2L=13 ft from the center of the support.
5.4.2.1
Unfoactored
Dead Loads
The equation for V
ci
requires the calculation of unfactored dead loads.
DC:
For beam weight:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )( )( )
g
g
V w 0.5L x 0.764klf 0.5 65ft 13ft 14.9k
M 0.5wx L x 0.5 0.764klf 13ft 65ft 13ft 258k ft
= − = − =
= − = − = −
For the diaphragm, V = 1.75k (shear is constant), M = 1.75(13) =22.8kft
For the wearing surface:
( ) ( )
( )( )( )
fws
ws
V 0.140klf 0.5 65ft 13ft 2.73k
M 0.5 0.140klf 13ft 65ft 13ft 47.3k ft
= − =
= − = −
DW:
( ) ( )
( )( )( )
fws
ws
V 0.240klf 0.5 65ft 13ft 4.68k
M 0.5 0.240klf 13ft 65ft 13ft 81.1k ft
= − =
= − = −
The total UNFACTORED shears and moments are:
V
d
= 14.9k + 1.75k + 2.73k + 4.68k = 24.1k
M
d
= 258.0kft + 22.8kft +47.3kft + 81.1kft = 409.2 kft = 4910 kin
The FACTORED shears and moments are:
V
ud
= 1.25(14.9k + 1.75k + 2.73k) + 1.50(4.68k) = 31.3 k
M
ud
= 1.25(258.0kft + 22.8kft +47.3kft) + 1.5(81.1kft)
= 531.8 kft = 6381 kin
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 27 of 35
5.4.2.2
Live
Load
This method requires two sets of shears and moments for Live Load. The first is the
loading where the shear is maximum and the second is where the moment is maximum.
For the lane load, the shear is maximum when the lane load is on the right 52 ft. of the
girder (see the influence line from the sectional model):
V
Lane1
= 13.3k and M
Lane1
= 173 kft = 2076 kin
The maximum moment occurs when the lane load is on the entire girder:
V
Lane2
= 12.5k and M
Lane2
= 216.3 kft = 2596 kin
Clearly, the moment is maximum when the lane load is placed along the entire beam.
The truck load is less certain. The moment at “X” is the value of the point load times
the ordinate of the influence line. Unfortunately, it is not clear where this product will
be maximum!
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 28 of 35
For the truck, it is again necessary to consider two placements:
Placed for maximum shear
Placed for maximum moment
In this case, it just happens that both are the same – the rear axle placed at 0.2L as
shown in the previously.
For the truck load, the maximum shear at the section and the maximum moment at the
section happen to occur under the same loading – the rear wheel of the truck 13 ft.
from the support. In this case, the maximum shear loading and the maximum moment
loading are the same, but that is NOT always the case. Be sure to carefully check all
reasonable load conditions.
However, this is not always the case. It just happened that way in this example.
V
Truck
= 47.2 k and M
Truck
= 613 kft = 7356 kin
V
u,LL
= 1.75[V
truck
(1+IM) + V
Lane
](DFV)
V
u,LL
= 1.75[47.2k(1.33) + 13.3k]( 0.456) = 60.7k
Note that the skew factor is NOT applied. The skew factor is applied only at the obtuse
corner and at 0.2L, the section is not at the obtuse corner.
M
u,LL
= 1.75[M
truck
(1+IM) + M
Lane
](DFM)(skew factor)
M
u,LL
= 1.75[613 kft(1.33) + 216.3 kft](0.336)(0.905) = 549.0 kft = M
max
Note that the Skew Factor IS Applied to moment
The shear associated with maximum moment is:
V
i
= 1.75[47.2k(1.33) + 12.5k]( 0.456) = 60.0 k
5.4.2.3
Determination of
Cracking Load
for Shear
First, find the modulus of rupture:
r c
f 0.2 f ' 0.2 7ksi 0.529ksi = = = [LRFD 5.4.2.6]
Note that LRFD has 3 different MORs – be sure to use the correct one!
Next, determine the stress at the bottom of the box due to effective prestressing force:
( )
cpe 2 3
537k 14.61in 537kips
f 1.94ksi
733.5in 6511in
= + =
dnc
cre c r cpe
nc
12M
M S f f
S
 
= + −

\ .
[LRFD 5.8.3.4.32]
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 29 of 35
Where:
M
dnc
= Unfactored moment due to dead load on the non composite or
monolithic section = 409.2 kft (note – in kft; 12 in numerator
converts to inches)
S
nc
= noncomposite section modulus
S
c
= composite section modulus = S
nc
since this is a noncomposite
structure
( )
( )
3
cre 3
cre
12 409.2k ft
M 6511in 0.529ksi 1.94ksi
6511in
M 11165k in 930.5k ft
−  
= + −

\ .
= − = −
5.4.2.4
V
ci
i cre
ci c v v d c v v
max
VM
V 0.02 f 'b d V 0.06 f 'b d
M
= + + ≥ [LRFD 5.8.3.4.31]
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
ci
60.0k 930.5k ft
V 0.02 7ksi 11in 29.6in 24.1k 143.0k
549k ft
0.06 7ksi 11in 29.6in 51.7
−
= + + = >
−
=
5.4.2.5
Check Shear
Strength
u
V 31.3k 60.7k 92.0k = + =
Assuming #4@12; cotθ=1 for V
ci
[LRFD 5.8.3.4.3]
( )( )( )( )
2
s
0.4in 60ksi 29.6in 1.0
V 59.2k
12in
= =
( )
u n
V 92.0k V 0.9 143.0k 59.2k 182.0k = < φ = + =
The section is adequate in shear.
If s=18”
s
V 39.5kips =
( )
u n
V 92.0k V 0.9 143.0k 39.5k 164k = < φ = + =
5.6
Minimum
Longitudinal
Steel
At each section: [LRFD 5.8.3.51]
u
u u
ps ps s y p s
v
M 0.5N V
A f A f V 0.5V cot
d
 
+ ≥ + + − − θ

φ φ φ
\ .
For this example, the minimum longitudinal steel will be checked at the critical section.
The critical section 29.6 inches from the face of the support. Allowing for a 1 ft.
bearing pad and one foot from center of bearing to the end of the girder, the critical
section is 47.6 inches from the end of the girder. However, it is necessary to see if the
strand stress is reduced by lack of development.
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 30 of 35
The development length equation is unchanged for strand from Standard
Specifications, except that a factor, κ is added. This factor is the result of an October,
1988 FHWA memorandum suggesting the need for this conservative multiplier
because of strand/bond problems:
( ) ( )
d ps pe b
2 2
f f d 1.6 260 175.4 0.5 114.5in
3 3
   
= κ − = − =
 
\ . \ .
l [LRFD 5.11.4.2]
The terms f
ps
(steel stress at strength limit) and f
pe
(effective prestressing stress after
losses) were calculated previously. κ = 1.6 for member over 24 inches deep
The critical section occurs at 47.6 inches from the end of the beam, but the
development length is 114.5 inches. Thus, the steel stress MUST be reduced to
account for lack of development.
( )
60
60
px b
px pe ps pe
d b
d
f f f f
d
−
= + −
−
l
l
[LRFD 5.11.4.24]
The following values were previously calculated or determined:
A
ps
=20(0.153)= 3.06 in
2
f
ps
= 260.0 ksi
f
pe
= 174.5 ksi
M
u
= 3588 kin
V
u
= 138 k
θ = 21
o
(Sectional Design Model)
V
s
= 153 k (Sectional Design Model)
N
u
= V
p
= 0
φ = 1 for moment; 0.9 for shear
A
s
f
y
= assumed 0 (ignore any mild steel)
60d
b
= 30 inches
( )
47 6 30
174 5 260 0 174 5 192 0
114 5 30
px
. in in
f . ksi . ksi . ksi . ksi
. in in
−
= + − =
−
u
u u
ps ps s y p s
v
M 0.5N V
A f A f V 0.5V cot
d
 
+ ≥ + + − − θ

φ φ φ
\ .
( )
( )
( )
2
3 06 192 0 588
3588 138
0 5 153 21 321
1 0 29 6 0 9
. in . ksi k
k in k
. ( k ) cot k
. . in .
=
−  
> + − =

\ .
OK.
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 31 of 35
Note that before the 2005/06 interim, the steel stress was assumed linear with
development length, not bilinear. If the stress were assumed linear here, mild steel
would need to be added. Also note that Vs < Vc/φ = 153k
Check the inside face of the bearing pad. Assuming a 12 in pad and one foot from
center of bearing to the end, the inside of the pad is 12+6 = 18 inches from the end of
the girder. This is inside the transfer length:
18
174 5 104 7
30
px
in
f . ksi . ksi
in
 
= =

\ .
( ) ( )
2
0 5
138
3 06 104 7 320 0 5 153 21 199
0 9
u
p ps s
V
A f . V cot
k
. in . ksi k . ( k ) cot k
.
θ
φ
≥ −
 
= > − =

\ .
OK
If the stirrup spacing is increased to 18”, V
s
= 103 k
( ) ( )
2
0 5
138
3 06 104 7 320 0 5 103 21 265
0 9
u
p ps s
V
A f . V cot
k
. in . ksi k . ( k ) cot k
.
θ
φ
≥ −
 
= > − =

\ .
OK
5.7
Anchorage Zone
(Bursting
Stirrups)
The bursting resistance of pretensioned anchorage zones provided by vertical
reinforcement in the ends of the pretensioned beams at the service limit state shall be
take as:
r s s
P f A = [LRFD 5.10.10.11]
Where:
A
s
= Total area of transverse reinforcement
located within the distance h/4 from the end
of the beam
in
2
f
s
= Stress in steel, but not taken greater than 20 ksi
P
r
= Bursting resistance, should not be less than
4% of F
pi
20(0.153)(202.5)(0.04) 24.8 =
kips
Solving for the required area of steel,
24.8
1.24
20
= =
s
A in
2
As in the Standard Specification, LRFD requires bursting stirrups which can resist at
least 4% of the initial prestressing force, with a stress of no more than 20ksi:
This steel must be distributed over h/4 from the end. For this girder, h/4=33/4=8.25
inches. Four #4 double leg stirrups @ 3” provides 1.60 in
2
over 8 inches.
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 32 of 35
6.0
EXTERIOR
GIRDER
6.1
Moment
The exterior girder takes the rail load (DC):
( )
2
b
0.090klf 65ft
M 47.5k ft 570k in
8
= = − = −
Note: Article 4.6.2.2.1 allows the rail load to be equally distributed to all the girders.
However, it does not have to be and, in this case, it is probably more correct to assign
the railing to the exterior girder.
The live load moments must be multiplied by the exterior girder factor.
Two or more lanes loaded: [LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2d1]
ext int
e
g eg
d
e 1.04 1
25
=
= + >
Since the rail is right at the edge of the box, d
e
= half the web width = 2.75 inches =
0.23 ft. Note that d
e
is in FEET.
0.23
e 1.04 1.049
25
= + =
One lane loaded:
ext int
e
g eg
d
e 1.125 1
30
=
= + >
0.23
e 1.125 1.133
30
= + = Controls
Note that there is only one DFM, so the one lane e is multiplied by the DFM. In the
equation below, the truck load (362.3 kft) is already multiplied by the interior DFM
and the impact factor; the lane load (102.7 kft) is multiplied by the DFM (no impact
on lane load). Thus, it is only necessary to multiply by the increasing factor:
( ) ( ) ( )( )
u
u
M 1.25 515.3 47.5 1.50 126.8 1.75 362.3 102.7 1.133
M 1815k ft 21790k in
= + + + +
= − = −
For the interior box with 20 strands, φM
n
= 23550 kin so OK for M
u
Stresses at transfer do not need to be checked as these stress occur during fabrication
are independent of the railing load and the live load.
The check performed on the interior girders is sufficient.
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 33 of 35
Service load stresses should be checked. It is clear by inspection that service load
compression stresses are OK (see Section 2.3.3). Check Service III:
( ) ( ) ( )( )
bottom 3
M 515.3 47.5 126.8 0.8 362.3 102.7 1.133 1111k ft 13330k
13330k in
f 2.05ksi
6511in
= + + + + = − = −
−
= =
f
ps
= 1.94 ksi compression (previously calculated)
f
bottom
= 1.94 ksi – 2.05 ksi = 0.110 ksi = 0.110 tension < 0.503 ksi tension OK
6.2
Exterior Girder
Shear
This check must be performed at all sections. Only the critical section is shown here.
The check is also made using Sectional Model.
At the critical section:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )( )( )
g
g
V w 0.5L x 0.090klf 0.5 65ft 3ft 2.65k
M 0.5wx L x 0.5 0.090klf 3ft 65ft 3ft 8.37k ft
= − = − =
= − = − = −
Two or more lanes loaded: [LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.3b1]
ext int
0.5
e
48
g eg
b
b
d 2
12
e 1 1
40
 
=

\ .
 
+ −

= + ≥


\ .
0.5
48
0.23 2
12
e 1 1.234
40
 
+ −

= + =


\ .
One Lane Loaded:
ext int
e
g eg
d
e 1.125 1
20
=
= + ≥
0.23
e 1.125 1.137
20
= + =
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 34 of 35
Check:
Two or more lanes: e*DFV = 1.234(0.456) = 0.562 Controls
One Lane: e*DFV = 1.137(0.445) = 0.506
Because there are two DFV, each must be checked!
V
u
= 0.562(1.2)[58.33(1.33) + 18.92] = 65.08k
V
LL,truck
= 58.33k
V
LL,lane
= 18.92k
IM = 0.33
Skew Factor = 1.2
V
u
= 1.25(22.54k + 1.75k + 4.13 k+2.65) + 1.50 (7.08 k) + 1.75(65.08k)= 163.3 k
Using the Sectional Design Model, M
u
= 3714kin, β= 3.24, θ=21.4
o
, φV
n
= 215 k, so
OK.
7.0
CAMBER AND
DEFLECTION
Camber calculations are not directly addressed in LRFD (They were not directly
addressed in the Standard Specifications, either).
The same methods used for finding camber and deflection used for Standard
Specifications apply for LRFD Designs.
ODOT invokes Article 2.5.2.6.2,which limits Live Load deflection to L/800 for
precast, simple span girders.
The limit for a Box Girder Bridge is L/800.
Since this is a limit on FLEXURAL deflection, it is appropriate to use the MDF.
MDF = 0.336(0.905) = 0.304
Lane Load = 0.640(0.304) = 0.194klf
Axle Load (rear) = 32k(1.33)(0.304)=12.9k (includes impact)
Axle Load (front) = 8k(1.33)(0.304) = 3.22k (includes impact)
The live load, positioned for maximum deflection is:
Box Girder Example To be Used as an Example, Only
ODOT Short Course Page 35 of 35
Using a standard analysis software:
( ) 65ft 12
0.654in 0.975in
800
δ = < = OK
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 1 of 65
GUIDED DESIGN EXAMPLE
AASHTO Type IV, Two Span, Composite Deck, LRFD Specifications
INTRO
This design example demonstrates the design of a twospan AASHTO Type IV – I girder
with no skew, as shown below. This example illustrates the design of a typical interior and
exterior beam at the critical sections for positive flexure, negative flexure, shear, and the
continuity connection. The superstructure consists of five beams spaced at 8’0” centers as
shown below. Beams are designed to act compositely with the 8.5inthick castinplace
concrete deck slab to resist all superimposed dead loads, live loads, and impact.
Longitudinal
Section
Transverse
Cross Section
MATERIALS
Slab
Actual thickness, t
s
= 9.5 in
Structural thickness = 8.5 in.
Note that 1.0 in wearing surface is considered to be an integral part of the 8.5 in deck.
f
c
’ = 4.5 ksi @ 28 days (ODOT Bridge Design Manual (BDM) 302.5.2.8)
Concrete unit weight, w
c
=0.150 kcf
96’3” 96’3”
1’9”
4 Spaces @ 8’0” = 32’0”
2.5’
34’0”
Type IV
2.5’
8.5” structural+
1.0” wearing
37’0”
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 2 of 65
Precast Beams AASHTO Type IV girder shown below
f
c
’ = 7.0 ksi @ 28 days
f
ci
’ = 4.5 ksi
Concrete unit weight, w
c
=0.150 kcf
The ODOT BDM allows a range of strengths (302.5.2.8). Given strengths are within that
range.
Prestressing
Strand
½ in diameter, lowrelaxation, ASTM A416
Area of one strand = 0.153 in
2
Ultimate strength, f
pu
= 270.0 ksi
The ODOT BDM (302.5.2.2a) allows ½ inch, ½ inch special or 0.6 inch diameter strands.
Regular ½ inch diameter is chosen here.
4’6”
8”
6”
1’11”
9”
8”
1’8”
2’2”
8” 6”
9”
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 3 of 65
Reinforcing
Bars
Yield strength, f
y
= 60 ksi
Modulus of elasticity, E
s
= 29,000 ksi
(ODOT BDM 302.5.2.9)
Loads Future wearing surface: 0.060 ksf (ODOT Std. Drawings)
Barriers: 0.640 k/ft each
Truck: HL 93, including dynamic allowance
CROSS
SECTION
PROPERTIES
FOR A
TYPICAL
INTERIOR
BEAM
NonComposite
Section
Area in
2
789
Weight (lb/ft) 822
h (in) 54
y
b
(in) 24.73
y
t
(in) 29.27
I (in
4
) 260,741
S
b
(in
3
) 10,542
S
t
(in
3
) 8,909
1.5
1
33, 000 '
C C c
E K w f = [LRFD 5.4.2.41]
1.5
33, 000 1.0 0.150 4.5 4, 067
C
E ksi = × × =  at transfer
1.5
33, 000 1.0 0.150 7.0 5, 072
C
E ksi = × × =  service loads
Composite
Section
Effective flange
Width
(1/4) Span = (96.25 ft)(12in/ft)/4 = 289 in [LRFD 4.6.2.6]
12t
s
plus the greater of the web thickness or ½ the beam top flange width:
t
s
= 8.5 in (slab thickness  use structural thickness only)
web thickness = 8 in
½ top flange = 0.5(20 in) = 10 in (Greatest)
12(8.5 in) + 10 in = 112 in
Average spacing between beams = 8 ft = 96 in (CONTROLS)
EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH = 96 in Interior Girder
EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH = 78 in Exterior Girder (overhang is 4 ft).
Modular Ratio ( ) 4, 067
0.8019
( ) 5, 072
c
c
E Slab
n
E beam
= = =
Transformed
Section
Properties
Transformed flange width = n(effective flange width) = (0.8019)(96) = 76.98 in
Transformed flange area = n(effective flange width)(t
s
) = (0.8019)(96)(8.5) = 654.35in
2
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 4 of 65
Note that only the structural thickness of the deck, 8.5 in, is considered. A 2” haunch is
assumed for calculating weight but not for finding composite properties (ODOT BDM
302.5.2.3).
Figure below shows the dimensions of the composite section.
Properties of
Composite
section
A
c
= Total area of composite section = 1,443 in
2
h
c
= Overall depth of the composite section
= 62.5 in
I
c
= Moment of inertia of the composite section
= 666,579 in
4
y
bc
= Distance from the centroid of the
composite section to the extreme bottom
fiber of the precast beam
= 39.93 in
y
tg
= Distance from the centroid of the
composite section to the extreme top fiber
of the precast beam
= 14.07 in
y
tc
= Distance from the centroid of the
composite section to the extreme top fiber
of the slab
= 22.57 in.
S
bc
= Composite section modulus for the
extreme bottom fiber of the precast beam
= 16,694 in
3
S
tg
= Composite section modulus for the top
fiber of the precast beam
= 47,376 in
3
S
tc
= Composite section modulus for extreme
top fiber of the deck slab
= 29,534 in
3
96”
76.98”
8.5”
54”
26”
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 5 of 65
SHEAR
FORCES &
BENDING
MOMENTS
The selfweight of the beam, haunch, and slab act on the noncomposite section as a simple
span structure. The weight of the barriers, future wearing surface, and live loads with
impact act on the composite section as a continuous structure.
Dead Loads DC = Dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments
DC Dead Loads carried by the girders:
Beam Weight: 0.822 klf
Slab: (96 in)(9.5 in)(0.150 kcf)/(144 in
2
/ft
2
) = 0.95 klf
Haunch: (2 in)(20 in)(0.150 kcf)/(144 in
2
/ft
2
) = 0.042 klf (ODOT BDM 302.5.2.3)
Note: The actual slab thickness of 9.5” is used in calculating dead loads. The 2” haunch
thickness is also used in calculating dead loads. The intermediate diaphragms are assumed
as steel “X” braces. These are ignored in these dead load calculations. The weight of each
brace is less than 0.3 kips. The moment caused by these braces is << 1% of the total DL
moment.
DC Dead Loads carried by the continuous structure, composite section:
According to LRFD Article 4.6.2.2.1 permanent loads may be distributed uniformly to all
beams if the following conditions are met:
Width of deck is constant. OK
Number of beams, N
b
> 4. OK
Overhang part of the roadway < 3 ft OK
d
e
= 2.5 ft – 1.5 ft = 1.0 ft
Curvature in plan < Specified in Article 4.6.1.2 OK
Cross Section listed in Table 4.6.2.2.11 OK
Partial of Table 4.6.2.2.11  This example is a Type “k”
The section meets the criteria, so the loads may be uniformly distributed to the girders.
Future Wearing Surface = 0.060 ksf = (0.060 ksf)(34 ft)/5 beams = 0.408 kips/ft/girder
Barrier = 0.640 klf = 2 each (0.640)/5 girders = 0.256 kips/ft/girder
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 6 of 65
LRFD Article 4.6.2.2.1 allows the slab weight to be evenly distributed to the girders in the
same manner as the wearing surface and the barriers. In this case, the decision has been
made to use tributary areas to distribute the slab weight to the girders. Either method is
allowable.
DLUnfactored
Shear Forces &
Bending
Moments
For dead loads the length of the span depends on the construction stage:
The shear forces and bending moments are given in the table below:
Location
Beam Weight
[Simple Span]
Deck plus Haunch
[Simple Span]
Barrier Weight
[Continuous Span]
Future Wearing
Surface [Continuous
Span]
Distance
x ft.
Section
x/L
Shear
kips
Moment
M
g
, kipft Shear kips
Moment
M
s
, kipft
Shear
kips
Moment
M
b
, kipft
Shear
kips
Moment
M
ws
, kipft
0.00 0.00 39.6 0 47.7 0 9.2 7.7 14.7 12.4
9.26 0.10 31.9 331 38.5 399.3 6.8 81.8 10.9 130.5
18.97 0.20 24 602.6 28.9 727 4.3 136 6.9 217
28.69 0.30 16 796.5 19.3 961.1 1.8 166 2.9 264.9
38.41 0.40 8 912.9 9.6 1101.5 0.6 171.9 1 274.2
48.13 0.50 0 951.9 0 1148.4 3.1 153.6 5 245.1
57.84 0.60 8 912.9 9.6 1101.5 5.6 111.2 8.9 177.5
67.56 0.70 16 796.5 19.3 961.1 8.1 44.7 12.9 71.3
77.28 0.80 24 602.6 28.9 727 10.6 46 16.9 73.4
86.99 0.90 31.9 331 38.5 399.3 13.1 160.8 20.8 256.7
96.25 Brg. 39.6 0 47.7 0 15.4 292.7 24.6 467.1
Live Loads According to LRFD Article 4.6.1.2.1 vehicular live loading on the roadways of bridges or
incidental structures, designated HL93, shall consists of a combination of the:
• Design truck or design tandem with dynamic allowance. The design truck shall
consists of an 8.0 kip front axle and a pair of 32.0 kip back axles. The first and
second axle are spaced 14’0” apart. The space between the rear axles shall be
varied between 14.0’ and 30.0’ to porduce extreme force effects. The design tandem
shall consist of a pair of 25.0 kip axles spaced 4.0’ apart. [LRFD Article 3.6.1.2.2
and 3.6.1.2.3]
• Design lane load shall consist of a load of 0.64 kip/ft uniformly distributed in the
longitudinal direction. [LRFD Article 3.6.1.2.4]
• For negative moment between inflection points, 90% of the effect of two design
trucks (HL93 with 14 ft. axle spacing) spaced at a minimum of 50 ft. combined with
90% of the design lane load.
• Inflection points are determined by loading all spans with a uniform load.
Distribution
Factors
The live load bending moments and shear forces are determined by using the simplified
distribution factor formulas [LRFD 4.6.2.2]. To use the simplified live load distribution
factor formulas, the following conditions must be met [LRFD 4.6.2.2.1]
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 7 of 65
Width of deck is constant. OK
Number of beams, N
b
> 4. OK
Overhang part of the roadway < 3 ft OK
d
e
= 2.5 ft – 1.5 ft = 1.0 ft
Curvature in plan < Specified in Article 4.6.1.2 OK
Beam parallel and of same stiffness OK
Cross Section listed in Table 4.6.2.2.11 OK
For a precast concrete Igirder with CIP deck, the bridge type is (k) [LRFD 4.6.2.2.11]
The number of design lanes should be determined by taking the integer part of the ratio
w/12, where w is the clear roadway width in ft between curbs and/or barriers. [LRFD
3.6.1.1.1]
w = 34 ft.
Number of design lanes = integer part of (34/12) = 2
Note: It could be argued that this should be designed as a three lane bridge because 3 – 11
ft lanes would fit and the minimum lane width is 10ft. However, the distribution factor is for
2 or more lanes loaded and the number of lanes isn’t in the equation so it doesn’t matter.
Distribution
Factors for
Bending
Moment
For all limit states except for fatigue limit state. [LRFD Table 4.6.2.2.2b1]
For two or more lanes loaded:
0.1
0.6 0.2
3
0.075
9.5 12
g
s
K
S S
DFM
L Lt
 
   
= +
  
\ . \ .
\ .
Where DFM = distribution factor for moment for interior beam. Provided that:
3.5 16.0 S ≤ ≤
8.0 S OK = S = Spacing, ft
4.5 12.0
s
t ≤ ≤ 8.5
s
t OK = t
s
= slab thickness, in
20 240 L ≤ ≤
98 L OK = L = beam span, ft
4
b
N ≥ 5
b
N OK = N
b
= number of beams
10, 000 7, 000, 000
g
K ≤ ≤
g
K = See below K
g
= longitudinal
stiffness parameter, in
4
( )
2
g g
K n I Ae = +
[LRFD 4.6.2.2.11]
Where:
n = modular ratio between beam and deck materials
( ) 5, 072
1.247
( ) 4, 067
c
c
E beam
E slab
= = =
A = crosssection area of the beam (noncomposite), in
2
= 789
I = moment of inertia of the beam (noncomposite), in
4
= 260,741
e
g
= Distance be c.g. of beam and slab, in = (8.5/2+2.0+29.27) = 35.52
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 8 of 65
So:
( )
2
4
1.247 260, 741 789*35.52
1, 566, 480
g
g
K
K in
= +
=
10,000 < K
g
< 7,000,000 OK
The haunch is included in this calculation as this results in the most conservative DFM.
Using L = 98 ft:
0.1
0.6 0.2
3
8 8 1, 566, 480
0.075
9.5 98 12*98*8.5
0.665
DFM
DFM
 
   
= +
  
\ . \ .
\ .
=
For one design lane loaded:
0.1
0.4 0.3
3
0.1
0.4 0.3
3
0.06
14 12
8 8 1, 566, 480
0.06
14 98 12*98*8.5
0.467
g
s
K
S S
DFM
L Lt
DFM
DFM
 
   
= +
  
\ . \ .
\ .
 
   
= +
  
\ . \ .
\ .
=
The case of two design lanes loaded controls, DFM = 0.665 lanes/beam
Distribution
Factors for
Shear Force
For two or more lanes loaded: [LRFD 4.6.2.2.11]
2
0.2
12 35
S S
DFV
   
= + −
 
\ . \ .
Where DFV = distribution factor for shear for interior beam. Provided that:
3.5 16.0 S ≤ ≤
8.0 S OK = S = Spacing, ft
4.5 12.0
s
t ≤ ≤ 8.5
s
t OK = t
s
= slab thickness, in
20 240 L ≤ ≤
98 L OK = L = beam span, ft
4
b
N ≥ 5
b
N OK = N
b
= number of beams
So:
2
8 8
0.2
12 35
0.814
DFV
DFV
   
= + −
 
\ . \ .
=
For one design lane loaded
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 9 of 65
0.36
25
8
0.36
25
0.68
S
DFV
DFV
DFV
 
= +

\ .
 
= +

\ .
=
The case of two design lanes loaded controls, DFV = 0.814 lanes/beam
Dynamic
Allowance
IM = 33%
Where: IM = dynamic load allowance, applied only to truck load
Unfactored
Shear Force
and Bending
Moments
Unfactored shear forces and bending moment due to HL93 truck load, per beam:
V
LT
= (shear force per lane)(DFV)(1+IM)=(shear force per lane)(0.814)(1.33)
=(shear force per lane)(1.083) kips
M
LT
= (bending moment per lane)(DFM)(1+IM)=(bending moment per lane)(0.665)(1.33)
=( bending moment per lane)(0.884) kipsft
Unfactored shear forces and bending moment due to HL93 lane load, per beam:
V
LT
= (shear force per lane)(DFV)(1+IM)=(shear force per lane)(0.814)
M
LT
= (bending moment per lane)(DFM)(1+IM)=(bending moment per lane)(0.665)
This table, obtained from a structural analysis program, is truck load + lane load, with
dynamic effect and distribution factor included.
Location
HL93 Live Load
Distance
x ft.
Section
x/L
Max
Shear
kips
Max. Positive
Moment
M
LL+I,
kipft
Max. Negative
Moment
M
LL+I,
kipft
0.00 0.00 89.4 48.5 5.6
9.26 0.10 76.3 624.6 83.3
18.97 0.20 62.7 1049.3 163.4
28.69 0.30 50.1 1300.5 243.6
38.41 0.40 39.9 1412.4 323.7
48.13 0.50 48.3 1386.2 403.9
57.84 0.60 60.3 1239.1 484
67.56 0.70 72.2 961.1 564.2
77.28 0.80 83.8 577.5 776.2
86.99 0.90 95 215.9 877.6
96.25 Brg. 104.6 14.8 1380.7
Shown in this table are maximum values of shear, positive moment, and negative moment.
The maximum values at a given location are not necessarily from the same load case.
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 10 of 65
Load
Combinations
The following limit states are applicable: [LRFD 3.4.1]
Service I:
Q = 1.00(DC + DW) + 1.00 (LL + IM)
Service III:
Q = 1.00(DC + DW) + 0.80(LL + IM)
Strength I:
Maximum Q = 1.25(DC) + 1.50(DW) + 1.75(LL + IM)
Minimum Q = 0.90(DC) + 0.65(DW) + 1.75(LL + IM)
ESTIMATE
REQUIRED
PRESTRESS
The required number of strands is usually governed by Service III load combination at the
section of maximum moment or harp points.
In a continuous for live load structure, the maximum moments do not occur at the same
place for each load. The point of maximum moment depends on whether the load was
applied to the continuous or simple structure. Thus, each point must be checked for the
combinations of loads.
In this structure, the maximum flexural Service Load stresses occur at 48.13 ft. (although
this is NOT where the continuous load moments are maximum). It is inappropriate to
simply take maximum moments without regard to location along the length of the girder.
At this point, it is necessary to determine the needed number of strands. Box girders tend to
be controlled by the Strength Limit State, but “I” girders (this example) tend to be controlled
by service load tensions.
The initial estimate of number of strands will be found from the Service III combination.
Recall that Service III ONLY applies to tension in prestressed sections.
Service 1 Service 3 Strength 1 Length
V M V M V M
k kft k kft k kft ft.
200.6 68.6 182.72 58.9 299.125 113.1 Bearing 0
192.6 431.7 175.3 393.72 287.45 644.925 Trans. 2.04
189.8 549.9 172.7 502.76 283.375 817.925 H/2 2.73
164.4 1567.2 149.14 1442.28 246.375 2303.925 0.10L 9.26
126.8 2731.9 114.26 2522.04 191.575 3993.775 0.20L 18.97
90.1 3489 80.08 3228.9 138.4 5077.725 0.30L 28.69
55.9 3872.9 47.92 3590.42 89.575 5615.875 0.40L 38.41
56.4 3885 46.74 3607.76 95.9 5610.625 MidSpan 48.13
92.4 3542.2 80.34 3294.38 147.875 5091.675 0.60L 57.84
128.5 2834.7 114.06 2642.48 199.95 4041.75 0.70L 67.56
164.2 434 147.44 589.24 251.375 329.31 0.80L 77.28
199.3 564.8 180.3 389.28 301.825 1464.58 0.90L 86.99
222.3 1614.4 201.94 1375.8 334.65 2795.88 H/2 93.52
224.8 1742.2 204.3 1494.76 338.2 2961.82 Trans. 94.21
231.9 2140.5 210.98 1864.36 348.325 3482.75 Bearing 96.25
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 11 of 65
Service Load
Stresses at
Midspan
Bottom tensile stress due to applied dead and live loads using load combination Service III:
(0.8)( )
g s
b ws LL I
b
b bc
M M
M M M
f
S S
+
+
+ +
= +
Where:
f
b
= Bottom tensile stresses ksi
M
g
= Unfactored bending moment due to beam selfweight, kipft
M
s
= Unfactored bending moment due to slab and haunch weights, kipft
M
b
= Unfactored bending moment due to due to barrier weights, kipft
M
ws
= Unfactored bending moment due to future wearing surface, kipft
M
LL+I
= Unfactored bending moment due to design vehicular live
load including impact,
kipft
 
153.6 245.1 (0.8)(1, 386.2) (12)
(951.9 1,148.4)(12)
10, 542 16, 694
2.39 1.08
3.47
b
b
b
f
f
f ksi
+ +
+
= +
= +
=
Stress Limits
for Concrete
According to LRFD Table 5.9.4.2.21 the tensile stress limit at service loads is
'
0.19
0.19 7.0 0.503
c
f
ksi
=
= =
Required
Number of
Strands
The difference between the bottom fiber tensile stress due to applied loads and the tensile
stress limit is the required precompression stress.
(3.47 0.503) 2.97
pb
f = − = ksi
At this point, the number of rows of strands is unknown. Assume a strand center of gravity
at midspan as 8% of the height of the girder.
0.08(54) 4.32
bs
y = = in
So the strand eccentricity at the midspan is:
( ) (24.73 4.32) 20.41
c b bs
e y y = − = − = in
If P
pe
is the total prestressing force, the stress at the bottom fiber due to prestress is:
pe pe c
pb
b
P P e
f
A S
= +
Now plug in the required recompression stress, f
pb
and solve form P
pe
:
(20.41)
2.97
789 10, 542
927
pe pe
pe
P P
P kips
= +
=
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 12 of 65
The required prestressing force after all losses is 927 kips. This is after an assumed 25%
loss. That means the initial prestressing force will be approximately 1240 kips. Check with
your local precast producer to ensure the capacity prestressing beds can withstand this
force.
Final prestress force per strand = (area of strand)(f
pi
)(1losses, %) where f
pi
= initial
prestressing stress before transfer =0.75 f
pu
= 202.5 ksi
Assuming 25% loss of prestress the final prestressing force per strand after losses is:
(0.153)(202.5)(1 0.25) 23.2 / kips strand − ≈
Number of strands required =
927
39.9
23.2
= strands
Try (40) ½ in diameter, 270 ksi, lowlax strands.
Strand Pattern See figure below for the assumed strand pattern at the midspan:
No.
Strands
Distance from
bottom (in)
7 8
11 6
11 4
11 2
10 Spa.
@ 2”
2” 2”
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 13 of 65
The distance between the center of gravity of strands and the bottom concrete fiber of the
beam is, y
bs
, is:
[(11)2 (11)4 (11)6 (7)8]
4.70
40
bs
y
+ + +
= = in
Strand eccentricity at midspan:
24.73 4.70 20.0
c b bs
e y y = − = − = in
PRESTRESS
LOSSES
Total Prestress Losses
pT pES pLT
f f f ∆ = ∆ + ∆ [LRFD 5.9.5.11]
Where:
∆f
pES
= loss due to elastic shortening, ksi
∆f
pLT
= loss due to longterm shrinkage and creep of concrete, and relaxation of the
steel, ksi
Elastic
Shortening
p
pES cgp
ct
E
f f
E
∆ = [LRFD 5.9.5.2.3a1]
Where:
f
cgp
= The concrete stress at the center of gravity of prestressing tendons due
to the prestressing force immediately after the transfer and the self
weight of the member at the section of the maximum moment (ksi).
2
g c
i i c
M e
P Pe
A I I
+ −
E
p
= Elastic Modulus of the prestressing steel (ksi).
E
ci
= Elastic Modulus of the concrete at the time of transfer or time of load
application (ksi).
According to the LRFD Commentary for pretensioned member the loss due to elastic
shortening may be determined by the following alternative equation (This is the calculation
of elastic shortening loss by transformed section):
2
2
( )
( )
ps pi g m g m g g
pES
g g ct
ps g m g
p
A f I e A e M A
A I E
A I e A
E
+ −
∆ =
+ +
[LRFD C5.9.5.2.3a1]
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 14 of 65
Where:
A
ps
=
=
Area of prestressing steel, in
2
40(0.153) = 6.12
f
pi
=
=
Prestressing steel stress immediately prior to transfer, ksi
202.5
A
g
=
=
Gross area of section, in
2
789
E
ct
=
=
Elastic Modulus of the concrete at transfer (ksi).
4,067
E
p
=
=
Elastic Modulus of the prestressing steel (ksi).
28,500
e
m
=
=
Average prestressing steel eccentricity at midspan, in
20.0
I
g
=
=
Moment of inertia of the gross concrete section, in
4
260,741
M
g
=
=
Midspan moment due to member selfweight, kipin
951.9(12) = 11,422.8
So:
2
2
6.12*202.5(260, 741 20.0 *789) 20.0*11, 422.8*789
789*260, 741*4, 067
6.12(260, 741 20.0 *789)
28, 500
16.24
pES
pES
+ −
∆ =
+ +
∆ =
Note: If the self weight moment is calculated using total beam length rather than c/c
bearing, the moment becomes 11641 kin. The elastic shortening loss becomes 16.13 ksi; <
1% different.
LongTerm
Losses
For standard, precast, pretensioned members subject to normal loading and environmental
conditions:
10 12
pi ps
pLT h st h st pR
g
f A
f f
A
γ γ γ γ ∆ = + + ∆ [LRFD 5.9.5.31]
In which:
1.7 0.01
h
H γ = − [LRFD 5.9.5.32]
5
1 '
st
ci
f
γ =
+
[LRFD 5.9.5.33]
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 15 of 65
Where:
H = The average annual ambient relative humidity (%)
γ
h
= Correction factor for relative humidity of the ambient air
γ
hst
= Correction factor for specified concrete strength at time of
Prestress transfer to the concrete member
∆f
pR
= An estimate of relaxation loss taken as 2.5 ksi for low
relaxation strand, 10.0 ksi for stress relieved strand, and in
accordance with manufacturers recommendation for other
types of strand (ksi)
Assume H = 70%
1.7 0.01*70 1.00
h
γ = − =
5
0.91
1 4.5
st
γ = =
+
So:
202.5*6.12
10 1.00*0.91 12*1.00*0.91 2.5
789
14.29 10.92 2.5
27.71
pLT
pLT
pLT
f
f
f
∆ = + +
∆ = + +
∆ =
Total Losses at
Service Loads
Total Prestress Losses:
16.24 27.71
43.95
202.5 43.95 158.6
pT pES pLT
pT
pT
pe
f f f
f
f
f
∆ = ∆ + ∆
∆ = +
∆ =
= − =
[LRFD 5.9.5.11]
Losses are approximately 22% < 25% OK
STRESSES AT
TRANSFER
Force per strand after initial losses:
Stress in tendons after transfer: 202.5 16.24 186.26
pt pi pi
f f f = − ∆ = − = ksi
Force per strand = f
pt
(strand area) = 186.26(0.153) = 28.50 kips
Therefore, the total prestressing force after transfer is, P
i
= 1,140 kips
(Note: The LRFD Specifications permit 0.9f
pu
to be used here; the difference is minimal.)
Stress Limits
for Concrete
Compression: 0.60f
ci
’ = 0.60(4.5) = +2.700 ksi [LRFD 5.9.4.1.1]
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 16 of 65
Tension: [LRFD 5.9.4.1.2]
1. In areas other than the precompressed tensile zone and without bonded
reinforcement
'
0.0948 0.2
0.0948 4.5 0.2
0.201 0.2
ci
f ≤
≤
≤
Therefore, 0.200 ksi (Controls)
2. In areas with bonded reinforcement sufficient to resist the tensile force in the
concrete computed assuming an uncracked section, where reinforcement is
proportioned using a stress of 0.5f
y
, not to exceed 30 ksi.
'
0.24
0.24 4.5
ci
f
0.509 ksi
Stresses at
Transfer
Length Section
Stresses at this location need only be checked at release since this stage almost always
governs. Also, losses with time will reduce the concrete stresses making them less critical.
Transfer length = 60(strand diameter) = 60(0.5) = 30 in = 2.5 ft [LRFD 5.8.2.3]
The bending moment at a distance 2.5 ft from the end of the beam due to beam selfweight
is:
(0.5)(0.822)(2.5)(97.17 2.5) 97.3
g
M = − = kipft
Compute top stress at the top fiber of the beam:
1,140 1,140(20.0) 97.3(12)
789 8, 909 8, 909
1.44 2.56 0.13 0.99
g
i i
t
b b
t
t
M
P Pe
f
A S S
f
f
= − +
= − +
= − + = −
Tensile stress limit for concrete with bonded reinforcement: 0.509 ksi NG
Compute bottom stress at the bottom fiber of the beam:
1,140 1,140(20.0) 97.3(12)
789 10, 542 10, 542
1.44 2.16 0.11 3.49
g
i i
t
b b
t
t
M
P Pe
f
A S S
f
f
= + −
= + −
= + − = +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi NG
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 17 of 65
Since the top and bottom concrete stresses exceed the stress limits, harp 9 strands at 0.35L =
34 ft. as shown in the following figures.
At Midspan At ends
No.
Strands
Distance from
bottom (in)
No.
Strands
Distance from
bottom (in)
7 8 3 52
11 6 3 50
11 4 3 48
11 2 4 8
8 6
8 4
11 2
Compute the center of gravity of the prestressing strands at the transfer length using the
harped pattern.
The distance between the center of gravity of the 9 harped strands at the end of the beam
and the top fiber of the precast beam is:
3(2) 3(4) 3(6)
4.00
9
+ +
= in
The distance between the center of gravity of the 9 harped strands at the harp point and the
bottom fiber of the precast beam is:
3(4) 3(6) 3(8)
6.00
9
+ +
= in
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 18 of 65
The distance between the center of gravity of the 9 harped strands and the top fiber of the
beam at the transfer length section is:
(54 6 4)
4.00 (2.5) 7.25
34
− −
+ = in
The distance between the center of gravity of the 31 straight bottom strands and the extreme
bottom fiber of the beam is:
11(2) 8(4) 8(6) 4(8)
4.32
31
+ + +
= in
The distance between the center of gravity of the total number of the strands and the bottom
fiber of the precast beam at the transfer length is:
9(54 7.25) 31(4.32)
13.87
40
− +
= in
Eccentricity of the strand group at transfer length is: 24.73 13.87 10.86 − = in
The distance between the center of gravity of the total number of the strands and the bottom
fiber of the precast beam at the end of the beam is:
9(54 4) 31(4.32)
14.60
40
− +
= in
The eccentricity at the end of the beam is: 24.73 14.60 10.13 − = in
Recompute top and bottom stresses at the transfer length section using the harped pattern:
Concrete stress at the top fiber of the beam:
1,140 1,140(10.86) 97.3(12)
789 8, 909 8, 909
1.44 1.39 0.13 0.18
= − +
= − + = +
t
t
f
f
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi OK
At the bottom:
1,140 1,140(10.86) 97.3(12)
789 10, 542 10, 542
1.44 1.17 0.11 2.50
t
t
f
f
= + −
= + − = +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi OK
Stresses at
Harp Points
The strand eccentricity at the harp points is the same as at the midspan, e
c
= 20.0 in
The bending moment due to beam selfweight at a distance 34.00 ft. from the end of the
beam is:
(0.5)(0.822)(34.00)(97.17 34.00) 882.7
g
M = − = kipft
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 19 of 65
Concrete stress at the top fiber of the beam:
1,140 1,140(20.0) 882.7*12
789 8, 909 8, 909
1.44 2.56 1.19 0.07
g
i i
t
b b
t
t
M
P Pe
f
A S S
f
f
= − +
= − +
= − + = +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi OK
Compute bottom stress at the bottom fiber of the beam:
1,140 1,140(20.0) 882.7*12
789 10, 542 10, 542
1.44 2.16 1.00 2.60
g
i i
t
b b
t
t
M
P Pe
f
A S S
f
f
= + −
= + −
= + − = +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi OK
Stresses at
Midspan
The maximum moments due to noncomposite loads and composite load do not occur at the
same place. In this example, the maximum combined stresses occur at midspan. The
bending moment due to beam selfweight at a distance 48’7” from the end of the beam is:
(0.5)(0.822)(48.58)(97.17 48.58) 970.1
g
M = − = kipft
Concrete stress at the top fiber of the beam:
1,140 1,140(20.0) 970.1*12
789 8, 909 8, 909
1.44 2.56 1.31 0.19
g
i i
t
b b
t
t
M
P Pe
f
A S S
f
f
= − +
= − +
= − + = +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi OK
Compute bottom stress at the bottom fiber of the beam:
1,140 1,140(20.0) 970.1*12
789 10, 542 10, 542
1.44 2.16 1.10 2.50
g
i i
t
b b
t
t
M
P Pe
f
A S S
f
f
= + −
= + −
= + − = +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi OK
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 20 of 65
HoldDown
Forces
Assume that the stress in the strand at the time of prestressing, before any losses, is:
0.75 0.75(270) 202.5 = =
pu
f ksi
Then, the Prestress force per strand before any losses is:
From previous figure, harp angle:
1
54 4 6
tan 6.2
34(12)
ψ
−
  − −
= =

\ .
o
Therefore, holddown force per strand = 1.05(force per strand)(sin ψ)
=1.05(31.0) sin 6.2
◦
= 3.5 kips per strand
Note that the factor, 1.05, is applied to account for friction.
Total hold down force = 9 strands(3.5) = 31.6 kips
ODOT BDM States that the following limits are not to be exceeded:
No. of Draped
Strands per Row
P
U
/Strand
(lb)
1 6,000
2 4,000
3 4,000
So holddown force per strand = 3.5 kips per strand OK
Summary of
Stresses at
Transfer
At transfer, stresses at the end of girder tend to exceed allowables if the strand is straight.
Stresses can be brought within the allowable stress range either by harping or debonding the
strand. The question arises as to which is better, harping or debonding?
Boxes tend to use debonding because harping isn’t practical as the strand would go through
the void. I and Bulb T girders tend to use harping.
However, not all fabricators have the ability to harp (the bed won’t take the hold down
force). Therefore, before deciding to harp, contact probable fabricators or the local PCI
section for assistance and advice.
Top Stresses
f
t
, (ksi)
Bottom stresses
f
b
(ksi)
At transfer length section +0.27 +2.43
At harp points +0.07 +2.60
At midspan +0.19 +2.50
Note that the bottom stresses at the harp points are more critical than the ones at midspan.
' 0.153(202.5) 31.0 /
i
P k strand = =
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 21 of 65
STRESSES AT
SERVICE
LOADS
Total loss of prestress at service loads is 43.95
pT
f ∆ = ksi
Stress in tendon after all losses, 202.5 43.95 158.55
pe pi pT
f f f = − ∆ = − = ksi
Force per strand = (f
pe
)(strand area) = (158.6)(0.153) = 24.3 kips
The total prestressing force after all losses, P
pe
= 24.3 (40) = 972.0 kips
Stress Limits
for Concrete
Compression: [LRFD 5.9.4.2.1]
Due to permanent loads, (i.e. beam selfweight, weight of slab and haunch, weight of future
wearing surface, and weight of barriers), for service limit states:
For the precast beam:0.45f
c
’ = 0.45(7.0) = +3.150 ksi
For the deck: 0.45f
c
’ = 0.45(4.5) = +2.025 ksi
Due to one half the permanent loads and live load:
For the precast beam:0.40f
c
’ = 0.40(7.0) = +2.800 ksi
For the deck: 0.40f
c
’ = 0.40(4.5) = +1.800 ksi
Due to permanent and transient loads (i.e. all dead loads and live loads), for service limit
states:
For the precast beam:0.60Φ
w
f
c
’ = 0.60(1.0)(7.0) = +4.200 ksi
For the deck: 0.60Φ
w
f
c
’ = 0.60(1.0)(4.5) = +2.700 ksi
Φ
w
= 1.0 [LRFD 5.7.4.7.2]
Note: Φ
w
is a factor for slender webs/flanges. It is not really meant for “I” girders. If the
calculations required for Φ
w
are done, Φ
w
=1.
Tension:
For components with bonded prestressing tendons:
For the precast beam:
'
0.19 0.19(7.0) 0.503
c
f = = ksi
Stresses at
Midspan
Compression
Concrete stress at the top fiber of the beam, three cases:
1. Under permanent loads, Service I:
Use bending moments given in table in Section 1.4.1.1.
1
1
1
( )
( )
972 972(20.0) (951.9 1,148.4) *12 (153.6 245.1) *12
789 8, 909 8, 909 47, 376
1.23 2.18 2.83 0.10 1.98
pe pe c g s
ws b
tg
t t tg
tg
tg
P P e M M
M M
f
A S S S
f
f
+
+
= − + +
+ +
= − + +
= − + + = +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +3.150 ksi OK
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 22 of 65
2. Onehalf permanent loads plus live loads:
2 1
2
2
( )
0.5
1, 386.2*12
0.5(1.98)
47, 376
0.99 0.35 1.34
LL I
tg tg
tg
tg
tg
M
f f
S
f
f
+
= +
= +
= + = +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.800 ksi OK
3. Under permanent and transient loads:
3
3
3
( )
1, 386.2*12
1.98
47, 376
1.98 0.35 2.33
LL I
tg tg
tg
tg
tg
M
f f
S
f
f
+
= +
= +
= + = +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +4.200 ksi OK
Concrete stress at the top fiber of the deck, three cases:
1. Under permanent loads:
1
1
1
( )
(245.1 153.6) *12
29, 534
0.162
ws b
tc
tg
tc
tc
M M
f
S
f
f
+
=
+
= +
= +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.025 ksi OK
Note: Note that deck stresses under service loads are almost always well below allowable
for continuous for LL bridges; but they still must be checked.
2. Onehalf permanent loads plus live loads:
2 1
2
2
( )
0.5
1, 386.2*12
0.5(0.162)
29, 534
0.08 0.563 0.64
LL I
tc tc
tg
tc
tc
M
f f
S
f
f
+
= +
= +
= + = +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +1.800 ksi OK
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 23 of 65
3. Under permanent and transient loads:
( )
(245.1 153.6 1, 386.2) *12
29, 534
0.73
ws b LL I
tc
tg
tc
tc
M M M
f
S
f
f
+
+ +
=
+ +
=
= +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi OK
Stresses at
Midspan
Tension
Tension stress at the bottom fiber of the beam, Service III:
 
( )
( ) 0.8
(245.1 153.6) (0.8*1, 386.2) *12
972 972(20.0) (951.9 1,148.4) *12
789 10, 542 10, 542 16, 694
1.23 1.84 2.39 1.08 0.40
pe pe c g s
ws b LL I
b
b b bc
b
b
P P e M M
M M M
f
A S S S
f
f
+
+
+ +
= + − −
+ +
+
= + − −
= + − − = −
Tensile stress limit for concrete: 0.503 ksi OK
Service III has the 0.8LL factor!
STRENGTH
LIMIT STATE
Positive
Moment
Section
Total Ultimate bending moment for Strength I is: [LRFD Tables 3.4.11&2]
1.25( ) 1.5( ) 1.75( )
u
M DC DW LL IM = + + +
The maximum moments for noncomposite and composite loads do not occur at the same
places. Here, the maximum factored moment occurs at 0.4L (although midspan is only 5kft
lower).
At point of maximum moment, 0.4L:
1.25( ) 1.5( ) 1.75( )
1.25(912.9 1,101.5 171.9) 1.5(274.2) 1.75(1, 412.4)
5, 615
u
u
u
M DC DW LL IM
M
M k ft
= + + +
= + + + +
= −
Average stress in prestressing steel when 0.5
pe pu
f f ≥ : [LRFD 5.7.3.1.1]
1
ps pu
p
c
f f k
d
 
= −


\ .
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 24 of 65
Where:
f
ps
= Average stress in prestressing steel ksi
k =
=
2 1.04
py
pu
f
f
 
−


\ .
0.28 for low relaxation strands
[LRFD Table C5.7.3.1.11]
d
p
=
=
Distance from extreme compression fiber
to the centroid of the prestressing tendons
h  y
bs
= 62.5 – 4.70 = 57.80
in.
c = Distance between the neutral axis and the
compressive face
in.
To compute c, assume rectangular section behavior, and check if the depth of the equivalent
compression stress block, a, is equal to or less than t
s
:
Note: a =β
1
c
' '
'
0.85
ps pu s y s y
pu
c ps
p
A f A f A f
c
f
f b kA
d
β
+ −
=
+
[LRFD 5.7.3.1.14]
Where:
A
ps
=
=
Area of prestressing steel
40 * 0.153 = 6.12
in
2
f
pu
=
=
Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel
270
ksi
A
s
=
=
Area of mild steel tension reinforcement
0.0
in
2
f
y
=
=
Yield strength of tension reinforcement
60.0
ksi
A
s
‘ =
=
Area of compression reinforcement
0.0
in
2
f
y
‘ =
=
Yield strength of compression reinforcement
60.0
ksi
f
c
‘ =
=
Compressive strength of deck concrete
4.5
ksi
β
1
=
=
Stress block factor specified in LRFD 5.7.2.2
0.83
b =
=
Effective width of compression flange
96
in.
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ODOT Short Course Page 25 of 65
6.12(270) 0.0 0.0
270
0.85(4.5)(0.83)(96) 0.28(6.12)
57.80
5.28
c
c
+ −
=
+
=
a = depth of the equivalent stress block = β
1
c
0.83(5.28) 4.39 a = = in. < t
s
=8.5 in. OK
Therefore, the assumption of rectangular section behavior is valid and the average stress in
prestressing steel is:
5.28
270 1 0.28 263.3
57.80
ps
f
 
= − =

\ .
ksi
Nominal flexural resistance:
2
4.39
6.12(263.3) 57.80
2
12
7, 467
n ps ps p
n
n
a
M A f d
M
M
 
= −

\ .
 
−

\ .
=
=
Factored flexural resistance:
r n
M M φ =
Where φ = resistance factor = 1.0 for flexure and tension of prestressed concrete
7, 467
r
M = kipft > 5, 615
u
M = kipft OK
NOTE: The equation given above for M
n
is not the exact equation 5.7.3.2.21. Equation
5.7.3.2.21 assumes Tbeam behavior, the presence of nonprestressed tensile steel,
prestressed tensile steel and nonprestressed compression steel. When the section is
rectangular and the nonprestressed reinforcement is ignored, equation 5.7.3.2.21
simplifies to the one used above.
Maximum
Reinforce
ment Positive
Moment Section
The old ρ
max
requirement has been deleted. The LRFD Specifications now require that φ be
determined based on whether the section is tension controlled, compression controlled or a
transition section. In the calculation of M
r
, tension control was assumed.
Check the strain in the extreme tensile steel:
t
t
t
d 54.0 8.5 2.0 60.5
d c 60.5 5.28
0.003 0.003 0.032 0.005
c 5.28
= + − =
− −    
ε = = = >
 
\ . \ .
This is a tension controlled section, so φ = 1.0 [LRFD 5.7.2.1 and 5.5.4.2]
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 26 of 65
Minimum
Reinforce
ent Positive
Moment Section
[LRFD 5.7.3.3.2]
At any section, the amount of prestressed and nonprestressed tensile reinforcement shall be
adequate to develop a factored flexural resistance, M
r
, at least equal to the lesser of:
3. 1.2 times the cracking moment, M
cr
, determined on the basis of elastic stress
distribution and the modulus of rupture, f
r
,
4. 1.33 times he factored moment required by the applicable strength load
combinations
( ) 1
c
cr c r cpe dnc c r
nc
S
M S f f M S f
S
 
= + − − ≥

\ .
[LRFD 5.7.3.3.21]
Where:
f
r
=
=
Modulus of rupture
'
0.37 0.37 7.0 0.979
c
f = =
ksi
[LRFD 5.4.2.6]
f
cpe
=
=
Compressive stress in concrete due to effective
prestresss forces only (after allowance for all
Prestress losses) at extreme fiber of section where
tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads
972 972(20.0)
1.23 1.84 3.07
789 10, 542
pe pe c
b
P P e
A S
+ = + = + =
ksi
M
dnc
=
=
Total unfactored dead load moment acting on the
non composite section
951.9 1,148.4 2,100.3
g s
M M + = + =
kipft
S
c
=
=
Section modulus for the extreme fiber of the
composite section where tensile stress is caused by
externally applied loads
16,694
in
3
S
nc
=
=
Section modulus for the extreme fiber of the
noncomposite section where tensile stress is caused
by externally applied loads
10,542
in
3
16, 694 16, 694 16, 694
(0.98 3.07) 2,100.3 1 (0.979)
12 10, 542 12
4, 408 1, 362
cr
cr
M
M
 
= + − − ≥

\ .
= ≥
1.2 5, 290
cr
M = kipft
At midspan, the factored moment required by the Strength I load combination is:
M
u
= 5,610 kipft
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ODOT Short Course Page 27 of 65
Therefore, 1.33 7, 461
u
M = kipft
Since 1.2 1.33
cr u
M M < 1.2
cr
M Controls
7, 467 1.2
r cr
M M = > OK
Note: The LRFD Specifications requires that this provision be met at every section.
Design of
Negative
Moment
Section
Longitudinal
Deck
Reinforcement
Total Ultimate bending moment for Strength I is: [LRFD 3.4.11&2]
At the pier section:
kipft
Notes:
1. At the negative moment section, the compression face is the bottom flange of the
beam and is 26 in wide.
2. This section is a nonprestressed reinforced concrete section, thus Φ = 0.9 for flexure.
Assume the deck reinforcement is at the midheight of the deck.
[LRFD 5.14.1.2.7j]
f
y
= Yield strength of compression reinforcement =
60.0
in
2
f
c
‘ = Compressive strength of girder = 7.0 ksi
d = Effective depth to negative moment
reinforcement from bottom of girder
in
This is the required amount of mild steel reinforcement required in the slab to resist the
negative moment and it is equal to 18 #5 bars and 19 #6 bars.
1.25( ) 1.5( ) 1.75( )
u
M DC DW LL IM = + + +
1.25( 292.7) 1.5( 467.1) 1.75( 1, 380.7) 3, 483
u
M = − + − + − = −
'
1.7
s y
u s y
c
A f
M A f d
f b
φ
 
= −

\ .
54 0.5(8.5) 58.25 + =
2
2
(60)
3, 483(12) 0.90 (60) 58.25
1.7(7.0)(26)
0 10.47 3145 41, 796
13.94
s
s
s s
s
A
A
A A
A in
 
= −

\ .
= − +
=
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ODOT Short Course Page 28 of 65
The total area of longitudinal reinforcement provided,
( )
5.58
s provided
A = in
2
.
1.9.2.3
Negative
Moment Deck
Reinforcement
The additional area of deck reinforcement required,
( )
13.93 5.58 8.35
s additional
A = − = in
2
.
The reinforcement layout is shown in the figure below. The additional reinforcement bars
are placed between the longitudinal reinforcement.
The table below is a summary of the negative moment continuity calculations.
Typical longitudinal deck
reinforcement
No. 5 @ 12” Top = 8 bars
No. 5 @ 8” Btm. = 10 bars
Total Area of longitudinal
reinforcement provided
5.58 in
2
Factored negative design
moment
3,483 kipft
Total area required to resist
negative moment
13.93 in
2
Additional area of deck
reinforcement required
8.35 in
2
Additional reinforcement
provided
19 No. 6 Bars
Additional area of deck
reinforcement provided
8.36 in
2
Total A
s
provided 13.94 in
2
> 13.93 in
2
OK
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ODOT Short Course Page 29 of 65
Location of steel:
Top – 8 #5 + 8 #6 with 2” clear
Bottom – 10 #5 + 11 #6 with 2 5/8” clear
Note: Epoxy coated steel assumed. Min. cover is 1.5 in. [LRFD 5.124.]
18(0.31) 19(0.44) 13.94
s
A = + = in
2
8(0.31)(2.3125) 8(0.44)(2.375) 10(0.31)(8.5 2.9375) 11(0.44)(8.5 3)
13.94
57.96
4.16
13.94
x
x
+ + − + −
=
= =
The steel was assumed 4.25” from top OK
d = 58.34 in
Now check M
n
:
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )( )
s y
c
1
r n
r u
A f 13.94 60
a 5.41in
0.85f ' b 0.85 7 26
a 5.41
c 7.72
0.7
5.41
M M 0.9 13.94 60 58.34
2
M 41, 880k in 3, 490k ft M 3, 483k ft
= = =
= = =
β
 
= φ = −

\ .
= − = − > = −
Effective
Tension Flange
Width
The effective tension flange width is the lesser of: [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
1. The effective flange width, specified in LRFD Art. 4.6.2.6 = 96 in CONTROLS
2. A width equal to 1/10 of the average of adjacent spans between bearings =
0.10(96.25)(12) 115.5in =
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Control of
Cracking by
Distribution
Reinforcement
According to LRFD 5.7.3.4 the spacing of the mild steel reinforcement in the layer closest
to the tension face shall satisfy equation 5.7.3.41.
The tensile stress in mild reinforcement is computed to be:
sl
s
s
M
f
A jd
=
Where:
f
y
=
=
Yield strength of compression reinforcement
60.0
ksi
M
sl
= 292.7 467.1 1, 380.7 2,140.5
u
M = + + = kipft
A
s
=
=
Area of negative moment reinforcement
13.94
in
2
d =
=
Effective depth to negative moment
reinforcement from bottom of girder
62.5 4.16 58.34 − =
in
j =
0.275
1 1 0.908
3 3
k
− = − =
Where:
2
2
2 ( )
2(0.00919)(5.718) (0.00919*5.718) (0.00919)(5.718)
0.275
k n n n
k
k
ρ ρ ρ = + −
= + −
=
Where:
ρ =
13.94
0.00919
(26)(58.34)
s
A
bd
= =
n =
=
Modular ratio
29, 000
5.718
5, 072
steel
girder
E
E
= =
2,140.5(12)
34.8
13.94(0.908)(58.34)
s
f ksi = =
The previous calculation made the simplifying assumption that the section was rectangular.
If this assumption is NOT made, the neutral axis, calculated using working stress concepts,
can be calculate as 16.5 inches from the bottom of the beam. The cracked, transformed
moment of inertia is 177,600 in4. The steel stress is found to be 34.6ksi which compares to
35.4 ksi using the rectangular assumption.
700
2
e
c
s s
s d
f
γ
β
≤ −
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The spacing of mild steel reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall satisfy
the following:
700
2
e
c
s s
s d
f
γ
β
≤ − [LRFD 5.7.3.41]
Where:
γ
e
=
=
Exposure factor
0.75 for Class 2 exposure condition
f
s
= Tensile stress in steel reinforcement at the
service limit state
ksi
β
s
=
1
0.7( )
c
c
d
h d
+
−
Where:
d
c
=
=
Thickness of concrete cover measured
from extreme tension fiber to center of the
flexural reinforcement located closest
therto
2.00 5/8 (1/2) 2.31 + =
in
h =
=
Overall height on the composite section
62.5
in
2.31
1 1.055
0.7(62.5 2.31)
= + =
−
s
β
( )
( )
700 0.75
2(2.31) 9.67
1.055 34.8
s in ≤ − =
6.0 9.67 in in ≤ OK
For this example the tensile stress in the mild reinforcement is less than its allowable. Thus,
the distribution of reinforcement for control of cracking is adequate.
Maximum
Reinforce
ment. Negative
Moment Section
As before, check the strain in the extreme tensile steel:
t
t
d c 59.9 7.72
0.003 0.003 0.020 0.005
c 7.72
− −    
ε = = = >
 
\ . \ .
This is a tension controlled section, so φ = 0.9 [LRFD 5.7.2.1 and 5.5.4.2]
Minimum
Reinforcement
Negative
Moment Section
[LRFD 5.7.3.3.2]
At any section, the amount of prestressed and nonprestressed tensile reinforcement shall be
adequate to develop a factored flexural resistance, M
r
, at least equal to the lesser of:
2. 1.2 times the cracking moment, M
cr
, determined on the basis of elastic stress
distribution and the modulus of rupture, f
r
,
3. 1.33 times he factored moment required by the applicable strength load
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 32 of 65
combinations
( ) 1
c
cr c r cpe dnc c r
nc
S
M S f f M S f
S
 
= + − − ≥

\ .
[LRFD 5.7.3.3.21]
Where:
f
r
= '
0.37 0.37 4.5 0.785
c
f = =
ksi [LRFD 5.4.2.6]
f
cpe
= 0 ksi
M
dnc
= 0
g s
M M + = kipft
S
c
= 29,534 in
3
29, 534
(0.785)
12
1, 932
=
= −
cr
cr
M
M k ft
1.2 2, 318 = −
cr
M k ft
At bearing, the factored moment required by the Strength I load combination is:
M
u
= 3,483
Therefore, 1.33 4, 631
u
M = kft.
Since 1.2 1.33
cr u
M M > 1.2
cr
M Controls
3, 490 1.2 2, 318
r cr
M k ft M k ft = − > = − OK
Note: The LRFD Specifications states that this requirement be met at every section.
Positive
Moment
Connection
Continuous for live load bridges are covered in Article 5.14.1.4.4. Much of this article is
new in 2007 (4th Ed.).
One requirement of this article is for a positive moment connection. These positive
moments are caused by the upward camber of the prestressed girders due to creep and
shrinkage. The positive moment connection is needed to provide continuity at the pier.
The connection can be made either by extending mild steel out of the end of the girder into
the diaphragm or by leaving strand extend out of the end of the girder into the diaphragm.
This example illustrates bent strand connections.
Positive moments develop at the connection between girders at in interior supports due to
liveload effects (if more than two spans) and restraint caused by temperature, creep, and
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 33 of 65
shrinkage. According to LRFD 5.14.1.4.4, these restraint moments are negligible when
continuity is established after 90 days.
Development
Extended
Strands
The strands are bent up 90° into the diaphragm so that the hook extends 8 inches from the
end of the girder. This distance is required to use the equations in the following section.
The ends of the girders are placed 10 inches apart. With the 8 inch projection this leaves 2
inches of clear allowing for construction tolerances. Typically mild steel is placed in the
corner of the hooks to enhance the development length of the hooks. These bars should
have a minimum area equal to that of the bent strand or bar.
Required Area
of Strand
The design moment used for the working stress check is M
cr
while the design moment for
the strength check is 1.2M
cr.
According to LRFD 5.14.1.4.9c the stress in the strands used
for design as a function of the total length of the strand shall not exceed:
( 8)
150
0.288
dsh
psl
l
f ksi
−
= ≤ [LRFD 5.14.1.4.9c1]
( 8)
0.163
dsh
pul
l
f
−
= [LRFD 5.14.1.4.9c2]
Where:
ℓ
dsh
= total length of extended strand in
f
psl
= stress in the strand at the service limit state ksi
Cracked section shall be assumed
f
pul
= stress in the strand at the strength limit state ksi
The design moments, parameters, and results for the design of the positive moment
connection using bent strand are found in following table. The cracking moment is found
using the gross, composite cross section, but assuming that cracking occurs at the
diaphragm. Thus the diaphragm concrete strength is used. For these calculations the
effective width of 96 inches, 0.5 inch strand, and concrete strength of 4.5 ksi were used.
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 34 of 65
When using working stress design the number of strands is assumed to calculate the length
of the strand. When using the strength design method, the length of strand is assumed to
calculate the number of strands required. Design iterations are performed to determine the
most efficient combination of strand and length.
( )
cr c cb
cr
e dsh
M 0.24 f ' S 0.24 4.5 16694 8500k in 708k ft
1.2M 850k ft
L 8
= = = − = −
= −
= − l
Thus L
e
is the length of the extended strand beyond the bend.
Working Stress Design
No. of
Strand 6 8 10 12 16
ℓ
dsh
42.29 33.78 29.36 25.83 21.42
A
s
. 0.92 1.22 1.53 1.84 2.45
Moment 708.00 708.00 708.00 708.00 708.00
n 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00
d 62.50 62.50 60.50 60.50 60.50
rho 45E6 52E6 263E6 317E6 422E6
k 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08
j 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.97
f
s
150 113 94 78 59
Strength Design
No. of
Strand* 5.18 6.52 8.00 9.27 13.13
ℓ
dsh
42.00 35.00 30.00 27.00 22.00
A
s.
0.79 1.00 1.22 1.42 2.01
Moment 849.70 849.70 849.70 849.70 849.70
d 62.50 62.50 62.50 60.50 60.50
a 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.47
f
pul
208.59 165.64 134.97 116.56 85.89
* Back calculated based on strand length
In this example working stress design governs. Multiple iterations are performed to
determine the least length of extension of the strand required.
• If the results indicate an odd number of strands they are rounded up to an even
number to provide symmetry in the connection.
• It may be more desirable to have a larger number of shorter strands as opposed to
fewer longer strands. Girder fabrication may be more difficult with longer strand
extensions as this may require excessive space between girders in the bed. In
addition, if a larger number of shorter strands are used the stress can be distributed
throughout a larger area.
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ODOT Short Course Page 35 of 65
The designer chooses from the tables above. A reasonable design would be 12 strands
extended 26 inches. That would be an 8 inch horizontal extension from the face of the beam
and an 18 inch vertical “tail” to the hook. Any 12 strands could be extended, but spacing
them out and using different rows makes construction easier and limits stress
concentrations.
Also note that, consistent with the design examples in NCHRP Report 519, the haunch has
been included.
SHEAR
DESIGN
The area and spacing of shear reinforcement must be determined at regular intervals along
the entire length of the beam. In this design example, transverse shear design procedures are
demonstrated below by determining these values at the critical section near the supports.
Transverse reinforcement shall be provided where:
0.5 ( )
u c p
V V V φ = + [LRFD 5.8.2.41]
Where:
V
u
= Total factored shear force kips
V
c
= Shear strength provided by concrete kips
V
p
= Component of the effective prestressing
force in the direction of the applied shear
kips
φ = Resistance factor [LRFD 5.5.4.2.1]
Critical Section
Negative
Moment
Critical Section near the supports is at d
v
. [LRFD 5.8.3.2]
Where:
d
v
=
=
Effective shear depth
Distance between resultants of tensile and
compressive forces, ( / 2)
e
d a − , but not
less than 0.9
e
d or 0.72h.
[LRFD 5.8.2.9]
Where:
d
e
=
=
The corresponding effective depth from the extreme
compression fiber to the centroid of the tensile force
in the tensile reinforcement
58.34
in
a =
=
Equivalent depth of the compression block
5.41
in
h =
=
Total height of section
62.5
in
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 36 of 65
Effective Shear
Depth
The critical section will occur in the negative moment area, so use the negative bending
properties:
0.5( ) 58.34 0.5(5.41) 55.63
0.9 0.9(58.34) 52.5
0.72 0.72(62.5) 45
v e
e
d d a in
d in
h in
= − = − =
≥ = =
≥ = =
Therefore, d
v
= 55.63 in
Calculation of
Critical Section
The critical section near the support is d
v
= 55.63 in from the FACE of the support.
Note: Assume the length of the bearing pad is 10 inches.
Thus the critical section is 55.63 in + 5 in = 60.63 inches.
Using values from previous tables (linearly interpolated), the factored shear force and
bending moment at the critical section for shear, according to Strength I load combinations.
1.25(35.4 42.7 14.1) 1.50(22.6) 1.75(99.4) 323.1
u
V = + + + + = kips
(All shear goes the same way!)
0.9(185.2 223.5) 1.25( 219.3) 1.50( 350.0) 1.75( 1, 080.9)
2323 27880
u
M
k ft k in
= + + − + − + −
= − − = −
At this point, there are three choices:
1. Ignore the prestressing steel
Then, this is a reinforced section
β = 2
θ = 45
◦
(This is VERY conservative)
2. Use Sectional Model for Reinforced Concrete
3. Include prestressing steel
1. Ignore prestressing steel:
'
0.0316 0.0316(2) 7(8)(55.63) 74.4
c c v v
V f b d k β = = =
323.1
74.4 284.6
0.9
s
V = − =
Assume #4 hoops A
v
= 0.4 in
2
α = 90 sin α =1 cot α =0
cot
0.4(60)(55.63) cot 45
4.69
284.6
v y v
s
A f d
s
V
θ
= = = in
Use #4 at 4 in
V
s
= 334 kips
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ODOT Short Course Page 37 of 65
2. Use Sectional Model for Reinforced Concrete
M
u
=27,880 kipin
d
v
=55.63 in.
N
u
=Applied factored normal force at the specified section = 0 kips
Vu
=323.1 kips
A
s
=Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension side of
the member = 13.94
in2
A
p
=0 in2
E
p
=28,500 ksi
If d
v
< 60d
b
= 30 in, V
p
and f
po
must be reduced for lack of bond. d
v
= 55.63 from center
bearing, so it is 66.63 from end of girder > 30 in. OK:
V
p
=
=
=
Component of the effective prestressing force in the direction of
the applied shear
(force per strand)(number of draped strands)(sin ψ)
0
kips
f
po
=0
Assume 0.5cotθ = 1.
3
27, 880
0.5(0) (323.1) 0
55.63
0.001
2(29, 000(13.94))
1 10 0.001
x
x
ε
−
+ + −
= ≤
≤
u p
u
v v
V V
v
b d
φ
φ
−
=
Where:
v
u
= Shear stress in concrete kips
b
v
=
=
Effective web width of the beam
8
in
V
p
=
=
=
Component of the effective prestressing force in the
direction of the applied shear
(force per strand)(number of draped strands)(sin ψ)
0
kips
323.1 0.9(0)
0.81
0.9(8)(55.63)
u
v
−
= = kips
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ODOT Short Course Page 38 of 65
'
0.81
0.115
7.0
u
c
v
f
 
= =

\ .
Use (v
u
/ f
c
’) < 0.125 and ε
x
< 1 from LRFD Table 5.8.3.4.21:
θ = 37
◦
β = 2.13
'
0.0316 0.0316(2.13) 7(8)(55.63) 79.3
c c v v
V f b d β = = = kips
323.1 0.9(79.3)
280
0.9
s
V
−
= = kips
Use #4 hoops A
v
= 0.40 in
2
α = 90 sin α =1 cot α =0
cot
0.4(60)(55.63) cot 37
6.32
280
v y v
s
A f d
s
V
θ
= = =
So #4 hoops at 6 in
V
s
= 295.0 kips
( ) 0.9 79.3 295 337 323.1
n u
V k k V Φ = + = < =
3. Include Prestressing Steel:
M
u
= 27,880 kipin
d
v
= 53.6 In.
N
u
=
=
Applied factored normal force at the specified section
0
kips
V
u
= 323.1 kips
A
s
=
=
Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension
side of the member
13.94
in
2
A
p
=
9(0.153) = 1.38 in
2
E
p
= 28,500 ksi
E
s
= 29,000 ksi
Note, when the prestressing steel in included, d
e
= 57 inches. The term c = 9.76 in and a =
6.77in. Thus, d
v
= 53.6 in.
If d
v
< 60d
b
= 30 in, V
p
and f
po
must be reduced for lack of bond. d
v
= 55.63 from face of
support so this > 30 in from the end of the girder, so:
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 39 of 65
V
p
=
=
=
Component of the effective prestressing force in the
direction of the applied shear
(force per strand)(number of draped strands)(sin ψ)
24.3(9)(sin 6.2
◦
) = 23.6
kips
f
po
=
=
A parameter taken as modulus of elasticity of
prestressing tendons multiplied by the lockedin
difference in strain between the prestressing tendons
and the surrounding concrete
.7 0.7(270.0) 189 = =
pu
f
ksi
[LRFD 5.8.3.4.2]
Assume 0.5cotθ = 1.
3
27, 880
0.5(0) (323.1 23.6) 1.38(189)
53.6
0.001
2(29, 000(13.94) 28, 500(1.38))
0.63 10 0.001
x
x
ε
−
+ + − −
= ≤
+
≤
u p
u
v v
V V
v
b d
φ
φ
−
=
Where:
v
u
= Shear stress in concrete kips
b
v
=
=
Effective web width of the beam
8
in
V
p
=
=
=
Component of the effective prestressing force in the
direction of the applied shear
(force per strand)(number of draped strands)(sin ψ)
23.6
kips
323.1 0.9(23.6)
0.782
0.9(8)(53.6)
u
v
−
= = kips
'
0.782
0.11
7.0
u
c
v
f
 
= =

\ .
Use (v
u
/ f
c
’) < 0.125 and ε
x
< 0.75 from LRFD Table 5.8.3.4.21:
θ = 34.4
◦
β = 2.26
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 40 of 65
'
0.0316 0.0316(2.26) 7(8)(55.63) 84.1
c c v v
V f b d β = = = kips
323.1 0.9(84.1 23.6)
251.3
0.9
s
V
− +
= = kips
Use #4 hoops A
v
= 0.40 in
2
α = 90 sin α =1 cot α =0
cot
0.4(60)(53.6) cot 34.4
7.5
251.3
v y v
s
A f d
s
V
θ
= = =
So #4 hoops at 6 in
V
s
= 313.0 kips
0.9(84.1 313.0 23.6) 378.6
r u
V V = + + = > OK
Minimum
Reinforcement
Requirement
Check which is true:
•
'
0.125
u c
v f < [LRFD 5.8.2.71]
Or
•
'
0.125
u c
v f ≥ [LRFD 5.8.2.72]
'
0.125 0.125(7.0) 0.875
c
f = = ksi
0.81
u
v = ksi, max
Since
'
0.125
u c
v f < , Then
max
0.8 0.8(55.63) 44.5 24.0 s d = = = ≤ in : 24 in CONTROLS
Calculate minimum area of steel using a 6 inch spacing:
( )( )
2 2
8 6
0 0316 0 0316 7 0 067 0 40
60
v
v c
y
in in
b s
A . f ' . ksi . in . in
f ksi
≥ = = < OK
[LRFD 5.8.2.5]
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 41 of 65
Critical Section
Positive
Moment
Critical Section near the supports is at d
v
. [LRFD 5.8.3.2]
Where:
d
v
=
=
Effective shear depth
Distance between resultants of tensile and
compressive forces, ( / 2)
e
d a − , but not
less than 0.9
e
d or 0.72h.
[LRFD 5.8.2.9]
Where:
d
e
=
=
The corresponding effective depth from the extreme
compression fiber to the centroid of the tensile force
in the tensile reinforcement
58.2 = d
p
in
a =
=
Equivalent depth of the compression block
3.42
in
h =
=
Total height of section
62.5
in
In this area, the positive moment properties are needed. However, since this section is
where the strand is harped, the positive moment properties must be recalculated using 31
strands. A
p
= 4.74 in
2
and d
p
= 62.54.32 = 58.2 inches. The value of 4.32 inches as the
centroid of 31 strands was calculated earlier in Section 1.7.2. Refer to previous section for
the equations below:
( )( )
( )( )( )( ) ( )
( )( )
4 74 270
4 11
270
0 85 4 5 0 83 96 0 28 4 74
58 2
4 11
270 1 0 28 264 8
58 2
0 83 4 11 3 42
ps
.
c . in
. . . . .
.
.
f . . ksi
.
a . . . in
= =
+
 
= − =

\ .
= =
Effective Shear
Depth
0.5( ) 58.2 0.5(3.42) 56.5
0.9 0.9(58.2) 52.4
0.72 0.72(62.5) 45
v e
e
d d a in
d in
h in
= − = − =
≥ = =
≥ = =
Therefore, d
v
= 56.5 in.
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 42 of 65
Calculation of
Critical Section
The critical section near the support is d
v
= 56.5 in from the FACE of the support.
Note: Assume the length of the bearing pad is 10 inches.
Thus the critical section is 56.5in + 5 in ≈ 62 inches.
Using values from previous tables, the factored shear force and bending moment at the
critical section for shear, according to Strength I load combinations.
1.25(35.4 42.7 7.9) 1.50(12.6) 1.75(82.2) 250.0
1.25(185.2 223.5 49.6) 1.50(79.1) 1.75(373.9) 1, 346
u
u
V k
M k in
= + + + + =
= + + + + = −
It is conservative to take the highest factored moment that will occur at that section, rather
than the moment corresponding to maximum V
u
, [LRFD 5.8.3.4.2]. Therefore,
250.0
u
V = kips
1, 346
u
M = kipft
The values used to find V
u
and M
u
are linearly interpolated from the table of shears and
moments in previous section.
Contribution of
Concrete to
Nominal Shear
Resistance
The contribution of the concrete to the nominal shear resistance is:
'
0.0316
c c v v
V f b d β = [LRFD 5.8.3.33]
Strain in
Flexural
Tension
Reinforcement
Strain in the reinforcement is (assuming uncracked):
0.5 0.5 cot
0.001
2( )
u
u u p ps po
v
x
s s p ps c c
M
N V V A f
d
E A E A E A
θ
ε
+ + − −
= ≤
+ +
[LRFD 5.8.3.4.21]
Where:
N
u
=
=
Applied factored normal force at the specified section
0
kips
V
p
=
=
=
Component of the effective prestressing force in the
direction of the applied shear
(force per strand)(number of draped strands)(sin ψ)
24.3(9)(sin 6.2
◦
) = 23.6
kips
f
po
=
=
A parameter taken as modulus of elasticity of
prestressing tendons multiplied by the lockedin
difference in strain between the prestressing tendons
and the surrounding concrete
.7 0.7(270.0) 189 = =
pu
f
ksi
[LRFD 5.8.3.4.2]
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 43 of 65
A
ps
=
=
Area of prestressing steel on the flexural tension side
of the member, as shown in LRFD Figure 5.8.3.4.21.
31(0.153) = 4.74
in
2
A
s
=
=
Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension
side of the member
0
in
2
A
c
=
=
Area of concrete on the flexural tension half. This
term is calculated as the area on the tension side
(bottom in this case) from the tension fiber to h/2.
475
in
2
This section is beyond the transfer length, so f
po
and V
p
do not need to be reduced.
Note that either θ can be assumed OR 0.5cotθ can be assumed =1. Assume 0.5cotθ=1:
( ) ( )
3
1, 346(12)
0.5(0) (250 23.6) 4.74(189)
56.5
0.001
2 28, 500(4.74) 5072 475
0.07 10 0.001
x
x
ε
−
+ + − −
= ≤
+
− ≤
The negative value means the section is uncracked.
Shear Stress
u p
u
v v
V V
v
b d
φ
φ
−
=
Where:
v
u
= Shear stress in concrete kips
b
v
=
=
Effective web width of the beam
8
in
V
p
=
=
=
Component of the effective prestressing force in the
direction of the applied shear
(force per strand)(number of draped strands)(sin ψ)
23.6
kips
250 0.9(23.6)
0.562
0.9(8)(56.5)
u
v
−
= = kips
'
0.562
0.0803
7.0
u
c
v
f
 
= =

\ .
Values of β & θ Use (v
u
/ f
c
’) < 0.1 and ε
x
< 0.05 from LRFD Table 5.8.3.4.21:
θ = 21.4
◦
β = 3.24
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 44 of 65
Concrete
Contribution
The contribution of the concrete to the nominal shear resistance is:
'
0.0316
c c v v
V f b d β = [LRFD 5.8.3.33]
0.0316(3.24) 7.0(8)(56.5) 122.4
c
V = = kips
Contribution of
Reinforcement
of Nominal
Shear
Resistance
Check if: [LRFD 5.8.2.41]
( ) 250 0.5 ( ) 0.5 0.9 (122.4 23.6) 65.7
u c p
V kips V V φ = > + = + = kips
At least minimum stirrups are needed.
Minimum
Reinforcement
Requirement
The area of transverse reinforcement should not be less than:
'
0.0316
v
v c
y
b s
A f
f
≥ [LRFD 5.8.2.51]
Check maximum spacing of transverse reinforcement: [LRFD 5.8.2.7]
Check which is true:
•
'
0.125
u c
v f < [LRFD 5.8.2.71]
Or
•
'
0.125
u c
v f ≥ [LRFD 5.8.2.72]
'
0.125 0.125(7.0) 0.875
c
f = = ksi
0.562
u
v = ksi
Since
'
0.125
u c
v f < , Then
max
0.8 0.8(56.5) 45.2 24.0 s d = = = ≤ in : 24 in CONTROLS
Calculate minimum area of steel using a 12 inch spacing to get area of steel per foot:
( )( )
2 v
v c
y
8in 12in
b s
A 0.0316 f ' 0.0316 7ksi 0.134in
f 60ksi
≥ = = [LRFD 5.8.2.5]
ODOT uses #4 bars with 2 legs as standard; (A
v
= 2(0.2in
2
) = 0.4in
2
)
#4@ 24 inch o.c. = 0.2 in
2
/ ft.
This is adequate to meet minimum.
Maximum
Nominal Shear
Resistance
The upper limit of V
n
, given by following equation, is intended to ensure that the concrete in
the web of the beam will not crush prior to yield of the transverse reinforcement.
'
0.25
n c v v p
V f b d V = + [LRFD 5.8.3.32]
Comparing this previous equation with equation LRFD 5.8.3.3.1:
'
0.25
c s c v v
V V f b d + ≤
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 45 of 65
Assume #4 @ 24”:
( ) ( )( )( ) ( ) ( )
2
0 4 60 56 5 21 4 0 1
24
144 2
v y v
s
s
. in ksi . cot .
A f d cot cot sin
V
s in
V . k
θ α α
+
+
= =
=
( ) 122.4 144.2 266.6 0.25(7.0)(8)(56.5) 791 + = ≤ = kips OK
( )
( ) 0 9 122 4 144 2 23 6 261 2
250
r c s p
r
r u
V V V V
V . . . . . kips
V V kips
φ = + +
= + + =
> =
INTERFACE
SHEAR
TRANSFER
Factored
Horizontal
Shear
It will be assumed that the critical section is the same as for vertical shear. Using load
combination Strength I:
323.1
u
V = kips
55.6
v
d = in
Both of these values were found in the preceding section. This is shear at the critical section
near the pier.
Required
Interface Shear
Reinforcement
ri ni
V V φ = [LRFD 5.8.4.11]
The nominal shear resistance of the interface plane is:
[ ]
ni cv vf y c
V cA A f P u = + + [LRFD 5.8.4.13]
Where:
c = Cohesion factor ksi [LRFD 5.8.4.3]
µ = Friction factor [LRFD 5.8.4.3]
A
cv
=
=
Area of concrete engaged in shear
transfer
b
vi
L
vi
in
2
[LRFD 5.8.4.16]
A
vf
= Area of shear reinforcement crossing the
shear plane
in
2
P
c
= Permanent net compressive force normal
to the shear plane
kips
f
y
= Shear reinforcement yield strength ksi
b
vi
= Width of area of concrete engaged in
shear transfer
inch
L
vi
= Length of area of concrete engaged in
shear transfer
inch
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 46 of 65
For a castinplace concrete placed against clean concrete girder surfaces, free of
laitance with surface intentionally roughened to an amplitude of 0.25 in:
0.28 c = [LRFD 5.8.4.2]
1.0 u =
Begin by exploring what happens when the shear reinforcement is the minimum used
anywhere in the girder. The shear reinforcement was previously calculated to be #4 @ 24
inches minimum. The shear width is b
vi
= 20 inches as this is the width of the top of the
girder. If L
vi
= 24 inches:
( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
2
[ ]
20 24 480
0.28 480 1.0 0.4 60 0 158.4
0.9 158.4 142.6
ni cv vf y c
cv
ni
ri ni
V cA A f P
A in
V k
V V k
u
φ
= + +
= =
= + + =
= = =
ui ui cv
V v A = [LRFD 5.8.4.22]
142 6
0 297
480
ui ,max
.
v . ksi = =
1 u
ui
vi v
V
v
b d
= [LRFD 5.8.4.21]
( )( )
1
0 297 20 55 6 330
u ,max
V . . kips = =
Therefore, #4 @ 24 is adequate anywhere that V
u
< 330 kips. Note that the critical section,
the reinforcement is actually #4 @ 4 inches or #4 @ 6”; depending on the model used. Note
that #4 @ 24 would be adequate for horizontal shear, so it is NOT necessary to extend every
shear stirrup into the slab.
Minimum
Interface Shear
Reinforcement
Minimum shear reinforcement,
0.05
cv
vf
y
A
A
f
≥ [LRFD 5.8.4.14]
A #4 double leg bar at 24 in spacing is provided from the beam extending into the deck.
Therefore, A
vf
=0.4 in
2
0.05(480)
0.40 0.40
60
≥ = OK
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 47 of 65
Article 5.8.4.4 states that A
vf
need not exceed that required to resist 1.33V
ui
/φ. The same
article also states that the minimum reinforcement provisions are waived for girder slab
interfaces with surfaces roughened to an amplitude of 0.25 inches where the factored
interface shear, v
ui
, found in equation 5.8.4.21 is less than 0.210 ksi and all of the vertical
(transverse) shear reinforcement required by Article 5.8.1.1 is extended and anchored into
the slab.
Maximum
Nominal Shear
Resistance
V
ni
must be less than:
'
1
0.3(4.5)(480) 648
c cv
K f A k = = [LRFD 5.8.4.14]
2
1.8(480) 864
cv
K A k = = [LRFD 5.8.4.15]
V
ni
provided = 158.4k
'
1
2
c cv
cv
K f A
K A
≤
≤
OK
K
1
= 0.3 and K
2
= 1.8 (for normal weight concrete) are found in Article 5.8.4.3.
MINIMUM
LONG
ITUDINAL
REIN
FORC
EMENT
REQUIRE
MENT
At each section the tensile capacity of the longitudinal reinforcement on the flexural tension
side of the member shall be proportioned to satisfy: [LRFD 5.8.3.51]
0.5 0.5 cot
u
u u
ps ps s y p s
v
M N V
A f A f V V
d
θ
φ φ φ
+ ≥ + + − −
According to Article 5.8.3.5, it is not necessary to provide any steel beyond that to resist
moment if there is a compressive reaction on the flexural compression face; in other words,
in a negative moment zone over a support, the equation in this article does not need to be
satisfied. However, it makes an exception for a continuous for live load bridge; saying that
this equation must be checked for a continuous for live load bridge.
This provision will be checked at the simply supported end, using positive moment
properties. The check at the continuous end is made in a similar manner.
The development length is:
( ) ( )
d ps pe b
2 2
f f d 1.6 264.8 158.6 0.5 127.3in
3 3
   
= κ − = − =
 
\ . \ .
l [LRFD 5.11.4.2]
( )
v p
a 3.42
d d 62.5 4.32 56.5in
2 2
= − = − − =
So the critical section is 56.5 inches from face of support. Allowing for a 10 inch bearing
pad and that the center of bearing is 12 inches from the girder end, the critical section is
56.5+10/2+12=73.5 inches from the end of the girder.
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 48 of 65
Since this is less than the development length, the stress in the steel must be reduced for lack
of development.
The stress in the undeveloped steel can be found from:
( )
px b
px pe ps pe
d b
60d
f f f f
60d
−
= + −
−
l
l
[LRFD 5.11.4.24]
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
0.5 0.5 cot
4.74 206 977
1346 250
0 23.6 0.5 144.2 cot 21.4 488
1.0 56.5 0.9
u
u u
ps ps s y p s
v
M
N V
A f A f V V
d
k
k
θ
φ φ φ
+ ≥ + + − −
= >
+ + − − =
This is OK. Note that V
s
may not be taken as greater than V
u
/φ [LRFD 5.8.3.5].
250
144 277 8
0 9
u
s
V k
V k . k
. φ
= < = =
At the inside edge of the bearing area of a simply supported end:
0.5 cot
u
ps ps s y p s
V
A f A f V V θ
φ
+ ≥ − −
[LRFD 5.8.3.52]
The steel is not fully developed. Since the bearing pad is assumed 10 inches and the center
of bearing is 12 inches from the end of the girder, this section is 12+10/2 =17 inches from
the end of the girder. This is within the transfer length, so:
( ) 158 6 17
90
60 30
pe px
px
b
f .
f ksi
d
= = =
l
[5.11.4.23]
( )
px
73.5in 30in
f 158.6ksi 264.8ksi 158.6ksi 206ksi
127.3in 30in
−
= + − =
−
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 49 of 65
( )( )
( ) ( )
0.5 cot
4.74 90 426
250
23.6 0.5 144.2 cot 21.4 464.6
0.9
u
ps ps p s
V
A f V V
k
k
θ
φ
≥ − −
= <
− − =
Assume #4 bars will be used.
( )
( )( )
0 2 60
1 25 1 25 5 7
7
0 4 0 4 0 5 60 12
b y
d
c
b y
A f .
. . . in
f '
. d f . . in
= = =
< = =
l
[LRFD 5.11.2.1]
The development length is 12 inches so the bar is fully developed, thus:
2
464 6 426
0 64
60
s
.
A . in
−
= =
4 #4 works. 3 #5 also works as a # 5 needs a 15 inch development length.
Can also add stirrups. Increase to #4 @ 12:
( )( ) 0 4 60 56 5 21 4
288 277 8
12
u
s
. . cot .
V
V k . k
φ
= = > =
Therefore, V
s
= 277.8 for this calculation.
( )( )
( ) ( )
0.5 cot
4.74 90 426
250
23.6 0.5 277.8 cot 21.4 294.2
0.9
u
ps ps p s
V
A f V V
k
k
θ
φ
≥ − −
= >
− − =
In the previous calculations, the assumption was made that the center of bearing was 12
inches from the end of the girder.
What if the bearing pad is placed right at the end of the girder? That is, what if the center of
bearing is only 5 inches from the end? What effect does that have on longitudinal steel?
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 50 of 65
( )
v p
a 3.42
d d 62.5 4.32 56.5in
2 2
= − = − − =
So the critical section is 56.5 inches from face of support. Allowing for a 10 inch bearing
pad, the critical section is 66.5 inches from the end of the girder.
Since this is less than the development length, the stress in the steel must be reduced for lack
of development.
The stress in the undeveloped steel can be found from:
( )
px b
px pe ps pe
d b
60d
f f f f
60d
−
= + −
−
l
l
[LRFD 5.11.4.24]
( )
px
66.5in 30in
f 158.6ksi 264.8ksi 158.6ksi 198.4ksi
127.3in 30in
−
= + − =
−
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
0.5 0.5 cot
4.74 198.4 940.4
1346 250
0 23.6 0.5 144.2 cot 21.4 488
1.0 56.5 0.9
u
u u
ps ps s y p s
v
M
N V
A f A f V V
d
k
k
θ
φ φ φ
+ ≥ + + − −
= >
+ + − − =
This is OK. Note that V
s
may not be taken as greater than V
u
/φ [LRFD 5.8.3.5].
250
144 277 8
0 9
u
s
V k
V k . k
. φ
= < = =
At the inside edge of the bearing area of a simply supported end:
0.5 cot
u
ps ps s y p s
V
A f A f V V θ
φ
+ ≥ − −
[LRFD 5.8.3.5.2]
The steel is not fully developed. Since the bearing pad is assumed 10 inches, this section is
10 inches from the end of the girder. This is within the transfer length, so:
( ) 158 6 10
52 9
60 30
pe px
px
b
f .
f . ksi
d
= = =
l
[LRFD 5.11.4.23]
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 51 of 65
( )( )
( ) ( )
0.5 cot
4.74 52.9 250.8
250
23.6 0.5 144.2 cot 21.4 464.6
0.9
u
ps ps p s
V
A f V V
k
k
θ
φ
≥ − −
= <
− − =
NG. Assume #4 bars will be used.
( )
( )( )
0 2 60
1 25 1 25 5 7
7
0 4 0 4 0 5 60 12
b y
d
c
b y
A f .
. . . in
f '
. d f . . in
= = =
< = =
l
The development length is 12 inches so:
( )
10
60 50
12
sx
f ksi = =
The #4 can only develop 50 ksi. Thus:
2
464 6 250 8
4 3
50
s
. .
A . in
−
= =
This would be 22 #4! Clearly unrealistic!
Add stirrups. Increase to #4 @ 12:
( )( ) 0 4 60 56 5 21 4
288 277 8
12
u
s
. . cot .
V
V k . k
φ
= = > =
Therefore, V
s
= 277.8 for this calculation.
( )( )
( ) ( )
0.5 cot
4.74 52.9 250.8
250
23.6 0.5 277.8 cot 21.4 294.2
0.9
u
ps ps p s
V
A f V V
k
k
θ
φ
≥ − −
= <
− − =
This is much more workable:
2
294 2 250 8
0 87
50
s
. .
A . in
−
= =
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 52 of 65
This is 5 #4 bars.
So decrease stirrup spacing from the end of the girder to the critical section (this will be 66.5
inches from the end of the girder) to #4 @ 12. Add 5 #4 bars longitudinal in the bottom
flange.
PRE
TENSIONED
ANCHORAG
E ZONE
Anchorage
Zone
The bursting resistance of pretensioned anchorage zones provided by vertical reinforcement
in the ends of the pretensioned beams at the service limit state shall be take as:
r s s
P f A = [LRFD 5.10.10.11]
Where:
A
s
= Total area of transverse reinforcement
located within the distance h/4 from the end
of the beam
in
2
f
s
= Stress in steel, but not taken greater than 20 ksi
P
r
= Bursting resistance, should not be less than
4% of F
pi
40(0.153)(202.5)(0.04) 49.6 =
kips
Solving for the required area of steel,
49.6
2.47
20
s
A = = in
2
At least 2.47 in
2
of vertical transverse reinforcement should be provided at the end of the
beam for a distance equal to onefourth of the depth of the beam, h/4 = 54/4=13.5 in
Therefore, for a distance of 13.5 in from the end of the member, use 7 #4 bars at 2 inches on
center. The reinforcement provided 7(2)0.2 2.8 2.47 = > OK. This may be unrealistic, so
larger bars may be needed.
Confinement
Reinforcement
[LRFD 5.10.10.2]
For a distance of 1.5d = 1.5(54) = 81 in, from the end of the beam, reinforcement is placed
to confine the prestressing steel in the bottom flange. The reinforcement should not be less
than #3 deformed pars, with spacing not exceeding 6.0 in, and shaped to enclose the strands.
EXTERIOR
GIRDER
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 53 of 65
Effective
Flange Width –
Exterior Girder
The effective flange width is taken as onehalf the effective width of the adjacent interior
girder plus the least of:
Oneeighth of the effective span length = 0.125(96.25)(12)
= 144 in.
6.0 times the average thickness of the slab, plus
the greater of half the web thickness
or
onequarter of the width of the top flange of the
basic girder
= 6.0(8.5) + 0.5(8)
=55 in.
= 6.0(8.5) + 0.25(20)
= 55 in.
The width of the overhang = 2.5 ft = 30 inches
Therefore, the effective flange width for the exterior girder is: (96/2) + 30 = 78 in.
From the previous calculation of b
eff
, the center to center distance controls.
b
eff Trans
= nb
eff
= (0.8015) 78 in = 62.5 in
Exterior Girder
Properties
From the previous calculation of b
eff
, the center to center distance controls.
b
eff Trans
= nb
eff
= (0.8015) 78 in = 62.5 in
y
b=
38.22 in
I = 624512 in
4
A = 50457 in
2
h = 62.5 in
y
TC
= 24.28 in
y
TG
= 15.78 in
S
b
= 16340 in
3
S
TG
= 39576 in
3
S
TC
= 25721in
3
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 54 of 65
Dead Loads Slab Self Weight:
78 in (8.5 in)(0.150 kcf)/144 = 0.691 klf
Haunch Weight: (Same as interior girder)
0.042 klf
Recall that tributary area was used for the slab weight. This will DECREASE the dead load
moment on the exterior girders.
Distance x, ft. Shear, kips Moment, kipft
0.00 35.3 0
9.26 28.5 295
18.97 21.4 537
28.69 14.2 710
38.41 7.1 814
48.13 0 849
57.84 7.1 814
67.56 14.2 710
77.28 21.4 537
86.99 28.5 295
96.25 35.3 0
Distribution
Factors
One Lane Loaded: Lever Rule
Two or More Lanes Loaded:
g= eg
int
Where:
g = DFM
ext
g
int
= DFM
int
0.77
9.1
e
d
e = +
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 55 of 65
Distribution
Factor for
Moment
Positive Moment Region:
Exterior Girder – Two or More Lanes Loaded:
DF
Ext
= e DF
Int
1.0
0.77 0.77 0.880
9.1 9.1
e
d
e = + = + =
DF
Ext+
= (0.880) (0.665) = 0.585
Lever Rule Assume a hinge develops over each interior girder and solve for the reaction in the exterior
girder as a fraction of the truck load.
1.2 0
1.2 1.2
H
M Pe RS
Pe e
R DF
S S
→ − =
= ∴ =
∑
This is for one lane loaded. Multiple Presence
Factors apply 1.2 is the MPF
In the diagram, P/2 are the wheel loads; P is the
resultant force. All three loads are NOT applied at
the same time.
Note that truck cannot be closer than 2’ from the
barrier
Distribution for
Factor for
Moment
One Lane Loaded:
 
1.2(36 ) (10.5 3.5) (10.5 9.5)
72 (8 )
0.6 /
k
R
k ft
R lanes girder
− + −
=
=
Multiple Presence:
MPF = 1.2
Note that this only uses the truck.
By dividing by the total truck weight of 72 kips, R is given in lanes/girder
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 56 of 65
Minimum Exterior DFM: (Rigid Body Rotation of Bridge Section)
,
2
L
Ext Min
b
N
Ext
L
N
b
X e
N
DF
N
x
= +
∑
∑
[LRFD C4.6.2.2.2d1]
Where:
N
L
 Number of loaded lanes under consideration
N
b
 Number of beams or girders
e  Eccentricity of design truck or load from CG of pattern of girders (ft.)
x  Distance from CG of pattern of girders to each girder (ft.)
X
Ext
 Distance from CG of pattern of girders to exterior girder (ft.)
Note: Only the truck is used and it cannot be closer than 2’ from the barrier
Minimum Exterior Girder Distribution Factor One Lane:
( )
,
,
,
2
2 2
1 16(12)
5
2
0.50
16 8
L
Ext Min
b
Ext Min
Ext Min
N
Ext
L
N
b
X e
N
DFM
N
x
DFM
DFM
= +
= +
=
+
∑
∑
,
( ) 1.2(0.5) 0.6
Ext Min
DFM MPF DF = = =
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 57 of 65
Two Lanes Loaded:
Note: Truck cannot be closer than 2’ from the barrier and the truck must be 2 feet from the
lane edge.
Minimum Exterior Girder Distribution Factor Two Lane:
,
,
,
2
2 2
2 16(12 0)
5 2(16
0.70
8 )
L
Ext Min
b
Ext Min
Ext Min
N
Ext
L
N
b
X e
N
DFM
N
x
DFM
DFM
= +
+
= +
=
+
∑
∑
,
( ) 1.0(0.7) 0.7
Ext Min
DFM MPF DF = = = CONTROLS
DFM
two lanes
= 0.585 lanes/girder
DFM
one lane
= 0.600 lanes/girder (lever rule)
DFM
minimum
= 0.600 lanes/girder (one lanes)
DFM
minimum
= 0.700 lanes/girder (two lanes)
The controlling DFM is the minimum DFM with two lanes loaded DFM = 0.7
This is a 5% increase from the interior girder (DFM = 0.665)
Distribution for
Factor for
Shear
One Lane Loaded: Lever Rule
Two or More Lanes Loaded:
DF
M,Ext
= e DF
M,Int
0.66
10
e
d
e = +
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 58 of 65
Two or More Lanes Loaded:
DF
Ext
= e DF
Int
1.0
0.6 0.6 0.70
10 10
e
d
e = + = + =
DF
Ext+
= (0.70) (0.814) = 0.570
One Lane Loaded: (Lever Rule)
DFV
EXT
= 0.6
This is the same as moment calculation.
However, the minimum DF = 0.7 (from possible rigid body rotation)  THIS CONTROLS.
Unfactored
Shear Forces &
Bending
Moments
Dead Loads:
Location
Beam Weight
[Simple Span]
Deck plus
Haunch
[Simple Span]
Barrier Weight
[Continuous
Span]
Future Wearing
Surface
[Continuous
Span]
x ft. x/L
Shear
kips
M
g
,
kipft
Shear
kips
M
s
,
kipft
Shear
kips
M
b
,
kipft
Shea
r
kips
M
ws
,
kipft
0.00 0.00 39.6 0 35.3 0 9.2 7.7 14.7 12.4
9.26 0.10 31.9 331 28.5 295.2 6.8 81.8 10.9 130.5
18.97 0.20 24 602.6 21.4 537.3 4.3 136 6.9 217
28.69 0.30 16 796.5 14.2 710.4 1.8 166 2.9 264.9
38.41 0.40 8 912.9 7.1 814.2 0.6 171.9 1 274.2
48.13 0.50 0 951.9 0 848.8 3.1 153.6 5 245.1
57.84 0.60 8 912.9 7.1 814.2 5.6 111.2 8.9 177.5
67.56 0.70 16 796.5 14.2 710.4 8.1 44.7 12.9 71.3
77.28 0.80 24 602.6 21.4 537.3 10.6 46 16.9 73.4
86.99 0.90 31.9 331 28.5 295.2 13.1 160.8 20.8 256.7
96.25 Brg. 39.6 0 35.3 0 15.4 292.7 24.6 467.1
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 59 of 65
Live Loads:
Maximum envelope values shown. The values shown may not be from the same load case.
Load
Combinations
The following limit states are applicable: [LRFD 3.4.1]
Service I:
Q = 1.00(DC + DW) + 1.00 (LL + IM)
Service III:
Q = 1.00(DC + DW) + 0.80(LL + IM)
Strength I:
Maximum Q = 1.25(DC) + 1.50(DW) + 1.75(LL + IM)
Minimum Q = 0.90(DC) + 0.65(DW) + 1.75(LL + IM)
Length LL+IM
V M
ft. k kft
Bearing 0 76.5 50.9
Trans. 2.04 74.0 199.4
H/2 2.73 73.2 247.5
0.10L 9.26 65.3 655.8
0.20L 18.97 53.7 1101.8
0.30L 28.69 42.9 1365.5
0.40L 38.41 34.2 1483.0
MidSpan 48.13 41.3 1455.5
0.60L 57.84 51.6 1301.1
0.70L 67.56 61.8 1009.2
0.80L 77.28 71.7 815.0
0.90L 86.99 81.3 921.5
H/2 93.52 87.1 1252.7
Trans. 94.21 87.7 1299.1
Bearing 96.25 89.5 1449.7
Length Service 1 Service 3 Strength 1
V M V M V M
ft. k kft k kft k kft
Bearing 0 175.3 71.0 160.0 60.8 261.1 117.3
Trans. 2.04 168.2 416.2 153.4 376.4 250.8 630.3
H/2 2.73 165.8 528.7 151.1 479.2 247.2 797.3
0.10L 9.26 143.4 1494.4 130.3 1363.2 214.6 2228.5
0.20L 18.97 110.2 2594.7 99.5 2374.3 166.4 3848.5
0.30L 28.69 77.8 3303.3 69.3 3030.2 119.5 4878.1
0.40L 38.41 47.7 3656.2 40.8 3359.6 76.4 5380.4
MidSpan 48.13 49.4 3654.7 41.2 3363.6 83.7 5357.4
0.60L 57.84 81.2 3316.9 70.9 3056.7 129.6 4841.0
0.70L 67.56 113.0 2632.0 100.7 2430.2 175.4 3812.5
0.80L 77.28 144.6 205.5 130.3 368.5 220.8 568.0
0.90L 86.99 175.6 712.8 159.3 528.5 265.4 1635.0
H/2 93.52 195.9 1707.1 178.5 1456.5 294.3 2930.0
Trans. 94.21 198.1 1829.0 180.6 1569.2 297.5 3092.5
Bearing 96.25 204.4 2209.5 186.5 1919.6 306.4 3603.6
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 60 of 65
Stresses at
Midspan
Concrete stress at the top fiber of the girder, three cases:
1. Under permanent loads, Service I:
1
1
1
( )
( )
972 972(20.0) (951.9 848.8) *12 (153.6 245.1) *12
789 8, 909 8, 909 39576
1.23 2.18 2.43 0.12 1.60
pe pe c g s
ws b
tg
t t tg
tg
tg
P P e M M
M M
f
A S S S
f
f
+
+
= − + +
+ +
= − + +
= − + + = +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +3.150 ksi OK
2. Onehalf permanent loads plus live loads:
2 1
2
2
( )
0.5
1, 455*12
0.5(1.60)
39576
0.80 0.44 1.24
LL I
tg tg
tg
tg
tg
M
f f
S
f
f
+
= +
= +
= + = +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.800 ksi OK
3. Under permanent and transient loads:
3 1
3
3
( )
1, 455*12
(1.60)
39576
1.60 0.44 2.04
LL I
tg tg
tg
tg
tg
M
f f
S
f
f
+
= +
= +
= + = +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +4.200 ksi OK
Concrete stress at the top fiber of the deck, three cases:
1. Under permanent loads:
( )
(245.1 153.6) *12
25271
0.186
ws b
tc
tc
tc
tc
M M
f
S
f
f
+
=
+
= +
= +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.025 ksi OK
Note that deck stresses under service loads are almost always well below allowable for
continuous for LL bridges; but they still must be checked.
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 61 of 65
2. Onehalf permanent loads plus live loads:
2 1
2
2
( )
0.5
1, 455*12
0.5(0.186)
25721
0.09 0.68 0.77
LL I
tc tc
tc
tc
tc
M
f f
S
f
f
+
= +
= +
= + = +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +1.800 ksi OK
3. Under permanent and transient loads:
3 1
3
3
( )
1, 455*12
(0.186)
25721
0.19 0.68 0.87
LL I
tc tc
tc
tc
tc
M
f f
S
f
f
+
= +
= +
= + = +
Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi OK
Tension stress at the bottom fiber of the girder, Service III:
 
( )
( ) 0.8
(245.1 153.6) (0.8*1455) *12
972 972(20.0) (951.9 848.8) *12
789 10, 542 10, 542 16, 340
1.23 1.84 2.05 1.15 0.13
pe pe c g s
ws b LL I
b
b b bc
b
b
P P e M M
M M M
f
A S S S
f
f
+
+
+ +
= + − −
+ +
+
= + − −
= + − − = −
Tensile stress limit for concrete: 0.503 ksi OK
GIRDER STRESSES INT EXT
COMP – PERMANENT LOADS 1.98 ksi 1.60 ksi
COMP – ½ PERMANENT LOADS + LL 1.34 ksi 1.24 ksi
COMP – PERMANENT LOADS + LL 2.33 ksi 2.04 ksi
TENSION 0.40 ksi 0.13 ksi
Positive
Moment
Section
Total Ultimate bending moment for Strength I i: [LRFD Tables 3.4.1&2]
1.25( ) 1.5( ) 1.75( )
u
M DC DW LL IM = + + +
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 62 of 65
At point of maximum moment 0.4L:
,
,
, ,int
1.25( ) 1.5( ) 1.75( )
1.25(912.9 814.2 171.9) 1.5(274.2) 1.75(1, 483)
5380 5, 615
u ext
u ext
u ext u
M DC DW LL IM
M
M k ft M k ft
= + + +
= + + + +
= − < = −
Since exterior M
u
is less than interior M
u
, OK
The positive moment, under the Strength I limit state, for the exterior girder is less than that
for interior girder. Although the LL increases, the DL decreases due to the flange (slab)
being narrower.
The interior girder design met all the checks for positive moment design. These were:
Nominal Strength, tension controlled, and minimum reinforcement. All of these checks
depend on M
u
and/or M
n
. Since M
U,ext
<M
u,int
, the design for the interior girder for
POSITIVE MOMENT is adequate for exterior girder.
Stresses at transfer of prestressing force is independent of whether the girder is interior or
exterior, so no check is needed.
Negative
Moment
Section
Total Ultimate bending moment for Strength I is: [LRFD Tables 3.4.1&2]
1.25( ) 1.5( ) 1.75( )
u
M DC DW LL IM = + + +
At the pier section:
1.25( 292.7) 1.5( 467.1) 1.75( 1, 450) 3604
u
M = − + − + − = − kipft
This is 4% greater than the moment for the interior girder. This is because the LL moment
increases. At the support, the slab moment is 0, so it has no effect. Away from the support,
the slab moment is positive, so it would mitigate the negative moment. Thus, the smaller
slab moment has the effect of INCREASING the negative moment, as compared to the
interior girder.
2
2
(60)
3, 604(12) 0.90 (60) 58.25
1.7(7.0)(26)
0 10.47 3145 43248
14.5
s
s
s s
s
A
A
A A
A in
 
= −

\ .
= − +
=
This is the required amount of mild steel reinforcement required in the slab to resist the
negative moment and it is equal to 33 #6 bars. Distributed over a length of 6.5 feet, this
would be #6 @ 4 inches top and bottom! Use 16 bars on the bottom and 17 on the top. A
s
=
14.52 in
2
Note: Only 13.98 in
2
were required for the interior girder.
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 63 of 65
Location of steel:
Top – 17 #6 with 2” clear
Btm – 16 #6 with 2 5/8” clear.
33(0.44) 14.52
s
A = = in
2
17(0.44)(2.375) 16(0.44)(8.5 3)
14.52
56.48
3.9
14.52
x
x
+ −
=
= =
We assumed 4.25” from top OK
d = 58.6 in
Now check M
n
:
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )( )
s y
c
1
r n
r u
A f 14.52 60
a 5.63in
0.85f ' b 0.85 7 26
a 5.63
c 8.04
0.7
5.63
M M 0.9 14.52 60 58.6
2
M 43740k in 3, 645k ft M 3, 604k ft
= = =
= = =
β
 
= φ = −

\ .
= − = − > = −
Control of
Cracking by
Distribution
Reinforcement
According to LRFD 5.7.3.4 the spacing of the mild steel reinforcement in the layer closest to
the tension face shall satisfy equation 5.7.3.41.
700
2
e
c
s s
s d
f
γ
β
≤ −
Based on the check made for the interior girders (requiring a spacing of 9 inches), #6@ 4
inches will clearly satisfy this requirement. Note that the service level stress will increase,
but not enough to bring the requirement below 4 inches.
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 64 of 65
Maximum
Reinforcement
– Negative
Moment
Section
As before, check the strain in the extreme tensile steel: : [LRFD 5.7.2.1 & 5.5.4.2]
t
t
d c 59.9 8.04
0.003 0.003 0.019 0.005
c 8.04
− −    
ε = = = >
 
\ . \ .
This is a tension controlled section, so φ = 0.9
Minimum
Reinforcement
– Negative
Moment
Section
( ) 1
c
cr c r cpe dnc c r
nc
S
M S f f M S f
S
 
= + − − ≥

\ .
[LRFD 5.7.3.3.21]
Where:
f
r
= '
0.37 0.37 4.5 0.785
c
r
f f = = =
ksi
f
cpe
= 0.0 ksi
M
dnc
= 0
g s
M M + = kipft
S
c
= 16340 in
3
16340
(0.785)
12
1069
cr
cr
M
M k ft
=
= −
1.2 1282
cr
M k ft = −
At bearing, the factored moment required by the Strength I load combination is:
M
u
= 3604 kipft
Therefore, 1.33 4793
u
M = kipft
Since 1.2 1.33
cr u
M M < , 1.2
cr
M Controls
3, 645 1.2 1282
r cr
M M = > = OK
Note: The LRFD Specifications states that this requirement be met at every section.
The design of the exterior section meets all requirements for positive and negative bending
under both Service and Strength Limit States.
2 Span Continuous Example July 2007 To Be Used as an Example Only
ODOT Short Course Page 65 of 65
Shear
This compares Strength I shears and moments for the interior and exterior girders. Note that
the exterior girder shears are LESS than the interior girder
shears. Thus, the previous design works for vertical and horizontal shear. The longitudinal
steel requirements are also met.
Strength I
Length Interior Exterior
V M V M
ft. k kft k kft
Bearing 0 299.125 113.1 261.0657 117.3438
Trans. 2.04 287.45 644.925 250.7524 630.3376
H/2 2.73 283.375 817.925 247.1722 797.2625
0.10L 9.26 246.375 2303.925 214.6325 2228.485
0.20L 18.97 191.575 3993.775 166.3629 3848.451
0.30L 28.69 138.4 5077.725 119.4571 4878.126
0.40L 38.41 89.575 5615.875 76.42157 5380.371
MidSpan 48.13 95.9 5610.625 83.733 5357.442
0.60L 57.84 147.875 5091.675 129.581 4841.008
0.70L 67.56 199.95 4041.75 175.438 3812.453
0.80L 77.28 251.375 329.31 220.846 567.967
0.90L 86.99 301.825 1464.58 265.37 1635.04
H/2 93.52 334.65 2795.88 294.34 2929.99
Trans. 94.21 338.2 2961.82 297.47 3092.54
Bearing 96.25 348.325 3482.75 306.435 3603.56
General
LRFD equations are in KSI units!
Example Modulus of Rupture:
f r = 0.24 5ksi = 0.530ksi
LRFD
f r = 7.5 5000 psi = 530 psi STD.SPEC.
In most cases, the equations are simply the old Standard Specifications equations converted to ksi units.
7.5 5000 psi 7.5 1000 5ksi 7.5 5ksi = = = 0.24 5ksi 1000 psi / ksi 1000 1000
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #3
§ 5.4 – Material Properties
Materials must meet AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications. Unless specified otherwise, all provisions apply for strengths up to 10 ksi (Art. 5.4.2.1). Some provisions allow up to 15 ksi. There is an effort to extend all provisions to 18 ksi. If a provision does not allow higher strength, use a maximum of 10 ksi in the calculations. Decks must have a minimum strength of 4 ksi.
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #4
§ 5.4 – Material Properties
A current problem with the LRFD Specifications is that some provisions allow strengths up to 18 ksi, but many are limited to 15 ksi or the default of 10 ksi. So what do you do if you are using a high strength concrete and a specific provision does not allow that strength? Use the highest strength allowed by that provision. For example, assume a 15 ksi strength is specified but a particular provision has not been verified for that strength. For that particular provision, you must use a concrete strength of 10 ksi for your calculations (you may still use 15 ksi concrete in the structure, you just cannot take advantage of the additional strength for that particular provision). However, if other provisions allow the use of 15 ksi concrete, you can use 15 ksi for those provisions.
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #5
§ 5.4 – Material Properties § 5.4.2.3 – Shrinkage and Creep
For calculation of creep and shrinkage, the engineer may use: Articles 5.4.2.3.2 and 5.4.2.3.3 CEBFIP Model Code ACI 209 For prestressed concrete – the loss equations include creep and shrinkage. The main use of these provisions for prestressed concrete is for calculating restraint moments for continuous for live load bridges. These are verified to 15 ksi. The creep equations do not work for strengths over 15 ksi.
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #6
§ 5.4 – Material Properties § 5.4.2.3 – Shrinkage and Creep
Creep Coefficient ( Art. 5.4.2.3.2) :
ψ (t , ti ) = 1.9kvs k hc k f ktd ti−0.118
V k vs = 1.45 − 0.13 ≥ 1.0 S k hc = 1.56 − 0.008 H kf = 5 1 + f ci '
H t ti fci
= Relative Humidity = time from first loading to time being considered = time of first loading = concrete strength at time of prestress transfer or time of first load (RC). (RC) If unknown, assume = 0.8fc’.
V/S = volume to surface
t ktd = 61 − 4 f '+t ci
Std. Spec did not have a creep coefficient. Previous versions of LRFD use a different equation. It is similar to the ACI equation using ∆t0.6 /(10+ ∆t0.6).
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #7
§ 5.4 – Material Properties § 5.4.2.3 – Shrinkage and Creep
ε sh = −kvs k hs k f ktd (0.48 x10
V k vs = 1.45 − 0.13 ≥ 1.0 S k hs = 2 − 0.014 H 5 kf = 1 + f ci ' t ktd = 61 − 4 f '+t ci
Shrinkage ( Art. 5.4.2.3.3) :
−3
)
H t
= Relative Humidity = time from end of cure to time being considered
V/S = volume to surface fci = concrete strength at time of prestress transfer or time of first load (RC). If unknown, assume = 0.8fc’.
Std. Spec. set shrinkage = 0.002. Previous editions of LRFD used an ACI type equation with a term of t/(35+t).
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #8
§ 5.4 – Material Properties § 5.4.2.6 – Modulus of Rupture
There are now 3 defined Moduli of Rupture for normal g weight concrete:
For Arts. 5.7.3.4 (crack control) and 5.7.3.3.2 (Ieff): 0.24 √fc’ksi (= 7.5√fc’ in psi units) For Art. 5.7.3.3.2 (minimum reinforcement): 0.37 √fc’ksi (= 11.5√fc’ in psi units) For Art. 5.8.3.4.3 (shear) (this is new in 2007): 0.20 √ c’ksi (= 6 √ c’ in psi units) √f √f
Note that the value for Article 5.8.3.4.3 (shear) ONLY applies to the new, “simplified” method.
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #9
§ 5.4 – Material Properties § 5.4.2.4 – Modulus of Elasticity & § 5.4.2.5 – Poisson’s Ratio
E c = 33, 000K1w1.5 f c ' (5.4.2.41) c µ=02 0.2
(5.4.2.5) (5 4 2 5)
Where: K1 = Aggregate factor. Taken as 1.0 unless determined by testing or as approved by a jurisdiction. w = concrete unit weight in kcf fc’ = concrete strength ksi E is basically the old Standard Specifications equation converted to ksi units and with an aggregate correction factor added. µ is unchanged from Standard Specifications.
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #10
§ 3.4  Loads and Load Factors §3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations
For prestressed girders, the following service load combinations are most common: Service I: Used for compression and transverse tension in prestressed concrete. Service III: Used for longitudinal tension in prestressed concrete girders. Service IV: Used for tension in prestressed columns, for crack control. Strength I: Basic load combination. Fatigue : Fatigue of reinforcement does NOT need to be checked for fully prestressed components designed using Service III (Art. (A 5.5.3.1) 3 1) Strength IIV and Extreme Event I and II are checked as warranted. Service II is for steel and never applies to prestressed concrete.
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #11
§ 3.4  Loads and Load Factors §3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations
Table 3.4.11 Load Combinations and Load Factors
DC DD DW EH EV ES EL γp γp γp γp γp 1.35 LL IM CE BR PL LS 1.75 1.35
Use One of These at a Time
Load Combination STRENGTH I (unless noted) STRENGTH II STRENGTH III STRENGTH IV STRENGTH V
WA 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
WS 1.40 0.40
WL 1.0
FR 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
TU CR SH 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20
TG γTG γTG γTG γTG
SE γSE γSE γSE γSE
EQ 
IC 
CT 
CV 
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #12
§ 3.4  Loads and Load Factors §3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations
Table 3.4.11 Load Combinations and Load Factors (cont.)
DC DD DW EH EV ES EL γp γp LL IM CE BR PL LS γEQ 0.50 0.75
Use One of These at a Time
Load Combination EXTREME EVENT I EXTREME EVENT II FATIGUE – LL, IM, & CE ONLY
WA 1.00 1.00 
WS 
WL 
FR 1.00 1.00 
TU CR SH 
TG 
SE 
EQ 1.00 
IC 1.00 
CT 1.00 
CV 1.00 
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #13
§ 3.4  Loads and Load Factors §3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations
Table 3.4.11 Load Combinations and Load Factors (cont.)
DC DD DW EH EV ES EL 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 LL IM CE BR PL LS 1.00 1.30 0.80 Use One of These at a Time Ti TU CR SH 1.00/1.20 1.00/1.20 1.00/1.20 1.00/1.20
Load Combination SERVICE I SERVICE II SERVICE III SERVICE IV
WA 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
WS 0.30 0.70
WL 1.0 
FR 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
TG γTG γTG 
SE γSE γSE 1.0
EQ 
IC 
CT 
CV 
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #14
§ 3.4  Loads and Load Factors §3.4.1: Load Factors and Load Combinations
Service III applies only to LONGITUDINAL TENSION in prestressed girders. The modifier to (LL+IM) is 0.8. The (LL IM) modifier is < 1 because it was found that the tensile capacity of prestressed girders is underestimated. This is largely because the loss of prestressing force is usually overestimated and a lower bound is used for the tensile strength (modulus of rupture).
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #15
AASHTOLRFD AASHTO LRFD Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements
AASHTOLRFD Specification, 4th Edition
2.1.11 Note: Multiple presence factors are NOT used with simplified distribution factors.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear The simplified distribution factors may be used if: Width of the slab is constant Number of beams.6. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #18 . The letter below the diagram correlates to a set of distribution factors.2.2.2.Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.6.6. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #17 This is part of Table 4.2 Cross section conforms to AASHTO Table 4. Nb > 4 Beams are parallel and of similar stiffness Roadway overhang de < 3 ft Central angle < Article 4.2.6.2.11 showing common precast/ prestressed concrete bridge types.
3 (Kg/12.1 One lane loaded: DFM= 0.000 < Kg < 7. non composite girder (in4) = gross area.2. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #20 .0Lts3)0.2 (Kg/12.0Lts3)0. (i ) d l b (in) If Nb = 3.075+(S/9.5 4 5 < ts < 12 0 12.LRFD Table 4.2.0 = span length (ft) 20 < L < 240 = slab thickness (in) 4.4 ( S/L )0.5 < S < 16.2.6 (S/L)0.2b1: Two or more lanes l d d T l loaded: DFM = 0.000 = Ec. non composite girder (in2) = distance between centers of gravity of the non composite beam and slab.slab = gross moment of inertia. use the lesser of the equations above with Nb = 3 and the lever rule.000.6.5)0.2.0 = Number of Beams Nb > 4 = n(Ig + Ageg2) (in4) 10.beam/Ec.6.6.06+( S/14 )0.2.1 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #19 Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.2. Moment distribution factors .2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Beam and Slab Bridges would be a Type “k” bridge.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear S L ts Nb Kg n Ig Ag eg = girder spacing (ft) 3.
6. Nb > 4 If Nb = 3. ft 4.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear 3.36 + ( S/25 ) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #21 Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.LRFD Table 4.5 < S < 16.2.3a1: Two or more lanes loaded: DFV = 0.2. 20 < L < 240 ft.( S/35 )2 One lane loaded: DFV = 0.Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.6.2 + ( S/12 ) . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #22 .6.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Beam and Slab Type “k” bridge Shear Distribution Factors .2.2.2. use the lever rule.5 < ts < 12.0 ft.0 in.
2.6 + LRFD Table 4.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Beam and Slab Bridge Type “k” – Exterior – Shear Two or more lanes loaded: g ext = eg int de 10 One lane loaded – use the Lever Rule e = 0.2d1 g = DFM de = distance from edge of the traffic railing to the exterior web of the exterior beam.0 < de < 5. 1.3b1 g = DFV 1. The term de is positive when the railing is outboard (shown) and negative when the railing is inboard.6.2.5 ft.2.Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.0 < de < 5.77 + de 9.2. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #23 Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.6.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Beam and Slab Bridge Type “k” – Exterior – Moment Two or more lanes loaded: g ext = eg int e = 0.6.6.2.5 ft.2.1 One lane loaded – use the Lever Rule LRFD Table 4. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #24 .2.2.
6.Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4. 0o < θ < 60o. c1 = 0. multiply DFM by: (LRFD Table 4. 20 < L < 240 ft S = Beam Spacing.6.2.5 θ = Angle of skew.2. if θ>60o then θ=60o L = Span.2.2c1) 1 − c1 (tan θ ) 1.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Beam and Slab Bridge – Type “k” Longitudinal Beams on Skewed Supports Correlation Factor for Load Distribution Factor for Support Shear at Obtuse Corner .25 12 Lt s S L 0.5 < S < 16 ft Nb > 4 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #26 .2. L = Span.0 + 0. 30o < θ < 60o.3c1) 12 Lt s3 1.5 < S < 16 ft Nb > 4 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #25 Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.2.25 K c1 = 0.5 0.20 K g 0.6. 3.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Beam and Slab Bridge – Type “k” Longitudinal Beams on Skewed Supports Any number of lanes loaded.3 tan θ θ = Angle of skew. 20 < L < 240 ft S = Beam Spacing.2.(LRFD Table 4. 3. if θ<30o.6.
2.Number of loaded lanes under consideration .2.5’ ∑M 36k 36k H → 1.2d1) .2e ∴ DF = S S Note that truck cannot be closer than 2’ (3.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Minimum Exterior DFM: (Rigid Body Rotation of Bridge Section) NL DFExt .6.3) from the barrier AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #27 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4. P diagram is the resultant force.) .2.Distance from CG of pattern of girders to each girder (ft.) . 8 ft 1.2 Pe − RS = 0 R= In the diagram. This is for one lane loaded.2.6.) AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #28 .Number of beams or girders E Eccentricity of design t k or l d f t i it f d i truck load from CG of pattern of f tt f girders (ft. P/2 are the wheel loads.6. All three loads are NOT applied at the same time.Distance from CG of pattern of girders to exterior girder (ft.6.2.1.Min = NL Nb e x XExt July 2007 ODOT Short Course NL + Nb X Ext ∑ e ∑x Nb 2 (C4.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Lever Rule: Assume a hinge develops over each interior girder and solve for the reaction in the exterior girder as a fraction of the truck load.Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.2 Pe 1.2 is the MPF 1.2. Multiple Presence Factors apply 1.
July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #30 . paragraph 14).2. Lack of lateral posttensioning causes a reduction of the distribution factor.6. Adjacent box girders with shear keys. unless demonstrated by testing or experience (Commentary 4.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Interior Box Girders The following distribution factors may be used for a Type g y yp “f” (composite deck) or a Type “g” (noncomposite) bridge IF the girders are “sufficiently connected together” – meaning they achieve transverse flexural continuity.2. are Type “g” sections. This can be done with lateral posttensioning of at least 250 psi (Commentary 4. The Commentary further states that bridges without a structural overlay and which use untensioned t t t l l d hi h t i d transverse rods should NOT be considered as sufficient to achieve transverse flexural continuity.2.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Adjacent Box Girders Adjacent box girders with shear keys and a cast in place castinplace overlay are Type “f” sections.2. but no castinplace deck.1.Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.6.1.2. Type “g” sections may or may not be laterally posttensioned.6.2.6. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #29 Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4. paragraph 12).
06 = 1.5 Nb = number of beams 5 < Nb < 20 b = width of beam.5 )0.2 1.5(I/J)0. Venant torsional constant.0 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #32 .3L)0.0L )0.2 ( I/J )0.6. in4 J = St.6.6.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Interior Box Girders Type “f” (composite deck) or “g” with lateral PT f g LRFD Table 4.6 ( b/12.2.2. in4 For preliminary design.2b1 Moment: Two lanes loaded DFM = k ( b/305 )0. ft 20< L < 120 ft I = moment of inertia of beam.Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.25 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #31 Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4. in 35< b < 60 in L = span of beam. ( I/J )0.2.2.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Interior Box Girders k = 2 5 ( Nb ) 0 2 > 1 5 2.2.06 One lane loaded DFM = k(b/33.
NOTE: The Standard Specifications equations were based on wheel loads and the LRFD equations are based on axle loads.05(b/48) both composite and noncomposite. It is the same for Type “g” structures with and without lateral PT. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #34 . the old Standard Specifications equations are used.6. For Type “g” structures without lateral PT.000 in4 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #33 Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.4 (b/12L)0. DFM is different.2. 5 < Nb < 20 35< b < 60 in 20< L < 120 ft 25.2.2.1 (I/J)0.6.3a1 Two Lanes Loaded: These are used for DFV = (b/156)0. One Lane Loaded: even if the girders are NOT sufficiently DFV = (b/130L)0.6.2.2. so the equations changed by a factor of 2.000 < I < 610.LRFD Table 4..Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Type “g” box with NO lateral PT DFV (distribution factor for shear) does not change.000 in4 40.2.05 connected.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Interior Box Girders Distribution Factors for Shear .15 (I/J)0.000 < J < 610.
5 .2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Distribution Factor for Moment .0 2.LRFD Table 4.2b1 DFM = S/D S = width of precast beam (ft) D = (11.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear For Preliminary Design Beam Type Nonvoided rectangular b N id d t l beams Rectangular beams with circular voids: Box section beams Channel beams Tbeam Double Tbeam K 0.2.2 for concrete (5.5) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #36 .4.2.NL)+1.5 .2.2.2.6.8 1.7 07 0.2C)2 when C < 5 D = (11.2.6.Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.0 2.NL) when C > 5 Where: NL = number of traffic lanes C = K(W/L) < K July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #35 Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.6.2.4NL(10.2 2.0 C = K(W/L) < K Where: (1 + µ ) I K= J W = overall width of bridge measured perpendicular to the longitudinal beam (ft) L = span (ft) µ = Poisson’s ratio = 0.
which accounts for the distribution of load to the exterior girder. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #37 Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4. Minimum exterior distribution factor based on rigid body rotation does not apply to adjacent box girders.2. e.6. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #38 . li t = thickness of the corresponding web or flange.Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.6.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear 4 A2 J ≈ S ∑t Where: A = Area enclosed by the centerline of the webs and flanges.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear The bending moment for exterior beams is determined by multiplying the distribution factor for interior beams by a factor.2. Lack of lateral posttensioning is accounted for in the DVM.2. S=l length of a web or fl h f b flange centerline. Note that this applies to type “g” even if there is no lateral posttensioning.
6. The term de is positive when the railing is outboard (shown) and negative when the railing is inboard.6.6.04 + ( de / 25 ) > 1 de=distance from edge of the traffic railing to the exterior web of the exterior beam.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Exterior Box Girders Multiplier for Moment – Types “f” and “g” .0 ft.2d 1 Two or more lanes loaded: gext= eginterior Where: e = 1. e accounts for the distribution of load to the exterior girder July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #40 .LRFD Table 4 6 2 2 2d1 f g 4.2.2.2.0 UNIT IS FEET! g= DFM July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #39 Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.2.2.2.2d 1 One lane loaded: gext= eginterior e = 1.Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4. de < 2.6.2.LRFD Table 4 6 2 2 2d1 f g 4.125 + ( de / 30 ) > 1 de < 2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Exterior Box Girder Multiplier for Moment – Types “f” and “g” .2.
July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #42 .5 ≥ 1.2.2.2.6.0 ft.Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.0 de < 2 0 2.3b 1 Two or more lanes loaded: 48 g ext = eg int b 48 ≤1 b b d e + − 2.0 35 < b < 60 in g = DFV AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #41 Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.3b 1 4.6.3b1 One lane loaded: gext = eginterior e = 1.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Multiplier for Shear – Types “f” and “g” .2.2.2.2.125 + ( de / 20 ) > 1 de < 2.0 12 e = 1+ 40 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate 0.6.LRFD Table 4 6 2 2 3b1 f g 4.6.6.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Exterior Box Girders Multiplier for Shear – Types “f” and “g” .LRFD Table 4.2.
July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #43 Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4. The LRFD Specifications Table 4.6.2c1 1.2. This approach is generally conservative for moments in the beams.2. The previous slide illustrates the multiplier for spread box beams.0.6. (c).2.2.e1 lists reduction multipliers for moments in longitudinal beams. less than 20o.Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.2. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #44 . (f) and (g).6. it is often considered safe to ignore the angle of skew and to analyze the bridge as a zeroskew bridge whose span is equal to the skew span.2. adjacent box beams with concrete overlays or transverse posttensioning and double tees in multibeam decks or Types (b).6.2. say.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear When the skew angle of a bridge is small.2. and slightly unsafe (<5%) for slabongirder decks for longitudinal shears.LRFD Table 4 6 2 2 2c 1 4.0 θ = skew angle If θ > 600 use θ = 600 This is optional.25 ( tan θ) < 1.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Skewed Box Girders Multiplier for Moment .05 .
6.0 + 12.(LRFD Table 4.2.2. 4th Edition . 1 .6.2.2 Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear Correlation Factor for Load Distribution Factor for Support yp g ( Shear at Obtuse Corner – Types “f” and “g” .Distribution Factors for Precast/Prestressed Concrete Elements § 4.3c1) – This is mandatory. 17 < d < 60 in d is depth of the girder 35 < b < 60 in b is width of the flange 5 < Nb < 20 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #45 AASHTOLRFD S TO Flexure and Axial Loads AASHTOLRFD Specification.2.0 L tan θ 90d 0o < θ < 60o 20 < L < 240 ft ft.
Article 5.003 (Article 5.Flexure and Axial Loads Definitions of various “d” terms for July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #47 Flexure and Axial Loads AASHTO LRFD now uses the same terminology as ACI 31805.003 are allowed for confined cores. This is a unified method for prestressed and reinforced concrete members.7. extreme fiber compressive strain = 0.2. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #48 .7.1 defines 3 states: Tension Controlled Compression Controlled Transition In all cases. Values above 0.1).2.
005 > εt > f y / Es Type of section Tension controlled Compression controlled Transition For all prestressing or Grade 60 nonprestressed steel. used Balanced condition is when εt = εy. εt is the tensile strain which occurs in the steel after the precompression in the concrete is lost.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States Definition of strain conditions for determining tension or compression control.003 εt > 0.7.002. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #50 .002) 0.004. Note that tensile strain in the steel closest to the tensile face is used.Flexure and Axial Loads § 5. members with a superimposed axial load of < 0.005 εt < f y / E s (may use = 0. upon which this provision is based. AASHTO does not impose this requirement. εy may be taken as 0. For Grade 60 steel and all prestressing steel. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #49 Flexure and Axial Loads § 5. Note that for prestressing steel.1fc’Ag) to have εs > 0.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States Definition of Section Types Extreme tensile steel strain when the extreme concrete compressive strain = 0.7. εt may be assumed = 0.002 in place of fy/Es for compression controlled. The ACI 318 code. requires flexural members (that is.
can be calculated by mechanics.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States As load is applied. it is important to understand the definition of εt. the top of the beam is usually in tension (due to the prestressing). July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate dt AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #52 . εp2 at this point steel would be the initial pull. dt Begin by considering the strain condition of the beam at the point where the only loads are the prestressing force and the beam self weight. the strain profile changes. there is a compressive strain the concrete. the strain in the steel.7. The actual strain in the steel. If there were no losses (except for elastic shortening). At the level of the steel.Flexure and Axial Loads § 5. In this condition. There is a net tensile strain in the prestressing steel of εp1. εc. This is the initial pull minus any strain lost due to prestress losses. with losses. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #51 Flexure and Axial Loads § 5.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States For a prestressed beam.7. the bottom decompresses and eventually d d t ll reaches a point where the CONCRETE strain at the level of the steel is 0. This is called “decompression”.
εp2. and the strain developed between decompression and the ultimate state. εp2 is not part of the specification.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States This is the condition at Mn. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate dt AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #53 Flexure and Axial Loads § 5.7.Flexure and Axial Loads § 5.003.4. The total strain in the 0 003 prestressing steel is the sum of the strain in the steel at decompression.90 shear and torsion 0. εt.0 1 0 tension controlled prestressed concrete members 0.75 compression controlled members with spirals or ties (except for members in Seismic Zones 3 & 4) 0. use a linear interpolation of the Φ factor based on the extreme tensile steel strain.70 shear and torsion lightweight concrete For transition members. The compressive strain in the concrete is 0.2 Resistance Factors Φ = 0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #54 .5.9 tension controlled reinforced concrete members 1. εt. The specifications only regulate the strain developed between decompression and the ultimate state. The additional strain in the prestressing steel.
the Φ factor is reduced at a slightly lower rate than moment resistance is gained.05 1 0.4.7 0.25 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #55 Flexure and Axial Loads § 5.6 0 Compression Controlled 0.2 Resistance Factors Effect of New Resistance Factors It is allowable to design flexural members with extreme fiber steel strains < 0.12) c Prestressed Members 0.4.006 0 006 0. in general. Thus.8 0.65 + .9 Phi Factor 0.85 0.005.11) c dt Reinforced Members 0.5.0 (5. Thus there is little effect on the allowable moment by increasing the amount of steel above that required to bring the extreme fiber steel strains to 0.007 0 007 Prestressed Prestressed: Strain = 0 004 0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #56 .005 0 005 Tension Controlled 0.15 − 1 ≤ 1.004 0 004 0.95 0.2.4.75 ≤ φ = 0.5.003 0 003 0. This is done by increasing the area of steel.583 + .005.004 Phi = 0.75 ≤ φ = 0.2.2 Resistance Factors 1.4.Flexure and Axial Loads § 5.002 0 002 Transition 0.92 Reinforced Extreme Steel Strain dt − 1 ≤ 1.001 0 001 0.75 0.5.5.65 0.0 (5. However. There is a slight increase in Mn but it is minimal.
4.14) PPR = Partial prestressing ratio Aps = Area of prestressing steel fpy = Yield strength of the prestressing steel As = Area of mild steel fy = Yield strength of the mild steel July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #57 Flexure and Axial Loads The stress block remains the same as Standard Specifications.Flexure and Axial Loads § 5.4.2.4. HOWEVER. Analysis of reinforced concrete RECTANGULAR beams is the same as Standard Specifications. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #58 .13) (5 5 4 2 1 3) (5.90 0 10PPR PPR = A ps f py A ps f py + A s f y (5.10PPR 0.5.2 Resistance Factors For tension controlled partially prestressed members: φ = 0 90 + 0.5.5.2. there are some differences with prestressed concrete.
7.12) (5 7 3 1 1 2) Stress in the steel.85f c ' b β1c = A ps f pu 1 − k dp A ps f pu c= f 0.7.7. 4th Edition Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons § 5.3.85f c ' b a = A ps f ps a = β1c f py k = 2 1 04 − 1.04 f pu (5.11) f ps = f pu 1 − k dp Then: 0.85f c ' β1 b + kA ps pu dp AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #60 . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate c 0.3 Flexural Members The value of fps can be found from (if fpe > 0.AASHTOLRFD AASHTO LRFD Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons AASHTOLRFD Specification. can also be found from strain compatibility analysis.1.5fpu): c (5 7 3 1 1 1) 5.3. fps.1.
85 f c ' b β1c + As ' f y ' = As f y + Aps f pu 1 − k dp A f + As f y − As ' f y ' c = ps pu f pu (5. Spec.3 Flexural Members c= Aps f pu 0. the p y equation for c becomes: c .3. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #62 .1.7.85 f c ' β1 b + kAps dp The engineer must do an analysis to see if the compression steel yields.3 Flexural Members If there is mild (nonprestressed) tensile steel.85 f c ' β1 b + kAps f pu dp c = depth of neutral axis b = width of compression block Aps= area of TENSILE prestressing steel dp = depth to centroid of tensile prestressing steel fpu = tensile strength of prestressing steel fpy = yield strength of prestressing steel β1 = stress block factor – same as Std.7.3.1.14. If the compression steel does not yield.14) 0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #61 Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons § 5.Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons § 5.7.7. the actual stress is substituted for fy’ into equation 5. As and mild compression steel As’ both with a yield stress of fy .
the actual stress is substituted for fy’ into equation 5. Spec.3 Flexural Members Sometimes.7.11. the β factor was applied to the flange as well as to the web.7. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #64 .3 Flexural Members The T beam equation returns to normal: a a M n = Aps f ps d p − + As f y d s − − 2 2 a As ' f y ' d s '− + 0.3. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #63 Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons § 5.1. Now it is the same definition as ACI 318 and Std.Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons § 5. It was changed with the 2005 Interim back to the old definition definition. This made no sense. things change for the better!!!! Std.7.7.1.11) Again the engineer must do an analysis to see if the compression steel yields.85 f c ' ( b − bw ) h f 2 a hf − 2 2 (5. Spec And LRFD 2005 Interim Editions 1 through 3 of th h f LRFD In Editions 13 of the LRFD Specifications.3. If the compression steel does not yield.
Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons § 5.3.1.85f 'c ( b − b w ) h f − f 2 2 2 2 2 If the section is NOT a “T” beam.85 f c ' β1 bw + kAps pu dp bw = web width b = flange width hf = flange thickness (5.85 f c ' ( b − bw ) h f f 0.13) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #66 .Beams: c= Aps f pu + As f y − As ' f y '− 0.7. b = bw and: a a a M n = A psf ps d p − + Asf y d s − − A 's f 's d 's − 2 2 2 If there is no compression steel: a a M n = A psf ps d p − + Asf y d s − 2 2 If there is no nonprestressed tensile steel: a M n = A psf ps d p − 2 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #65 Prestressed Beams with Bonded Tendons § 5.7.7.3 Flexural Members For prestressed T.3 Flexural Members The LRFD Specifications give only this equation: a a a a h M n = A psf ps d p − + A sf y d s − − A 's f 's d 's − + 0.
7. fpe= Effective stress in the steel after losses.21) (5. l l e = effective tendon length July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #68 .7.1.1. Prestressed Beams with Unbonded Tendons § 5.22) i = length of tendon between anchorages Ns = Number of support hinges crossed by the tendon between anchorages or discretely bonded points.3 Flexural Members The stress in the prestressing steel can be found from: dp −c f ps = f pe + 900 l < f py e 2l i le = 2+ N s (5.AASHTOLRFD AASHTO LRFD Prestressed Beams with Unbonded Tendons AASHTOLRFD Specification. 4th Edition.3.3.7.
1. The Commentary (C5.1.Prestressed Beams with Unbonded Tendons § 5. finding fps becomes an iterative procedure.85 f c ' β1 bw (5.3. but most people will not do this.3.1.7.7. but the equation for fps requires the value of “c”.1.7. The two equations can be solved simultaneously in a closed form.7.3 Flexural Members For unbonded tendons.3 Flexural Members For rectangular beams: c= Aps f ps + As f y − As ' f y ' 0.3.23) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #69 Prestressed Beams with Unbonded Tendons § 5.3. the equations for “c” require the value of fps.85 f c ' ( b − bw ) h f 0.24) For Tbeams: c= Aps f ps + As f y − As ' f y '− 0. Thus.7.2) gives an equation for a first estimate of fps (in ksi): f ps = f pe + 15 July 2007 ODOT Short Course (C5.21) AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #70 .7.85 f c ' β1 b (5.
1. 4th Edition Components with Both Bonded and Unbonded Tendons § 5.7.3a “Detailed Analysis” In this method.3.3.7.1.3 allows two methods: Article 5.1. strain compatibility is used.AASHTOLRFD AASHTO LRFD Components with Both Bonded and Unbonded Tendons AASHTOLRFD Specification. Article 5.3 Flexural Members Article 5. a detailed.3.7.3b “Simplified Analysis” Shown on the following slide Apsb = area of bonded tendons Apsu = area of unbonded t d f b d d tendons July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #72 .7.
3 Flexural Members Simplified Analysis .The stress in the UNBONDED tendons may be conservatively taken as the effective stress after losses: fpe.85 f c ' β1 bw + kAps pu dp For rectangular beams: c= Apsb f pu + Apsu f pe f 0.85 f c ' (b − bw )h f f 0.85 f c ' β1 b + kAps pu dp AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #73 July 2007 ODOT Short Course AASHTOLRFD S TO Moment Capacity AASHTOLRFD Specification.Components with Both Bonded and Unbonded Tendons § 5.7. p For Tbeams: c= Apsb f pu + Apsu f pe + As f y − As ' f y '−0. 4th Edition .
ds = distance from the extreme compression fiber to the nonprestressed tensile steel.2 Flexural Resistance For Tbeams (where a>hf): a a Mn = Aps f psdp − + As f y ds − 2 2 a hf a − As ' f y 'ds '− +0.7. ds’ = distance from the extreme compression fiber to the nonprestressed non prestressed compression steel steel.7. fy = yield strength of the nonprestressed tensile steel.21 becomes: a a a M n = Aps f ps d p − + As f y d s − − As ' f y ' d s '− 2 2 2 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #75 Moment Capacity § 5. dp July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #76 .3.3.Moment Capacity § 5.7.2. thus equation 5.2 Flexural Resistance In the preceding equations: = distance from the extreme compression fiber to the prestressing steel. fy’ = yield strength of the nonprestressed compression steel.3.21) For rectangular beams.2.3.85fc ' (b −bw)hf − 2 2 2 (5. b=bw.7.
Spec.7.3.2): It is the smaller of: φMn > 1.3 Limits for Reinforcement Minimum reinforcement (Article 5.3.33Mu – LRFD added July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #77 Moment Capacity § 5.3.21) Mdnc Snc July 2007 = composite section modulus = modulus of rupture = 0. = Noncomposite section modulus.2 Mcr – same as in Std.7. φMn > 1.Moment Capacity § 5. AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #78 ODOT Short Course .3 Limits for Reinforcement For the minimum reinforcement requirement.37√fc’ (ksi units) = compressive stress in the concrete due to effective prestressing force.3.3.7. the cracking moment Mcr is found from: S M cr = Sc ( f r + f cpe ) − M dnc c − 1 ≥ Sc f r Snc Sc fr fcpe (5. at the extreme tensile fiber for applied loads. = Unfactored dead load moment on the noncomposite or monolithic section.7.3.
compression controlled and transition.7. using similar triangles: ε t = 0. This can still be used: c 3 ≤ dt 8 c 3 ≥ dt 5 3 c 3 > > 5 dt 8 July 2007 Tension Controlled εt > 0.003 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate dt − c c AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #80 . Then.005 Compression Controlled εt <0. To determine εt . calculate c.3 Limits for Reinforcement Maximum reinforcement provision was dropped with 2005 Interim No longer needed with new definitions of tension controlled.002 Transition AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #79 ODOT Short Course Moment Capacity § 5.7.3.Moment Capacity § 5.3 Limits for Reinforcement Maximum reinforcement is now controlled by εt.3. LRFD previously used a c/d ratio.
3.7. It applies to all other concrete components where the service tensile stress exceeds 0.7.24)√fc’ = 0.Moment Capacity § 5. AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #81 Moment Capacity § 5.0041 Std.0037 in the steel. 0.20√fc’ July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #82 .005 t dt c ≤ 0.42 de c ≤ 0.375 ε > 0.3.0041 c Tension Controlled ≤ 0. γe = exposure factor.8(0.75 for Class 2 ODOT uses 0. Std.3 Limits for Reinforcement Maximum Reinforcement This is more restrictive that Std. For reinforced sections. 1 for everything else dc = cover to extreme tension fiber fs = Steel stress @ service limit state h = overall thickness or depth Does not apply to slabs designed using the empirical method (ODOT does not allow empirical design).7(h − d c ) (5. Specification or previous editions of p p LRFD.75ρbal was used.3. For prestressed.4 Control of Cracking by Distribution of Reinforcement s≤ 700γ e − 2d c βs fs dc 0. 1 for Class 1 and 0. This corresponded to a strain of 0. RC.7.42.75 for decks. Specifications.41) βs = 1+ s = spacing of reinforcement closest to the tension face. This was a strain of 0.45 de July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate Previous Editions εt >0.8fr = 0. Spec. c/de ratio was limited to 0.
long term deflection can be found by multiplying the instantaneous deflection by 4.7.6.7. Instantaneous deflections and cambers are then calculated using the gross moment of inertia.6.3. the Commentary (C5.Moment Capacity § 5.3. For prestressed members. If the deflection is calculated using Ig.7.3.5 Moment Redistribution ODOT does not permit moment redistribution July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #83 Moment Capacity § 5. Ig. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #84 .1) allows the multipliers given in the PCI Design Handbook to be used for long term camber/deflection values.2 Deflection and Camber Prestressed members are usually designed as uncracked at service loads.
74 fpu 0. •For handling stresses in prestressed piles Stress Limit N/A 0.Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5.31 Stress Limits for Prestressing Tendons fpy = yield stress of prestressing steel fpu = ultimate strength of prestressing steel Condition Immediately prior to transfer (fpbt) At service limit state after all losses (fpe) PostTensioning Prior to seating – shortterm fpbt may be allowed short term bt At anchorages and couplers immediately after anchor set Elsewhere along length of member away from anchorages and couplers immediately after anchor set At service limit state after losses (fpe) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate Tendon Type StressRelieved Strand and Plain HighStrength Bars Pretensioning 0.90 0 90 fpy 0. (Partial) Bridge Type Other than Segmentally Constructed Bridges Location •In precompressed tensile zone without bonded reinforcement •In areas other than the precompressed tensile zone and without bonded reinforcement •In areas with bonded reinforcement (reinforcing bars or prestressing steel) sufficient to resist the tensile force in the concrete computed assuming an uncracked section.0948√f’ci <0.90 0 90 fpy 0.80 fpy 0.6 f’ci (ksi) AASHTOLRFD 2007 Compression Limit at Transfer July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #86 .3 Stress Limitations for Prestressing Tendons Table 5. where reinforcement is proportioned using a stress of 0.5 fy.80 fpy 0.70 fpu 0.21 Temporary Tensile Stress Limits in Prestressed Concrete Before Losses.9.80 fpy Low Relaxation Strand Deformed HighStrength Bars AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #85 Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5.9.80 fpy __ 0.2(ksi) 0.80 fpy 0.70 fpu 0.70 fpu 0.158√f’ci (ksi) 0.24√f’ci (ksi) 0.90 0 90 fpy 0. Fully Prestressed Components.80 fpy 0.9.70 fpu 0.70 fpu 0.70 fpu 0.4 Stress Limits for Concrete Table 5.4. not to exceed 30 ksi.9.75 fpu 0.
4.2.60φ 0 60φwf’c (ksi) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #88 .24√fci’ . and transient loads and during shipping and handling Stress Limit 0.40f’c (ksi) 0.Debonding and Harping If the tensile stresses at the end of girder are above 0.45f’c (ksi) 0.3) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #87 Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5.9. no more than 25% of the total number of strands may be debonded and not more than 40% in any single row may be debonded. Location • • • • In other than segmentally constructed bridges due to the sum of effective prestress and permanent loads In segmentally constructed bridges due to the sum of effective prestress and permanent loads In other than segmentally constructed bridges due to live load and onehalf the sum of effective prestress and permanent loads Due to the sum of effective prestress permanent loads prestress.4. loads.4 Stress Limits for Concrete Table 5. then the stress must be reduced either by debonding the strand or harping the strand. Fully Prestressed Components.11.9. (Art. 5.11 Compressive Stress Limits in prestressed Concrete at Service Limit State After Losses.45f’c (ksi) 0. If debonding is used.
21 Tensile Stress Limits in Prestressed Concrete at Service Limit State After Losses.Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5. (Partial) Bridge Type B id T Other than Segmentally Constructed Bridges Location L ti Tension in the Precompressed Tensile Zone Bridges.19(1000)0. Spec. limits in ksi units.2. 0. Assuming Uncracked Sections • For components with bonded prestressing tendons or reinforcement that are subjected to not worse than moderate corrosion conditions • For components with bonded prestressing tendons or reinforcement that are subjected to severe corrosive conditions • F components with unbonded prestressing For t ith b d d t i tendons Stress Li it St Limit 0.5 = 6 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #89 AASHTOLRFD S TO Loss of Prestressing Force AASHTOLRFD Specification.4.9.0948√f’c (ksi) No Tension N T i Again. Fully Prestressed Components.9.4 Stress Limits for Concrete Table 5. these are Std.19√f’c (ksi) 0. 4th Edition .
5.9.9.12) (5 9 5 12) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #92 .9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5.§ 5.5 Loss of Prestress The basic equations: Pretensioned Members: ∆f pT = ∆f pES + ∆f pLT Posttensioned Members: (5. Like creep and shrinkage.5. the changes are based on the results NCHRP Report 496 “Prestressed Losses in Pretensioned High Strength Concrete Bridge Girders” These provisions are applicable up to 15 ksi concrete July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #91 § 5.9.9.11) ∆f pT = ∆f pF + ∆f pA + ∆f pES + ∆f pLT (5.5 Loss of Prestress Loss of prestressing force was changed with the 3rd Edition.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5.
5 Loss of Prestress ∆fpT = Total loss of prestressing force (ksi).2. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #93 § 5.9.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5.2b2) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #94 .9.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5.2. ∆fpA is usually given by the manufacturer.5 Loss of Prestress Friction losses: Loss due to friction between an internal tendon and a duct wall: ∆ f pF = f pj 1 − e − ( kx + µα ( ) ) (5.2b1) Loss due to friction between an external tendon and a single deviator pipe: ∆ f pF = f pj 1 − e − µ (α + 0.04 ) ( ) (5. ∆fpA = Loss due to anchorage set (ksi).§ 5.9.9. ∆fpES = Loss due to elastic shortening (ksi).5.5. ∆fpLT = Loss due to long term shrinkage and creep of the concrete and relaxation of the steel (ksi). ∆fpF = Loss due to friction (ksi) (ksi).
9. x = length of tendon from the jacking point to the point being considered (ft).§ 5.0002 . α = sum of the absolute value of angular change of prestressing steel path from jacking end (or nearest jacking end if jacked from both ends) to point under consideration.0002 .25 0.5.9.9. If such data is absent.30 HS Bar Galvanized metal sheathing Values for K and µ should be found from experimental data.0002 .9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5. Steel Wire or Strand Duct K µ Rigid or Semi rigid galvanized 0. K = wobble friction coefficient (per ft.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5. (radian) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #95 § 5. values from the table above may be used.5 Loss of Prestress Table 5.25 metal sheathing Polyethylene Rigid steel deviator bar for external tendons 0. of tendon) µ = friction coefficient.2.5 Loss of Prestress fpj = initial jacking stress in the tendon (ksi).0002 0.23 0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #96 .150.2b1 Friction Coefficients for PostTensioning Tendons.
where fpi is the initial prestressing stress (jacking stress) in the tendons. N = number of identical strands.9.5 Loss of Prestress Elastic Shortening.2. f ( ) Eci = Elastic Modulus of the concrete at the time of transfer or time of load application (ksi). pretensioned members: ∆f pES = Ep Ect f cgp (5. at transfer.5.9.§ 5.9.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5.3b1) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #97 § 5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5. fcgp may be calculated by assuming the stress in the prestressing tendon after release = 0.9. In pretensioned members.9fpi.5.2.5 Loss of Prestress fcgp = concrete stresses at the center of gravity of the prestressing tendons due to prestressing force immediately after transfer (pretensioning) or immediately after jacking (posttensioning) and the selfweight of the member at the sections of maximum moment (ksi).3a1) Ect = modulus of elasticity of the concrete at transfer or at time of load Elastic Shortening. Ep = Elastic Modulus of the prestressing strand (ksi). Posttensioned Members: ∆f pES = N −1 Ep f cgp 2N E ci (5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #98 .
7) ∆fpR = 2.9.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5.5 Loss of Prestress Long Term Losses For standard.9. transfer H = Average annual relative humidity in percent (e.01H γ st = 5 1 + f ci (5. precast.70 not 0.9.5 Loss of Prestress = prestressing steel stress immediately PRIOR to transfer.5 ksi for LoLax 10 ksi for stress relieved γh = humidity factor γst = strength factor fpi July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #100 .31) γ h = 1.5.9.9.§ 5.5.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5.g.5.7 − 0. pretensioned members subject to standard precast normal loading and environmental conditions: ∆ f pLT = 10 f pi Aps Ag γ hγ st + 12γ hγ st + ∆ f pR ( (5.32) ) (5.33) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #99 § 5.
0 39.0 1.0 − 0.0 f ' −6.0 − 0. Hollow core and Voided Slab Level Upper Bound Average Upper Bound Average Upper Bound Average For wires and Strands with fpu = 235.0 PPR 6. Type of Beam Section Rectangular Box Girder Single T. Table 5.5 Loss of Prestress To use the ∆fpLT equation.9.15 c + 6.0 − 0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #102 .0 33.0 PPR 6 .0PPR 19.31 TimeDependent Losses in ksi.0 1.0PPR 21.0 31.0 PPR is the partial prestressing ratio.9.9 + 4.0 PPR 15.0 + 4.0 1.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #101 § 5.0 + 4.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5.0 For Bars with fpu = 145 or 160 ksi 19.0 f ' −6 .5.15 c + 6.0 + 6.15 c + 6.250 or 270 ksi 29.0PPR f ' −6.0 PPR 6.5 ksi. Double T.§ 5. the following criteria must be met: Members are pretensioned Normal weight concrete is used Members are moist or steam cured Prestressing is by bar or strand with normal and low relaxation properties Average exposure conditions and temperatures.5 Loss of Prestress This table can be used to estimate time dependent losses in prestressed members which do not have composite slabs and are stressed after attaining a compressive strength of at least 3.9.
July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #104 . but requires a large amount of calculation. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #103 § 5.5.5 Loss of Prestress Lump Sum Losses: For lightweight concrete.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5. hollow core and voided slabs.§ 5. the stresses in the table are concrete increased 5 ksi. However.9 – Prestressing and Partial Prestressing § 5.4 Specifications. it can be found in Article 5 9 5 4 of the LRFD Specifications 5.5 Loss of Prestress For posttensioned members. the “Refined Method” for estimation of time dependent losses must be used. double T’s. Since longitudinal posttensioning is not common in Ohio. the values in the table are reduced by: 4 ksi for box girders 6 ksi for rectangular beams and solid slabs 8 ksi for single T’s.9. However. the method is not presented here. For low relaxation strand. this method is based on NCHRP 496.9.9.
AASHTOLRFD S TO Bond/Development Length AASHTOLRFD Specification. where db is the bar or strand diameter. th t f length f th from the end of the girder is assumed to be 60db. 4th Edition § 5.1 – Transfer Length For fully bonded t d the transfer l F f ll b d d strands.11 – Bond and Development Length § 5.11. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #106 .4.
2 – Development Length Where: ld = development length fps = steel stress at strength limit state fpe = effective prestressing stress after all losses db = strand diameter κ =1.11 – Bond and Development Length § 5.2 – Development Length Development length for fully bonded strand is given by: 2 l d = κ f ps − f pe d b 3 (5.21) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #107 § 5.4.11.4.11 – Bond and Development Length § 5.§ 5.11.6 for t i d b ith depth inches = 2.4. = 1 6 f pretensioned members with a d th > 24 i h 1. piles and other pretensioned members with a depth < 24 inches.11.0 for pretensioned panels.0 for debonded strand July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #108 .
can now be calculated by a bilinear formula.11.11 – Bond and Development Length § 5. it was assumed that the strand could only develop 0.2 – Development Length In previous editions of the LRFD Specifications.4.11.g. if the bonded length was only ½ the development length. However. e. but less than the development length.§ 5.5fpe is developed. This assumption is still true for TRANSFER LENGTH.24) Where: fpx = stress at “x” from the end of the girder fpe = effective stress in the steel after all losses fps = stress in the steel at the strength limit state lpx = length were the stress is being calculated ld = development length db = strand diameter July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #110 . bond stress was assumed linear – e.4.11.5fps.g at ½ the transfer length it is assumed only 0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #109 § 5.4.11 – Bond and Development Length § 5. stress in the steel beyond the transfer length.2 – Development Length f px = f pe + l px − 60d b l d − 60d b (f ps − f pe ) (5.
4.§ 5.23) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #111 § 5.2 – Development Length Within the transfer length (which is 60db): f px = l px f pe 60db (5.11.11 – Bond and Development Length § 5.4.11.4.11 – Bond and Development Length § 5.11.2 – Development Length July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #112 .
Reinforced concrete is covered in another section. This section concentrates the provisions as they apply to prestressed concrete. 4th Edition. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #2 .8 .6 Design Considerations Important things about the shear section This section has the provisions of the LRFD Specifications.AASHTOLRFD S TO Shear AASHTOLRFD Specification. both pretensioned and posttensioned.Shear and Torsion § 5. Segmental box girder bridges and spliced girders are NOT covered covered. § 5. through the 2007 changes.
3. Strut and tie will not be discussed as part of this module.7 Vu = Factored shear at the cross section being considered. this term is modified for torsion.3.2 General Requirements Vr = φVn Vu ≤ Vr (5. It is also useful for deep footings.12) Vn = nominal shear resistance given in Article 5.3 (kip) φ = 0. This model is covered in Article 5. If there is significant torsion present.8.8.9 normal weight concrete φ = 0 7 lightweight concrete 0.8 . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #4 .6.§ 5.Shear and Torsion § 5. pile caps and sections where the depth is more than ½ the span.3 StrutandTie Model Strut and Tie Model Strut and tie can be used for analysis of anchorage zones and support regions.8.2. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #3 § 5. It will be covered in another presentation.6.Shear and Torsion § 5.8 .
31) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #5 § 5.8. the vertical component of the force in the concrete and the vertical component of any harped or draped prestressing strand.3.8 .8.3.3. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #6 . Vn.8. can be assumed to be the sum of three forces. it ) may be greater than or less than fc’.§ 5.Shear and Torsion § 5. As will be shown.8 . the forces in the stirrups. the beam has shear cracks and the cracks have opened This would cause the stirrups to yield. This leads to the basic equation: Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (5.3 Nominal Shear Resistance The nominal shear resistance. The compressive strength of concrete between the shear cracks ( (struts) is not fc’. At failure.Shear and Torsion § 5.3 Nominal Shear Resistance Assumptions about Shear Strength: The beam fails when the concrete in the struts reaches its crushing strength.
8 .§ 5.3. we get the old.Shear and Torsion § 5.Shear and Torsion § 5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #7 § 5.3. Thus the horizontal distance is jd/tanθ = jdcotθ.8. familiar equation: Vs = (Avfy d) / s . Also note that jd = dv) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #8 . the number of stirrups in the length jd cotθ is (jd cotθ)/s The force per stirrup is Avfy so: Vs = Av f y jd cot θ s = Av f y d v cot θ s (Note that if j = 1 and θ = 45o.8.8 .3 Nominal Shear Resistance Assume that the angle of the strut is θ and the distance between the compressive and tensile forces is jd where d is effective depth and j<1.3 Nominal Shear Resistance The stirrup contribution is: Force per stirrup times the number of stirrups. If the stirrups are spaced at “s”.
3.3.8 .8.Shear and Torsion § 5. It may cross several struts. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #9 § 5.8. The total force in the struts will be the concrete stress times the area.Shear and Torsion § 5.3 Nominal Shear Resistance If a line is cut perpendicular to the cracks. thus cotα = 0 and sinα = 1.3 Nominal Shear Resistance The LRFD Specifications consider the most general case where the stirrups may be inclined at an angle of α from the longitudinal axis. Thus.8 .3.§ 5.8. Fc = fc (jd cosθ) bv where fc is the concrete stress and bv web width. it has a length of jdcosθ. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #10 . α = 90o . the equation becomes: Vs = Av f y d v ( cot θ + cot α ) sin α s (5.34) However. The equation reverts the one shown on the previous slide. in almost all cases.
0632 f c ' bv d ( kips ) This is the ACI 318 equation and the old Standard Specification equation.Shear and Torsion § 5.8.8. may be used for NONPRESTRESSED concrete members (LRFD 5.8.3.Shear and Torsion § 5.8 . θ = 45o and f c = 4 f c ' Vc = 2 f c ' bv d (lbs ) = 0.3.8 . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #12 .§ 5.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance The force triangle shows that the force along the struts is V / sinθ. The Vc equation. in ksi units.3 Nominal Shear Resistance Vc = f c ( jd cos θ ) sin θ bv Note that if j = 1.4). Substituting into the previous equation and assuming Vc is the shear force carried by the concrete: Vc = fc (jd cosθ) sinθ bv July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #11 § 5.
3.Shear and Torsion § 5. it is difficult. Later the theory was improved to account for additional mechanisms. In the days before computers or calculators. θ. Therefore. This method required the calculation of the actual angle. and was renamed “Modified Compression Field Theory”. The value of the crushing strength was also chosen as a simplification.8 . it was nearly impossible. The crushing strength is a function of the strain perpendicular to the strut. While it is possible to calculate the angle. the value of 45 degrees was chosen for simplification. and the crushing strength of the concrete struts. Theory”.Shear and Torsion § 5. The original theory was called “Compression Field Theory .3.8.8.8 .3 Nominal Shear Resistance The basics of these equations were developed by research done at the University of Illinois in the 1920’s.3 Nominal Shear Resistance In the 1980’s. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #14 . such as aggregate interlock.§ 5. 1920 s. Vecchio and Collins (University of Toronto) proposed a method for finding the shear strength of a beam. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #13 § 5. They found that the actual angle varies along the beam and that the angle can be anywhere from 25 to 65 degrees.
8 . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #16 . The concrete fails by cracking parallel to the load.Shear and Torsion Why isn’t the crushing strength fc’ ? The value of fc’ is for uniaxial load. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #15 § 5.Shear and Torsion Modified Compression Field Theory The basis of the Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) is to determine the point at which the diagonal compressive struts fail and to determine the angle of the struts. From the crushing strength and the angle. can be found. Lateral compression holds cracks together and increases compressive strength. the contribution of the concrete. Lateral tension pulls them apart and decreases the compressive strength. it changes the apparent compressive strength. Vc . If a lateral (biaxial) force is applied.8 .§ 5.
θ. no one wanted to use an iterative procedure involving 17 steps and 15 equations. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #18 . assumed. takes 17 steps and 15 equations to recalculate ε1 and θ. Unfortunately. but have new equations and tables with more realistic values of shear resistance. then iterations are needed. nd Ed. To use MCFT values of ε1 and θ are assumed It then MCFT. there was controversy with the Sectional Design Model.3 Sectional Design Model Sectional Design Model Obviously. They wrote several equations in terms of the applied average shear stress. ε1.Shear and Torsion Vecchio and Collins proposed that the compressive g p strength of the strut is a function of both the compressive stress along the strut and the tensile stress perpendicular to the strut. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #17 § 5. soon after the 1st Edition came out. The equations provided low values of shear strength. If these are not close to the assumed values. This is called the “Sectional Design Model”. As a result the LRFD Code simplified the method to use a table.§ 5.8 . It was found that simplifying the method created inaccuracies inaccuracies. still use(d) the Sectional Design Editions after the 2 Model.8. and the angle of the strut. the principal tensile strain (perpendicular to strut).Shear and Torsion § 5. v = V/bd.8 .
2.3. must be adjusted for the presence of ducts.25f bv = effective web width dv = effective depth for shear dv = de – a/2 > greater of 0. Note that there is a limit: (5.32) (5 8 3 3 2) Vn < 0 25fc’ bv dv + Vp 0.8. the web width. bv = Effective web width.3 1) Vc = contribution of the concrete Vs = contribution of the stirrups Vp = vertical component of the force in harped strands.3 Nominal Shear Resistance The shear strength of the beam is: Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (5 8 3 31) (5. it is the diameter of the section. parallel to the neutral axis.9.9de or 0. between the compressive and tensile flexure resultants. defined as the minimum web width.8.3.8. For circular sections.8.3.3 Nominal Shear Resistance According to Articles 5.5 and 5.72 h July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #19 § 5.Shear and Torsion § 5.8 .3. At a particular level.§ 5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #20 .Shear and Torsion § 5.8. one half the diameter of ungrouted ducts and one quarter the diameter of grouted ducts is subtracted from the web width.8.8 .2. bv.
25f c 'b v d v (5. The first sections must be the critical section from the face of the support.31) Vn ≤ 0. The LRFD Specifications require a sectional approach. debond points. The girder is divided into sections along the length.8.8. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #21 § 5.1L and important points like harp points.32) Vc and Vs are defined as: Vc = 0.3 Nominal Shear Resistance In all of the preceding equations.§ 5.3.3.8.34) s dv is the shear depth = de – a/2 the greater of 0.72 h s = stirrup spacing Av = stirrup area. etc.9de or 0.Shear and Torsion § 5.3 Nominal Shear Resistance The nominal shear resistance is the lesser of: Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp (5.8 . the factors β and θ are unknown and must be determined.8.3. Traditionally.0316 converts psi to ksi units.33) (5.3.3.8. The 0.0316 β Vs = Av f y d v (cot θ + cot α )sin α f c ' bv d v L (5.3.8 . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #22 .Shear and Torsion § 5. the factors β and θ are determined at each section. the sections are every 0.8.
91) If the value of vu > 0.6. at any design section: vu = Vu − φ V p φ bv d v (5.2 introduces a limit on average shear stress. Article 5.3. AND the flexural element is NOT integral with the support. vu.1. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #23 § 5.2 to determine if it is a deep beam. The beam must be checked using Article 5. At interior supports.3) must be used for support 5 6 3) analysis.8 . the critical section on each side of the support must be determined separately based on loading conditions.2 Sections Near Supports In 2007.3. then strut and tie model (Article 5.8 .§ 5.Shear and Torsion § 5.8.9de . iterative.3.18fc’. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #24 .3.2 Sections Near Supports Critical Section The critical section is defined in Article 5. Otherwise it is taken at the face of the support. The term dv has limits of the greater of 0.8.8.5d cotθ.72h and 0.8.2.Shear and Torsion § 5.8. Previous editions defined critical section as the larger of dv and 0 5dvcotθ but this made the process iterative 0.8. The critical section is taken as dv from the face of the support IF the reaction is compressive.2.
July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #25 § 5. The term θ is found in a table which depends on whether or not there are minimum stirrups.41) However.8 .2. but the tables used to find β are different depending on whether there are minimum stirrups or not.5φ(Vc + Vp) (5. Thus. It is probably best to put minimum stirrups throughout the entire beam to avoid excessive iterations.Shear and Torsion § 5. it is necessary to know Vc which depends on θ.3 Sectional Design Model The previous slide shows the first problem with this method. The table for θ depends on whether or not minimum stirrups are PROVIDED.§ 5. not whether or not they are required.8. the engineer must make an assumption about whether minimum stirrups are needed to determine which table is needed for θ. to find if minimum stirrups are needed.Shear and Torsion § 5. Minimum transverse reinforcing (stirrups) are needed if: Vu > 0.8 . iterations between the tables can be avoided. by always specifying minimum stirrups.8.8. Thus. However. Vc cannot be determined until β is found from tables. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #26 .3 Sectional Design Model The first step in the Sectional Design Model is to determine if the section has at least the minimum amount of transverse steel (stirrups).
8. The LRFD Tables.8.§ 5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #28 .7 Maximum Spacing of Transverse Reinforcement The maximum spacing of stirrups is.2.8 dv < 24” (5.4 dv < 12” (5. then Vn can be calculated.2.8. If it is not close.Shear and Torsion § 5.2. are used to find values of β and θ.71) If v > 0.0316 f c ' bv s fy (5.2.2. smax is: V − φ Vp If vu < 0.8. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #27 § 5.8.min = 0.5 Minimum Transverse Reinforcement For sections with at least the minimum amount of transverse steel (stirrups): A value of θ is assumed and this is used to find the term εx (the formulae for εx are shown on the following slides).8 . Vu in the equation for v must be modified for torsion (as given in Eq’ns 5.8.51) Note: If torsion must be considered.Shear and Torsion § 5. Different equations are used.72) The minimum area of stirrups is: Av .2. This will be explained later in the torsion section. which are based on vu /fc’ and εx.8 .125 fc’ vu = u φ bv d v smax = 0.16 and 7).2. This provision does NOT apply to segmental boxes. iteration is needed.8.125 fc’ smax = 0. If θ is close to the assumed value.91) (5.
8.21) (5 8 3 4 2 1) εx = longitudinal strain at 0.§ 5.8.3.5dv .4. this equation is used if at least minimum stirrups are provided. it is permissible to assume the term 0.2 paragraph 4). (Commentary – C5.8 . This will be explained later in the torsion section. θ = 26o.16 and 7).8. V V 0. not whether or not they are required. For cotθ = 2.8 . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #29 § 5.5Nu + 0.8.5(VuVp)cotθ = (VuVp) in the following equations (i.5cotθ = 1).3.3 Sectional Design Model Mu + 0. This equation ASSUMES cracked section and is only for beams where at least the minimum amount of transverse g (stirrups) is p p ) provided.2.5Vu − Vp cotθ − Aps f po d εx = v 2(Es As + E p Aps ) (5. reinforcing ( Note: If torsion must be considered.8. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #30 .3 Sectional Design Model To avoid iteration. Vu in the equation must be modified for torsion (as given in Eq’ns 5.4.e. Again.Shear and Torsion § 5. The initial value should be < 0.001. reasonable angle.Shear and Torsion § 5. the most conservative. This means cotθ can be assumed = 2.
§ 5. and the term εx for cases with and without minimum stirrups.Shear and Torsion § 5.Shear and Torsion § 5. As or Aps .8 . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #32 . Tensile steel on the flexural compression side (the ½ h on the flexural compression side) or compression steel is NOT counted for shear strength.3 Sectional Design Model Really Important Definitions: The flexural tension side of a beam is the (½ h) on the flexural tension side.8. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #31 § 5.8.3 Sectional Design Model Definition of “flexural tension side”. In all the equations for shear which require a value of the area of the longitudinal tensile steel.8 . the term Ac. ONLY the steel on the flexural tension side counts.
If the load is compressive. Nu is negative.5 Vu − V p cot θ − Aps f po dv εx = 2(Es As + E p Aps ) The second term in the numerator.8. It is assumed that ½ of the axial load is taken by each flange.3 Sectional Design Model Mu + 0. is any APPLIED axial force (not prestressing force).8.§ 5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #33 § 5. Mu / dv . is the tensile force in the flanges due to the moment.5 Vu − V p cot θ − Aps f po dv εx = 2(Es As + E p Aps ) The first term in the numerator.8 .Shear and Torsion § 5. Nu.5 N u + 0.Shear and Torsion § 5.8 .3 Sectional Design Model Mu + 0.5 N u + 0. The dv is shear depth = de – a/2. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #34 .
unless the section being considered is within the transfer length.Shear and Torsion § 5.8 . fpo = 0.5 N u + 0. Apsfpo corrects for the strain in the prestressing steel due to prestressing. usually taken as 0.5 Vu − V p cot θ − Aps f po dv εx = 2 Es As + E p Aps ( ) The third term in the numerator.2). The term fpo is the “locked in” stress in the prestressing steel.8 .5 Vu − V p cot θ − Aps f po dv εx = 2(Es As + E p Aps ) The last term in the numerator. if the section is at ½ the transfer length.3 Sectional Design Model Mu + 0. If the section is within the transfer length.3. (Vu – Vp )cotθ.8. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #36 . is the axial force component of strut force and the inclined force from any harped tendons. Half the force is assumed to be taken by the tensile flange and the other half by the compression flange.g.8.35fpu).8.3 Sectional Design Model Mu + 0.Shear and Torsion § 5.7fpu (LRFD Art.5 N u + 0.§ 5.4. as shown in the force triangle. the value of fpo must be reduced to reflect the lack of development (e. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #35 § 5. 5.
3 Sectional Design Model Mu + 0. the section has not cracked.3.3.23) 2(Es As + E p Aps + Ec Ac ) Ac is the area of concrete on the tension half of the section.21 is used and εx < 0.5Vu − Vp cotθ − Aps f po d εx = v (5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #38 . the effect of the uncracked concrete must be considered. Note: If torsion must be considered.8 . Notice that this equation ASSUMES cracking.4. Vu in the equation must be modified for torsion (as given in Eq’ns 5.§ 5.16 and 7).8. This will be explained later in the torsion section.Shear and Torsion § 5.8.8. If the section doesn’t crack (εx is negative).8. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #37 § 5. The effect of the uncracked concrete must be considered and the equation becomes: Mu + 0.8 .2.5Nu + 0.Shear and Torsion § 5.4.8.5 N u + 0.5 Vu − V p cot θ − Aps f po dv εx = 2(Es As + E p Aps ) The denominator is the stiffness of the tensile side.3 Sectional Design Model If Equation 5.
125 ≤ ≤ ≤ 0.8 1.Shear and Torsion § 5. If not.6 2.8 1.225 0.71 39.32 34.74 26.7 2.4 2.4 2.8 1.3 1.2 2.88 23.5 3.0 2.75 20.6 2.61 42.0 2.18 37.21 Values of θ and β for Sections with Transverse Reinforcement εx * 1.52 27.94 24.37 30.25 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #39 § 5.51 38. Table 5.000 v/f'c ≤ 0.08 36.6 1.21 35.93 41.8.26 can be used provided that εx < 0.2 1.9 2.2 2.7 1.3 3.14 34.5 2.7 2.3.125 (Commentary – C5 8 3 4 2 paragraph 9) C5.60 27.52 29.2 1.0 2.00 21.7 1.10 20.1 1.63 26.38 34.3.79 24.175 0.9 2.075 ≤ 0.3 6.7 2.§ 5.5cotθ was assumed = 1.1 2.0 1.94 34. use the table value of θ as the next estimate and repeat the calculations of εx .50 30.1 2.8 .59 30.4.5 2.125 24.2 9).9 3.2 2.42 29.00 36.75x 103 and vu/fc’ < 0. If the value of θ is close to the original assumption. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #40 .3 1.99 23.59 27.8.52 29.73 24.8 .38 ≤ 2.87 25.18 21.1 2.24 22.43 30.15 ≤ 0.3 1.26 34.86 32.65 26.3 2.25 26.8 2.7 1.50 40.9 2.67 43.6 2.28 32.5 2.39 41.8 1.2 2.4 Determination of β and θ Once the values of vu /fc’ and εx are calculated. If 0.94 27.0 1.8 2.10 21.90 40. The terms β and θ apply to the range of strains and shear in the table.39 ≤ 0. use the β given.05 21.8 1.9 2.8 1.0 4.9 2.8 3.66 26.00 43.33 ≤ 0.61 38.78 25.47 41.7 2.8 2.32 18.7 2.38 21.1 1.96 36.8 2.7 2.51 28. Taking higher values of εx is acceptable.0 2.93 ≤ 0.20 22.44 30.24 24.14 31.2 1.23 36.9 2.54 41.29 ≤ 0.6 2.67 42.8.53 27.2 ≤ 0.75 27.0 2.95 40.7 2.75 22.4 3.50 ≤ 1. Example from the Commentary: θ = 34.1 2.3 2.73 34.12 ≤ 0.42 32.79 19.0 2.5 1.3.72 26.13 37.34 30.70 ≤ 0.4 3.6 2.82 39.Shear and Torsion § 5.69 43.9 1.3 2.8 2.2 1.1 ≤ 0.4 1.45 28.64 35.33 ≤ 0.9 2.7 2.4 2.4 4.4o and β=2. use the table in the LRFD Specifications to find θ and β.62 28. the values of θ and β obtained from the table may be used without further iteration.4 2.79 35.8.1 3.14 23.4 Determination of β and θ Notes: It is NOT necessary to interpolate the previous table table.91 25.4.5 2.7 2.14 32.60 28.3.75 33.5 1.50 31.39 ≤ 0.8 1.40 29.58 ≤ 1.1 2.36 32.
8.Shear and Torsion § 5. It can be calculated by: Mu + 0. Vu in the equation must be modified for torsion (as given in Eq’ns 5.4 Determination of β and θ After finding the value of β and θ : Vc = 0.33) Av f y d v cot θ Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp < 0.8.8 . εx .Shear and Torsion § 5.§ 5.002 As before.5cotθ may be taken = 1 Note: If torsion must be considered.25fc’ bv dv + Vp Then Vu < φ Vn July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #41 § 5. This will be explained later in the torsion section.3.0316 β Vs = s f c ' bv d v (5.8 .3 Sectional Design Model If the section does NOT have at least the minimum required transverse steel (stirrups). July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #42 .8.3. two modifications are made. the section is assumed to be cracked and 0. i th maximum l d First.5 N u + 0.5 Vu − V p cot θ − Aps f po dv εx = (Es As + E p Aps ) The initial value of εx should < 0. Fi t the strain.2.16 and 7). th t i is the i longitudinal it di l strain in the web.8.
This will be explained later in the torsion section.63 sx = lesser of dv or the spacing of longitudinal steel placed in the web to control cracking.5 Vu − V p cot θ − Aps f po t dv εx = (Es As + E p Aps + Ec Ac ) Note: If torsion must be considered.8.8. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #44 .3 Sectional Design Model If the section is not cracked: Mu + 0. Vu in the equation must be modified for torsion (as given in Eq’ns 5. is used in place of v in the table.8 .2.003 bvsx ag = maximum aggregate size – inch. sxe .Shear and Torsion § 5.Shear and Torsion § 5. a g + 0. The area of longitudinal steel in each layer must be at least 0. s xe = s x 1. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #43 § 5.5 N u + 0.38 ≤ 80 in.3 Sectional Design Model The second modification is that a crack spacing parameter.8.16 and 7).8 .§ 5.
0316β Vs = f c ' bv d v Av f y d v cot θ s Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp < 0. use the table in the LRFD Code for this case to find θ and β.Shear and Torsion § 5.§ 5.25fc’ bv dv + Vp Then Vu < φ Vn July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #46 .4 Determination of β and θ Once the values of sxe and εx are calculated.3.8. If not.5cotθ is assumed = 1). use the table value of θ as the next estimate and repeat the calculations of εx . If the value of θ is close to the original assumption.8 .Shear and Torsion § 5.8. interpolation is not necessary.8 .3 Sectional Design Model July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #45 § 5. Again. After finding the value of β and θ : Vc = 0. Iterate (unless 0. use the β given.
3 3.52 36.3 4.3 2.2 3.78 29.9 3.21 42.00 55.Shear and Torsion § 5.8 1.8.1 34 1 4.5 6.2 2.50 42.4 Determination of β and θ Here is the table for beam with less than minimum stirrups: β Table 5.7 1.0 2.0 0.96 44.2 2. usually every 0.11 < 0.4 1.1L.3 2.66 58.39 41.8 .3.9 2.46 36.65 38.10 < 0.64 42.6 5.46 36.2 1.09 42.4 2.52 56. respectively.4 2.4 0.6 4.8 0.1 34 1 4.20 < 0.73 32.6 2.10 63.4 2.01 47.46 46.75 32.99 34.4 5.0 59 0 1.2 4.52 < 0.22 Values of θ and β for Sections without Transverse Reinforcement 1.2 4.5φ(Vc – Vp) For reinforced concrete members. and any important points (like harp points) .92 69.7 5.01 < 1.9 46 9 2.5 2.38 29.50 44.10 25.89 31.5 5.05 25. there was taken as 2 and 45 a depth limit of 16 inches on this.4.000 εx * 1 000 sXE (in) 5 10 15 20 30 40 60 80 < 0.0 3.1 2.6 52 6 1.1 4.34 31.7 1.3 3.06 27. β and θ may be members o.62 < < < < < < < < 25.71 < 0.8 3.3 3.06 40.9 1.46 53.2 1.1 3.8 1.61 34.8 .88 39.1 34 1 4.6 0.50 35.6 4.7 0. but this is removed in 2007.65 49.6 5.3 56 3 1.8 3.3 42 3 2.58 40.6 1.36 27.00 33.31 59.46 36.50 44.50 30.2 4.26 36.18 65.1 1.7 2. As with all concrete members.4 2.28 38.8 3.10 < 0.5 5.19 50.84 53.20 44.7 1.26 45.4 6.27 31.3 4.8 3.56 28.7 1.8 3.3.6 4.10 < 0.41 31. β and θ must be calculated at each section.8.7 4.7 1.82 36.43 61.9 38 9 3.05 34.Shear and Torsion § 5.5 3.75 72.91 33.68 50.§ 5.82 45.3 3.09 50.78 29.1 2.86 38.30 60.50 44.10 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #47 § 5.3 Sectional Design Model Some final notes: The shear must be checked at the critical sections and then at intervals along the beam.4 1.06 40.88 47.25 28.72 58.43 36.99 34. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #48 .125 27.3 5.34 31. The values of dv .95 68.06 40.23 44.6 4.76 < 2.3 1.15 29.99 34.92 47.5 3.9 5.5 2.60 56.32 52.2 34 2 4.7 2.00 37.9 3.21 < 1.50 44.85 52.62 49. Previously.9 1.40 62.7 1. minimum stirrups are required when Vu > 0.8.6 4.06 40.14 65.1 50 1 1.00 26.
However.org – follow the NCHRP links.AASHTOLRFD S TO Coming in 2007! .3.Simplified Shear (or. 4th Edition.4. y Vci and Vcw return from the Standard Specifications with some modification.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Article 5. but these may change for editorial reasons in the final publication.Shear and Torsion § 5. This is the result of a National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) study. Report 549 Available on line at www. Note: Simplified shear has been accepted by the AASHTO Subcommittee on Bridges.trb.) AASHTOLRFD Specification. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #50 . no change is official until it is actually published.3.4. and again and again.8 .3 – new in 2007 Well. what goes around. Article and equation numbers are from the proposed article. comes around – again. § 5. not really new .8.8.
The old Vci and Vcw worked well for man years. as given in the current LRFD Specifications. NCHRP 549 suggested 4 changes: Change 1 – The expression for web shear cracking.8 .3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Why the change? According to NCHRP 549: Sectional Design Model. Designers said the process has to be automated. is still considered too complex. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #51 § 5. orked ell many ears Still the ACI 318 method.8 .4.Shear and Torsion § 5.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Not exactly the old Standard Specifications method.§ 5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #52 .8. Automated processes cause the engineers to “lose the feel” of designs.3. Vcw. is made more conservative and now also applies to partially prestressed members.4.Shear and Torsion § 5.3.8.
3. Take Vp = 0 when finding Vn in Eq’n 5.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Change 2 – The variable angle truss model is used for calculating the contribution of shear reinforcement in web shear regions.3. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #54 . the 45o truss model is used. Then.8 .Shear and Torsion § 5.2. For flexural shear regions where Mu > Mcr.§ 5. Vc is the lesser of: Vcw Vci As before.Minimum shear reinforcement is the same as for the Sectional Design Model Model. 5.3. Change 3 .4.8. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #53 § 5. The critical section is the same as for Sectional Design Model.31.Maximum shear stress is substantially increased. Change 4 .8. the beam is divided into sections and shear is investigated at each section.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Rules: No significant axial tension Provide minimum shear reinforcement as given in Art.5 (same as Sectional Design Model).Shear and Torsion § 5.4.8.8 .8.
§ 5. “Flexural Shear” July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #55 § 5.4. “Web Shear” Vci Nominal shear resistance provided by concrete when inclined cracking results from combined shear and moment.3.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Vcw Nominal shear resistance provided by concrete when inclined cracking results from excessive principal tensions in the web.8.4.8.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections A quick reminder. Exactly what are Vci and Vcw? July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #56 .8 .Shear and Torsion § 5.Shear and Torsion § 5.3.8 .
This is Vcw. So how is Vcre found? The simplifying assumption is made that V and M increase proportionally.8.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Flexural Shear .Vci A prestressed beam will form a flexural crack when the moment at a section reaches Mcre .Shear and Torsion § 5.8 . The cracking is caused by the moment.8 . Vcre is simply the shear which is associated with Mcre.3. This is Vci .8. The shear at the section which exists at the time of cracking is called Vcre .3. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #58 .4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections There are two types of shear: Flexural shear where shear cracks grow from flexural cracks. Mcre. Web shear where thin webs crack due to high principal tensile stresses.§ 5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #57 § 5.4.Shear and Torsion § 5. The shear does NOT cause the cracking.
The flexural shear at the time the crack grows into a shear crack can be written as: Vci = Vcre + 0.02√fc’)bv dv ksi.Shear and Torsion § 5.8.4.3.8 . It is NOT valid for bridges. Vcre can be found from this proportionality. the flexural crack will grow )b into a shear crack.3.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Thus. The equation becomes: Vu V = cre M u M cre Vcre = July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate Vu M cre Mu AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #59 § 5.8 . it is possible to find Vu FOR THE LOADING CASE WHICH CAUSES Mu.8. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #60 .3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Experiments have shown that if the shear at the section increases by (0.Shear and Torsion § 5.02 f c 'bv d v Vci = 0. Since Mu is known.02 f c 'bv d v + M cre Vu Mu (ksi ) This form of the equation is valid for noncomposite members with uniform loads.§ 5.4. if V and M increase proportionally.
8 . so subtract it out of the proportionality part of the equation.02 f c 'bv d v + Vd + Vd Vi M cre M max = shear due to UNFACTORED dead load – noncomposite section Mmax = maximum moment at the section due all superimposed FACTORED loads.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Flexural Shear . the equation is: Vci = 0. Two new terms are defined: Mmax = Maximum moment at a section caused by all FACTORED superimposed loads.Shear and Torsion § 5. However.8. the dead load doesn’t increase proportionally. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #61 § 5.Shear and Torsion § 5.4.3.§ 5.4.8 .3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections If the dead load is taken separately. Vi = FACTORED shear at th section corresponding t Mmax.3. Vi = Shear at the section associated with Mmax.8. in a composite section or a section with other than uniform loads.Vci It was assumed that the shear and moment increase proportionally. h t the ti di to bv = minimum web width dv = effective shear depth July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #62 .
3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections There is a lower limit to Vci: Vci = 0.31) Near simple supports. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #63 § 5. The beam cracks when enough moment is applied to the beam to remove the compressive stress and add enough tension to crack the beam.8.3.02 f c 'bv d v + Vd + Vi M cre ≥ 0.8 . fcpe.3. the Vci equation goes to infinity because Mmax goes to 0.8. The usual cracking strength in flexure is the modulus of rupture. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #64 .4. fr. the Vcw equation is finite at supports.3.06 f c 'bv d v M max (5.8. However.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections How is the cracking moment found? In a prestressed beam. what will eventually be the tensile fiber will be in compression due to prestressing forces.Shear and Torsion § 5.§ 5.4.8 .4. so it will control.Shear and Torsion § 5.
3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Mcre must be adjusted to reflect the fact that the dead load effect has been accounted for. but Mdnc is in ftk. In the LRFD equation.8 .4.32) Mdnc = Moment due to UNFACTORED dead loads applied to the noncomposite or monolithic section section.3.3. only the noncomposite DL is subtracted: 12M dnc M cre = S c f r + f cpe − S nc (5. The 12 converts feet to inches. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #66 .Shear and Torsion § 5.Shear and Torsion § 5.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Assuming an elastic system: f cpe + f r = M cre c I = M cre = S c ( f cpe + f r ) M cre Sc Where Sc is the section modulus to the tension fiber. Mcre is in inchk.3.8 . In the LRFD equation. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #65 § 5.4.8.8.8.4.§ 5. Sdnc = Section modulus to the tensile fiber of the noncomposite or monolithic section.
8.Shear and Torsion § 5.3. caused by the prestressing and the dead load applied to the noncomposite section.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Web Shear .3. At the neutral axis of the composite section.nc y c m ± A nc I nc I nc The top sign is used above the noncomposite neutral axis. = effective prestressing force = noncomposite area = noncomposite moment of inertia = distance between neutral axis of composite and noncomposite sections = 0 for noncomposite beams Mdl.§ 5. In a composite beam.Vcw The normal stress.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Web Shear . there are shear stresses from flexure.Vcw In a beam. fpc is: f pc = Peff Anc Inc yc Peff Peff eyc M dl. stress occurs at the neutral axis. the neutral axis of the composite is not the same as in the noncomposite.4. the bottom sign is used below the noncomposite neutral axis. in a prestressed beam there is a normal stress from the P/A term in the stress equation. there will also be normal stresses from bending.nc= noncomposite dead loads e = eccentricity of prestressing July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #68 .4. there is no normal stress at the neutral axis. For most beams.8 .Shear and Torsion § 5.8. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #67 § 5.8 . However. The maximum shear .
Vcw Vcw can be calculated using the shearing stress formula: v = (Vcw Q)/(It) where v is the shear stress which causes a maximum principal tensile stress of 4(fc’)1/2 when the normal stress is fpc.4. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #69 § 5.Vcw An approximate equation is provided to find Vcw: Vcw = 0.§ 5.8.8 .8.8.3 f pc bv d v + V p July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate ( ) (5.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Web Shear .4.Shear and Torsion § 5.3.06 f c ' + 0.8 .3.4.3.Shear and Torsion § 5.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Web Shear .33) AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #70 .
8.§ 5.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections The shear strength of the beam is: Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp < 0. 5.4.8.3.06 f c 'bv d v (5.3.06√fc’ ksi = 1.02 f c 'bv d v + Vd + Vi M cre ≥ 0.8 .4. 0.3.8.32) This is the old Vci equation. It is NOT taken = 0 in the equation for Vcw.02√fc’ ksi = 0. 0. so: Vn = Vc + Vs < 0.31 & 5.8 . just adjusted to ksi units.Shear and Torsion § 5.32) 5 8 3 32) For the simplified method.9√fc’ July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #72 .3.4.3.4.25fc’ bv dv + Vp (5. Vp is taken = 0 only in Equations 5.3.3.8.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Vci = 0.3.33 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #71 § 5.3. Vp is taken = 0 in this equation.32 and when the simplified method is used.8.Shear and Torsion § 5.25fc’ bv dv Vc is the lesser of Vci and Vcw .8. rounded off and with new notations.4.8.8.63√fc’.31) M max 12M dnc M cre = Sc f r + f cpe − S nc (5.31 and 5.8.
Shear and Torsion § 5. fr = modulus of rupture. Mmax = Maximum factored moment at a section due to externally applied loads (kin).8. Mcre = Moment causing flexural cracking at a section due to externally applied load (kin).4. This is the old 6√fc’ just converted to ksi units.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections = Shear force at the section from UNFACTORED dead load (includes DC and DW) (kin).§ 5.2 f c ' (ksi ) Note that this definition of fr is a new bullet in Article f f 5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #73 § 5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #74 .6 (2007). (k in).3.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections fcpe = compressive stress in concrete due to effective prestressing forces only (after loss) at the extreme fiber of the section where externally applied loads cause tensile stress.8 . with Mmax (kip). For this provision: f r = 0.4. Vi = Shear force at a section due to factored superimposed loads which occurs simultaneously loads.8.4. Vd Mmax and Vi are found from the load combination causing maximum moment at the section.2.Shear and Torsion § 5.3.8 .
however. the commentary allows for a simplification: Mmax = Mu – Md Vi = Vu – Vd (C5. That’s why there’s a 12 in the numerator – converts ft.4.3) 7th Paragraph Note: The ACI318 code allows a simplification for noncomposite members. which are loaded with point (axle) loads. =S Section modulus to the extreme f fiber of the nonf composite or monolithic section where tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads (in3).8 .3. Sc Snc = Section modulus to the extreme fiber of the composite section where tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads (in3).Shear and Torsion § 5.4. This simplification should NOT be applied to bridge girders. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #76 .Shear and Torsion § 5. to in.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections For composite members.8. this simplification was developed for building beams with UNIFORM loads. AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #75 July 2007 ODOT Short Course § 5.8.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Mdnc = total unfactored dead load moment acting on the noncomposite non composite or monolithic section (kft).4.3.3.8. (k ft) Note that this is kft.§ 5.8 .
31 and 2 and when using the simplified shear method.8. this is the old Vcw equation. fpc is the resultant compressive stress at the centroid of the composite section (or at the junction of the web and the flange if the centroid lies in the flange) due to both prestress and the moments resisted by the precast member acting alone.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections V cw = 0 . Vp is only set = 0 when finding Vn in equations 5.33) ) This is an approximate equation for finding the condition where the principal tensile stress is 4√fc’ Note that Vp is NOT = 0 in this equation. 06 ( f c ' + 0 .Shear and Torsion § 5.3. Again.3.3. 3 f pc b v d v + V p (5.3.8.8.8 . converted to kip units. In a composite section. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #78 .4.§ 5.8 . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #77 § 5.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections fpc = compressive stress in concrete (after allowance for all prestress loses) at centroid of cross section resisting externally applied loads or at the junction of the web and the flange when the centroid lies within the flange (ksi).8.4.Shear and Torsion § 5.4.
8. cotθ must be calculated. Be sure to use the new version of the equations. cotθ = 1 If Vcw controls. The equations are slightly different.Shear and Torsion § 5. is).8. (Vcw controls) then: f pc ≤ 1.3. Av f y d v cot θ Vs = s If Vci < Vcw (in other words.4.0 + 3 f ' c July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate (5. The biggest change is needing to find cotθ for finding Vs and longitudinal steel requirements.8 .3.8.Summary Basically. then: cotθ = 1 If Vcw < Vci.Shear and Torsion § 5.3. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #80 .4.4.§ 5.8 .8 cot θ = 1.34) AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #79 § 5. Basically it is the old Vci and Vcw method from the Std Std. Specifications (and ACI 318).3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Simplified Shear .3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed & Nonprestressed Sections Stirrups: Recall that if α = 90o (and it almost always is) then: that. Vci controls). If Vci controls.
substitute: 0.8 .13.3 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #82 . If the splitting strength is known the term √fc’ is replaced by : 4.6.2.8 .Shear and Torsion Lightweight Concrete This applies to all shear methods.Shear and Torsion Deep Components Deep Components: Components may be considered as deep components if: There is a point of zero shear within a distance of 2d from the face of the support.7 f ct ≤ fc ' If the splitting strength is not known. A load causing more than ½ the shear at the support is within 2d of the face of the support (for segmental boxes.3) Detail according to Article 5.75 f c ' 0. Design with strut and tie (Article 5.85 f c ' In July 2007 ODOT Short Course All lightweight g g Sanded lightweight place of fc ' AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #81 § 5.§ 5. the limit is 1/3 the shear).
July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #84 .3. Therefore. to fail the longitudinal tensile steel. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #83 § 5.Shear and Torsion § 5. but it also must resist the tensile component of the shear.5 Longitudinal Reinforcement The longitudinal tensile steel must be able to resist the tension due to bending and axial load. along with the tensile component of shear force in the concrete. when combined with the tensile forces due to moment and axial load. Therefore. the tensile steel doesn’t only have to resist moment.5 Longitudinal Reinforcement As shown in the previous slides.3. this tension becomes larger as θ becomes smaller and Vc gets larger. a check must be made to assure that there is sufficient tensile steel to resist all the forces. According to the commentary in the LRFD Specifications.Shear and Torsion § 5. the shear forces cause tensile forces in the longitudinal reinforcement.8 .§ 5.8 .8. It is possible that these tensile forces might be great enough.8.
51) φ φ Note that φ is the appropriate strength reduction factor for that specific load effect (e.9 for shear.Shear and Torsion § 5.3.§ 5. 0.8. 1.8.5 Longitudinal Reinforcement At the inside edge of the bearing area of a simple end support to the section of critical shear: V Aps f ps + As f y ≥ u − 0. This will be explained later in the torsion section.3.5Vs cot θ (5.5 Longitudinal Reinforcement A ps f ps + As f y ≥ Mu φ dv + 0 .8 .8 .8.g.3. etc.3. There is also a limit of Vs < Vu / φ Note: If torsion must be considered.0 for Mu in prestressed concrete.52) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #86 .).8. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #85 § 5. Vu in the equation must be modified for torsion.Shear and Torsion § 5.5Vs − Vp cotθ φ (5.5 Nu V + u − V p − 0.
8.8 .5 Longitudinal Reinforcement Finally. In the diagram below. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #87 § 5.8.3. If so.Shear and Torsion § 5. then cotθ=1. it is necessary to account for any lack of development of the tensile steel.3.51 and 5.Shear and Torsion § 5.8. The value of cotθ depends on the method used.0+3(fpc/√fc’) < 1.§ 5. If Vci controls. there is a cotθ term. the strand/bar may not be fully developed before it reaches the crack. If the Sectional Design Model is used.3. If Vcw controls. controls then cotθ must be calculated: cotθ=1.3. then cotθ is found using the value of θ found from the table. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #88 .8. the terms fy and fps must be reduced by the ratio of the actual length/development length. If the simplified method is used. the value of cotθ depends on which value controls.5 Longitudinal Reinforcement In Equations 5.52.8.8 .
8 .4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction Interface (horizontal) shear must be considered at: An existing or potential crack An interface between dissimilar materials An interface between two concretes cast at different times The interface between different elements of a cross section This provision appears to be for the vertical interface between flanges and webs of box girders – especially segmental boxes. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #90 .8.8.5 Longitudinal Reinforcement The longitudinal reinforcement does not have to be greater than that required to carry Mu in cases where there is a compressive reaction on the flexural compression face.3.Shear and Torsion § 5. However.Shear and Torsion § 5. it IS necessary to check this provision for a continuous for live load i d l d girder. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #89 § 5.§ 5. In other words – it is not necessary to check this provision at the interior supports of a continuous girder.8 .
4.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction The factored interface shear resistance. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #92 .11 (kip) φ = Resistance factor for shear specified in Article 5.§ 5.1.11) Vri ≥ Vui (5. the lower of the two values of φ shall be used.8.5.8.8 .Shear and Torsion § 5. In cases where different weights of ff f concrete exist on different sides of the interface. Vri shall be taken as: Vri = φVni The design shall satisfy: (5.8 .12) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #91 § 5.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction Where: Vni = Nominal Shear Resistance (kip) Vui = Factored interface shear force due to total load based on the applicable strength and extreme event load combinations in Table 3.4.8.4.8.Shear and Torsion § 5.4.2.
If tensile. is: Vni = cA cv + µ A vf f y + Pc (5.8.14) (5.8 .16) AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Prestressed Concrete: Slide #93 § 5.Shear and Torsion § 5.13) But not greater than the lesser of: Vni ≤ K1f 'c A cv Vni ≤ K 2 A cv A cv = b vi L vi July 2007 ODOT Short Course (5.4.4. Pc = 0.4.8 .8.8.8.15) ( 841 ) (5.8.4.8.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction Vni = Nominal shear resistance (k) Acv = area of concrete engaged in shear transfer (in2) Avf = area of shear reinforcement crossing the shear plane (in2 ) fy = yield strength of reinforcement c = cohesion factor µ = friction factor Pc = permanent net compressive force normal to the shear plane (k).Shear and Torsion § 5. Vni. fc’ = 28 day compressive strength of the WEAKER concrete July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #94 .§ 5.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction The strength of the interface.
4.8.21) Where dv is the previously defined shear depth. The factored interface shear force in kips/ft for a concrete girder/slab bridge may be determined as: Vui = v ui A cv July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate (5.4.3 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #95 § 5.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction Based on consideration of a free body diagram and utilizing the conservative.8.Shear and Torsion § 5.8. vertical shear force at the section.§ 5.8 . as specified in Article 5.4.Shear and Torsion § 5.8.8 . v ui = Vu1 b vid v (5.3 K2 = limiting interface shear resistance specified in Article 5 8 4 3 (ksi) 5.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction bvi = interface width considered to be engaged in shear transfer (inch) Lvi = interface length considered to be engaged in shear transfer (inch) K1 = fraction of the concrete strength available to resist interface shear. envelope value of the factored.22) AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #96 . Vu1.8.8.4.
4. free of laitance and intentionally roughened 0.0 K1 = 0.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction If the net (normal) force.8.8.8 .4. additional reinforcement shall be provided: A vpc = Pc φf y (5. Pc . the longitudinal spacing of the rows of interface shear transfer reinforcing bars shall not exceed 24 inches. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #97 § 5. across the interface shear plane is tensile.8 .§ 5.40 ksi µ = 1.25 inches c = 0.5 ksi For normal weight concrete placed against a clean concrete surface.25 K2 = 1.4 K1 = 0.Shear and Torsion § 5.24 ksi µ = 1.8.2 Cohesion and Friction For concrete placed monolithically c = 0.23) For beams and girders.25 K2 = 1.5 ksi July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #98 .Shear and Torsion § 5.
8 .28 ksi µ = 1.025 ksi µ = 0.4.25 inches c = 0.6 K1 = 0.8.Shear and Torsion § 5.2 Cohesion and Friction For lightweight concrete placed against a clean concrete surface. free of laitance and intentionally roughened 0.3 ksi .7 K1 = 0.2 K2 = 0.8 ksi July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #99 § 5. free of laitance and intentionally roughened 0.lightweight July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #100 .8 .0 ksi For a castinplace concrete slab on clean concrete girder surfaces.2 Cohesion and Friction For concrete anchored to asrolled structural steel by headed studs or by rebar where all the steel in contact with the concrete is clean and free of paint: c = 0.8 ksi For concrete placed against clean.2 K2 = 0.0 K1 = 0.§ 5.25 K2 = 1.24 ksi µ = 1.8 ksi – normal weight K2 = 1.Shear and Torsion § 5.8.25 inches c = 0.3 K2 = 1.075 ksi 0 075 µ = 0.4. hardened concrete not intentionally roughened but free of laitance and clean c = 0.0 K1 = 0.
4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction For a castinplace concrete slab on a clean concrete g girder surface.8.210 ksi and all of the vertical shear reinforcement required by Article 5.4.8 .33Vui /φ as determined using equation 5.1 is extended across the interface and adequately anchored in the slab.05A cv fy (5. free of laitance: The minimum interface shear reinforcement. need not exceed the lesser of the amount determined from equation 5.8.8.8 .41) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #101 § 5.8. factored interface shear stress.4. vui < 0.25 inches.4 Interface Shear Transfer – Shear Friction Avf has a minimum: A vf ≥ 0.Shear and Torsion § 5. Avf.13.Shear and Torsion § 5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #102 .8.11 and the amount needed to resist 1.§ 5. The minimum reinforcement provisions shall be waived for girder/slab interfaces with surface roughened to an amplitude of 0 25 inches where the 0.1.4.8.
element “a” can be rotated to show principal stresses. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #104 . For principal stress. 4th Edition.1 General Torsion causes a condition of pure shear.2. § 5.AASHTOLRFD S TO Torsion AASHTOLRFD Specification.8 . as shown by element “a”.Shear and Torsion § 5.8. as shown in element “c”. two of the normal stresses are tensile and two are compressive. However.
which are weaker in tension than in shear.2. As a result.Shear and Torsion § 5.8. perpendicular to the maximum principal tensile stress. CONCRETE IS A BRITTLE MATERIAL!!!!!! July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #105 § 5.1 General In a torsion test brittle materials. concrete members under torsional loads tend to ‘unwrap’.Shear and Torsion § 5. will break along surfaces forming a 45 degree angle with the longitudinal axis.1 General Because concrete is brittle and tension weak.2. torsion forces will crack the member diagonally.8 .8. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #106 .8 .§ 5.
1 General As with shear. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #108 .8 .1 General The important part is this: Torsion causes shear stresses which are additive to the flexural shear stresses. but here the truss is 3D. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #107 § 5. As with shear.2. compression struts will occur.8. the presence of stirrups (in tension) and compression struts forms a truss.§ 5.2.Shear and Torsion § 5.8 .Shear and Torsion § 5. Stirrups will arrest the cracks.8.
8.125 2 Acp f pc fc ' 1+ p 0 .2.8 .2.9 normal weight concrete φ = 0.8.8.11) Tu = factored torsional moment Tr = factored torsional resistance Tn = nominal torsional resistance given in Article 5.7 lightweight concrete July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #109 § 5. 25 φ T cr (5.125 f c ' (5.13) Tcr = 0 .Shear and Torsion § 5.2.1 General In many cases.§ 5. torsional stresses are not significant.14) c July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #110 .2.8.1 states that torsional effects may NOT BE ignored if: Tu ≥ 0 .3.2.8.8 .Shear and Torsion § 5.1 General General Requirements: Tr = φ Tn (5.2. Article 5.6 (kin) φ = 0.8.8.
125 f c ' p 0.4 in July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #112 .14) Tcr = Cracking torsion (kin) Acp = Total area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the concrete cross section (in2) pc = length of the outside perimeter of the concrete cross section (in) fpc = compressive stress in concrete (after allowance for i t i t ( ft ll f all prestress loses) at centroid of cross section resisting externally applied loads or at the junction of the web and the flange when the centroid lies within the flange (ksi).2.2.8.1 4) (5.1 General 2 Acp f pc 1+ Tcr = 0.1 General A cp = 789 i 2 in pc = 26 + 20 + 2 8 + 92 + 92 + 23 + 62 + 62 + 8 pc = 166.8 .2. (This is the same as for Vcw).125 f c ' c (5.Shear and Torsion § 5.§ 5.Shear and Torsion § 5.8 .8.8.2. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #111 § 5.8.
Shear and Torsion § 5. including any holes therein.1 General For cellular structures: Acp pc 2 ≤ 2 A0bv (5.1 General Torsional Design For torsion.8.8 . The required area of stirrups for shear must be added to the required area of stirrups for the concurrent torsion (Article 5.1).15) A0 = Area enclosed by the shear flow path.8. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #114 .6.8 .3.2.8. the area of ADDITIONAL transverse reinforcement is calculated.Shear and Torsion § 5.2.§ 5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #113 § 5.8.2.
8.8.Shear and Torsion The Commentary (C5.9 phTu (5.8.8 . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #116 . It is appropriate to examine the area of transverse reinforcement required for the maximum shear with the concurrent torsion and the maximum torsion with the concurrent shear Use the largest area required shear. Vu shall be taken as equal to: Solid Sections : 0.1) explains the use of the word “concurrent”. several equations require the term Vu.16) V + 2 A0 Box S i B Sections : Td (5.3. concurrent .17) Vu + u 2 Ao 2 u 2 ph = perimeter of the centerline of the closed. the EQUIVALENT factored shear force.2. It is not appropriate to design for the maximum shear and the maximum torsion (unless they are concurrent). When considering shear q q g and torsion.6. required.Shear and Torsion When calculating the shear resistance. transverse torsion reinforcement. Vn.2.§ 5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #115 § 5.8 .
§ 5. includes ALL legs of the stirrups which cross the plane of the shear crack.Shear and Torsion § 5.Shear and Torsion § 5.8 .3. the transverse reinforcement for shear.5Vs + φ φ dv φ 2 A0φ Mu Nu (5.45 p hTu + 0 . Thus.3 Longitudinal Reinforcement The longitudinal steel requirements are modified if torsion must be considered. it is important to add these areas correctly. For torsion.3. However. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #117 § 5.2 Torsional Resistance The nominal torsional resistance is: Tn = 2 A0 At f y cot θ s (5.8.8.6. Solid Sections: A ps f ps + As f y ≥ V 0. when detailing the reinforcement.6. Av. At is the area of ONE leg.8.8 .3.31) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate 2 2 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #118 .3.8.6.21) At = Area of one leg of closed transverse reinforcement provided for torsion in solid members or the total area of transverse torsion reinforcement in the exterior web of a cellular member.5 + cot θ u − V p − 0.6. CAUTION: The Specifications require that the area of transverse reinforcement for shear be added to that for torsion.
8.6.8. Step 2 Determine the maximum factored shear and concurrent factored torsion. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #120 . the required amount of ADDITIONAL longitudinal steel is: Al = Tn p h 2 A0 f y (5.8 .Shear and Torsion § 5. Determine the maximum factored torsion and concurrent factored shear.3.3.25ΦTcr.32) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #119 § 5. IF Tu < 0.3 Longitudinal Reinforcement In box sections.6.§ 5.Shear and Torsion Design for Shear and Torsion Step 1 Determine if torsion must be considered considered.8 . torsion may be ignored.
Equations 5.Shear and Torsion Design for Shear and Torsion (cont.Shear and Torsion Design for Shear and Torsion (cont. This is the equivalent factored shear force.) Step 3 Modify Vu to reflect the presence of torsion torsion.§ 5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #121 § 5. the equivalent factored shear force is used for Vu in the equations for vu and εx.8 .) Step 4 Determine the area of transverse shear reinforcement needed to resist the maximum value of Vu. Determine the area of transverse shear reinforcement needed to resist the value of Vu concurrent with the maximum torsion. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #122 .8.16 or 7 For the Sectional Design Model is used for shear.2.8 .
§ 5.Shear and Torsion Design for Shear and Torsion (cont. the calculated torsion area is for ONE leg.) Step 6 Add together the areas of transverse reinforcement required for torsion and shear.8 . Use the maximum.8 . Add the required areas for the cases of maximum shear and concurrent torsion and maximum torsion and concurrent shear. the calculated shear area is for ALL the stirrup legs.) Step 5 Determine the area of transverse torsion reinforcement needed to resist the maximum value of Tu. Determine the area of transverse torsion reinforcement needed to resist the value of Tu concurrent with the maximum shear. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #123 § 5. Be sure to add th areas correctly. dd the tl July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #124 . Remember.Shear and Torsion Design for Shear and Torsion (cont.
sectional design model must be used. it appears that if torsion is present. although the specifications do not say it specifically.§ 5.8.31 or 2 Finally. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #125 .8 .3.) Check the requirements for longitudinal steel using the equations modified for torsion.6. 5.Shear and Torsion Design for Shear and Torsion (cont.
4th Edition.4 Bridges Composed on Simple Span Precast Girders Made Continuous Article 5. but no positive moment connection is provided.AASHTOLRFD S TO Continuous for Live Load AASHTOLRFD Specification. New in 2007 § 5. 5. This does not apply to bridges designed as simple spans.14.3 has been extensively revised for 2007.1.org) This article only applies to bridges intended to be continuous for live load.3 does NOT apply to this type of bridge. NCHRP Report 519 (available on the web at TRB. A negative poor boy moment connection is provided in the slab. The bridge is designed as simple spans.1. 12 53. Some states use “poor boy” continuity. Results of NCHRP Study 1253.14. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #2 .14.1.
New in 2007 § 5.14.1.4 Bridges Composed on Simple Span Precast Girders Made Continuous Construction Sequence
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New in 2007 § 5.14.1.4 Bridges Composed on Simple Span Precast Girders Made Continuous
Negative moment reinforcement over a diaphragm
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New in 2007 § 5.14.1.4 Bridges Composed on Simple Span Precast Girders Made Continuous
A bent strand positive moment connection
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New in 2007 § 5.14.1.4 Bridges Composed on Simple Span Precast Girders Made Continuous
Girders carry self weight and slab weight as simple, noncomposite spans. All superimposed DL and LL carried as continuous, composite spans. Negative moment connection over pier is usually reinforced slab. Creep, shrinkage and temperature may cause girders to camber up causing positive moment up, moment. Usually in young girders Positive moment connection required.
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New in 2007 § 5.14.1.4 Bridges Composed on Simple Span Precast Girders Made Continuous
Over time, creep and shrinkage of the girders may cause additional camber in the girders. This creates a positive moment at the diaphragm which often causes cracking, so positive moment connections are needed. These moments are called “restraint” moments. Experimental evidence shows that this behavior is most prevalent when the girders are very young. When the girders are old, theory says shrinkage of the slab causes the girders to decamber, resulting in a negative restraint moment at the diaphragm. However, this is not seen in field measurements. Field measurements show the girders camber up until the slab is cast, then every thing “locks up” – no cambering or decambering is seen.
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Continuous for Live Load § 5.14.1.4.2 Restraint Moments
Methods of analysis are NOT covered in the LRFD Specifications. Many commercial bridge analysis programs will calculate positive moments from creep/shrinkage. PCA EB14 is a popular hand method. QCon Bridge is available for free from WSDOT. Current analysis methods are questionable. Creep and shrinkage properties are extremely variable. Analysis results do not match field data for older girders.
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Continuous for Live Load § 5.14.1.4.2 Restraint Moments
The MOST important variable is the age of the girders at the time continuity is established (Art 5.14.1.4.4). If the girders are less than 90 days old when continuity is established:
The engineer must estimate or specify the girder age at continuity. Restraint moments must be calculated.
If the girders are SPECIFIED to be no less than 90 days old when continuity is established:
Provide a specified positive moment connection No calculations of restraint moments are needed.
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Continuous for Live Load § 5.14.1.4.4 Age of Girder when Continuity is Established
The 90 day specification At 90 days, approximately 70% of the creep and days shrinkage has occurred in the girder. This limits positive moment formation. Experimental evidence shows that girders with a positive moment connection which will resist 1.2Mcr can still provide continuity even if some cracking is present. present Using the 90 day rule greatly simplifies design. The 90 day rule is verified by experience in several states.
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Continuous for Live Load § 5.14.1.4.4 Age of Girder when Continuity is Established
To use the 90 day rule, the 90 day wait must be in the contract documents. Waiting 90 days may not be practical Precasters do not want to store for 90 days. Production schedules may be significantly altered if a long lead is needed. In some states, precasters are paid for storage. The commentary allows the owner to change the 90 day wait to the time when ktd = 0.7 (Art. 5.4.2.3.2 and 5.4.2.3.3).
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Continuous for Live Load § 5.14.1.4.5 Degree of Continuity at Various Limit States When the positive moment connection cracks, some degree of continuity may be lost. In general, the girders act as simple spans until the cracks close; then act as continuous after the crack closes. The design must consider possible loss of continuity. If the calculated stress at the bottom of the continuity diaphragm for the combination of superimposed permanent loads, settlement, creep, shrinkage, 50% live load and temperature gradient, if applicable, is compressive, the spans may be considered as fully continuous for all limit states. If the girders are specified to be at least 90 days old when continuity is established, the spans may be assumed fully continuous for all limit states. Negative moment deck cracking may be neglected.
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Continuous for Live Load § 5.14.1.4.6 Service Limit State for Girder Stress Limits
For loads carried as simple spans (including release of prestressing force), the girders must satisfy the tensile stress requirements for prestressed girders (Art. 5.9.4). For the top of the girder at an interior support at service limit state after losses, either: Treat it as a prestressed girder. Use the prestressed tensile limits and Service III, as applicable. Treat it as a reinforced concrete section section. A castinplace composite deck slab shall not be subject to the tensile stress limits for the service limit state after losses specified in Table 5.9.4.2.21.
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Continuous for Live Load § 5.14.1.4.7 Strength Limit State
The negative moment connection must be able to resist the factored negative moment at the section. The positive moment connection must be able to resist the factored restraint moments.
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Continuous for Live Load § 5.14.1.4.8 Negative Moment Connections
The most common negative moment connection is a reinforced concrete slab on top the girders. This is designed as a reinforced concrete section and must meet all applicable provisions. Bars must be properly anchored and splices must be staggered. Other types of connections are permitted if verified by testing. testing
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Continuous for Live Load § 5.14.1.4.9 Positive Moment Connections
Positive moment connections resist restraint moments caused by creep and shrinkage of the girders. Without positive moment connections, the girder/diaphragm interface cracks and continuity is lost. Continuous for Live Load Bridges MUST have positive moment connections.
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ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #16
Continuous for Live Load § 5.14.1.4.9 Positive Moment Connections
Three types permitted: Leave some of the strand extended from the end of the girder and bend it to a 90o angle. Embed mild steel bars in the end of the girder. These bars have either 90o or 180o hooks into the diaphragm. Any connection verified by analysis/testing to provide adequate resistance Mechanical connections would resistance. be permitted under this section.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #17
Continuous for Live Load § 5.14.1.4.9 Positive Moment Connections
The positive moment connection must be designed to resist the factored restraint moments unless the 90 day rule is used. If the connection is designed using restraint moments, the capacity of the connection must be between 0.6 Mcr and 1.2 Mcr. Mcr is the cracking moment of the gross composite girder cross section at the diaphragm diaphragm. Mcr is calculated using the strength of the diaphragm concrete.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Prestressed Concrete: Slide #18
3. Use the provisions for development of straight and bent bar (Art.7.14.2 Mcr referred to in Art.14. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #19 Continuous for Live Load § 5. 5. Stagger the ends of the bars in the girder to prevent stress concentrations concentrations. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #20 .11) to design the bars. The critical section is the girder/ diaphragm interface.2 Mcr capacity referred to here IS NOT the same 1.3.3.3.1.9 Positive Moment Connections If the connection is designed using the 90 day rule. the capacity of the connection must be at least 1.2 Mcr.9 Positive Moment Connections Bent Bar Type Connection: Connection is made by embedding mild steel in the end of the girder.4.Continuous for Live Load § 5.2 (which states that prestressed elements must have a minimum capacity of 1.1. Art. IMPORTANT – The 1.4.2 Mcr). 5. 5.2 does NOT apply to positive moment connections.7.
the bars must be offset. However. It may be necessary to field bend. connection should be kept as symmetrical as possible while still allowing meshing. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #21 Continuous for Live Load § 5.4. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #22 .1.14. Embedded bars may increase end zone congestion. To mesh the bars in the diaphragm.4. an excessively asymmetrical connection detail will cause uneven bar stress The stress. Often the bars cannot be installed pre bent (especially prebent in BulbT and I sections).Continuous for Live Load § 5.14.9 Positive Moment Connections Bent Bar type connection.1. Field bend specifications are needed.9 Positive Moment Connections Bent Bar Type Connection: Often.
4.3 (Longitudinal reinforcement).14.1. They must be installed straight and field bent.8.14.9 Positive Moment Connections This shows that bent bars extend above the top of the flange.4. This connection develops the strand for the purposes of Art. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #24 .9 Positive Moment Connections Bent Strand Type Connection: This connection is made by leaving a length of strand extend from the end of the beam. The strands should be symmetrical about the vertical axis of the cross section.3. 5. They cannot be installed bent or the forms cannot be closed. The strand may be left straight and developed into the diaphragm. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #23 Continuous for Live Load § 5. The strand may be bent into a 90o hook.6.Continuous for Live Load § 5.1.
the end precast element shall be designed to resist positive moments caused by superimposed dead loads. Design of the end of the girder shall account for the reduced effect of prestress within the transfer length. the diaphragm must be designed to transfer forces between girders.9 Positive Moment Connections Strand stress in bent strand connections is found from: fpsl = (ℓdsh – 8)/0.163 where: ℓdsh = total length of extended strand (IN) fpsl = stress in the strand at the SERVICE limit state. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #25 Continuous for Live Load § 5.14.4.Continuous for Live Load § 5.4.92) fpul = (ℓdsh – 8)/0. (KSI) fpul = stress in the strand at the STRENGTH limit state state. creep and shrinkage of the girders.4.4.10 Continuity Diaphragms The design of continuity diaphragms at interior supports may be based on the strength of the concrete in the precast girders. shrinkage of the deck slab.14. Continuity diaphragms shall also be designed for situations where an angle change occurs between opposing girders. If horizontal diaphragm reinforcement is passed through holes in the precast beam or is attached to the precast element using mechanical connectors. live loads. and temperature effects. Where ends of girders are not directly opposite each other across a continuity diaphragm.1. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Prestressed Concrete: Slide #26 . (KSI) Strands shall project at least 8 IN from the face of the girder before they are bent.228 < 150 ksi (5.14. Precast girders may be embedded into continuity diaphragms.1.1.91) ( ) (5. Cracked section shall be assumed.1.14.
References: •“Precast Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Manual. shear and deflection due to prestressing. dead load.” Published by Precast/Prestressed concrete Institute July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #2 .AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications – Design Example 1 Simple Span Prestressed Adjacent Box Bridge RICHARD MILLER AASHTOLRFD Specification. as shown below. adjacent box g example illustrates the design of typical interior and exterior beams at the critical sections in positive flexure. 65 ft. 4th Edition. Design Example .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge Problem Statement and Assumptions This design example demonstrates the design of a single span. and live load. This g g . long j girder bridge with a 30o right forward skew.
July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #4 .2. Note: Table 4.2e1 has an inconsistency.Design Example .6. It is assumed the skew factor applies to this structure.2.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge Problem Statement and Assumptions July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #3 Design Example . but names it as a cross section type in the second column. It does not include this type of bridge in the description in the first column.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge Problem Statement and Assumptions This problem was chosen to illustrate skew bridge design.
[BDM 302.0 ksi ODOT Bridge Design Manual (BDM) allows a range of strengths.0 ksi @ 28 days fci’ = 5 0 k i 5. Design tables developed for Standard Specifications can usually be used to approximate the section for initial sizing.1. LRFD should give a more refined design. the difference is usually a few strands one way or the other.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.7] July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #5 Design Example . g g These are chosen from that range.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge Selecting the Girder Size The LRFD Specifications were checked against the old Standard Specifications Specifications. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #6 .1 Precast Beams Ohio B3348 box girder as shown fc’ = 7. but not a radically different design.2. For prestressed concrete.5.Design Example .
Type IV) It will give an approximate section for cases where the ODOT section is not AASHTO standard (boxes). For a precast box. Sections near either end of the design range may be inadequate.4 inches < 33 inches OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #8 .g. Specifications try to stay in the middle of the design range. These work when ODOT uses the AASHTO standard section (e.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge Selecting the Girder Size When using tables based on the Standard Specifications.Design Example .3. ODOT requires the use of minimum span to depth ratios given in LRFD Article 2.03L = 0. The design data sheet suggests using 20 strands.03(65ft)(12in/ft) =23. the limit is 0.6.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge Selecting the Girder Size The B3348 section was chosen from preliminary design charts in ODOT Design Data Sheets Group Sheets. “B” Design (roadway width 36 ft.). The Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) publishes preliminary design tables in their Bridge Design Manual. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #7 Design Example .5. ½” diameter.2. The span of 65 ft is the midrange for this section. to 48 ft.
SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge Diaphragms: 2 . Yield strength.6 1 2 6 Bridge Parameters Single Span Overall Length: c/c Span: Support: July 2007 ODOT Short Course 67 ft. Es = 29. fpu = 270.2.4 Reinforcing Bars GR 60. ½ inch diameter is chosen. lowrelaxation ASTM A 415 [ODOT BDM 302. Area of one strand = 0.2.0 ksi 1.3 Prestressing Strand ½ in diameter.Design Example .5. Drawings) Barriers: Truck: 0.2.5. Drawings) g Future wearing surface: 0.2a] ODOT BDM allows either ½ inch or 0. fy = 60 ksi [BDM 302.090 k/ft each (ODOT Design Data Sheets) HL 93.1. Elastomeric Bearing Pad AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #10 .8] Modulus of elasticity.6 inch.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1. Here. including dynamic allowance 1.2.5 Loads 1. 65 ft.12” wide at 1/3 points (ODOT Std.1.000 ksi July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #9 Design Example .153 in2 Ultimate strength.060 ksf (ODOT Std.
5 0. 000 K1wC f c ' (5.3. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #12 . The K1 factor was added for high strength concrete.2.764 33 16.4.511 6. At high y y gg g g strengths.Design Example . E is limited by aggregate stiffness. but it applies to all concrete.0 × 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1. given for E is the old E=33w1.5 7.41) EC = 33. E is heavily influenced by aggregates. The K1 factor allows the owner or designer to adjust E based on experimental evidence.39 108.300 ksi At Transfer EC = 33.0 × 0.150 6. 000 × 1.1501.599 1.0 = 4. 000 × 1. just adjusted to ksi units.61 16.1 NonComposite Section Properties Area in2 Weight (k/ft) h (in) yb (in) yt (in) I (in4) Sb (in3) St (in3) 733.5 5.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge Material Properties It is important to remember that the LRFD Specifications use KSI units The formula units.5√fc’.1501.5 EC = 33.0 = 5. 072 ksi At Service Loads July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #11 Design Example .
This changes the distribution factor significantly. a lateral posttensioning force causing a stress of 0. for this bridge to be considered to have the girders “sufficiently connected”. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #14 .4.5 inch average to account for camber along the length of beam.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.1 Dead Loads DC = Dead load of structural components and nonstructural non structural attachments DC Dead Loads carried by the girders: Beam Weight: 0.25 ksi across the keyway is needed Therefore this bridge needed. Therefore.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1. According to the commentary in the LRFD Specifications. but not providing significant lateral posttensioning. will be considered as not being “sufficiently connected”. but the Design Data Sheets use a 3.Design Example .75k ODOT specifies a MINIMUM of 3 inches in the Bridge Design Manual.764 klf Diaphragms: 2 at each 1/3 point DCd = ( 33in − 10.3. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #13 Design Example . tightened enough to bring the rods girders together.5in )( 48in − 11in ) 144in 2 / ft 2 (1 ft )( 2 diaphragms )( 0.150kcf ) = 1.2 Assumptions The current ODOT standard is to tie the girders together with tie rods.
Actually.240 klf July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #15 Design Example .060 ksf)(4 ft) = 0. this is the average surface thickness.5in ( 4 ft )( 0.5 in surface.1 Dead Loads An important note on the asphalt wearing surface: The ODOT standards call for a minimum 3 inch asphalt surface.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.4. Due t camber. However.Design Example . the ODOT Design Data Sheets call for a 3. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #16 . The surface may be thicker on an individual girder due to differential camber.140klf 12in / ft DW = future wearing surfaces and future DL FWS: (0.120kcf ) = 0.4.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1. th surface may b thi k D to b the f be thicker at the ends of the girder.1 Dead Loads DC Dead Loads carried by the girders (con’t): Asphalt Wearing Surface: at Construction DCws = 3.
4. the most critical moment is at midspan: s dspa M DC = M DW (0.764 klf (0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1. f In other example problems.240 klf )(65 ft )2 = 8 + 0. girders July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #17 Design Example .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.1 DLUnfactored Shear Forces & Bending Moments Since this is a simple span beam.8 k − ft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #18 .140 klf )(65 ft ) 65 ft + 1. Here.3k − ft 8 3 2 = 126.75k = 515. barrier/railing loads are distributed equally to all the girders.1 Dead Loads Rails: 0.Design Example .1.2 appears to require a deck to distribute the load equally to all girders.090 klf applied to exterior girders. assume the railing load is applied only to the exterior girders.4.6.2. but Article 4.
2.3] Design lane load shall consist of a load of 0.2.1. the maximum moment from the LANE LOAD occurs when the girder is fully loaded.1. [LRFD Article 3. Thus: M LL .Truck = 896k − ft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #20 .64 kip/ft uniformly distributed in the longitudinal direction.6.0 kip back axles.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1. the maximum moment is: M LL .0 apart.4] July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #19 Design Example .2 and 3.0’ and 30.4.2.0 kip front axle and a pair of 32.0 4.4.2 Live Loads Since this is a simple span.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.6.1.0’ to produce extreme force effects.2 Live Loads According to LRFD Article 4.1. The space between the rear axles shall be varied between 14. The design truck shall consists of an 8.6.2. since this is a simple span. [LRFD Article 3. The design tandem shall consist of a pair of 25 0 kip axles spaced 4 0’ apart 25. The first and second axle are spaced 14’0” apart.1 vehicular live loading y g on the roadways of bridges or incidental structures.Lane (0. designated HL93. shall consists of a combination of the: Design truck or design tandem with dynamic allowance.640 klf )(65 ft )2 = 8 = 338 k − ft The HL93 truck controls for this span length and.6.Design Example .
the maximum moment occurs when the id th midspan of th b f the beam i ½ way b t is between th resultant the lt t load and the nearest axle load: The resultant is used only for positioning the loads.4.5wx(Lx) w = load (klf) L = total span x = point where moment is calculated.2 Live Loads A note on live loads: The lane load is just a uniform load. Don’t you wish you would have paid more attention in Structural Analysis????? July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #22 .4. so for a simple span the moment is: M = 0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #21 Design Example . For a SIMPLE SPAN (only).SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.Design Example .2 Live Loads The HL93 Truck is treated as a series of axle loads. It is NOT included in the analysis.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.
The HS 20 lane load is NOT the same as the HL93 truck or HL93 lane!!! (Standard Specification Lane Load has a point load!) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #23 Design Example .6. the following conditions must be met [LRFD 4.Design Example .2.11 OK OK OK OK OK OK For a precast concrete box beam with an asphalt surface .4.2 Live Loads The HL93 has the same axle loads as the old HS20 truck.1.6. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #24 .2].4.2. Nb > 4. T use the simplified li l d f l 4 6 2 2] To th i lifi d live load distribution factor formulas.23 ft Curvature in plan < Article 4. p published moments for simple p The Standard Specifications p spans under the old HS20 loading in Appendix B. LRFD uses BOTH.6.2 Beam parallel and of same stiffness Cross Section listed in Table 4.2.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1. BE CAREFUL – Appendix B gives the moment for the controlling load case which might be either the truck load or the lane load!! Recall that the Standard Specifications use EITHER Lane or Truck. the bridge type is (g).SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1. Number of beams.6. Overhang part of the roadway < 3 ft de = 0.2.2.1] Width of deck is constant.2.1 Distribution Factors The live load bending moments and shear forces are determined by using the simplified distribution factor formulas [LRFD 4.
w = 48 feet Number of design lanes = integer part of (48/12) = 4 (3.2.1.6.4.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1. where w is the clear roadway width in feet between curbs and/or barriers.1) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #25 Design Example .1 Distribution Factors The number of design lanes should be determined by taking the integer part of the ratio w/12.4.1 Distribution Factors for Bending Moment DFM = S/D S = width of precast beam (ft) D = (11.4NL(10.2.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.2.Design Example .5 NL) when C > 5 (Table 4.2.5 NL)+1.2C)2 when C < 5 D = (11.1.1.6.2b1) Range of Applicability: NL ≤ 6 Skew ≤ 45° AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #26 July 2007 ODOT Short Course .
July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate ( ) 2 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #28 . K= July 2007 ODOT Short Course (1 + µ )I J AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #27 Design Example .75in 42.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.1. it can be approximated by: 4 1180in 2 4 A2 J= = = 211625in4 S 27.2. t is the wall thickness S is the length of the centerline of a box wall.5in 42.4.1.1 Distribution Factors for Bending Moment J is not published for ODOT girders.Design Example .5in ∑ t 2 5.4.2.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.5in + 5.5in + 5in A is the area enclosed by the centerline of the box walls. However.1 Distribution Factors for Bending Moment Where: NL = Number of Lanes = 4 C = K(W/L) < K W = Clear width of the bridge = 48 ft.
2.1 Distribution Factors for Bending Moment K= (1 + 0.1.4 ( 4Lanes ) ( 1 − 0.578 ) ) = 11.2 ( 0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #30 .4.1.Design Example .2 ) 108150in4 211625in4 = 0.9 2 S 4 ft = = 0 336 0. 0.336 D 11.783 48 ft C = 0.5] AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #29 Design Example .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.2. K can be conservatively taken as 1 The DFM = 0 361 a difference of 8% 1.783 = 0.2 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate [LRFD 5.5 − 4Lanes ) + 1. This is different from other cases where there are factors for one lane loaded and two lanes loaded.578 65 ft D = ( 11.2. Also note that there is only one distribution factor for this case. 8%.361.4.4.9 µ = Poisson’s Ratio = 0.1 Distribution Factors for Bending Moment Note that for boxes.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.
2 Distribution Factors for Shear Force Two Lanes Loaded: DFV = (b/156)0.2.3a1) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #31 Design Example .1 (I/J)0.4.150 OK OK OK OK OK Nb = number of beams b = beam width.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.000 Nb = 12 b = 48 L = 65 J = 211.4.1. in L = beam span.2.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.000 < J < 610.000 40.1.05(b/48) One Lane Loaded: DFV = (b/130L)0.15 (I/J)0.2. 5< Nb < 20 35 < b < 60 20 < L < 120 25.Design Example .4 (b/12L)0.05 (Table 4. ft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #32 .625 I = 108.000 < I < 610.2 Distribution Factors for Shear Force Where DFV = distribution factor for moment for interior beam Provided: beam.6.2.
July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #33 Design Example .4 48 108150 0. applied only to truck load July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #34 .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.2 Distribution Factors for Shear Force For two or more lanes loaded: 48 DFV = 156 0. assuming I/J = 1 changes the DFV very little.2 Dynamic Allowance IM = 33% Where: IM = dynamic load allowance. Here.05 = 0.15 108150 211625 0.2.456 12 ( 65 ) 211625 48 0. the DFV is about 4% higher if I/J = 1.1.4.05 48 = 0.445 0 445 Because I/J is raised to a very small power.1 01 For one design lane loaded: 48 DFV = 130 ( 65 ) 0.2.4.Design Example .
4.05 − 0. It is assumed the skew factor applies to this structure.2.404) ( ) = 896 kft (0.05 − 0.4 Unfactored Bending Moments Unfactored bending moment due to HL93 truck. per beam: MLL.Design Example . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate ( ) AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #35 Design Example .6.Truck = (bending moment per lane)(DFM)(1+IM)(skew factor) = (bending moment per lane)(0.336)(1.2.2.25 tan θ ≤ 1.6.4. (Table 4. but names it as a cross section type in the second column.3 kft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #36 .2e1 has an inconsistency.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.2e1) Note: Table 4.2.2.3 Moment Reduction Factor for Skew g = 1.404) = 362.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.0 For 0° ≤ θ ≤ 60° g = 1. It does not include this type of bridge in the description in the first column.2.25 tan 30o = 0.33)(0.905 The specifications state that the MOMENT DISTRIBUTION FACTOR in a skewed bridge MAY g be reduced by this factor.905) = (bending moment per lane)(0.
7 kft (Impact is not applied to lane loads.4.4.304) = 102.Lane = (bending moment per lane)(DFM)(skew factor) = (bending moment per lane)(0.3 Load Combinations The following limit states are applicable: (3.Design Example .00 (LL + IM) Service III: Q = 1.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.00(DC + DW) + 0.2. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #38 .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.4.80(LL + IM) Strength I: Maximum Q = 1.4 Unfactored Bending Moments Unfactored b di moment d to HL 93 l U f d bending due HL93 lane l d load.336)(0.50(DW) + 1.) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #37 Design Example . per beam: MLL.905) = 338 kft (0.25(DC) + 1.1) Service I: Q = 1.75(LL + IM) Fatigue: Does not need to be checked for pretensioned beams designed using the Service III load combination.00(DC + DW) + 1.
5.3 + 126. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #39 Design Example .3 + 102. but it is difficult to estimate number of strands using Strength I.87ksi 6511in3 Remember! For Service III (which applies ONLY to tension in fully prestressed members).SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1. It is easier to estimate the number of strands using Service III and add a few strands. if needed.Design Example .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1. Final strand patterns can be adjusted.5. Sb = Section modulus to the bottom fiber Box girders are usually controlled by Strength I.8 ( 362.1 Service Load Stresses at Midspan fb = i f {515.7 ) k − fft} (12in / ft ) = 1.1 Service Load Stresses at Midspan Bottom tensile stress due to applied dead and live loads using load combination Service III: fb = Where: M DC + M DW + 0.8 M LL+ I Sb fb = Bottom tensile stresses ksi kipft kipft kipft in3 MDC = Unfactored bending moment due to DC loads MDW = Unfactored bending moment due to DW loads MLL+I = Unfactored bending moment due to design vehicular live load including impact. the LL factor is 0.8 + 0. later.8! July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #40 .
SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1. the stress at the bottom fiber due to prestress is: p f pb = July 2007 ODOT Short Course Ppe A + Ppe ec Sb AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #42 .5.87 − 0.61 − 2.0 = 0.19 7.4.3 Required Number of Strands Assume the strands are 2 inches from the bottom of the girder So the strand eccentricity at the midspan is: ec = ( yb − ybs ) = (16.2.5.Design Example .61in If Ppe is the total prestressing force.2 Tensile Stress Limits for Concrete f r = 0.21) f r = 0.503ksi 1.503) = 1.19 f c' (Table 5.5.0) = 14.3 Required Number of Strands f pb = ( f b − f r ) The first step is determine the required amount of prestressing stress at the tensile fiber: f pb = (1.37ksi July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #41 Design Example .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.9.
Design Example .153)(202.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.37 ksi = 380 kips 1 14.5.3 Required Number of Strands Now plug in the required recompression stress.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.5 ksi Assuming 25% loss of prestress the final prestressing force per strand after losses is: (0.75fpu = 202.5.2kips July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #44 .5)(1 − 0. fpb and solve for Ppe: Ppe = 1.61in + 2 6511in 3 733. %) where fpi = initial prestressing stress before transfer.5in July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #43 Design Example . ksi = 0.3 Required Number of Strands Final prestress force per strand =( (area of strand)(fpi)(1 l f t d)(f )(1losses.25) = 23.
5. lowlax strands as the strand pattern must be symmetrical.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1. Use 20 strands.4 Strand Pattern At midspan: The ODOT design data sheets recommend 20 strands. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #46 .3 Required Number of Strands Number of strands required: 380 = 16. 270 ksi. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #45 Design Example .5.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.4 23.Design Example .2 This shows a need for at least (18) ½ in diameter.
11) Where: ∆fpES = loss due to elastic shortening. It is easier to use Service III and add a few extra strands. ksi ∆fpLT = loss due to longterm shrinkage and creep of long term concrete. This causes fabrication problems.9. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #47 Design Example . 2) The exterior girders will probably require more strand (maybe starting with the exterior would be a better idea!).5.5. and relaxation of the steel. The interior and exterior girders cannot be made on the same bed at the same time.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 1.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.Design Example . but it is hard to use that for strand estimation. ksi July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #48 . It is poor design practice to have the exterior girders have more strand than the interior.1 Prestress Losses Total Prestress Losses: ∆f pT = ∆f pES + ∆f pLT (5.4 Strand Pattern Why 20 strands? 1) Boxes tend to be controlled by strength design.
SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2. Mg = girder self weight at release Mg ( 0. Ect = Elastic Modulus of the concrete at the time of transfer or time of load application (ksi).3a1) fcgp = The concrete stress at the center of gravity of prestressing tendons due to the prestressing force immediately after the transfer and the selfweight of the member at the section of the maximum moment (ksi).1 Elastic Shortening Ep = Elastic Modulus of the prestressing steel (ksi).1. f cgp July 2007 ODOT Short Course Pi Pec2 M g ec = + i − A I I AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #49 Design Example .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.764klf )( 65 ft ) = 8 2 65 ft + 1.4k − ft = 5300k − in 3 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #50 .2.Design Example .75k = 441.9.1 Elastic Shortening ∆f pES = Where: Ep Ect f cgp (5.5.1.
Mg is used for ES losses which includes Eci.1. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #51 Design Example .1 Elastic Shortening The ES loss is added to the long term losses and the creep and shrinkage equations used to find the long term losses are stated in the commentary to only be accurate + 50%. But consider this: In this case. which is unknown (what is specified is the MINIMUM. the difference in the moment between overall length and c/c bearing is 6%. Real concrete has UW varying from 140160 pcf and there are tolerances in the cross section. The formula for E is accurate to. the actual will be above this). so using c/c bearing INCREASES ES) and it will be needed later – so why not just use it here?? July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #52 .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2. + 10%. The weight of the beam is based on ideal cross section and a UW of 150 pcf. at best.1 Elastic Shortening In the calculation of Mg c/c bearing is used for length. release strength.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.1. Mg based on c/c bearing is conservative (the Mg term subtracts. Overall length ill it it d h l d O ll l th gives “a more accurate Mg”.Design Example . Some designers use overall length. Eci is based on losses. based on the assumption that the i d th girder will sit on its ends when released.
Design Example .9.15ksi 733.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.1 Elastic Shortening In the calculation of fcgp .1 Elastic Shortening Pi = 20 strands ( 0.9 fpi .3a1) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #54 .3a. Thi i permitted b A i l 5.9.2.153in 2 = 558k 558k (14.5in 2 108150in 4 108150in 4 2 ( ) f cgp ∆f pES = 28500ksi 1.5.61in ) 5300k − in (14.5.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.15 76 (1 15ksi ) = 7.2. the commentary permits the calculation of the elastic shortening losses using transformed section.5ksi ) 0.1. the initial stress is assumed to be 0.1. The commentary gives the following equation: ∆f pES 2 Aps f pi ( I g + em Ag ) − em M g Ag = AI E 2 Aps ( I g + em Ag ) + g g ci Ep (C5. This is i d by Article 9 2 3 In lieu of this.6ksi 4300ksi July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #53 Design Example .9 )( 202.61in ) 558k = + − = 1.
5 ksi for low relaxation strand July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #56 .31) γ h = 1.5.2 LongTerm Losses For standard.1.9. pretensioned members subject to g normal loading and environmental conditions: ∆f pLT = 10 In which: f pi Aps Ag γ hγ st + 12γ hγ st + ∆f pR (5.9. precast.9.32) (5.2 LongTerm Losses H = The average annual ambient relative humidity (%) γh = Correction factor for relative humidity of the ambient air γhst = Correction factor for specified concrete strength at time of Prestress transfer to the concrete member ∆fpR = An estimate of relaxation loss taken as 2.5.7 − 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.33) AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #55 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Design Example .5.Design Example .1.01H γ st = 5 1 + f ci ' Do Not Duplicate (5.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.
5.3% 202.7 0 01(70) 1 00 γ st = So: 5 = 0.6 + 19.1ksi Loss = f pe 27.5ksi = 202.5ksi 1.00 1.5ksi )( 20 ) ( 0.0 + 2.153in 2 ) 733.Design Example .3 Total Losses at Service Loads Total Prestress Losses: ∆f pT = ∆f pES + ∆f pLT ∆f pT = 7.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.4ksi (5.83) + 2.1ksi = 175. so OK.5 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #57 Design Example .01(70) = 1.5 = 19.5in 2 = 7.83 1 00 0 83 2 5 (1 00 )( 0 83) + 12 (1.00 0.83 1 + 5.5ksi − 27.0 ∆f pLT = 10 ∆f pLT ( 202.11) Loss is less than the 25% initially assumed. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #58 .1ksi (100% ) = 13.9.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.0 + 10.00 )( 0.5 = 27.1.2 LongTerm Losses Assume H = 70% γ h = 1 7 − 0.1.
11) Sum of effective prestress + permanent < 0. rectangular compression members (Art. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #60 .4.45fc’ loads < 0.4. φw term will usually be = 1 for most beams.2 Compression Stress Limit States (Table 5.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.4 fc’ 1/2(Sum of effective prestress + permanent loads) + live load 0.9. It is based on th fl i b d the flange or web l b length/thickness th/thi k ratio. Since this is for sections with thin webs/flanges.6φ Sum of effective prestress + permanent < 0 6φwfc’ loads + transient loads July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #59 Design Example .7.7).2. 5.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.Design Example .2 Compression Stress Limit States So what is this φw term? It is a modifier for sections with thin webs or flanges. It is actually defined in the section for hollow.
7.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.7.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.7.2c3) If 15 < λw ≤ 25 φw = 1 − 0.11) Where: Xu = the clear length of the constant thickness portion of the wall between other walls or fillets t = wall thickness λw = = 6.4.4.1 Φw Find the web and flange slenderness ratios: λw = Xu t (5.7.7.2c1) ) (5.5in The top flange λw < 15 by inspection.4.2c2) (5.1 1) (5.7.4.7.7.9 Web λw = 5.2 Bottom Flange 5in 33in − ( 5.7.7.4.7.2 Compression Stress Limit States λw = X u (5.0 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate 48in − 2 ( 5.7.Design Example .4.7.5in ) − 5in − 2 ( 3in ) = 2.7.0025 ( λw − 15 ) If 25 < λw ≤ 35 φw = 0.11) t If λw ≤ 15 φw = 1.0 ( (5.2c1) AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #62 .5in ) − 2 ( 3in ) (5. φw = 1.75 X u = b − ( lesser of 2z or 2 y ) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #61 Design Example .4.2. If λw < 15.
1 ksi) = 537 kips f cp .top = July 2007 {( 362.3 Service Load Compression Stress Check Service I f cp .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.top + f cDL .8ksi f cp .21ksi 2 2 < 0.top + f cDL .61in ) 537k − = −0.85ksi = 1.17ksi = 0.17 ksi 6599 in 3 f cLL .2 Service Load Stresses Pe =20 strand (0.2.top = 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.top = 0.15ksi f cp .top = 537k (14.56ksi < 0.top + f cLL .85ksi = 1.4( 7ksi ) = 2.713ksi < 0.713ksi + 0.2.45 f c ' = 0.top + f cLL .85ksi 6599in3 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #63 ODOT Short Course Design Example .5 ksi – 27.top + f cDL .6 (1.Design Example .8 )k − ft ](12in / ft ) = 1.45 ( 7ksi ) = 3.153in2)(202.457ksi 733.457ksi + 1.3 + 126.2ksi Compression stresses OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #64 .top = −0.7 ) k − ft} (12in / ft ) = 0.0 )( 7ksi ) = 4.top = [(515.5in 2 6599in 3 f cDL .713ksi + 0.3 + 102.
04ksi = −0.94ksi − 1.94ksi 733.87 ksi f pb = f pb + f b = 1.4 Service Load Tensile Stress Check Service III Because the bottom of the girder is in compression.4 Service Load Tensile Stress Check Service III The Service III stress at the bottom due to dead and live loads.3 + 126.5in 2 6511in 3 f b = −2. was calculated previously. 537 kips 537k (14.5in 2 6511in3 f b = −1.94ksi − 2.3 + 102.530 ksi was also calculated previously.04ksi f pb + f b = 1.3.Design Example . The allowable tensile stress of 0.61in ) + = 1.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.1ksi TENSION ki ki ki ki Now it’s in tension.8 + ( 362. check with Service I: fb = {515. which is Service III ?!?!?!?! July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #66 .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.7 ) k − ft}(12in / ft ) = 2.87 k i = +0.3.1ksi = 0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #65 Design Example .94ksi 733.07 ksi COMPRESSION ki ksi ksi ki The section is in COMPRESSION.07 k i = 0. fb.04ksi 6511in 3 f pb = 537kips 537k (14. so the tensile allowable does NOT apply.61in ) + = 1.
SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2. it is sort of both. However the stress is so low. the stress at the bottom of the girder is “0” – and this is a dividing line between Service I and Service III.75(Truck + Lane) M u = 1. For all intents and purposes.50(DW) + 1. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #67 Design Example . there is an inconsistency between the two load cases.25(DC) 1.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 3.75 ( 362.25(DC) + 1.75(LL Since the truck load and lane load have been distributed and impact is included: Q = 1.3. Because of the 0.1 Factored Moment Strength I: Q = 1 25(DC) + 1 50(DW) + 1 75(LL + IM) 1.Design Example .50(DW) 1.7 ) M u = 1648k − ft = 19780k − in July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #68 .4 Service Load Tensile Stress Check Service III So what gives?? Is this a Service III or Service I load g case?? Actually.8 ) + 1.8 factor on the LL.3 + 102.50 (126. that really doesn’t matter – we satisfy all allowables in all cases.25 ( 515.3) + 1.
SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 3.3.7.1.14) Aps = Area of prestressing steel fpu = Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel = 270 As = Area of mild steel tension reinforcement = 0.85 0 85 f c' β b + kAps pu dp (5.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 3. compressive face July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #69 Design Example .7.0 fy = Yield strength of tension reinforcement = 60.1) Where: fps = Average stress in prestressing steel ksi k = 0.1.2 Steel Stress at Strength Limit State Where: Aps f pu + As f y − As' f y' c= fp 0.Design Example .2 Steel Stress at Strength Limit State Average stress in prestressing steel when : c f ps = f pu 1 − k dp (5. c = Distance between the neutral axis and the in.3.28 for low relaxation strands dp = Di Distance from extreme compression fiber to f i fib the centroid of the prestressing tendons = 31 in.0 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate in2 ksi in2 ksi AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #70 .
a.2 = 0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #72 .85 ( 7ksi )( 0.2 Steel Stress at Strength Limit State A’s = Area of compression reinforcement = 0.28 = 260ksi 31 in c is also the neutral axis depth.153in 2 ( ) ( ) 270ksi 31 in = 3.7 )( 48in ) + 0.2.98in f ps = 270ksi 1 − 0. assume rectangular section behavior.0 f’y = Yield strength of compression reinforcement = 60. so the stress block depth.2 Steel Stress at Strength Limit State c= 20 0. and check if the depth of the equivalent compression stress block.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 3.0 β1 = Stress block factor specified in LRFD 5. < 5.98) = 2. a = β1c = 0. in To compute c. the stress block is entirely in the flange so the beam may be treated as rectangular.Design Example .79 inches.7(3. Since c < hf.0 f’c = Compressive strength of concrete = 7. in in 3.5in.28 ( 20 ) 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 3.7.70 b = Effective width of compression flange = 48 in2 ksi ksi in.153in 2 270ksi + 0 − 0 0.98in. is equal to or less than ts: Where a =β1c July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #71 Design Example .
3 Flexural Resistance The moment equation in the LRFD Specification looks like this: a h a a a Mn = Aps f ps dp − + As f y ds − − A' f y ' ds ' − +0. a = 2.2.79in a M n = Aps f ps d p − 2 (5.3.21) 2.2.79 2 79in M n = 20 0. the section may be treated as rectangular.Design Example .7.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 3. the equation becomes: a a a M n = Aps f ps d p − + As f y d s − − As ' f y ' d s '− 2 2 2 a M n = Aps f ps d p − 2 July 2007 ODOT Short Course If th there i no compression or mild tension steel.153in 2 ( 260ksi ) 31 in − = 23550k − in 2 ( ) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #74 .85fc ' ( b −bw ) hf − f As 2 2 2 2 2 (5.21) If the section is rectangular (b=bw).SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 3.7.3 Flexural Resistance Since c < hf.3. the equation is i ild t i t l th ti becomes: AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #73 Design Example .
However. the nominal moment. Mn changes by only 0.4 Determination of Phi To determine Φ.003 dt − c c 31in − 3. dt = dp. this is often ignored as this would require an iterative procedure.98 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #76 ODOT Short Course July 2007 .3 Flexural Resistance The nominal flange width of 48 inches was used for “b”. Since there is only one row of steel.Design Example . In reality.98 inches (calculated above) dt is the distance to the extreme tensile steel.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 3.10%. If the area is adjusted for the shear key. ε t = 0.0204 3. c = 3. it is necessary to calculate the steel strain at the level of the extreme tensile steel.98 ε t = 0. the flange area is reduced by the shear key cutout.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 3.003 = 0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #75 Design Example . It may not be appropriate to reduce the area by the shear key cutout as this will be filled with grout and the grout may act with the base concrete to effectively provide the complete flange width. All of this is a matter of engineering judgment.
(5.005.7.5.0 )( 23550k − in ) OK M u ≤ ΦM n July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #78 . This replaces the maximum reinforcement provisions.1) Φ = 1.Design Example .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 3.4 Determination of Phi Since εt =0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #77 Design Example . 780k − in < (1.2.1) This is a big change from the old ρbalanced method. the section is tension controlled. However.2.4.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 3.5 Determination of Flexural Strength 19.0204 > 0.0 (5. this now makes the LRFD Specifications consistent with ACI 318.
2 times the cracking g moment or 1.5in 2 6511in 3 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #80 .6 Minimum Reinforcement Next.6) Note that this is a new MOR for minimum reinforcement.6 Minimum Reinforcement For minimum reinforcement.2.33(19780 kin) = 26310 kin For the cracking moment. It is equal to 11.33 times the factored applied moment.94ksi 733.37 7ksi = 0.Design Example .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 3. find the modulus of rupture: f r = 0.5√fc’ in psi.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 3. which is the upper bound for MOR.979ksi (5. Mr must be at least the lesser of 1.61in ) = + = 1. 1.37 f c ' = 0.33Mu = 1.4. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #79 Design Example . the resistance moment. determine the stress at the bottom of the box due to effective prestressing force: f cpe 537kips 537k (14.
φMn = 21400 kin. If 18 strands had been used. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #82 .6 Maximum and Minimum Reinforcement Note: When the number of strands was selected.3.94ksi ) = 19000k − in 1.2M 1 2Mcr = 1 2(19000k i ) = 22800 k i < 1 33Mu 1.Design Example .3.33M Mr = φMn = 1. it selected was determined that 18 strands would be needed. but 20 were used.979ksi + 1. so 18 strands would NOT meet the minimum requirement.21) M cr = 6511in 3 ( 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 3.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 3.6 Maximum and Minimum Reinforcement Since this is a noncomposite section: M cr = Sb ( f r + f cpe ) (5.0(23550) kin = 23550 kin > 22800 kin OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #81 Design Example .2(19000kin) kin 1.7.
1. However.9fpi Pi = 20 strand(0.11.0948√fci’ < 0.61in ) = + = 2.24√fci’ Compression: 0.1) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #84 .5in 6511in These stresses should be calculated at the end of the transfer length = 60db=30 in.61in ) − = −0.9. these stresses will not be large so it is conservative to use just the stress due to prestressing.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 4.9)(202.5in 2 6599in 3 558 kips 558 k (14.3 End Stress at Transfer f pt = f pb 558 kips 558 k (14.2 ksi 0.21) w/o bonded reinforcement w/ bonded reinforcement AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #83 Design Example .2 Allowable Stress at Transfer Tension: 0.01ksi 2 3 733.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 4. (5.153in2)(0. The dead load stresses 30 inches from the support should be added.Design Example .474 ksi 733.4.4.1 Steel Stress at Transfer Assume the stress at transfer is 0.5 ksi)=558 kips 4.6fci’ July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate (Table 5.
01 ksi compression < 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 4. If debonding is needed.4.3.21) The first step it to find the tension in the flange.474 ksi tension < 0.9.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 4. If this calculation had shown debonding was needed. the neutral at the end is: x= July 2007 ODOT Short Course 0.24√fci’ = 0.6(5 ksi) = 3 ksi OK Because the stress is OK. it would have been prudent to recalculate stresses at the end of the transfer length (include the gravity moment) to see if debonding is still needed.1. no more that 25% of the total number of strands could be debonded and no more than 40% in one row can be debonded.5fy t i i th t fl ith t f th 0 5f but not more than 30 ksi.01ksi AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #86 . This steel must resist the total tension in the top flange with a stress of no more than 0.6fci = 0.474 ksi(33in ) = 6.30in 0. no debonding is needed. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #85 Design Example . From the top and bottom stresses at the end.Design Example . (Table 5.24√5 ksi = 0.3 End Stress at Transfer fpt = 0. This requires the location of the neutral axis to be determined.474 + 2.1 Bonded Steel Bonded steel is needed at the top of the girder at the end to take the tensile forces.537 ksi OK w/bonded steel fpb = 2.
474ksi )( 5.8kips + Again.5in ) ( 48in − 2 ( 5.30in )( 0.474 ksi (6.5 inches.1 Bonded Steel T = 0.060ksi ( 5.0602 ksi 6.3.5in )( 2 ) 0. so the stress at the bottom of the top flange is: 0.Design Example .5in ) ) 2 T = 70. Including the gravity moment will reduced the calculated tension.30in July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #87 Design Example .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 4.474ksi + 0.5in ) = 0.3in − 5.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 4. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #88 . but because bars only come in certain sizes.1 Bonded Steel The top flange is 5. this tension could be reduced by calculating the force at the end of the g (including the g g gravity y transfer length ( moment). the reduction may not change the number of bars needed.5 ( 6.3.
2 ksi.1 Bonded Steel For simplicity. so extend steel 7.83 x − 0.9.8 kips = 2.21) Use 8 #5 The length of the bar is determined by the point where bonded steel is no longer required.3.75 ft . 58.0948√fci’ = 0.1. find the point where the dead load drops the stress below 0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #89 Design Example . from each end and then add development length. p g M = ∆fc St = (0. just consider the beam weight and ignore diaphragms.5(0.764 klf )x(65 ft − x ) 150.3. Since 0. As = 70.212 ksi > 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 4.75 ft.25 ft This is from center of bearing.200 ksi) 6599 in3 = 1808 kin = 150.7 k − ft = 0.1 Bonded Steel The bonded steel must resist the total tensile force with a stress not exceeding the lesser of 0.36 in 2 30 ksi (5.2ksi.382 x 2 x = 6.4.5fy or 30 ksi.7 kft M = 150.Design Example . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #90 .7 k − ft = 24.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 4.474 ksi – 0.
3.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 4.4(15 inches) = 21 inches So the minimum bar length = 7’.2.25 ( 0.4 : 1.625in )( 60ksi ) = 15in Where: Ab = Area of the bar db = diameter of bar f f’c = compresive strength of concrete at release Top bar factor = 1.9” + 1’ – 9” = 9’ – 6” July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #91 Design Example .474 ksi + 0.803ksi = 0.31in 2 ) 60ksi 5ksi = 10.1 Bonded Steel ld = 1.329 ksi f bot = 2.DL = f b .814 ksi = 1.11.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 4.1) ld = 1.4 ( 0. both are below the compression limit.814 ksi 6511in 3 f top = −0.4 Midspan Stress at Transfer Mg = 5300 kin (previously calculated) f t .20 ksi By inspection. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #92 .803ksi 6599in 3 − 5300 k − in = = −0.4in < 0.Design Example .1.01ksi − 0.DL 5300 k − in = 0.25 Ab f y f c' ≥ 0.4 d b f y (5.
72h = 0.79in = 31in − = 29. use 36 inches = 3 ft.6 inches Assuming a 1 ft.Shear The term dv is not taken less than: 0. the critical section is: 29.Design Example .6inches 2 2 (5.9(31 inches) = 27. long bearing pad.1 Critical Section .3. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #94 .9 inches < 29.Shear The critical section is at dv from the face of the support for a section where the reaction force in the direction of the applied shear introduces compression into the end region of the member.8.72(33 inches) = 23.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5. For this member with only a single layer of prestressing steel: d v = de − July 2007 a 2.2) AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #93 ODOT Short Course Design Example .9de = 0.6 inches or 0. The difference is only a few percent. For calculations.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.76 inches < 29.1 Critical Section .6 inches from center of bearing.6 + 6 = 35.
SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.2.5 ( 65 ft ) − 3 ft ) = 7.764 klf (0.5(0.2.5 wx(L − x ) = 0.08k M fws = 0.75k (shear is constant).13k M ws = 0.0 k − ft For the diaphragm.240klf (0.1 Basic Shear Forces and Moments at the Critical Section For the DC wearing surface: Vws = 0.Design Example .54 k M g = 0.5 ( 65 ft ) − 3 ft ) = 4.5 L − x ) = 0.5 ( 0.764 klf )(3 ft )(65 ft − 3 ft ) = 71.75(3) = 5.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.25kft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #95 Design Example .240klf )( 3 ft )( 65 ft − 3 ft ) = 22.1 Basic Shear Forces and Moments at the Critical Section DC: For beam weight: Vg = w(0. V = 1.5 ( 0. M = 1.5(65 ft ) − 3 ft ) = 22.140klf ( 0.3k − ft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #96 .140klf )( 3 ft )( 65 ft − 3 ft ) = 13k − ft For the DW wearing surface: V fws = 0.
Design Example .92 k VLL.Truck = 58.2.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.2.33 k MLL.Truck = 175. it is not possible to have the DL on only part of the beam!) Now don’t you REALLY wish you wouldn’t have slept in Analysis class????? July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #97 Design Example .0 kft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #98 .Lane = 56.Lane = 18. Obviously.1 Basic Shear Forces and Moments at the Critical Section Using a standard structural analysis program.1 Basic Shear Forces and Moments at the Critical Section Live Load: Consider the influence line for shear The shear at x is maximized by placing the rear wheel of the truck at x and loading the right part of the beam with the uniform load.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5. (Note that influence lines are NOT used for dead loads. at the critical section: VLL.76 kft MLL.
July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #99 Design Example .456 DFM = 0.2.Design Example .2. 0.905. The shear at the obtuse corner of each girder MUST be increased by: 1+ 12 L 12(65 ft ) tan θ = 1 + tan(30 ) = 1.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.6. The shear MUST be increased by skew factor.2 Skew Factor This is a multibeam bridge.336 The moment MAY be multiplied by the skew factor for moment.3c1) Note that this factor applies to the distribution factor.3 Factored Moments and Shears As calculated in Section 1. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #100 .1. apply the skew factor.20 90 d 90(33in ) (Table 4. 1.2.2.2. Since the critical section is only 3 feet from the support.4.20.1 of this example: DFV = 0 456 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.
54k + 1.2.92] 52 5 ki Vu = 1.2)[58.1L.0 kft) = 299.3 kft) +1.5(22.33)+56.33)+18.3 Factored Moments and Shears Maximum Q = 1.0 kft = 3588 kin July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #101 Design Example .5 kips 0.33(1.75(LL + IM) VLL+IM = 0 456(1 2)[58 33(1 33) 18 92] = 52.50(DW) + 1.25(71.Design Example .25(22. Normally.75(52.08 k) + 1. For this design example.5 k)= 138.50(7.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.75(88.25(DC) + 1.75k + 4. the shear forces at various points along the girder should be calculated.456(1. The same procedure for the remaining points would be used used.0 kips MLL+IM = DF(SF)[Truck x IM + Lane] MLL+IM = 0.0 kft) +1.25 kft + 13.3 Shear Design For shear design. only the shear at the critical section is analyzed.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.0 kft 0 336(0 905)[175 k ft(1 33)+56 76] 88 0 k ft Mu = 1.0 kft + 5.905)[175 kft(1.76] = 88.13 k) + 1. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #102 . this is done at the critical section. at points where strands are debonded or harped and then at every 0.336(0.
Both methods will be illustrated in this example. the Simplified Method was added. which are then used to find the strength of the concrete and the strength of the stirrups.3 Sectional Design Model The sectional design model requires the calculation of two factors: Concrete strain at dv : εx 2 Average shear stress in the concrete: v These two values are used to find β and θ. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #103 Design Example .Design Example . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #104 .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5. In Version 4 (2007).3 Shear Design The LRFD Specifications adopted the modified compression field theory for shear design with Version 1. The Simplified Method restores the old Vci and Vcw from the Standard Specifications. This was called the Sectional Design Model.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.
Ac in the equation above is =0.5 (Vu − V p ) cot θ − Aps f po dv ≤ 0.70 f pu = 0.153) 3.1.70(270.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.5 N u + 0.4.1.8. If the q section is cracked.0) = 189 Aps = Area of prestressing steel on the flexural tension side of th member = 20(0 1 3) = 3 06 t i id f the b 20(0.001 εx = 2( Es As + E p Aps + Ec Ac ) (5.3.21) This equation assumes the section is uncracked.3. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #105 Design Example . This equation also assumes at least minimum stirrups are used.1 Finding εx Strain at dv is: 2 Mu + 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.1 Finding εx Nu = Applied factored normal force at the specified kips section = 0 Vp = Component of the effective prestressing force in kips the direction of the applied shear = 0 fpo = .06 As = Area of nonprestressed steel on the flexural tension side of the member = 0 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate ksi in2 in2 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #106 .Design Example .3.
06in 2 + 5072ksi 366.1. so the assumption of uncracked is correct.1 Finding εx Note that θ is unknown at this point.08 x10−3 28500ksi 3.5in)(33in)(0.6in εx = = −82 x10−6 ≈ −0.500 Ac = Area of concrete on the tension half of the beam 2(5. the commentary allows 0 5cotθ=1 as a simplification. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #108 .Design Example .06in 2 (189ksi ) 29.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.5) + (48in11in)(5in) = 366.6 ksi in2 in Tension Half of the Box July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #107 Design Example .5cotθ=1 simplification Assuming the section is uncracked.5in 2 2 ( ) ( ) Negative means “uncracked”. However.5 dv = 29.3. the strain at dv/2 is: 3588k − in + 138k − 3. 0.1.3.1 Finding εx Ep = 28.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.
6) AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #109 ODOT Short Course Design Example .3.3.5)(29.18 f c ' = 1.5 in Vp = Component of the effective prestressing kips force in the direction of the applied shear = 0 vu = July 2007 138 = 0.26ksi 0.1.10 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #110 .469ksi < 0.0◦ β = 4.4.08 x10−3 θ = 21.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.9) ) vu = Shear stress in concrete Ksi bv = Effective web width of the beam = 5.469 = 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.8.Design Example .8.2.3.1.067 '= fc 7.0 ε x = −0.21: vu 0.2 Finding vu vu = Where: Vu − φV p φ bv d v ( (5.3 β and θ From LRFD Table 5.9(2)(5.
28 32.0 1.38 21.3 3.9 3.13 37.62 28.51 38.59 30.3 1.66 26.0 2.14 31.54 41.5 2.0316 ( 4. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #112 .61 38. at least minimum stirrups are needed for strength.33 <0 21.8 1.29 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #111 Design Example .73 24.1 2.2 Shear Strength of Concrete The contribution of the concrete to the nominal shear resistance is: Vc = 0.63 26.3 β and θ εx * 1.43 30.61 42.6k Since Vu = 138k > φVc = 0.1 2.075 <0.2 22.10 21.6 2.6in ) = 111.5 2.7 2.0 1.39 <0.5 40.5 30.45 28.0 2.3 2.1 2.79 19.7 1.82 39.47 41.2 <0.2 1.14 23.125 24.6 2.88 23.8 1.4 3.7 1.8 2.1 20.5 2.15 <0.2 1.4 2. The equations for β and θ assumed minimum stirrups.9 2.33) Vc = 0.4 2.40 29.2 2.2 1.9 2.59 27.7 2.79 35.32 34.87 25.1) 7ksi (11in )( 29.60 27.8 2.125 <0.14 32.2 2.4 2.99 23.65 26.000 v/f c v/f'c <0.58 <1 36.39 41.8 2.33 <0.3.3 1.78 25.9(111.75 20.37 30.34 30.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.8 1.3 2.71 39.75 33.6 1.93 41.94 27.7 2.4 3.75 27.3 1.67 43.86 32.0 2.225 <0.9 1.5 3.8 1.69 43.9 2.7 1.50 31.24 24.7 2.94 24.8 1.9 2.8 2.3 6.08 36.18 21.96 36.23 36.93 <0.60 28.9 2.53 27.0316β f c' bv d v (5.67 42.91 25.3.Design Example .1 2.73 34.5 1.52 27.8 1.39 <0.64 35.8 3.50 <1.6k) = 100 k.8.2 1.7 2.6 2.1 1.94 34.36 32.72 26.6 2.2 2.42 29.6 2.0 4.8 2.0 2.21 35.52 29.5 2.05 21.26 34.24 22.1 <0.38 34.74 26.42 32.4 1.175 <0.0 2.1 3.2 2.25 <0.0 2.3 2.7 2.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.7 2.14 34.38 <2 43.95 40.32 18.4 4.70 <0.44 30.52 29.51 28.7 2.25 26.1 1.1.3.9 2.75 22.12 <0.18 37.90 40.9 2.79 24.4 2.1 2.7 2.8 1.5 1.
0316 f c ' July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate (11in )(12in ) = 0.7) (5.7in < 24in (5.8 ( 29.5) smax = 23.0316 7ksi fy 60ksi AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #113 Design Example . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #114 .125 ( 7ksi ) = 0.Design Example .8d v = 0.2 in2) = 0.3 Minimum Stirrups v u = 0.8.2.3.875ksi s max = 0.8.4 in2) @ 12 inch o.6in ) = 23.184in 2 b vs = 0.7 in. Calculate minimum area of steel using a 12 inch spacing to get area of steel per foot: A v ≥ 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.c. This is adequate to meet minimum.3.125f c ' = 0.469ksi < 0.3 Minimum Stirrups ODOT uses #4 bars with 2 legs as standard (Av = 2(0.2.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.
SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.Design Example .2k #4 @ 12 inches is OK.2k + 0 = 265.6k + 154.3. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #116 .9 ( 265.2k July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #115 Design Example .8.4in 29 6 ( 0 4in 2 ) ( 60ksi )( 29.8k ) = 239. Girder is OK in shear.4 Shear Strength of the Girder Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp = 111.3.6) cot ( 21) + 0 (1) 12in Vs = 154.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.34) The stirrups are perpendicular to the main steel so α = 90o. θ = 21o Vs = Vs = A v f yd v ( cot θ + cot α ) sin α s 0. sinα=1.8k Vu = 138k < φVn = 0.3. cotα = 0.4 Shear Strength of the Girder Vs = A v f y d v ( cot θ + cot α ) sin α s (5.
so Vcw will be checked at the critical section. is intended to ensure that the concrete in the web of the beam will not crush prior to yield of the transverse reinforcement.25(7)(11)(29. given by following equation.8.3.4 Simplified Shear In the 2007 LRFD Specification.8 ≤ 569.6 + 154. However.3.6) 265.32) With Vp=0: Vc + Vs ≤ 0.2L. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #118 . Vc will be calculated at 0. Vn ≤ 0. Vci (flexural shear) doesn’t control near the support. the simplified shear method is introduced.2 ≤ 0.5 Maximum Nominal Shear Resistance The upper limit of Vn.Design Example .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5. in practice Vc and Vcw must be checked at all appropriate sections. so for this example.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.8 OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #117 Design Example . Vcw (web shear) usually controls near the support. This method brings back Vci and Vcw from the Standard Specification.25 f c'bv d v 111.25 f c'bv d v + V p (5.
4.1 Vcw Vcw = 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #119 Design Example .732ksi 2 A 733.8.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5. For a noncomposite section.4. For a composite section. the only stress at the centroid is the compressive stress due to the axial component of prestressing: f pc = Pe 537k = = 0.3 ( 0.1 Vcw Since this is a noncomposite section.732ksi ) (11in )( 29.6in ) = 123.06 7ksi + 0. this is the compressive stress in the noncomposite section at the composite centroid.06 f c ' + 0.2kips ( ) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #120 .3.4.Design Example . it is the stress at the centroid.3f pc b v d v + Vp ( ) (5.33) Where: fpc = compressive stress in concrete (after allowance for all prestress loses) at centroid of cross section resisting externally applied loads or at the junction of the web and the flange when the centroid lies within the flange (ksi) (ksi).5in Vcw = 0.
4. so fpc does not have to be reduced for lack of bond. the calculation.8 (5. the critical section is past the transfer length.8. If the critical section is within the transfer length fpc is length.Design Example .0 + 3 f pc fc ' ≤ 1.3.8. Assuming a 1 ft bearing pad.732ksi = 1. Thus.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5. The transfer length is 60 bar diameters = 30 inches.34) cot θ = 1.6 inches from the face of the support.1 Vcw The critical section is 29.1 Vcw One difference between LRFD and Standard Specifications is that LRFD uses cotθ in the Vs calculation For Vcw.83 > 1.5 feet from the end of the beam. so use 1.4.0 + 3 θ = 29o July 2007 ODOT Short Course 0.4. reduced linearly. the critical section is approximately 3. term cotθ must be calculated: cot θ = 1. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #121 Design Example .8 7ksi AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #122 .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.
DC: Beam Selfweight: Vg = w ( 0 5L − x ) = 0 764klf ( 0 5 ( 65ft ) − 13ft ) = 14.764klf )(13ft )( 65ft − 13ft ) = 258k − ft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #124 .9k 0.2 Vci Vci does not control near supports of simply supported beams.6in )(1.5 14 9k M g = 0. Assuming #4 stirrups @ 12 in: ( 0.5wx ( L − x ) = 0.5k ) = 207k July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #123 Design Example .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.2L = 13 ft from the center of the support.5L 0.2k + 106.4.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.1 Vcw The minimum stirrup area and maximum spacing calculated in the Sectional Model still apply here.4.4in ) ( 60ksi )( 29.5 ( 0.9 (123.8) = 106.5k V = 2 s 12in Vu = 138k < 0. It will be calculated at 0.Design Example .764klf 0.
5 ( 65ft ) − 13ft ) = 4.1k Md = 258.5 ( 0.140klf ( 0.68k = 24.1 Unfactored Dead Loads DC: For the diaphragm: V = 1 75 k (shear is constant).73k M ws = 0.140klf )(13ft )( 65ft − 13ft ) = 47.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.1kft = 409.75 constant) M = 1.Design Example .4.240klf 0 5 4 68k M ws = 0.2 kft = 4910 kin July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #126 .3k − ft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #125 Design Example .73k + 4.2.9k + 1.1 Unfactored Dead Loads DW: Vfws = 0 240klf ( 0.4.8kft +47.240klf )(13ft )( 65ft − 13ft ) = 81.75k + 2.3kft + 81.8 kft For the wearing surface: Vws = 0.68k 0.5 ( 65ft ) − 13ft ) = 2.5 ( 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.0kft + 22.2.1k − ft The total UNFACTORED dead load shears and moments are: Vd = 14.75(13) =22. 1.
8 kft kin July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #127 Design Example .68 k) = 31.25(258.4.50(4.3k and MLane1 = 173 kft = 2076 kin The maximum moment occurs when the lane load is on the entire girder: VLane2 = 12.Design Example .73 k) + 1.5k and MLane2 = 216.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5. of the girder (see the influence line from the sectional model): VLane1 = 13.8kft +47.2. The first is the loading where the shear is maximum and the second is where the moment is maximum.0kft + 22. For the lane load.1kft) = 531 8 k ft = 6381 k i 531.3kft) + 1.2. the shear is maximum when the lane load is on the right 52 ft.4.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.25(14.3 k Mud = 1.3 kft = 2596 kin July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #128 .1 Factored Dead Loads The FACTORED shears and moments are: Vud = 1.2 Live Load This method requires two sets of shears and moments for Live Load.9 k + 1.75 k + 2.5(81.
Unfortunately. it is not clear where this product will be maximum! July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #130 .4. The moment at “X” is the value of the point load times the ordinate of the influence line.2. the moment is maximum when the lane load is placed along the entire beam.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.4.2 Live Load Clearly.2. The truck load is less certain.Design Example .2 Live Load July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #129 Design Example .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.
but that is NOT always the case. the maximum shear at the section and the maximum moment at the section happen to occur under the same loading – the rear wheel of the truck 13 ft. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #131 Design Example . it is again necessary to consider two p placements: Placed for maximum shear Placed for maximum moment In this case. It just happened that way in this example.2 Live Load For the truck. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #132 . it just happens that both are the same – the rear axle placed at 0.4.2. However. the maximum shear loading and the maximum moment loading are the same.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5. Be sure to carefully check all reasonable load conditions. In this case.Design Example .2 Live Load For the truck load. from the support.4.2L as shown in the previous slide.2.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5. this is not always the case.
For the truck. so Vi for the truck is the same.4.0 kft = Mmax Note that the Skew Factor IS Applied to moment The shear associated with maximum moment is: Vi = 1. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #133 Design Example . the section is not at the obtuse corner 0.75[Vtruck(1+IM) + VLane](DFV) Vu.0 k Why isn’t Vi = Vu? Vi is the shear associated with maximum moment.2 k and MTruck = 613 kft = 7356 kin Vu.2.Design Example .7k Note that the skew factor is NOT applied. but maximum moment occurs when the beam is fully loaded.33) + 13. Thus.LL = 1.4. maximum shear occurs with the beam partially loaded.456) = 60.LL = 1.5k]( 0. Vi is different for the lane load.75[47.75[Mtruck(1+IM) + MLane](DFM)(skew factor) Mu.2. The skew factor is applied only at the obtuse corner and at 0 2L.LL = 1 75[613 k ft(1.33) + 216.33) + 12. the same position produced both maximum moment and shear.2k(1.2 Live Load VTruck = 47.2k(1.3 k ft](0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.2 Live Load Mu.3k]( 0.905) 1.336)(0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #134 .75[613 kft(1 33) 216 3 kft](0 336)(0 905) LL = 549.LL = 1.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.75[47.456) = 60.2L corner. For the lane.
6) (5 4 2 6) Note that LRFD has 3 different MORs – be sure to use the correct one! Next.94ksi 733.5in 2 6511in 3 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #135 Design Example .3 Determination of Cracking Load for Shear 12M dnc M cre = Sc f r + f cpe − Snc ( (5.3 Determination of Cracking Load for Shear First.2.3.Design Example .529ksi (5. determine the stress at the bottom of the box due to effective prestressing force: f cpe = July 2007 ODOT Short Course 537kips 537k (14.2 7ksi 0.61in ) + = 1.4.32) ) Where: Mdnc Unfactored moment due to dead load on the non= composite or monolithic section = 409. find the modulus of rupture: f r = 0 2 f c ' = 0 2 7k i = 0 529k i 0. 12 in numerator converts to inches) Snc = noncomposite section modulus Sc = composite section modulus = Snc since this is a noncomposite structure July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #136 .2.2.4.2 0.8.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.4.2 kft (note – in kft.4.
1k + 0.0k )( 930.4.4 Vci Vcii = 0.2.7k ( 60.3 Determination of Cracking Load for Shear 12 ( 409.8.31) Vci = 0.6in ) + 24.02 f c 'b v d v + Vd + b Vi M cre ≥ 0.06 7ksi (11in )( 29.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.2.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.6in ) = 51.0k > 549k − ft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #138 .06 f c 'b v d v b M max (5.94ksi − 6511in 3 M cre = 11165k − in = 930.529ksi + 1.5k − ft ) = 143.Design Example .2k − ft ) M cre = ( 6511in 3 ) 0.4.3.02 7ksi (11in )( 29.4.5k − ft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #137 Design Example .
Design Example .5kips Vu = 92.3) Vu = 92.0k + 39.2.5 Check Shear Strength Vu = 31.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.8.3.2.0k + 59.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.4.2k = 2 12in (5.0k < φVn = 0.2k ) = 182.6in )(1.7k = 92k Assuming #4 @ 12.0 ) = 59.4.5 Check Shear Strength If s=18” Vs = 39.5k ) = 164k July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #140 .3k + 60. It is stated that cotθ=1 for Vci Vs ( 0.0k < φVn = 0.9 (143.4in ) ( 60ksi )( 29.4.0k The section is adequate in shear. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #139 Design Example .9 (143.
This affects the number of p g . the minimum longitudinal steel will be checked at the critical section. stirrups which cross the shear crack. θ=21o. θ=45o.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.5N 0 5N u Vu + − Vp − 0. For Vcw.Design Example .2k 154 2k Simplified Model for Vcw .8. For sectional model. bearing pad and one foot from center of bearing to the end of the girder. However.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge Shear Strength Why are there different values for Vs ? Sectional Model: Vs = 154.6 inches from the end of the girder. The smaller the angle. Vs = 59. it is necessary to see if the strand stress is reduced by lack of development. θ =29o and for Vci.2k The answer is the θ angle. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #142 .5Vs cot θ φ φ (5. Vs = 105k Simplified Model for Vci . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #141 Design Example .6 inches from the face of the support. Allowing for a 1 ft.3. The critical section 29.51) For this example. the more stirrups which cross the crack and the higher Vs.6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel At each section: A ps f ps + As f y ≥ Mu φd v + 0. the critical section is 47.
SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5. except that a factor. Thi f t i th result of an O t b 1988 FHWA dd d This factor is the lt f October. the steel stress MUST be reduced to account for lack of development. memorandum suggesting the need for this conservative multiplier because of strand/bond problems: 2 2 l d = κ f ps − f pe d b = 1.4 ) ( 0.Design Example . κ is added.2) ) The terms fps (steel stress at strength limit) and fpe (effective prestressing stress after losses) were calculated previously.4.5in 3 3 ( (5.24) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #144 . f px = f pe + l px − 60d b l d − 60d b (f ps − f pe ) (5.6 for member over 24 inches deep (5.2).5 ) = 114. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #143 Design Example .5 inches.4.6 260 − (175.6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel The development length equation is unchanged for strand from Standard Specifications.6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel The critical section occurs at 47. κ = 1.11. but the development length is 114.11.4.11.6 inches from the end of the beam. Thus.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.
6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel f px = f pe + f px = 174.0ksi 114.4 ksi fps = 260. 0.5in − 30in July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #145 Design Example .153in2)(20)(260ksi)= 3.9 for shear Asfy = assumed 0 (ignore any mild steel) fpe = 175.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.06 in2 (0 153in 3 06 Mu = 3588 kin Vu = 138 k θ = 21o (Sectional Design Model) Vs = 153 k (Sectional Design Model) Nu = Vp = 0 φ = 1 for moment.Design Example .6in − 30in ( 260.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel The following values were previously calculated or determined: Aps = (0.0 ksi July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #146 .5ksi ) = 192.0ksi − 174.5ksi + l px − 60d b p l d − 60d b (f ps − f pe ) 47.
06in 2 (104. mild steel would need to be added.06in 2 (192.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.5( 153k ) cot ( 21) = 199k 0.5ksi = 104.Design Example . Also note that Vs < Vu/φ = 153k July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate 3588k − in 138k + − 0.5( 153k ) cot ( 21) = 321k 1. Assuming a 12 in pad and one foot from center of bearing to the end. not bilinear. If the stress were assumed linear here.9 OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #148 .5Vs cot θ φ φ 3.6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel Check the inside face of the bearing pad.6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel A ps f ps + A s f y ≥ Mu φd v + 0.9 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #147 Design Example .6in ) 0.5Vs cot θ 138k 3.5N u Vu + − Vp − 0. This is inside the transfer length: 18in f px = 174. the steel stress was assumed linear with development length. the inside f the d is 12+6 i id of th pad i 12 6 = 18 inches f i h from th end of th the d f the girder.7 ksi 30in Ap f ps ≥ p Vu φ − 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.7 ksi ) = 320k > − 0.0ksi ) = 588k > OK Note that before the 2005/06 interim.0 ( 29.
8 As = = 1.5Vs cot θ 138k 3. For this girder.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5.8 24. Vs = 103 k Ap f ps ≥ Vu φ − 0.9 OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #149 Design Example .5)(0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 5. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #150 .153)(202.7 Anchorage Zone Bursting Stirrups As in the Standard Specification.7 ksi ) = 320k > − 0. Four #4 double leg stirrups @ 3” provides 1.6 Minimum Longitudinal Steel If the stirrup spacing is increased to 18”. LRFD requires bursting stirrups which can resist at least 4% of the g p initial prestressing force.60 in2 over 8 inches. h/4=33/4=8. with a stress of no more than 20ksi: Pr = 20(0.25 inches.5( 103k ) cot ( 21) = 265k 0.24 20 This steel must be distributed over h/4 from the end.04) = 24.06in 2 (104.Design Example .
1 Exterior Girder .090klf ( 65 ft ) 8 2 = 47.6. in this case. web width = 2. railing to the exterior g July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #151 Design Example . e = 1. it is probably more correct to assign the g girder. it does not have to be and.2.23 ft.1 Exterior Girder .5k − ft = 570k − in Note: Article 4.04 + July 2007 0.2.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 6.2.1 allows the rail load to be equally distributed to all the girders.75 inches = 0.Design Example .6.2. However.049 25 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #152 ODOT Short Course .2d1) Since the rail is right at the edge of the box de = half the box.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 6.23 = 1.Moment The exterior girder takes the railing load (DC): Mb = 0.Moment The live load moments must be multiplied by the exterior girder factor.04 + e > 1 25 (Table 4. Two or more lanes loaded: g ext = eg int d e = 1.
2. Thus. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #154 .1 Exterior Girder .23 = 1. Note that there is only one DFM.7 kft) is multiplied by the DFM (no impact on lane load). the truck oad (362.25 ( 515. so the one lane e is multiplied by the DFM. t e t uc load (36 3 kft) is already t e equat o above.75 ( 362.Moment One lane loaded: g ext = eg int d e = 1.2.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 6.Design Example .3 + 47.Moment M u = 1.3 + 102. In the equation abo e. the lane load (102.133 30 (Table 4. φMn = 23550 kin so OK for Mu.1 Exterior Girder .SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 6.133) M u = 1815k − ft = 21790k − in For the interior box with 20 strands. it is only necessary to multiply by the increasing factor.7 )(1.8 ) + 1.6.3 t) s a eady multiplied by the interior DFM and the impact factor.125 + e > 1 30 e = 1.5 ) + 1.50 (126.125 + 0.2d1) 4 6 2 2 2d1) Controls July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #153 Design Example .
110 ksi = 0. The check performed on the interior girders is sufficient.05ksi 6511in3 fpb = 1. It is clear by inspection that service load compression stresses are OK (see Section 2.3).05 ksi = 0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #155 Design Example .5 ) + (126. Check Service III: M = ( 515.94 ksi compression (previously calculated) fbottom = 1.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 6.3.133) = 1111k − ft = 13330k − in fbottom = 13330k − in = 2.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 6.1 Exterior Girder .8 ( 362.Moment Service load stresses should be checked.110 tension < 0.3 + 102.8 ) + 0.Design Example .94 ksi – 2.7 )(1.503 ksi tension OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #156 .Moment Stresses at transfer do not need to be checked as these stress occur during fabrication are independent of the railing load and the live load.1 Exterior Girder .3 + 47.
At the critical section: Vr = w ( 0.3b1) b d e + 12 − 2 e = 1+ 40 ≥1 48 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 6.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 6.37k − ft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #157 Design Example .Design Example . The check is also made using Sectional Model.090klf ( 0.Shear This check must be performed at all sections.5 (Table 4.2.5 05 = 1.65k M r = 0.090klf )( 3ft )( 65ft − 3ft ) = 8.2.1 Exterior Girder . Only the critical section is shown here.5 ( 0.23 + 12 − 2 e = 1+ 40 July 2007 ODOT Short Course 0.Shear Two or more lanes loaded: g ext 48 = eg int b 0.5wx ( L − x ) = 0.5L − x ) = 0.234 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #158 .1 Exterior Girder .6.5 ( 65ft ) − 3ft ) = 2.
92k IM = 0.75k + 4.65) + 1.137(0.456) = 0 562 controls *DFV 1 234(0 456) 0.LL = 0.4o. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #160 .1 Exterior Girder .lane = 18.137 20 e = 1.562 One Lane: e*DFV = 1.3 k Using the Sectional Design Model.506 Because there are two DFV. each must be checked! July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #159 Design Example .3b1) Check: Two or more lanes: e*DFV = 1.445) = 0.125 + = 1.33 Skew Factor = 1.54k + 1.25(22. Mu = 3714kin.33k VLL.13 k+2.Shear Vu.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 6.33(1. θ=21.23 e = 1.92] = 65.2)[58.2 Vu = 1.50 (7.234(0.6.Shear One Lane Loaded: g ext = eg iint de ≥1 20 0.08k)= 163.truck = 58.Design Example .2. so OK.08 k) + 1.2.75(65.1 Exterior Girder .33) + 18. β= 3. φVn = 215 k.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 6.125 + (Table 4.08k VLL.24.562(1.
The same methods used for finding camber and deflection used for Standard Specifications apply for LRFD Designs. either).1 Exterior Girder What about the minimum exterior girder distribution N factor? L DFExt .Min = NL + Nb X Ext ∑ e ∑x Nb 2 This DOES NOT apply to adjacent box girder bridges.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.Design Example .6.2.which limits Live Load deflection to d fl ti t L/800 f precast.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 6.5.5.2 Deflection ODOT invokes Article 2. for t i l id Camber calculations are not directly addressed in LRFD (They were not directly addressed in the Standard Specifications.6. It only applies to slab/beam bridges (Types a.2.2. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #161 Design Example . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #162 . e and k) with diaphragms or cross braces. simple span girders.
5.640(0.654in < 65ft (12 ) 800 = 0.194klf Axle Load (rear) = 32k(1.2.6.336(0.905) = 0.22k (includes impact) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #163 Design Example .6.2. MDF = 0.5. it is appropriate to use the MDF.2 Deflection Since this is a limit on FLEXURAL deflection. Using analysis software: δ = 0.33)(0.9k (includes impact) Axle Load (front) = 8k(1.304) = 3.2 Deflection Here are the live loads positioned for maximum deflection.975in July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #164 .304) = 0.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.SimpleSpan Adjacent Box Girder Bridge 2.304)=12.33)(0.304 Lane Load = 0.Design Example .
negative flexure. each) AASHTO Type IV – I girder with no ske as sho n This e ample ill strates the T pe ith skew. example illustrates design of typical interior beam at the critical sections for positive flexure. and the continuity connection. Design Example . shown.AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications – Design Example 2 2 Span Continuous Prestressed IGirder Bridge RICHARD MILLER AASHTOLRFD Specification. shear. References: •“Precast Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Manual.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Problem Statement and Assumptions 98’0” CL to CL of Bearings 96’3” 1’9” 98’0” CL to CL of Bearings 96’3” This design example demonstrates the design of a twospan (98 ft.” Published by Precast/Prestressed concrete Institute July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #2 . 4th Edition.
0” wearing Type IV 2.5 ksi @ 28 days July 2007 ODOT Short Course Structural thickness = 8.Design Example .5. Design Example .5 ksi Concrete unit weight.0 in wearing surface is considered to be an integral part of the 8.150 kcf The ODOT Bridge Design Manual (BDM) gives a range of strengths for the precast. wc=0. These strengths are chosen from that range The BDM range.5 in deck.5 in. 8” 6” 6” 8” 1’11” 4’6” 9” 9 9” 8” 2’2” July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #4 .5’ 4 Spaces @ 8’0” = 32’0” 37’0” 2.5 in fc’ = 4.5” structural+ 1.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge 1’8” Precast Beams AASHTO Type IV girder shown fc’ = 7.8).Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Problem Statement and Assumptions 34’0” 8.150 kcf AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #3 Note that 1.2.0 ksi @ 28 days fci’ = 4.5’ Actual thickness. Concrete unit weight. wc=0. also gives the deck strength (302. ts = 9.
1501.153 in2 Ultimate strength.2. The ODOT BDM allows ½ inch.5 4. 000 K1wC f c ' (5.2.73 29. 1. For this girder. fy = 60 ksi Modulus of elasticity.060 ksf (ODOT Std.5.5. Drawings) 0. 072 ksi At Service Loads July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #6 . ½ inch special or 0. 000 × 1. Reinforcing Bars Yield strength.1501.Design Example . 000 × 1.0 × 0. ½ inch diameter is chosen.4.9) Loads Future wearing surface: Barriers: Truck: July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate 0.542 8.5 7.0 × 0.000 ksi (BDM 302. lowrelaxation Area of one strand = 0.0 = 5.6 inch diameter strand (302.2a).41) EC = 33. Es = 29.0 ksi g . including dynamic allowance AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #5 Design Example .2.27 260.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge NonComposite Section Properties Area in2 Weight (lb/ft) h (in) yb (in) yt (in) I (in4) (in3) Sb (in3) St 789 822 54 24.640 k/ft each HL 93. 067 ksi At Transfer EC = 33.909 LRFD uses ksi units.5 EC = 33.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Prestressing Strand ½ in diameter.5 = 4. fpu = 270.741 10.
6) EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH = 96 in Interior Girder July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #7 Design Example .5 in.8019)(96) = 76.5) = 654.98 in Transformed flange area = n(effective flange width)(ts) = (0.5(20 in) = 10 in (Greatest) 12(8.2.98” 8.3).8019)(96)(8.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Effective Flange Width (1/4) Span = (96.35 in2 76.5.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Transformed Section Properties 96” Transformed flange width = n(effective flange width) = (0. 8.5” 54” 26” Note that only the structural thickness of the deck.5 in (slab thickness . A 2” haunch is assumed for calculating weight but not for finding composite properties (ODOT BDM 302. is considered.25 ft)(12in/ft)/4 = 289 in 12ts plus the g p greater of the web thickness or ½ the beam top flange width: ts = 8.6.Design Example .5 in) + 10 in = 112 in Average spacing between beams = 8 ft = 96 in (CONTROLS) (4.2. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #8 .use structural thickness only) web thickness = 8 in ½ top flange = 0.
3] Note: The actual slab thickness of 9.042 klf [ODOT BDM 302.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Dead Loads DC = Dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments DC Dead Loads carried by the girders: Beam Weight: 0. The 2” haunch thickness is also used in calculating dead loads.150 kcf)/(144 in2/ft2) = 0.534 in3 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #9 Design Example .07 in 22. 16.5 in 666.93 in 14.376 in3 29.57 in.Design Example .95 klf Haunch: (2 in)(20 in)(0.5.443 in2 62.579 in4 39.2.694 in3 47.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Properties of Composite Section Ac = Total area of composite section hc = Overall depth of the composite section Ic = Moment of inertia of the composite section ybc = Distance from the centroid of the composite section to the extreme bottom fiber of the precast beam ytg = Distance from the centroid of the composite section to the extreme top fiber of the precast beam ytc = Distance from the centroid of the composite section to the extreme top fiber of the slab Sb = Composite section modulus for the extreme bottom fiber of the bc precast beam Stg = Composite section modulus for the top fiber of the precast beam Stc = Composite section modulus for extreme top fiber of the deck slab = = = = = = = = = 1.822 klf Slab: (96 in)(9.150 kcf)/(144 in2/ft2) = 0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #10 .5 in)(0.5” is used in calculating dead loads.
The moment caused by these braces is << 1% of the total DL moment.1 permanent loads may be distributed uniformly amount all beams if the following conditions are met: Width of deck is constant. composite section: According to LRFD Article 4.2.6.1 1 OK OK OK OK OK The section meets the criteria. The weight of each brace is less than 0.5 ft – 1.6.1. Overhang part of the roadway < 3 ft de = 2. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #12 .2. Number of beams.Design Example . Nb > 4.0 ft Curvature in plan < Specified in Article 4.2. so the loads may be uniformly distributed to the girders.3 kips.5 ft = 1.2.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Dead Loads The intermediate diaphragms are assumed as steel “X” braces.6.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Dead Loads DC Dead Loads carried by the continuous structure.2 Cross Section listed in Table 4 6 2 2 11 4. braces These are ignored in these dead load calculations. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #11 Design Example .
2. the decision has been made to use tributary areas to distribute the slab weight to the girders.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Dead Loads LRFD Article 4.640 klf 2 each (0.060 ksf (0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #14 . Either method is allowable.1 allows the slab weight to be evenly distributed to the girders in the same manner as the wearing surface and the barriers.6.Design Example .11 .256 kips/ft/girder July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #13 Design Example .This example is a Type “k” Future Wearing Surface = 0. Drawings Barrier = 0.060 ksf)(34 ft)/5 beams = 0.408 kips/ft/girder ODOT Std.640)/5 girders = 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Dead Loads Partial of Table 4. In this case.6.2.2.2.
7 46 160.0 kip back axles.9 38.3] Design lane load shall consist of a load of 0.1.26 18.Design Example .99 96.7 467.7 81.0’ apart.0’ to produce extreme g pair force effects.9 20. The first and second axle are spaced 14’0” apart.8 136 166 171.6.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge DLUnfactored Shear Forces & Bending Moments Beam Weight [Simple Span] Shear Sh kips 39.1 177. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #15 Design Example .2.3 9.13 57.3 73.70 0.5 912.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Live Loads According to LRFD Article 4.6 331 0 Deck plus Haunch [Simple Span] Shear Sh kips 47. The design tandem shall consist of a p of 25. kipft 7.4 1101.8 4.9 951.0 kip front axle and a pair of 32.1 15.20 0.4 M b.6 8.3 1.6 19.4 130.1.6 Mws. [LRFD Article 3.9 39.8 292.5 961.3 0 Barrier Weight [Continuous Span] Shear Sh kips 9.1 727 399.5 71.4] July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #16 .5 217 264.41 48.5 1148. kipft 0 331 602. HL93.9 796.30 0. [LRFD Article 3.2 245.1.00 0.9 1 5 8.6 13.10 0.2.6 M g.40 0.28 86.9 16.6 3.6 31.0 kip axles spaced 4.60 0.9 19. designated .3 28.80 0.9 274.50 0.8 24. shall consists of a combination of the: Design truck or design tandem with dynamic allowance.9 912.1 vehicular live loading on the roadways of bridges or incidental structures.3 727 961.5 47.9 12.6 796.25 x/L 0.9 24 16 8 0 8 16 24 31.5 602.2 6.2 and 3.8 0.9 2.69 38.1 10.0’ and 30.97 28.7 10.7 Future Wearing Surface [Continuous Span] Shear Sh kips 14.2.6.1.4 256.1 Location x ft.2 44. kipft 0 399.7 38. The design truck shall consists of an 8.56 77.6. kipft 12. The space between the rear axles shall be varied between 14.84 67.1 5.5 28.00 9.1 1101.64 kip/ft uniformly distributed in the longitudinal direction.9 153.6 111. 0.6.2.90 Brg.9 6.7 Ms.6 0 9.
Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Distribution Factors The live load bending moments and shear forces are determined by using the simplified distribution factor formulas [LRFD 4. Nb > 4.2.11 OK OK OK OK OK OK For a precast concrete Igirder with cast in place deck.2.6. Inflection points are determined by loading all spans with a uniform load.6. 90% of the effect of two design trucks (HL93 (HL 93 with 14 ft.1] Width of deck is constant.2.2.6. Number of beams.2 Beam parallel and of same stiffness Cross Section listed in Table 4. combined with 90% of the design lane load.2.6. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #18 . Note: See the Loads Module for a complete explanation of how this is applied. axle spacing) spaced at a minimum of 50 ft. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #17 Design Example . the following conditions must be met [LRFD 4.0 ft Curvature in plan < Specified in Article 4.2]. To use the simplified live load 4 6 2 2] distribution factor formulas.Design Example .1. the bridge type is (k).5 ft – 1.5 ft = 1. Overhang part of the roadway < 3 ft de = 2.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Live Loads For negative moment between inflection points.
1) Note: N t It could be argued that this should b d i ld b d th t thi h ld be designed as a th d three l lane bridge because 3 – 11 ft lanes would fit and the minimum lane width is 10ft. the distribution factor is for 2 or more lanes loaded and the number of lanes isn’t in the equation so it doesn’t matter.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Distribution Factors The number of design lanes should be determined by taking the integer part of the ratio w/12. where w is the clear roadway width in ft between curbs and/or barriers.5 L = 98 Nb = 5 OK OK OK OK S = Spacing. in L = beam span.5 < ts < 12.0 4.075 + 3 9.6.1. Provided: 3.2. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #19 Design Example .2b1) Where DFM = distribution factor for moment for interior beam. ft ts = slab thickness.5 L 12 Lts 0. in4 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #20 Kg = See next slide .6 0.1. However.2 S S Kg DFM = 0. For two or more lanes loaded: 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Distribution Factors for Bending Moment For all limit states except for fatigue limit state.6.0 20 < L < 240 Nb > 4 10.000 < Kg < 7.000.Design Example .000 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate S=8 ts = 8.2.5 < S < 16. ft Nb = number of beams Kg = longitudinal stiffness parameter.1 (Table 4. w = 34 feet Number of design lanes = integer part of (34/12) = 2 (3.
g. 480 in 4 10. 35 52 K g = 1.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Distribution Factors for Bending Moment 2 K g = n I + Aeg ( ) (4.000 OK ( 2 ) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #22 . of beam and slab. in2 = 789 I = moment of inertia of the beam (noncomposite). in = (8. 072 = = 1.247 Ec ( slab) 4.52 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #21 Design Example .11) Where: n = modular ratio between beam and deck materials = Ec (beam) 5.566.741 eg= Distance between the c.6. 067 A = crosssection area of the beam (noncomposite).27) = 35.2.000.247 260.52 ) 1. in4 = 260.2.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Distribution Factors for Bending Moment K g = 1 247 260 741 + 789 ( 35.5/2+2.000 < Kg < 7.0+29.Design Example .
1 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #23 Design Example .Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Distribution Factors for Bending Moment For one design lane loaded: 0.1 8 8 1.566.4 0.3 0. DFM = 0. 480 DFM = 0.566.5 DFM = 0.075 + 3 9.665 0. 480 DFM = 0.467 0.06 + 3 14 L 12 Lt s 0.6 0.5 DFM = 0.665 lanes/beam July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #24 .5 98 12*98*8.4 0.Design Example .1 The case of two or more design lanes loaded controls.2 0.3 S S Kg DFM = 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Distribution Factors for Bending Moment For two or more lanes loaded: 8 8 1.06 + 3 14 98 12*98*8.
Provided: S=8 ts = 8.2. ft Nb = number of beams AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #25 Design Example .5 < S < 16.5 L = 98 Nb = 5 OK OK OK OK S = Spacing.0 4.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Distribution Factors for Shear Force For two or more lanes loaded: 8 8 DFV = 0.2 + − 12 35 DFV = 0.6.5 < ts < 12. in L = beam span.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Distribution Factors for Shear Force For two or more lanes loaded: S S DFV = 0. ft p g.814 2 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #26 . ts = slab thickness.Design Example .11) Where DFV = distribution factor for moment for interior beam.0 20 < L < 240 Nb > 4 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate 2 (4.2 + − 12 35 3.2.
load July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #28 .814 lanes/beam July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #27 Design Example .68 The case of two or more design lanes loaded controls. DFV = 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Dynamic Allowance IM = 33% Where: IM = dynamic load allowance applied only to truck allowance.36 + 25 DFV = 0.Design Example .Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Distribution Factors for Shear Force For one design lane loaded: S DFV = 0.36 + 25 8 DFV = 0.
per beam: VLANE = (shear force per lane)(DFV) = (shear force per lane)(0.33) = (bending moment per lane)(0.665) kipft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #30 .Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Unfactored Shear Force and Bending Moments Unfactored shear forces and bending moment due to HL93 lane load.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Unfactored Shear Force and Bending Moments Unfactored shear forces and bending moment due to HL93 truck.Design Example .33) = (shear force per lane)(1.814)(1.083) kips MLT= (bending moment per lane)(DFM)(1+IM) = (bending moment per lane)(0. per beam: VLT = (shear force per lane)(DFV)(1+IM) = (shear force per lane)(0.884) kipsft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #29 Design Example .665)(1.814) kips MLANE= (bending moment per lane)(DFM) = (bending moment per lane)(0.
4 243.7 50.8 95 104. Positive Moment M t MLL+I.1 39.5 215. kipft 5. moment.70 0.8 Max.3 72.28 86. Design Example .1 577. Negative Moment M t MLL+I.9 484 564.30 0.00 0.60 0.1 961.4 76.97 28.13 57.Design Example .6 323. x/L 0.7 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #31 0. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #32 .4 1386. kipft 48.40 0.2 877.6 83.50 0.9 48.99 96.2 1239.26 18.5 1412.41 48.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Unfactored Shear Force and Bending Moments Location Distance S ti Di t Section x ft.9 14.3 163.80 0.6 1380.3 62.3 1300.90 Brg. maximum values at a given location are not necessarily from the same load case.56 77.2 83.5 624.6 Max.84 67.20 0.7 403.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Unfactored Shear Force and Bending Moments Shown in the preceding table are maximum values of shear.25 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate HL93 Live Load Max Shear Sh kips 89.2 776. shear positive moment and negative moment The moment.00 9.69 38.10 0.3 60.6 1049.
1) Q = 1. the DC in one span mitigates the positive moment in the other span.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Load Combinations The following limit states are applicable: Service I: (3.50(DW) 1.25(DC) 1. but it is not appropriate to use different load factors for the same analysis. Remember.80(LL + IM) Strength I: Maximum Q = 1 25(DC) + 1 50(DW) + 1 75(LL + IM) 1. For example. in some cases loads mitigate load effects in other spans.4.00(DC + DW) + 1.90(DC) + 0.75(LL + IM) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #33 Design Example .65(DW) + 1. but it is not appropriate to use different load factors in this case! July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #34 .Design Example .75(LL Minimum Q = 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Load Combinations A reminder: This is a continuous bridge so both maximum and minimum load bridge. combinations must be considered.00 (LL + IM) Service III: Q = 1.00(DC + DW) + 0.
04 191.26 18.06 2642 48 114 06 2642.95 4041 75 199 95 4041.3 393.4 201.13) feet for Service I and Service III (although this is NOT where the continuous load moments are maximum).69 38.28 246.9 5610.72 182 72 58.90L H/2 Trans.28 301.34 3294.5 128 5 2834.2 2961.875 56.6 431. Bearing 0 2.72 287.2 434 147.58 222.76 283.99 93.725 55.9 3872. The point of maximum moment depends on whether the load was applied to the continuous or simple structure. In a continuous for live load structure.08 3228.125 58 9 299 125 113.10L 0.76 338.75 164.8 334.52 94.31 199.8 549.1 113 1 192.9 2140.84 67.8 180.56 67 56 77.375 329. The Strength I maximum is at 0.2 149.675 128.73 9.82 231. Thus. Bearing Trans. each point must be checked for the combinations of loads.44 589.8 1742.20L 0.5 210.88 224.7 175.92 3590.Design Example .40L MidSpan 0.76 95.14 1442.60L 0.74 3607. the maximum flexural stresses occur at Midspan (48.6 68 6 182.2 204.70L 0 70L 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Load Combinations The required number of strands is usually governed by Service III load combination at the section of maximum moment or harp points.6 200 6 68.45 644.9 138. H/2 0.825 1464.48 199.21 96. the maximum moments do not occur at the same place for each load.7 2834 7 114.575 5615. It is inappropriate to simply take maximum moments without regard to location along the length of the girder.65 2795.925 126.41 48.28 86.30L 0.375 817.7 502.97 28.1 3489 80.2 80.42 89.625 92.3 1494.875 5091.94 1375.38 147.9 299. In this structure.9 114.80L 0.3 564.4 3885 46.4L.75 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate Length ft. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #35 Design Example .325 3482.925 164.4 1567.3 1614.925 189.4 3542.36 348.375 2303.98 1864.25 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #36 .9 172.8 2731.3 389.26 2522.775 90.04 2.13 57.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Load Combinations Service 1 Service 3 Strength 1 V M V M V M k kft k kft k kft 200.24 251.4 5077.575 3993.9 47.
The initial estimate of number of strands will be found from the Service III combination. Box girders tend to be controlled by the Strength Limit State.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Service Load Stresses at Midspan Bottom tensile stress due to applied dead and live loads using load combination Service III: fb = Mg + Ms Sb + M b + M ws + (0. it is necessary to determine the needed point number of strands.Design Example .8)( M LL + I ) Sbc ksi kipft kipft kipft kipft Where: fb = Bottom tensile stresses Mg = Unfactored bending moment due to beam selfweight. Recall that Service III ONLY applies to tension in prestressed sections. MLL+I = Unfactored bending moment due to design vehicular live load including impact. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate Mws = Unfactored bending moment due to future wearing surface. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #37 Design Example . but “I” girders (this example) tend to be controlled by service load tensions. kipft AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #38 . i ht Mb = Unfactored bending moment due to due to barrier weights. Ms = Unfactored bending moment due to slab and haunch weights.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Determining Number of Strands from Service Load Stresses at Midspan At this point.
8)(1.41in (24.39 + 1.21) = 0.97 ksi July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #39 Design Example .2.08 fb = fb = 3.32) 20 41 bs July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #40 .148.4)(12) [153.386.2)] (12) + 10.19 f c' (Table 5.503) = 2.0 = 0.08(54) = 4.9.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Service Load Stresses at Midspan (951.47 ksi Stress Limits for Concrete = 0.47 − 0.32in So the strand eccentricity at the midspan is: ec = ( yb − yb ) = (24 73 − 4 32) = 20. ybs = 0.73 4.503ksi Required Compressive Stress From Strands f pb = (3.6 + 245.542 10 542 16 694 16.9 + 1.4.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Required Number of Strands Assume a strand center of gravity at midspan as 8% of the height of the g g girder.Design Example .19 7.1 + (0. fb = 2.
fpb and solve form Ppe: 2.97 = 789 10. force July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #42 .542 Ppe = 927kips AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #41 + July 2007 ODOT Short Course Design Example . Check with your local precast producer to ensure the capacity prestressing beds can withstand this force.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Required Number of Strands The required prestressing force after all losses is 927 kips This is after an assumed kips.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Required Number of Strands If Ppe is the total prestressing force. That means the initial prestressing force will be approximately 1240 kips.Design Example .41) ) Now plug in the required recompression stress. 25% loss. the stress at the bottom fiber due to prestress is: p f pb = Ppe A Ppe + Ppe ec Sb Ppe ( (20.
2kips / strand Number of strands required = 927 = 39. 270 ksi.75fpu = 202.Design Example . %) where fpi = i iti l prestressing stress before t h initial t i t b f transfer.153)(202. @ 2” Do Not Duplicate 2” AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #44 . Strands 7 11 11 11 Distance from bottom (in) 8 6 4 2 2” July 2007 ODOT Short Course 10 Spa. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #43 Design Example . lowlax strands.2 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Try (40) ½ in diameter.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Required Number of Strands Final prestress force per strand = (area of strand)(fpi)(1losses.25) = 23.5 ksi Assuming 25% loss of prestress the final prestressing force per strand after losses is: F = (0. k i f ksi = 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Strand Pattern At midspan: No.9 strands 23.5)(1 − 0.
is: ybs = [(11)2 + (11)4 + (11)6 + (7)8] = 4.73 4 70 20.0in July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #45 Design Example . ybs.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Prestress Losses Total Prestress Losses: ∆f pT = ∆f pES + ∆f pLT (5.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Strand Pattern The distance between the center of gravity of strands and the bottom concrete fiber of the beam is.70 = 20 0i 24.Design Example . ksi ∆fpLT = loss due to longterm shrinkage and creep of concrete.70in 40 Strand eccentricity at midspan: ec = yb − ybs = 24 73 − 4.11) (5 9 5 1 1) Where: ∆fpES = loss due to elastic shortening.5. and relaxation of the steel. ksi July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #46 .9.
3a1) fcgp = The concrete stress at the center of gravity of prestressing tendons due to the prestressing force immediately after the transfer and the selfweight of the member at the section of the maximum moment (ksi).3a1) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #48 .Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Elastic Shortening According to the LRFD Commentary for pretensioned members.Design Example .5. Ect = Elastic Modulus of the concrete at the time of transfer or time of load application (ksi). = Pi Pec2 M g ec + i − A I I Ep = Elastic Modulus of the prestressing steel (ksi). the loss due to elastic shortening may be determined by the following alternative equation (this is the calculation of elastic shortening loss by transformed section): ∆f pES 2 Aps f pi ( I g + em Ag ) − em M g Ag = AI E 2 Aps ( I g + em Ag ) + g g ct Ep (C5.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Elastic Shortening ∆f pES = Where: Ep Ect f cgp (5.5.9. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #47 Design Example .9.2.2.
202. The elastic shortening loss becomes 16. 28.5(260.02 *789) + 28.0 in Ig = Moment of inertia of the gross concrete section.741 in4 Mg = Midspan moment due to member selfweight. < 1% different.12 in2 fpi = Prestressing steel stress immediately prior to transfer.500 = 16.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Elastic Shortening Aps = Area of prestressing steel. 741* 4. the moment becomes 11641 kin.02 *789) − 20. 260.12(260. 951.8 kipin July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #49 Design Example . 20.12* 202. 789 in2 Ect = Elastic Modulus of the concrete at transfer. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #50 .422.0*11.13 ksi.8*789 20 0 20 0*11 422 8*789 789* 260.9(12) = 11. 422.5 ksi Ag = Gross area of section.153) = 6.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Elastic Shortening ∆f pES = ∆f pES 6. 4. 40(0.24ksi Note: If the self weight moment is calculated using total beam length rather than c/c bearing.500 ksi em = Average prestressing steel eccentricity at midspan.067 ksi Ep = Elastic Modulus of the prestressing steel. 6 12* 202 5(260 741 + 20. 067 6. 741 + 20.Design Example .
9.7 0 01H γ st = 5 1 + f ci ' (5.5.01H 1.9.5.9.5. pretensioned members subject to g normal loading and environmental conditions: ∆f pLT = 10 f pi Aps Ag γ hγ st + 12γ hγ st + ∆f pR (5.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge LongTerm Losses For standard.31) In which: γ h = 1 7 − 0. precast.5 relaxation strand July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #52 .Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge LongTerm Losses Where: H = The average annual ambient relative humidity (%) γh = Correction factor for relative humidity of the ambient air γhst = Correction factor for specified concrete strength at time of Prestress transfer to the concrete member ∆fpR = An estimate of relaxation loss taken as 2 5 ksi for low 2.32) (5 9 5 32) (5.Design Example .33) AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #51 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Design Example .
00*0.24 + 27.95 = 158.5 − 43.00*0.71 ∆f pT = 43.5*6.00 γ st = So: ∆f pLT = 10 ∆f pLT 202.6 Losses are approximately 22% < 25% OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #54 .91 + 2.01*70 1.92 + 2.95 (5.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Total Losses at Service Loads Total Prestress Losses: ∆f pT = ∆f pES + ∆f pLT ∆f pT = 16.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge LongTerm Losses Assume H = 70% γ h = 1 7 − 0 01*70 = 1 00 1.11) f pe = 202.5 789 = 14.5.12 1.91 + 12*1.29 + 10.5 ∆f pLT = 27.71 ksi July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #53 Design Example .91 1 + 4.9.Design Example .7 0.5 5 = 0.
9fpi is used. Pi was found by assuming the stress after transfer was 0. Pi = 1. Either method is acceptable.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Transfer In this example. If 0.153) = 28.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Transfer Force per strand after initial losses: Stress in tendons after transfer: f pt = f pi − ∆f pi = 202. the total prestressing force after transfer is.140 kips July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #55 Design Example .24 = 186. kips The difference is 2% 2%.26ksi Force per strand = fpt(strand area) = 186. Pi is determined by subtracting the elastic shortening loss from the initial stress.9fpi.26(0.50 kips Therefore. Pi = 1115 kips. In the previous example.Design Example .5 − 16. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #56 .
2ksi Therefore.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stress Limits for Concrete 2. where reinforcement is proportioned using a stress of 0.9. In areas with bonded reinforcement sufficient to resist the tensile force in the concrete computed assuming an uncracked section.24 4.4.2ksi 0.2) ) AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #57 Design Example .1) (5 9 4 1 1) Tension: 1.9.1.5 ≤ 0.4.5fy.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stress Limits for Concrete Compression: 0.1.201ksi ≤ 0.4. ' ft = 0.509ksi (5.0948 f ci ≤ 0.0948 4. In areas other than the precompressed tensile zone and without bonded reinforcement ' ft = 0.5 = 0.60fcii’ = 0.Design Example .9.700 ksi 2.2ksi ft = 0.24 f ci = 0.200 ksi (CONTROLS) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate ( (5.5) = +2. 0.60(4.1.2) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #58 . not to exceed 30 ksi.700 (5.
5 ft (5.5)(97.509 ksi NG July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #60 .8.5)(0.3(12) − + 789 8.3k − ft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate The bending moment at a distance 2.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses At Transfer Length Section Stresses at this location need only be checked at release since this stage almost always governs.822)(2.5) = 97.Design Example .167 − 2.44 2.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses At Transfer Length Section Compute top stress at the top fiber of the beam: ft = ft = Pi Pe M g − i + A St St 1.56 0.0) 97.5 ft from the end of the beam due to beam selfweight is: AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #59 Design Example .99 Tensile stress limit for concrete with bonded reinforcement: 0.13 0.140(20. Also.3) M g = (0.2.5) = 30 in = 2. losses with time will reduce the concrete stresses making them less critical.140 1.909 8.909 f t = 1 44 − 2 56 + 0 13 = −0 99ksi 1. Transfer length = 60(strand diameter) = 60(0.
44 2 16 0 11 3 49 Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.700 ksi NG July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #61 Design Example .Design Example .Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses At Transfer Length Section Compute bottom stress at the bottom fiber of the beam: ft = ft = Pi Pe M g + i − A Sb Sb 1. Strands 7 11 11 11 Distance from bottom (in) 8 6 4 2 No.16 − 0.3(12) + − 789 10.0) 97. At Midspan No.140(20.11 = +3.542 ft = 1 44 + 2.35L points as shown.542 10.140 1.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses At Transfer Length Section Harp 9 strands at the 0. Strands 3 3 3 4 8 8 11 At ends Distance from bottom (in) 52 50 48 8 6 4 2 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #62 .49ksi 1.
25in 34 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #64 .00 in 9 The distance between the center of gravity of the 9 harped strands at the harp point and the bottom fiber of the precast beam is: 3(4) + 3(6) + 3(8) = 6.00 + (2.00 in 9 The distance between the center of gravity of the 9 harped strands and the top fiber of the beam at the transfer length section is: (54 − 6 − 4) 4.5) = 7.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses At Transfer Length Section The distance between the center of gravity of the 9 harped strands at the end of the beam and the top fiber of the precast beam is: 3(2) + 3(4) + 3(6) = 4.Design Example .Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses At Transfer Length Section 4” 9 Strands 50” 2’6” 31 Strands 34’0” 48’7” ψ 14’7” July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #63 Design Example .
32) = 13.60 = 10.86 in July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #65 Design Example .87 = 10.60 in 40 The eccentricity at the end of the beam is: 24.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses At Transfer Length Section The distance between the center of gravity of the 31 straight bottom strands and the extreme bottom fiber of the beam is: 11(2) + 8(4) + 8(6) + 4(8) = 4.73 − 13.Design Example .32) = 14.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses At Transfer Length Section The distance between the center of gravity of the total number of the strands and the bottom fiber of the precast beam at the end of the beam is: 9(54 − 4) + 31(4.25) + 31(4.87in 40 Eccentricity of the strand group at transfer length is: 24.32 in 31 The distance between the center of gravity of the total number of the strands and the bottom fiber of the precast beam at the transfer length is: 9(54 − 7.13 in July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #66 .73 − 14.
140 1.909 8.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses At Transfer Length Section At the bottom: 1.3(12) + − 789 10.Design Example .700 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #68 .140 1.17 − 0.700 ksi OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #67 Design Example .11 = +2.44 − 1.909 f t = 1.542 f b = 1.3(12) − + 789 8.542 10.39 + 0.18ksi ft = Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses At Transfer Length Section Recompute top and bottom stresses at the transfer length section using the harped pattern.44 + 1.140(10. Concrete stress at the top fiber of the beam: 1.86) 97.140(10.13 = +0.86) 97.50ksi fb = Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2 700 ksi OK +2.
00) = 882.44 − 2. ec = 20.909 8.56 + 1.0) 882.140(20.17 − 34.7 k − ft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #69 Design Example .140 1.5)(0.07 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #70 .822)(34.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Harp Points The strand eccentricity at the harp points is the same as at the midspan.7 *12 − + 789 8.00)(97.909 ft = 1.00’ from the end of the beam is: M g = (0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Harp Points Concrete stress at the top fiber of the beam: ft = ft = Pi Pe M g − i + A St St 1.0 in The bending moment due to beam selfweight at a distance 34.19 = +0.Design Example .
Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Midspan The bending moment due to beam selfweight at a distance 48’7” (midspan) from the end of the beam is: M g = (0.542 10.19 789 8.1k − ft Concrete stress at the top fiber of the beam: P Pe M g ft = i − i + A St St ft = 1.542 f b = 1 44 + 2 16 − 1.16 1 00 2 60 Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.58) = 970.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Harp Points Compute bottom stress at the bottom fiber of the beam: fb = fb = Pi Pe M g + i − A Sb Sb 1.909 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #72 Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.31 = +0.60 1.00 = +2.140 1.822)(48.56 + 1.44 − 2.Design Example .140(20.5)(0.140 1.17 − 48.700 ksi OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #71 Design Example .1*12 − + = 1.44 2.700 ksi OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course .0) 882.140(20.0) 970.58)(97.7 *12 + − 789 10.909 8.
Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Midspan Compute bottom stress at the bottom fiber of the beam: fb = fb = Pi Pi Pe M g + − A Sb Sb 1.542 Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2 700 ksi OK +2.50 789 10.Design Example .16 − 1. is: 0.542 10.140(20.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge HoldDown Forces Assume that the stress in the strand at the time of prestressing.10 = +2.1*12 + − = 1.153(202.75 f pu = 0.140 1.0) 970.75(270) = 202.0k / strand Harp angle: ψ = tan −1 July 2007 ODOT Short Course 54 − 4 − 6 o = 6.2 34(12) AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #74 .5ksi Then. the Prestress force per strand before any losses is: Pi ' = 0.44 + 2.700 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #73 Design Example .5) = 31. before any losses.
Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge HoldDown Forces ODOT BDM States that the following limits are not to be exceeded: No.05.000 4.5) = 31.000 So holddown force per strand = 3.0) sin 6. Total hold down force = 9 strands(3.Design Example .000 4.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge HoldDown Forces Therefore. of Draped Strands per Row 1 2 3 PU/Strand (lb) 6.05 =1. is applied to account for friction. holddown force per strand = 1 05 (force per strand)(sin ψ) 1.5 kips per strand OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #76 .5 kips per strand Note that the factor. 1.05(31.2◦ = 3.6 kips July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #75 Design Example .
Stresses can be brought within the allowable stress range either by harping or debonding the strand.50 Note that the bottom stresses at the harp points are more critical than the ones at midspan.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Transfer At transfer. stresses at the end of girder tend to exceed allowables if the strand is straight. before deciding to harp. Therefore. not all fabricators have the ability to harp (the bed won’t take the hold down force).27 +0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Summary of Stresses at Transfer Top Stresses ft (ksi) At transfer length section At harp points At midspan +0.Design Example . harping However. contact probable fabricators or the local PCI section for assistance and advice. The question arises as to which is better. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #78 . harping or debonding? Boxes tend to use debonding because harping isn’t practical as the strand would go through the void.43 +2.60 +2.07 +0. No Tension! The entire beam is in compression. I and Bulb T girders tend to use harping. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #77 Design Example .19 Bottom stresses fb (ksi) +2.
5 MidSpan 45 50 0 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #80 .5 1 Transfer Length Harp Point 0 5 10 15 20 25 Length (ft) 30 35 40 0.3 0.15 0.25 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Summary of Stresses at Transfer Top Stress 0.5 2 Stress (ksi) 1.2 Stress (ksi) 0.05 MidSpan 45 50 0 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #79 Design Example .Design Example .1 Transfer g Length Harp Point 0 5 10 15 20 25 Length (ft) 30 35 40 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Summary of Stresses at Transfer Bottom Stress 3 2.
95ksi Stress in tendon after all losses f pe = f pi − ∆f pT = 202.Design Example .55ksi July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #81 Design Example .Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Service Loads Force per strand = (fpe)(strand area) p = (158.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Service Loads Total loss of prestress at service loads is ∆f pT = 43.3 kips The total prestressing force after all losses Ppe = 24.55)(0.95 = 158.0 kips July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #82 .3(40) = 972.153) = 24.5 − 43.
200 ksi For th d k 0.0) = +4.40(4.5) 2 700 ksi Note: Φw is a factor for slender webs/flanges.45(4. for service limit states: For the precast beam: 0.800 ksi For the deck: 0.40(7.5) = +1. It is not really meant for “I” girders.2.45fc’ = 0.45fc’ = 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stress Limits for Concrete Compression: (5.9.40fc’ = 0.60(1.Design Example .1) Due to permanent loads.2.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stress Limits for Concrete Compression (con’t): (5.4.45(7. If the calculations required for Φw are done.1) Due to permanent and transient loads for service limit states: For the precast beam: 0.0)(7.0)(4.60Φw fc’ = 0.40fc’ = 0.700 k i 0.5) = +2.0) = +2.150 ksi For the deck: 0.60Φ F the deck: 0 60Φw fc’ = 0 60(1 0)(4 5) = +2.025 ksi Due to one half the permanent loads and live load: For the precast beam:0.9. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #84 .800 ksi July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #83 Design Example .0) = +3. Φw=1.60(1.4.
0) (951.19(7.98 Compressive stress limit for concrete: +3.909 8.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Midspan Concrete stress at the top fiber of the beam.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stress Limits for Concrete Tension: For components with bonded p p prestressing tendons: g For the precast beam: 0.23 2.6 + 245. three cases: 1.19 f c' = 0. ftg1 = ftg1 = Ppe A − Ppe ec St + (M g + M s ) St + ( M ws + M b ) Stg 972 972(20.Design Example .148. 1 Under permanent loads Service I: loads.503ksi July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #85 Design Example .0) = 0.83 0.1) *12 − + + 789 8.9 + 1.10 1.376 ftg1 = 1 23 − 2 18 + 2 83 + 0 10 = +1 98 1.150 ksi OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #86 .909 47.4) *12 (153.18 2.
99 + 0.376 = 1.35 = +1.386.98 + 0.200 ksi OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #88 .Design Example .2*12 47.33 Compressive stress limit for concrete: +4.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Midspan 3.34 Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.5(1.800 ksi OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #87 Design Example .5 ftg1 + ( M LL + I ) Stg ftg 2 = 0.35 = +2.376 = 0.98) + ftg 2 1.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Midspan 2. Onehalf permanent loads plus live loads: ftg 2 = 0.98 + f tg 3 1. Under permanent and transient loads: f tg 3 = f tg + ( M LL + I ) Stg f tg 3 = 1.2*12 47.386.
three cases: 1.534 ftc = +0.Design Example .386.2*12 29.08 + 0.162 ftc = + Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2. but they still must be checked.534 = 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Midspan Concrete stress at the top fiber of the deck. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #89 Design Example .5(0.64 Compressive stress limit for concrete: +1.162) + f tc 2 1.563 = +0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Midspan 2. Onehalf permanent loads plus live loads: f tc 2 = ftc1 + ( M LL + I ) Stc f tc 2 = 0.1 + 153. Under permanent loads: ftc = ( M ws + M b ) Stc (245.6) *12 29.800 ksi OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #90 .025 ksi OK Note that deck stresses under service loads are almost always well below allowable for continuous for LL bridges.
Service III: Ppe A Ppe ec Sb (M g + M s ) Sb ( M ws + M b ) + 0.542 10.6) + (0.9 + 1.2) *12 29. Under permanent and transient loads: f tc = f tc = ( M ws + M b + M LL + I ) Stc (245. 694 fb = 1.0) (951.2) ] *12 + − − 789 10.503 ksi OK Service III has the 0.700 ksi OK July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #91 Design Example .Design Example .8*1.1 + 153.542 16.386.23 + 1.40 Tensile stress limit for concrete: 0.6 + 1.8LL factor! July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #92 .Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Midspan 3.534 f tc = +0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Stresses at Midspan Tension stress at the bottom fiber of the beam.73 Compressive stress limit for concrete: +2.84 − 2.386.8M LL + I Sbc fb = fb = + − − 972 972(20.08 = −0.1 + 153.148.4) *12 [ (245.39 − 1.
5( DW ) + 1.9) 1.11&2) At point of maximum moment 0.9 1.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Positive Moment Section Average stress in prestressing steel: c f ps = f pu 1 − k dp (5.101.1.75( LL + IM ) M u = 1 2 (912 9 + 1 101 + 1 1 9) + 1 (2 4 2) + 1 (1 412 4) 1.25( DC ) + 1.3.5( DW ) + 1.4.75(1. 615k − ft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #93 Design Example .5(274.25(912.5 171.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Positive Moment Section Total Ultimate bending moment for Strength I is: M u = 1.1) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #94 .7.75( LL + IM ) (Tables 3.25( DC ) + 1.2) 1.Design Example .4) M u = 5. 412.4L: M u = 1.
7.70 = 57.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Positive Moment Section fps = Average stress in prestressing steel k = 0.11) in.3.1.14) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #96 . AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #95 Design Example .1. dp = Distance from extreme compression fiber to = th centroid of the prestressing tendons the t id f th t i t d h .7.28 for low relaxation strands f py 2 1.04 − = f pu ksi (Table C5.3.5 – 4.80 c = Distance between the neutral axis and the compressive face July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate in.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Positive Moment Section Aps f pu + As f y − As' f y' c= f 0.85 f c' β b + kAps pu dp (5.Design Example .ybs = 62.
0 As‘ = Area of compression reinforcement = 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Positive Moment Section Aps = Area of prestressing steel = 40 * 0.5in July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #98 .0 fy = Yield strength of tension reinforcement = 60.83 b = Effective width of compression flange = 96 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate in2 ksi in2 ksi in2 ksi ksi in.0 0.12 fpu = Specified tensile strength of prestressing steel = 270 As = Area of mild steel tension reinforcement = 0.12) 270 57.28) = 4.5)(0.8 a = depth of the equivalent stress block = β1c a = 0.85(4.28 6.153 = 6.Design Example .2.83)(96) + 0.0 − 0. AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #97 Design Example .7.0 fc‘ = Compressive strength of deck concrete = 4.0 fy‘ = Yield strength of compression reinforcement = 60.28(6.83(5.12(270) + 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Positive Moment Section c= c = 5.5 β1 = Stress block factor specified in LRFD 5.2 = 0.39in < t s = 8.
12(263.80 6 12(263 3) 57 80 − a 2 M n = Aps f ps d p − = 2 12 M n = 7.3ksi 57.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Positive Moment Section Therefore.28 = 263.Design Example . 5 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #100 . 467k − ft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #99 Design Example . 615k − ft 7.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Positive Moment Section Factored flexural resistance: Mr = φMn Where Φ= resistance factor = 1.0 for flexure and tension of prestressed concrete φ M n = 7 467k − ft > M u = 5.3) 57.39 6. the assumption of rectangular section behavior is valid and the average stress in prestressing steel is: 5.8 Nominal flexural resistance: 4.28 f ps = 270 1 − 0.
determined on the basis of elastic stress distribution and the modulus of rupture.28 ε t = 0. tension control was assumed.2) This is a tension controlled section.7.4. Check the strain in the extreme tensile steel: d t = 54.003 5.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable strength load combinations (5.003 t = 0.0 + 8. The LRFD Specifications now require that φ be determined based on whether the section is tension controlled compression controlled. fr.Design Example . 1.5. Mcr.005 c (5.2.2 times the cracking moment.7. Mr.5 − 2 = 60.3.0 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #101 Design Example .5 d −c 60.2) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #102 . In the calculation of Mr.1 & 5.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Minimum Reinforcement – Positive Moment Section At any section.032 > 0. so φ = 1.28 = 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Maximum ReinforcementPositive Moment Section The old ρmax requirement has been deleted. the amount of prestressed and nonprestressed tensile reinforcement shall be adequate to p q develop a factored flexural resistance.3. controlled or a transition section. at least equal to the lesser of: 1.5 − 5.
148.2.23 + 1.84 = 3.4 = 2.542 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #103 ODOT Short Course Design Example .21) fr = Modulus of rupture = 0.7.100.3.0 = 0.Positive Moment Section Where: S M cr = Sc ( f r + f cpe ) − M dnc c − 1 ≥ Sc f r Snc (5.Positive Moment Section Mdnc= Total unfactored dead load moment acting on kipft the noncomposite section = non composite Mg+Ms = 951.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Minimum Reinforcement .542 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate in3 in3 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #104 .Design Example .9+1.07 789 10.4.979 (5.0) + = 1.37 fc' = 0.6) ksi fcpe Compressive stress in concrete due to effective ksi = prestresss forces only (after allowance for all Prestress losses) at extreme fiber of section where tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads Ppe A July 2007 + Ppe ec Sb = 972 972(20.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Minimum Reinforcement .694 Snc= Section modulus for the extreme fiber of the noncomposite section where tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads = 10.37 7.3.3 Sc= Section modulus for the extreme fiber of the composite section where tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads = 16.
483 kipft Notes: 1. the compression face is the bottom flange of the beam and is 26 in wide.98 + 3. 694 16.979) − 1 ≥ 12 12 10.25( 1.75( (3.2 M 1.11&2) At the pier section: M u = 1. 1 2M cr Controls 1. 1 362 kipft 1.2 1.3 (0. 290 kipft At midspan.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Design of the Negative Moment Section Total Ultimate bending moment for Strength I is: M u = 1 25( DC ) + 1 5( DW ) + 1 75( LL + IM ) (3 4 11&2) 1.2 M cr = 5.9 for flexure.Positive Moment Section M cr = 16. 461 kipft Since 1 2M cr < 1 33M u .2 M crOK Note: The LRFD Specifications states that this requirement be met at every section.7) + 1.610 kipft Therefore. thus Φ = 0.100.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Minimum Reinforcement . July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #105 Design Example .75(−1. 1.5( 1.362 ki ft 4.5(−467. 694 (0.7) = −3.33 M r = 7.4. the factored moment required by the Strength I load combination is: Mu = 5.Design Example .25(−292.07) − 2.380. This section is a nonprestressed reinforced concrete section. 467 > 1. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #106 .1) + 1.33M u = 7.542 M cr = 4 400 ≥ 1. 694 16. At the negative moment section. 2.
0 d = Effective depth to negative moment reinforcement from bottom of girder = in2 ksi in 54 + 0.Design Example .7 f c'b fy = Yield strength of compression reinforcement = 60.90 58 25 1.14. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #108 .2.25 Do Not Duplicate July 2007 ODOT Short Course AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #107 Design Example .5) = 58.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Design of the Negative Moment Section Assume the deck reinforcement is at the midheight of the deck. As f y (5.47 As2 − 3145 As + 41.7j) M u = φ As f y d − 1.0 fc‘ = Compressive strength of g p g girder = 7.1.94in 2 This is the required amount of mild steel reinforcement required in the slab to resist the negative moment and it is equal to 18 #5 bars and 19 #6 bars.25 − 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Design of the Negative Moment Section As (60) 3.0)(26) 0 = 10.7(7. 796 As = 13. 3 483(12) = 0 90 As (60) 58.5(8.
93 − 5.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Longitudinal Deck Reinforcement The longitudinal reinforcement in the deck includes distribution reinforcement and other minimum reinforcement reinforcement.58in 2 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #109 Design Example .35in 2 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #110 . As ( provided ) = 5.Design Example .58 = 8. Add 'l = 13.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Negative Moment Deck Reinforcement The additional area of deck reinforcement required: As .
44)(2.16 = 4 16 13.Design Example .Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Negative Moment Deck Reinforcement Location of steel: Top – 8 #5 + 8 #6 with 2” clear 2 Btm – 10 #5 + 11 #6 with 2 5/8” clear.5 − 2. (5.5 − 3) 13.94 in2 > 13.3125) + 8(0. 5 @ 12” Top No.36 in2 13. 5 @ 8” Btm.12.96 x= 4.483 kipft 13.93 in2 OK AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #111 Design Example . Bars 8.58 in 5 58 i 2 3.5 in.31)(2. 5. As = 18(0.44)(8.94 We assumed 4.31) + 19(0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Negative Moment Deck Reinforcement Typical longitudinal deck reinforcement Total A T l Area of longitudinal reinforcement fl i di l i f provided Factored negative design moment Total area required to resist negative moment Additional area of deck reinforcement required Additional reinforcement provided Addi i l i f id d Additional area of deck reinforcement provided Total As provided July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate No.94 57.4) 8(0.31)(8.35 in2 19 N 6 B No. Min.9375) + 11(0.94 in2 x= Note: Epoxy coated steel assumed.44) = 13.34 in July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #112 .25” from top OK d = 58.375) + 10(0.93 in2 8. cover is 1.
41 = = 7.41 41 M r = φM n = ( 0.10(96.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Effective Tension Flange Width The effective tension flange width is the lesser of: The effective flange width = 96 in CONTROLS (5.7 5.25)(12) 115.85 ( 7 )( 26 ) a 5.880k − in = 3.5in 0 10(96 25)(12) = 115 5in (4.2.72 β1 0.9 )(13.3.41in 0.6.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Negative Moment Deck Reinforcement Now check Mn: a= c= Asf y 0. 483k − ft July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #113 Design Example .7.34 − 2 M r = 41.Design Example .94 )( 60 ) = 5.94 )( 60 ) 58. 490k − ft > M u = 3.6) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #114 .4) A width equal to 1/10 of the average of adjacent spans between bearings = 0.85f c ' b = (13.
34 j = 1(k/3) = 1(0.7.5 As = Area of negative moment reinforcement = 13.1)+(1.380.7.Design Example .3.16 = 58.94 d = Effective depth to negative moment g reinforcement from bottom of girder = 62.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement fy = Yield strength of reinforcement = 60.908 ksi kipft in2 in July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #116 .54.275/3) = 0.0 Msl = (292.41.7)= 2.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement According to LRFD 5.3.4 the spacing of the mild steel reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall satisfy equation 5.140. s≤ 700γ e − 2d c βs fs The tensile stress in mild reinforcement is computed to be: fs = July 2007 ODOT Short Course M sl As jd AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #115 Do Not Duplicate Design Example .7)+(467.
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement Where:
k = 2 ρ n + ( ρ n) 2 − ρ n
k = 2(0.00919)(5.718) + (0.00919 * 5.718) 2 − 0.00919 * 5.718 k = 0.275
Where: ρ=
As 13.94 = = 0.00919 bd (26)(58.34)
n= M d l R i = Modular Ratio So:
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
Esteel 29, 000 , = = 5 718 5.718 Egirder 5, 072
fs =
2,140.5(12) = 34.8ksi 13.94(0.908)(58.34)
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #117
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
The previous calculation made the simplifying assumption that th th t the section was rectangular. ti t l If this assumption is NOT made, the neutral axis, calculated using working stress concepts, can be calculated as 16.45 inches from the bottom of the beam. The cracked, transformed moment of inertia is 177200 in4. The steel stress is found to be 34 6 ksi which compares to 34 8 ksi using the 34.6 34.8 rectangular assumption.
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Loads & Analysis: Slide #118
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
A quick review of working stress:
n=
1) 2) 3) 4)
Es Ec
The cracked, transformed section is used. The Th neutral axis i at th geometric centroid. t l i is t the ti t id Concrete stress is assumed linear. Steel is converted to an equivalent area of concrete by multiplying by n. 5) Tension in concrete is ignored
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Do Not Duplicate Loads & Analysis: Slide #119 ODOT Short Course
July 2007
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
The maximum concrete stress is:
fc =
The steel stress is:
M sl c I tr
M sl ( d − c ) I tr
Do Not Duplicate
fs = n
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ODOT Short Course
The term M(dc)/I gives the equivalent concrete stress. It is converted to steel stress by multiplying by n.
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Loads & Analysis: Slide #120
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
This is the assumed cracked, transformed section. Note that it is a negative moment section. Based on a previous iteration, the neutral axis, x, is within the tapered section of the Type IV flange.
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Loads & Analysis: Slide #121
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement To determine “x”, the position of the neutral axis, the first moment of inertia of the area about the neutral axis must be = 0. Define the downward direction as positive. It can be shown that b = 422x
− ( 26 − ( 42 − 2x ) ) (8)( x − 4 ) + 2 1 ( x − 8)( x − 8) x − 8 − x 3 8 2 x + x ( 42 − 2x ) − 79.5 ( 58.34 − x ) = 0 2
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Loads & Analysis: Slide #122
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement The equation reduces to:
−0.33x 3 + 21x 2 + 15.5x − 4467.3 = 0
The roots are 13.55, 16.45 and 60.75. The only root which makes any sense is x = 16.45 in. Thus, b = 9.10 inches and x8 = 8.45 in.
I=
1 1 3 2 ( 9.10 )(16.45) + 2 (8.45) 83 + 8.45 ( 8)(16.45 − 4 ) 12 3
2 1 1 8.45 3 +2 ( 8.45 )( 8.45 ) + ( 8.45 )( 8.45 ) 16.45 − 8 − 2 3 36
+79.5 ( 58.34 − 16.45 ) = 177200in 4
2
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Loads & Analysis: Slide #123
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
fs = n
M sl ( d − c ) I tr
f s = ( 5.7 )
2140.5 (12 )( 58.34 − 16.45 ) = 34.6ksi 177200
This is lower than the stress found by assuming a rectangular section. Since the steel stress in the section denominator of the spacing equation, using the rectangular assumption is conservative (requires a closer spacing) in this case.
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Loads & Analysis: Slide #124
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
The spacing of mild steel reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall satisfy the following: 700γ e s≤ − 2d c (5.7.3.41) βs fs Where: γe = Exposure factor = 0.75 for Class 2 exposure condition fs = Tensile stress in steel reinforcement at the service limit state dc βs = 1 +
0.7( h − d c )
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ksi
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Loads & Analysis: Slide #125
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement Where:
dc = Thickness of concrete cover measured in from extreme tension fiber to center of the flexural reinforcement located closest therto = 2.00+5/8(0.5) = 2.31 h = Overall height on the composite section in = 62.5
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Loads & Analysis: Slide #126
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Control of Cracking by Distribution Reinforcement
βs = 1 +
s≤
2.31 = 1.055 0.7(62.5 2 31) 0 7(62 5 − 2.31)
700 ⋅ 0.75 − 2(2.31) = 9.67in 1.055 ⋅ 34.8
6.0in ≤ 9.67in
OK For this example the tensile stress in the mild reinforcement is less than its allowable. Thus, the distribution of reinforcement for control of cracking is adequate.
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Loads & Analysis: Slide #127
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Maximum Reinforcement – Negative Moment Section As before, check the strain in the extreme tensile steel:
d −c 59.9 − 7.72 ε t = 0.003 t = 0.003 7.72 = 0.020 > 0.005 c
This is a tension controlled section, so φ = 0.9 (5.7.2.1 & 5.5.4.2)
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Loads & Analysis: Slide #128
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Minimum Reinforcement – Negative Moment Section
At any section, the amount of prestressed and p q nonprestressed tensile reinforcement shall be adequate to develop a factored flexural resistance, Mr, at least equal to the lesser of: 1.2 times the cracking moment, Mcr, determined on the basis of elastic stress distribution and the modulus of rupture, fr, 1.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable strength load combinations (5.7.3.3.2)
July 2007
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AASHTOLRFD 2007
Loads & Analysis: Slide #129
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Minimum Reinforcement – Negative Moment Section
Where:
S M cr = Sc ( f r + f cpe ) − M dnc c − 1 ≥ Sc f r Snc
(5.7.3.3.21)
fr = 0.37 f c' = 0.37 4.5 = 0.785 fcpe = 0.0 Mdnc= M g + M s = 0 Sc= 29 534 29,534
ksi ksi kipft in3
July 2007
ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Loads & Analysis: Slide #130
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Minimum Reinforcement – Negative Moment Section
29,534 (0.785) 12 M cr = 1,932k − ft M cr =
1.2 M cr = 2,318k − ft
At bearing, the factored moment required by the Strength I load combination is: Mu = 3,483 kipft Therefore, 1.33M u = 4, 631 kipft Since 1.2 M cr < 1.33M u , 1.2 M cr Controls
M r = 3, 490 > 1.2M cr = 2,318
July 2007
ODOT Short Course
OK
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Note: The LRFD Specifications states that this requirement be met at every section.
Do Not Duplicate
Loads & Analysis: Slide #131
Design Example  Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Positive Moment Connection
Continuous for live load bridges are covered in Article 5.14.1.4.4. Much of this article is new in 2007 (4th Ed.). One requirement of this article is for a positive moment connection. These positive moments are caused by the upward camber of the prestressed girders due to creep and shrinkage. The positive moment connection is needed to provided continuity at the pier. The Th connection can be made either by extending mild steel out ti b d ith b t di ild t l t of the end of the girder into the diaphragm or by leaving strand extend out of the end of the girder into the diaphragm. This example illustrates bent strand connections.
July 2007
ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate
AASHTOLRFD 2007
Loads & Analysis: Slide #132
14. and shrinkage.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Development of Extended Strands The strands are bent up 90° into the diaphragm so that the hook extends 8 inches from the end of the girder. y July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #133 Design Example . These bars should be at least #5. creep. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #134 . these restraint moments are negligible when continuity is established after 90 days.Design Example . Typically mild steel is placed in the corner of the hooks to enhance the development length of the hooks.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Positive Moment Connection Positive moments develop at the connection between girders at in interior supports due to live liveload effects (if more than two spans) and restraint caused by temperature. The ends of the girders are placed 10 inches apart With the 8 inch projection this leaves 2 apart.4. inches of clear allowing for construction tolerances. According to LRFD 5.1.4.
1.2M 1 2Mcr.14. parameters. and results for the design of the positive moment connection using bent strand are found in following table.9c strands used for design as a function of the total length of the strand shall not exceed: (l − 8) (l − 8) f pul = dsh ≤ 150ksi f psl = dsh 0.4. The cracking moment is found using the gross.1.9c1) (5.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Required Area of Strand The design moment used for the working stress check is Mcr while the design moment for the strength check is 1. According to LRFD 5 14 1 4 9c the stress in the 5.4. For these p g g calculations the effective width of 96 inches.288 (5.9c2) where: ℓdsh = total length of extended strand in fpsl = stress in the strand at the service limit state ksi Cracked section shall be assumed fpul = stress in the strand at the strength limit state ksi July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #135 Design Example . 0.1.14. Thus the diaphragm concrete strength is used.5 inch strand. composite cross section.14.4.Design Example . but assuming that cracking occurs at the diaphragm. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #136 . and concrete strength of 4.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Required Area of Strand The design moments.163 0.5 ksi were used.
00 7. the length of strand is assumed to calculate the number of strands required.83 1. Design iterations are performed to determine the most efficient combination of strand and length.50 45E6 0.68 Do Not Duplicate 12 25.2M 1 2M cr = 850k − f ft Le = l dsh − 8 July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #137 Design Example .29 0.53 708.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Required Area of Strand When using working stress design the number of strands is assumed to calculate the length of the strand.50 263E6 0.05 0.00 62.50 52E6 0. No of Strand 6 42.00 7.00 60.24 4.5 (16694 ) = 8500k − in = 708k − ft 1.84 708.92 7.36 1.00 62.07 10 29.00 60.22 708.00 7.07 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Required Area of Strand Working Stress Design No.Design Example .24 f c ' Scb = 0. n d ρ k j fs July 2007 Moment 708.00 7.50 422E6 0.50 317E6 0.45 708.98 78.08 0.78 1.22 16 21.00 ODOT Short Course . M cr = 0.42 2.98 93. When using g g the strength design method.87 AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #138 ldsh As.06 0.05 0.98 113.97 58.98 150 8 33.00 60.
Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Required Area of Strand In this example working stress design governs.47 86 ldsh As Moment d a fpul * Back calculated based on strand length July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #139 Design Example .70 62.50 0.50 0. Multiple iterations are performed to determine the least length of extension of the strand required.45 117 13.50 0.00 1.70 60. If the results indicate an odd number of strands they are rounded up to an even number to provide symmetry in the connection.52 35. addition.79 849.13 22. Girder fabrication may be more difficult with longer strand extensions as this may require excessive space between girders in the bed In addition bed.50 0.Continuous TwoSpan IGirder Bridge Required Area of Strand Strength Design No. if a larger number of shorter strands are used the stress can be distributed throughout a larger area.18 42.00 2.42 849.50 0.70 60.Design Example .45 209 6.00 30.22 849.70 62.00 1.27 27.00 0.70 62.45 135 9.00 1. of Strand 5.45 166 8.01 849. It may be more desirable to have a larger number of shorter strands as opposed to fewer longer strands. July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate AASHTOLRFD 2007 Loads & Analysis: Slide #140 .00 849.
Design Example .5φ (Vc + V p ) July 2007 ODOT Short Course Do Not Duplicate (5. Any 12 strands could be exten