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“ It is the inky blackness of space itself that commands one's


attention as we look at the night sky; not the sparse points of

light that signal the presence of widely scattered matter. ”
“ Science
is the attempt to make the chaotic diversity of our
sense-experience correspond to a logically uniform system of
thought. ”
“ The
supreme task of the physicist is to arrive at those
elementary laws from which the cosmos can be built up by pure
deduction. ”
“ The rise of atomism is a good example. How may Leucippus

have conceived this bold idea? When water freezes and becomes
ice – apparently something entirely different from water – why is
it that the thawing of ice forms something which seems
indistinguishable from the original water? (Leucippus) is driven
to the conclusion that in these transitions the ‘essence’ of the
thing has not changed at all. ”
Sky Publishing Corporation, Sten Odenwald, 1991, p. 1
Ideas and Opinions of Albert Einstein, Crown Publishers, Inc., 1954, p. 323
Cosmology / Astrophysics, June, 2007, Albert Einstein, 1954, p. 1
Ideas and Opinions of Albert Einstein, Crown Publishers, Inc., 1954, p. 341

“ Newton, the first creator of a comprehensive workable system

of theoretical physics, still believed that the basic concepts and

laws of his system could be derived from experience…

“ Newton had built his law of gravitation on the idea of action at


a distance, believing that the pull of gravity between the apple

and the ground, the moon and the earth, the earth and the sun, in
fact between all the components of the universe, operated as a
mysterious and instantaneous force across empty space.

“Actually the concepts of time and space appeared at that time

to present no difficulties. The concepts of mass, inertia, and
force, and the laws connecting them, seemed to be drawn
directly from experience. Once this basis is accepted, the
expression for the force of gravitation appears derivable from
experience, and it was reasonable to expect the same in regard
to other forces.

“We can indeed see from Newton's formulation of it that the

concept of absolute space, which comprised that of absolute
rest, made him feel uncomfortable; he realized that there seemed
to be nothing in experience corresponding to this last concept.
He was also not quite comfortable about the introduction of
forces operating at a distance.

Ibid, p. 275
Ibid, pp. 325, 326

“The first attempt to lay a uniform theoretical foundation was the
work of Newton. In his system everything is reduced to the
following concepts: 1) Mass points with invariable mass; 2)
action at a distance between any pair of mass points; 3) law of
motion for the mass point. There are not, strictly speaking, any
all-embracing foundations, because an explicit law was
formulated only for the actions-at-a-distance of gravitation; while
for other actions-at-a-distance nothing was established a priori
except the law of equality of actio and reactio. Moreover, Newton
himself fully realized that time and space were essential
elements, as physically effective factors, of his system, if only by

“…It is not surprising that Newton would not listen to a wave

theory of light; for such a theory was most unsuited to his
theoretical foundation. The assumption that space was filled with
a medium consisting of material points that propagated light
waves without exhibiting any other mechanical properties must
have seemed to him quite artificial.

“…From Newton's time on, the theory of action-at-a-distance

was constantly found artificial. ”
“ Driven in 1666 from Cambridge to his Lincolnshire home by

the plague when only twenty-four…like Einstein he had in a

Einstein: The Life and Times, Donald W. Clark, World Publishing, 1971, p. 74

single summer delivered three hammer blows to the foundations
of contemporary science. ”
“ To Newton, light was a stream of particles moving according to
mechanical laws, although his contemporary, Christiaan
Huygens, thought it might be instead a vibration in an
unspecified medium, much as sound was a vibration in the air. ”
“ The word acceleration is here used to denote any change in

the velocity, whether that change be an increase, a diminution, or

a change in direction. ”

“ 10
Law I. – Every body perseveres in its state of rest or of
moving uniformly on a straight line, except in so far as it is made
to change that state by external forces.

“…Thus the motion of a cannon ball is retarded, but this arises

from an action between the projectile and the air…”

Ibid, p. 77
Matter and Motion , J ames C lerk Maxwell, 1952 Dover P ublic ations , Inc ., p. 23
Ibid, p. 28

“ 11

“Law II. – Change of motion is proportional to the force, and

takes place in the direction in which the force is impressed:

“By motion Newton means what in modern scientific language is

called Momentum, in which the quantity of matter moved is taken
into account as well as the rate at which it travels.

“By impressed force he (Newton) means what is now called

Impulse, in which the time during which the force acts is taken
into account as well as the intensity of the force. ”
“ 12
…For instance, two magnets or two electrified bodies (or a
ferro-magnet and a lump of iron) appear to act on each other
when placed at considerable distances apart (as per Newton's
experiment) in glass vessels floating in water – the iron equally
attracts the magnet as the magnet attracts the iron.).

“This mutual attraction between distant bodies is called

attraction when it tends to bring them nearer, and repulsion when
it tends to separate them.

Ibid, p. 32
Ibid, p. 44, 42

“The fact that a magnet draws iron towards it was noticed by the
ancients, but no attention was paid to the force with which the
iron attracts the magnet. Newton, however, by placing the
magnet in one vessel and the iron in another, and floating both
vessels in water so as to touch each other, showed
experimentally, that as neither vessel was able to propel the
other along, with itself, through the water, the attraction of the
iron on the magnet must be equal and opposite to that of the
magnet on the iron, both being equal to the pressure between the
two vessels. ”
“ 13
…we cannot…regard Newton's statement as an appeal to
experience and observation, but rather as a deduction of the
third law of motion from the first. ”
“ 14
The total energy of any material system is a quantity which
can neither be increased nor diminished by any action between
the parts of the system, though it may be transformed into any of
the forms of which energy is susceptible. ”
“ 15
…The most remarkable fact about the attraction of gravitation,
(is) that at the same distance it acts equally on equal masses of

Ibid, p. 42
Matter and Motion , J ames C lerk Maxwell, 1952, p. 55
Ibid, p. 111

substances of all kinds… Every portion of matter attracts every
other portion of matter, and the stress between them is
proportional to the product of their masses divided by the square
of their distance. ” (Newton's exact words.)
“ 16
(Newton)…excluded from his Principia all mention of the
cause of gravitation, reserving his thoughts on this subject for
the 'Queries' printed at the end of his Opticks.

“The attempts which have been made since the time of Newton
to solve this difficult question are few in number, and have not
led to any well-established result. ”
“ 17
(After Newton)…thought only began to take a new turn with
the wave-theory of light and the theory of the electromagnetic
field of Faraday and Maxwell. It became clear that there existed in
free space states which propagated themselves in waves, as well
as localized fields which were able to exert forces on electrical
masses of magnetic poles brought to the spot. Since it would
have seemed utterly absurd to the physicists of the nineteenth
century to attribute physical functions or states to space itself,
they invented a medium pervading the whole of space, on the
model of ponderable matter – the aether, which was supposed to
act as a vehicle for electromagnetic phenomena, and hence for
those of light also… The aether…thus became a kind of matter
Matter and Motion , J ames C lerk Maxwell, 1952, Dover P ublic ations , Inc ., p. 121
Ideas and Opinions of Albert Einstein, Crown Publishers, Inc., 1954, p. 280

whose only function was to act as a substratum for electrical
fields which were by their very nature not further analyzable. ”
“ 18
…The electric field theory of Faraday and Maxwell represents
probably the most profound transformation of physics since
Newton's time… The existence of the field manifests itself only
when electrically charged bodies are introduced into it…in
space. ”
“ 19
Meantime, it took physicists some decades to grasp the full
significance of Maxwell's discovery, so bold was the leap that his
genius forced upon the conceptions of his fellow workers. Only
after (Heinrich) Hertz had demonstrated experimentally the
existence of Maxwell's electromagnetic waves had resistance to
the new theory broken down.

“But if the electromagnetic field could exist as a wave

independent of the material source, then the electrostatic
interpretation could no longer be explained as action-at-a-
distance. And what was true for electrical action could not be
denied for gravitation. Everywhere Newton's actions-at-a-
distance gave way to fields spreading with finite velocity. ”

Ideas and Opinions of Albert Einstein, Crown Publishers, Inc., 1954, p. 304
Ibid, pp. 305, 306

“ 20
Since the interaction of bodies was supposed to be
accomplished through fields, there had also to be a gravitational
field in the aether whose field-law had, however, no clear form at
that time. The aether was only supposed to be the seat of all
forces acting across space…

“The mechanical properties of the aether were at first a mystery.

Then came H. A. Lorentz's great discovery. All of the phenomena
of electromagnetism then known could be explained on the basis
of two assumptions: 1) that the aether is firmly fixed in space –
that is to say, unable to move at all, and 2) that electricity is
firmly lodged in the mobile elementary particles. Today his
discovery may be expressed as follows: physical space and the
aether are only different terms for the same thing; fields are
physical states of space. For if no particular state of motion can
be ascribed to the aether, there does not seem to be any ground
for introducing it as an entity of a special sort. ”
“ 21
(H. A. Lorentz’s) most outstanding contributions were to the
theory of electromagnetism in all its ramifications. ”
“ 22
His genius led the way from Maxwell's work to the
achievements of contemporary physics, to which he contributed
important building stones and methods… ”

Ibid, p. 281
Ideas and Opinions of Albert Einstein, Crown Publishers, Inc., 1954, p. 70

“ 23
When H. A. Lorentz started his creative scientific work,
Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism had already won out. But
there was inherent in this theory a peculiar complexity of the
fundamental principles which prevented its essential features
from revealing themselves, distinctly. Although the field concept
had indeed displaced the concept of action at a distance, the
electric and magnetic fields were not yet conceived as primary
entities, but rather at states of ponderable matter which was
treated as a continuum.

“Consequently the electric field appeared decomposed into the

electric field strength and the dielectric displacement. In the
simplest case, these two fields were connected by the dielectric
constant, but in principle they were considered and treated as
independent entities.

“The magnetic field was treated similarly. It was in accordance

with this basic idea to treat empty space as a special case of
ponderable matter in which the relation between field strength
and displacement happened to be particularly simple. In
particular, this interpretation brought it about that the electric
and magnetic field could not be conceived independent of the
state of motion of matter, which was considered the carrier of the

Ibid, p. 73
Ibid, pp. 74, 75.

“A good idea of the interpretation of Maxwell's electrodynamics
then prevailing may be gained from the study of H. Hertz's
investigation on the electrodynamics of moving bodies.

“Then came H. A. Lorentz's decisive simplification of the theory.

He based his investigations with unfaltering consistency upon
the following hypotheses:

“The seat of the electromagnetic force is the empty space. In it

there is only one electric and one magnetic field vector. This field
is generated by atomistic electric charges upon which the field in
turn exerts ponderomotive forces. The only connection between
the electromagnetic field and ponderable matter arises from the
fact that elementary electric charges are rigidly attached to
atomistic particles of matter. For the latter, Newton's law of
motion holds…

“The only phenomenon that could not be entirely explained on

this basis, i.e., without additional assumptions, was the famous
Michelson-Morley experiment. Without the localization of the
electro-magnetic field in empty space, this experiment could not
conceivably have led to the theory of special relativity. Indeed,
the essential step was just the reduction of electromagnetism to
Maxwell's equations in empty space – or as it was expressed at

that time – in aether.

“ 24
…In him, Maxwell's equations in empty space held only for a
particular coordinate system distinguished from all other
coordinate systems by its state of rest. This was a truly
paradoxical situation because the theory seemed to restrict the
inertial system more strongly than did classical mechanics. This
circumstance, which from the empirical point of view appeared
completely unmotivated, was bound to lead to the theory of
special relativity. ”
“ 25
As far as the aether – that bearer of light which fills the whole
universe – is concerned, after Faraday's discovery which I have
already mentioned and also independently of it, many attempts
were made to exploit the aether in the theory of electricity also. ”
“ 26
You know, however, that the true founders of our present
views on this subject were (James) Clerk Maxwell and (Heinrich)
Hertz. In that Maxwell developed further and constructed a basis
for the ideas put forward by Faraday, he was the creator of the
electromagnetic theory of light, which is undoubtedly well known
to you in its broad outline. He taught us that light vibrations are
changes of state of the same nature as electric currents. We can
also say that electrical forces which change direction extremely
rapidly – many billions of times a second – are present in every
beam of light.

Ibid, p. 75
H. A . L orentz’s Nobel L ec ture, Dec ember 11, 1902
Ibid, Dec ember 11, 1902

“Who does not know the brilliant experiments by which he (H.
Hertz) confirmed the conclusions that Maxwell had drawn from
his conclusions?… The result of these and other investigations
into the waves propagated in the aether culminated in the
realization that there exists in Nature a whole range of
electromagnetic waves, which, however different their
wavelengths may be, are basically all of the same nature…
Although it was principally Hertz's experiments that turned the
basic idea of Maxwell's theory into the common property of all
scientists, it had been possible to start earlier with some
optimism on the task of applying this theory to special problems
in optics…

“It has been known since the time of Huygens that this is
connected with the unequal rate of propagation of beams of light
in different substances. How does it come about, however, that
the speed of light in solid, liquid, and gaseous substances differs
from its speed in the aether of empty space, so that it has its own
value for each of these ponderable substances; and how can it
be explained that these values, and hence also the refractive
index, vary from one colour to another? …A successor to
Maxwell now has merely to translate conception of co-vibrating
particles into the language of the electromagnetic theory of

“We will return to the propagation of light in ponderable matter.
The covibrating particles must, we concluded, be electrically
charged; so we can conveniently call them 'electrons'…

“Permit me now to draw your attention to the aether. Since we

learnt to consider this as the transmitter not only of optical but
also of electromagnetic phenomena, the problem of its nature
became more pressing than ever… We get a negative answer to
our question whether the aether moves… However, by far the
simplest explanation…is to assume that the whole earth is
completely permeable to the aether and (it) can move through it
without dragging it at all. This hypothesis was first expressed by
Fresnel and can hardly be contested at present …

“Rather are we constrained to take the view that each individual

molecule is permeable. The simplest thing is to suggest further
that the same is true of each atom, and this leads us to the idea
that an atom is in the last resort some sort of local modification
of the omnipresent aether, a modification which can shift from
place to place without the medium itself altering its position.
Having reached this point, we can consider the aether as a
substance of a completely distinctive nature, completely different
from all ponderable matter. With regard to its inner constitution,
in the present state of our knowledge it is very difficult for us to
give an adequate picture of it.

“I hardly need to mention that, quite apart from this question of
constitution, it will always be important to come to a closer
understanding of the transmission of apparent distant actions
through the aether… To this end it was necessary first of all to
develop a theory of electromagnetic phenomena in moving
substances, with the assumption that the aether does not partake
of their motion. To find a starting-point for such a theory, I once
again had recourse to electrons. I was of the opinion that these
must be permeable to the aether and that each must be the
centre of an electric and also, when in motion, of a magnetic
field… Finally, I added certain assumptions about the force
acting on an electron, as follows: this force is always due to the
aether of the immediate vicinity of the electron and is therefore
affected directly by the state of this aether and indirectly by the
charge and velocity of the other electrons which have brought
about this state. ”
“ 27
…H. A. Lorentz found a way to an electrodynamic theory of
bodies in motion, a theory which was more or less free from
arbitrary assumptions. His theory was built on the following

“Everywhere (including the interior of ponderable bodies) the

seat of the field in empty space. The participation of matter in
electromagnetic phenomena has its origin only in the fact that

Ideas and Opinions of Albert Einstein, Crown Publishers, Inc., 1954, p. 305

the elementary particles of matter carry unalterable electric
charges, and on this account, are subject on the one hand to the
actions of ponderable forces and on the other hand possess the
property of generating a field. The elementary particles obey
Newton's law of motion for material points… ”
“ 28
The theory failed, moreover, to give any explanation
concerning the tremendous forces which hold the electric
charges on the individual particles…

“Furthermore, there was one consideration which pointed

beyond Lorentz's theory. In the environment of an electrically
charged body there is a magnetic field which furnishes an
(apparent) contribution to its inertia… Theoretical physicists
have tried for a long time, therefore, to reach the goal by a
modification, of Maxwell's equations. ”
“ 29
Now a question arises. Since the field exists even in a
vacuum, should one conceive of the field as a state of a ‘carrier,’
or should it rather be endowed with an independent existence
not reducible to anything else? In other words, is there an
"aether" which carries the fields . . .?”

Ibid, p. 306
Ibid, p. 345

“ 30
It is often the case that an otherwise compelling theory, in
order to be brought into agreement with observation, requires
some apparently unnatural modifications.

“Meanwhile, partic le theoris ts have realized that the c os mologic al

c ons tant c an be interpreted as a meas ure of the energy dens ity of
the vac uum . ”
“ 31
…Today; the question of why the observed vacuum energy is
so small in comparison to the scales of particle physics has
become a celebrated puzzle, although it is usually thought to be
easier to imagine an unknown mechanism which would set it
precisely to zero than one which would suppress it by just the
right amount to yield an observationally accessible cosmological
constant. ”
“ 32
collection of an infinite number harmonic oscillators in
momentum space. Formally, the zero-point energy of such an
infinite collection will be infinite. ”
“ 33
On December 4, 1900…Planck now stated that his whole
theory was based on one assumption; that energy was emitted
not in the continuous flow that everyday experience suggested

T he C os mologic al C ons tant, 2001, Max P lanc k, G es ells c haft, p. 4
Ibid, p. 5
Ibid, p. 8
E ins tein, T he L ife and T ime , C lark, 1971, World P ublis hing C ompany, p. 67

but as discrete bursts for which he used the Latin ‘How much’ or
quanta. The size of quanta was, moreover, directly related to the
frequency of the electromagnetic wave with which they are
associated, violet light, which has twice the frequency of red
light, having associated quanta twice as large as those
associated with red light. ”
“ 34
…Einstein's conception of light as being formed of light
quanta – or photons as they were christened – in itself involved a
paradoxical contradiction from which a man of lesser mental
stature might have edged away. For while light consisting of
discrete packets of energy, as indivisible as the atom was still
thought to be, conformed – if it conformed to anything – to the
corpuscular theory of Newton's day, the idea also utilized
frequency, a vital feature of the wave theory… Even so, Einstein
had to face the embarrassing contradiction that Planck had tried
to avoid; for some purposes, light must be required as a stream
of particles, as Newton had regarded it; for others, it must be
considered in terms of wave motion… (Niels) Born and (Werner)
Heisenberg, were to produce a conception of the physical world
that could be regarded in terms either of waves or of particles… ”
“ 35
Planck himself was reluctant to accept Einstein's
development of this, and as late as 1912 was rejecting, in Berlin

Ibid, p. 69
Ibid, p. 69, 70

lectures, the idea that light traveled through space as bunches of
localized energy. ”
“ 36
The Special Theory of Relativity that was to give Einstein his
unique position in history… (was) entitled simply On the
Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies. Yet this dissertation of some
nine thousand words overturned man's accepted ideas of time
and space in a way which was, as the Times of London once put

it, an affront to common sense. ’”
“ 37
But it was Planck's law of radiation that yielded the first exact
determination independent of other assumptions – of the
absolute magnitudes of atoms. More than that, he showed
convincingly that in addition to the atomistic structure of matter
there is a kind of atomistic structure of energy, governed by the
universal constant ‘h’, which was introduced by Planck.

“This discovery became the basis of all twentieth-century

research in physics and has almost entirely conditioned its
development ever since. Without this discovery it would not have
been possible to establish a workable theory of molecules and
atoms and the energy processes that govern their
transformations. Moreover, it has shattered the whole framework
of classical mechanics and electrodynamics and set science a
fresh task: that of finding a new conceptual basis for all physics.
Ibid, p. 73
Ideas and Opinions of Albert Einstein, Crown Publishers, Inc., 1954, pp. 78-79

Despite remarkable partial gains, the problem is still far from a
satisfactory solution. ”
“ 38
Since the interaction of bodies was supposed to be
accomplished through fields, there had also to be a gravitational
field in the aether whose field-law had, however, no clear form at
that time. The aether was only supposed to be the seat of all
forces acting across space… ”
“ 39
Now a question arises. Since the field exists even in a
vacuum, should one conceive of the field as a state of a ‘carrier,’
or should it rather be endowed with an independent existence
not reducible to anything else? In other words, is there an ‘ether’
which carries the field; ”
“ 40
The general theory of relativity owes its origin to the attempt
to explain a fact known since Galileo's and Newton's time but
hitherto eluding all theoretical interpretation: the inertia and the
weight of a body, in themselves two entirely distinct things, are
measured by one and the same constant, the mass… for there is
presupposed (in the Galilean-Newtonian mechanics) a
mysterious property of physical space, conditioning the kind of
coordinate – systems for which the law of inertia and the
Newtonian law of motion hold good. ”
Ibid, p. 281
Ibid, p. 345
Ibid, p. 330

“ 41
For the time being, we have to admit that we do not possess
any general theoretical basis for physics, which can be regarded
as its logical foundation. The field theory, so far, has failed in the
molecular sphere. ”
“ 42
(what if)…All mass was merely congealed energy; all energy
merely liberated matter. Thus the photons, or light quanta, of the
photoelectric effect were just particles which had shed their
mass and were traveling with the speed of light in the form of
energy; while energy below the speed of light had been
transformed by its slowing down, a transformation which had the
effect of congealing into matter. ”
“ 43
In 1917, Albert Einstein tried to use his newly developed
theory of general relativity to describe the…prevailing idea at the
time…that the universe was static and unchanging…Take a cubic
meter of space and remove all matter and radiation from it: Most
of us would agree that this is a perfect vacuum. ”
“ 44
Maxwell's equation for empty space remains unchanged if the
spatial coordinates and the time are subjected to particular kinds
of linear transformations – the Lorentz's transformations
('covariance' with respect to Lorentz's transformations). ”
Ibid, p. 334
E ins tein T he L ife and T ime , C lark, 1971, World P ublis hing C ompany, p. 99
S ky P ublis hing C orporation, S ten Odenwald, 1991, p. 1
Ideas and Opinions of Albert Einstein, Crown Publishers, Inc., 1954, p. 346

“ 45
(Prior to 1905)… The physicists were still far removed from
such a way of thinking; space was still, for them, a rigid
homogeneous something, incapable of changing or assuming
various states… Then came the special theory of relativity with
its recognition of the physical equivalence of all inertial systems.
The inseparability of time and space emerged in connection with
electrodynamics, or the law of the propagation of light… With the
discovery of the relativity of simultaneity, space and time were
merged in a single continuum in a way similar to that in which
the three dimensions of space had previously been merged into a
single continuum. Physical space was thus extended to a four-
dimensional space which also included the dimension of time.
The four dimensional space of the special theory of relativity is
just as rigid and absolute as Newton's space. ”
“ 46
The physical world is represented as a four-dimensional
continuum. If I assume a…metric in it and ask what are the
simplest laws which such a metric can satisfy, I arrive at
relativistic theory of gravitation in empty space…I arrive at
Maxwell's equations for empty space.

“At this point, we still lack a theory for those parts of space in
which electrical charge density does not disappear. De Broglie
conjectured the existence of a wave field, which served to
explain certain quantum properties of matter. ”
Ibid, pp. 281, 282
Ibid, p. 274

“ 47
…Meanwhile the great stumbling-block for a field-theory of
this kind lies in the conception of the atomic structure of matter
and energy. For the theory is fundamentally non-atomic in so far
as it operates exclusively with continuous functions of space, in
contrast to classical mechanics, whose most important element,
the material point, in itself does justice to the atomic structure of
matter. ”
“ 48
…In 1998, after the observation of a supernova whose light
was apparently stretched by the rapid expansion of the universe,
scientists concluded that the rate of expansion was increasing.
So was born the theory of ‘dark energy,’ which has been deemed
responsible for the unexpected acceleration, while it remains
largely undefined… The measurements from the survey imply
dark energy does not become diluted like matter does as it is
spread across wider spaces, providing the most compelling
evidence yet for a theory involving the cosmological constant.
France's Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and National
Research Mission pour la Science et la Technologie Center
(CNRS) were involved in the survey. ”
“ 49
Observations in the 1990's, however, proved that the universe
was not only flying apart, it was doing so faster and faster. It
seemed to point to a dark energy filling space that actually

Ibid, p. 330
New S c ientis t, J uly 13, 2007
S c ientific A meric an.c om, 11/23/2005

repelled ordinary matter with its gravity, in contrast to all other
known stuff, including dark matter… ‘Our observation is at odds
with a number of theoretical ideas about the nature of dark
energy that predict that it should change as the universe
expands and, as far as we can see, it doesn't,’ says team member
Ray Carlberg of the University of Toronto. ”
“But the finding brings to the fore another question: the so-
called cosmological coincidence. Observations like this one
seem to prove that regular matter and dark energy have similar
densities at precisely this moment in time, even though the
density of matter has been declining steadily since the big bang.
Even Einstein couldn't answer why that would be? ”
“ 50
The discovery by Hubble that the universe is expanding
eliminated the empirical need for a static world model (although
the Einstein static universe continues to thrive in the toolboxes
of theorists, as a crucial step in the construction of conformal
diagrams)… As discussed below, there is better reason than ever
before to believe that ‘A’ is actually nonzero, and Einstein may
not have blundered after all. ”
“Particle physics, however, brings a different perspective to the
(cosmological constant) question. The cosmological constant

T he C os mologic al C ons tant, 2001, Max P lanc k, G es ells c haft, pp. 6, 7, 8

turns out to be a measure of the energy density of the
vacuum… ”
“Quantum mechanics adds another contribution, from the zero-
point energies associated with vacuum fluctuations…”

“A precisely analogous situation holds in field theory. A (free)

quantum field c an be thought of as a c ollec tion of an infinite
number of harmonic os c illators in momentum s pac e. F ormally,
the zero-point energy of s uc h an infinite c ollec tion will be
infinite. ”
“ David Livio, of the Space Telescope Science Institute, added:

‘Understanding the nature of dark energy is arguably the biggest

problem physics is facing today.’”

“ 52
When I examine myself and my methods of thought I come to
the conclusion that the gift of fantasy has meant more to me than
my talent for absorbing positive knowledge. ”
“53Physics theories of the late 19th century postulated that, just
as water waves must have a medium to move across (water), and
audible sound waves require a medium to move through (air), so
also light waves require a medium, the ‘luminiferous aether,’ or

B B C News , 11/16/2006
E ins tein T he L ife and T imes , Donald W. C lark, World P ublis hing C ompany, 1971, p. 87
Ibid, p. 345

the ‘ethereal aether.’ Because light can travel through a vacuum,
it was assumed that the vacuum must contain the medium of
light. Because the speed of light is so great, designing an
experiment to detect the presence and properties of this aether
took considerable ingenuity.

“ Since the Earth is in motion, it was expected that the flow of

aether across the Earth should produce a detectable ‘aether
wind.’ Although it would be possible, in theory, for the Earth's
motion to match that of the aether at one moment in time, it was
not possible for the Earth to remain at rest with respect to the
aether at all times, because of the variation in both the direction
and the speed of the motion.

“ At any given point on the Earth's surface, the magnitude and

direction of the wind would vary with time of day and season. By
analyzing the return speed of light in different directions at
various different times, it was thought to be possible to measure
the motion of the Earth relative to the aether.

“ The expected difference in the measured speed of light was

quite small, given that the velocity of the earth in its orbit around
the sun was about one hundredth of one percent of the speed of
light. A number of physicists had attempted to make this
measurement during the mid-1800s, but the accuracy demanded
was simply too great for existing experimental setups.

“A famous experiment took place in 1881 by two Americans,
Michelson and Morley, and what they did was to test whether
there exists such an aether by examining what happens to the
motion of light in the universe. The idea, to begin with, is rather
like going swimming in a river, so you think of the aether as
flowing past us, rather like a great stream. Supposed you swim
across to the other bank; suppose this is a hundred metres, and
you swim a hundred metres against the flow and a hundred
metres back, and you time yourself on these two swims. Well, if
you do everything exactly the same each time, there’ll be a time
difference in how long it takes you to swim 200 metres by the
route where you never go against the flow, and where you have
to against the flow and then with the flow. You would be able to
detect whether there was a flow of the stream by comparing the
round swim times. If there was no current, you should have
exactly the same time to do the two trips. What Michelson and
Morely did was to set up an experiment which timed the travel of
light on two different paths at right angles to each other. This
requires rather fancy technology and very, very high precision
measurement using what’s now become known as an
interferometer. You can shine a beam which gets split, you can
send light up and back, and you can allow light to go through
and come back. You have the distances equal, and if the light
returning is not coming back at the same moment and is slightly
out of phase, you get interference fringes, which you can
measure with fantastic precision. This great experiment which
they performed, probably the most famous null experiment in

modern physics, discerned no time travel difference for the light
in the two paths, and this, as Einstein predicted, is what you
should see if there is no aether. If there had been aether, you
would find a time travel difference. This experiment pretty much
did away with the idea that there was this extraordinary or
ethereal fluid that we were moving through. Einstein then
developed the general theory of relativity which contains the idea
that there can be so-called vacuum universes, universes which
just contain waves or gravity, they don’t contain any material at

“ The Michelson–Morley experiments, some of the most

important and famous experiments in the history of physics,
[were] performed from 1881-1887 by Albert Michelson and
Edward Morley. [They are] generally considered to be the first
strong evidence against the theory of a luminiferous aether.
Primarily for this work, Albert Michelson was awarded the Nobel
Prize in 1907.

“ (Is the aether) being considered in the undulatory state, for

example, when it carries light waves?

“ The question has a natural answer: because one cannot

dispense with the field concept, it is preferable not to introduce
in addition a carrier with hypothetical properties…”

“ 54In physics [today] there is no concept considered exactly
analogous to the aether. However, dark energy is sometimes
called quintessence due to its similarity to the classical aether.
Modern physics is full of concepts such as free space, space
foam, Planck particles, quantum wave state (QWS), zero-point
energy, quantum foam, and vacuum energy.”

“ 55When Albert Einstein created his General Theory of Relativity

in 1917 it was so complete and unerringly accurate that it
predicted the existence of black holes and described what they
would look like in enormous detail. But it took several decades of
study by mathematicians and physicists to work through the
mathematics and uncover the mysterious, dark gems that
Einstein's theory concealed. Sixty years later, black hole physics
has become a ‘cottage industry’ in astronomy, and appears
capable of explaining many unusual phenomena from stellar X-
ray sources to quasars. Black holes are about as fantastic an
object as the human mind can imagine! Take all the matter in the
sun, crunch it down into a ball less than 2 miles in diameter, and
what you get is an object completely invisible, and detectable
only by the havoc it wreaks on nearby stars and gas via its
enormous gravitational field.

P hys ic al R eview L etter 87, 211801, 19 November 2001, p. 2
A G uided T our of S trange S tellar S ys tems ,
http: // tronomyc 0.html

“ 56Big bang cosmology is based on Einstein's general theory of
relativity. It is a theory transcending both Newton's mechanics
and Einstein's special theory of relativity, introducing us to
concepts that do not exist within the older theories. Nor are these
concepts easily comprehensible by our common sense which
has been honed by organic evolution to see the world only
through a narrow set of glasses.

“ General relativity leads us to several powerful conclusions

about our cosmos: 1) special relativity is inapplicable for
describing the larger universe; 2) the concepts of distance and
motion are not absolutely defined and 3) Preexisting spacetime is
undefined. Each of these conclusions are as counter-intuitive as
the Twin Paradox or as the particle/wave dualism of quantum
mechanics. As Nobel Physicist John Wheeler once put it ‘If you
are not completely confused by quantum mechanics, you do not
understand it’ The same may be said for general relativity.

“ The first conclusion means that we cannot trust even the

insights hard won from special relativity to accurately represent
the ‘big picture’ of the universe. General relativity must replace
special relativity in cosmology because it denies a special role to
observers moving at constant velocity, extending special
relativity into the arena of accelerated observers.

Wikipedia, J uly 31, 2007, http: // ig_bang

“ Unlike all other forms of motion that have been previously
observed, cosmological 'motion' cannot be directly observed. It
can only be INFERRED from observations of the cosmological
redshift, which general relativity then TELLS US means that the
universe is expanding.

“ In big bang cosmology, galaxies are located at fixed positions

in space. They may perform small dances about these positions
in accordance with special relativity and local gravitational fields,
but the real ‘motion’ is in the literal expansion of space between
them! This is not a form of movement that any human has ever
experienced. It is, therefore, not surprising that our intuition reels
at its implication and seeks other less radical interpretations for
it including special relativity. But even the exotic language and
conundrums of special relativity cannot help us. Instead we are
forced to interrogate the mathematics of general relativity itself
for whatever landmarks it can provide. In doing so, we are left,
however, with a riddle as profound as that of the Twin Paradox,
and equally challenging to explain.

“ Space can expand faster than the speed of light in general

relativity because space does not represent matter or energy.
The displacements that arise from its dilation produce an entirely
new kind of motion for which even our special relativistically-
trained intuitions remain profoundly silent. Like that gentleman
from Main once said ‘You can't get there [to general relativity]

from here [special relativity]’. To the extent that general relativity
has been tested and found correct, we have no choice but to
accept its consequences at face value.

“ The last conclusion drawn from general relativistic cosmology

is that, unlike special relativity, it is not physically meaningful to
speak of spacetime existing independently of matter and energy.
In big bang cosmology, both space and time came into existence
along side matter and energy at ‘time zero’. If our universe
contains more than a critical density of matter and energy, its
spacetime is forever finite and bounded, in a shape analogous to
a sphere. Beyond this boundary, space and time simply do not
exist. In fact, general relativity allows the Conservation of Energy
to be suspended so that matter and energy may be created quite
literally from the nothingness of curved spacetime. General
relativity provides a means for 'jump-starting' Creation!

“ The Big Bang is a cosmological model of the universe whose

primary assertion is that the universe started from a
tremendously dense and hot state, and has been expanding ever
since. The term is also used in a narrower sense to describe the
fundamental ‘fireball’ that erupted at or close to time t=0 in the
history of the universe.

“ Observational evidence for the Big Bang includes the analysis

of the spectrum of light from galaxies, which reveal a shift
towards longer wavelengths proportional to each galaxy's

distance in a relationship described by Hubble's law. Combined
with the assumption that observers located anywhere in the
universe would make similar observations (the Copernican
principle), this suggests that space itself is expanding.
Extrapolation of this expansion back in time yields a state in the
distant past in which the universe was in a state of immense
density and temperature. This hot, dense state is the key premise
of the Big Bang. Observations now place the age of the universe
at around 13.7 billion years.

“ Theoretical support for the Big Bang comes from mathematical

models, called Friedmann models. These models show that a Big
Bang is consistent with general relativity and with the
cosmological principle, which states that the properties of the
universe should be independent of position or orientation.

“ The theory of Big Bang nucleosynthesis predicts the rates at

which various light elements are created in models of the early
universe and gives results that are generally consistent with
observations. The Big Bang model also predicts the cosmic
microwave background radiation (CMB), a background of weak
microwave radiation filling the whole universe. The discovery of
the CMB in 1964 led to general acceptance among physicists that
the Big Bang is the best model for the origin and evolution of the

“ Starting in 1924, Hubble painstakingly developed a series of
distance indicators, the forerunner of the cosmic distance ladder,
using the 100 inch Hooker telescope at Mount Wilson
Observatory. This allowed him to estimate distances to galaxies
whose redshifts had already been measured, mostly by Slipher.
In 1929, Hubble discovered a correlation between distance and
recession velocity—now known as Hubble's law. Lemaître had
already shown that this was expected, given the cosmological

“ Eventually, the observational evidence, most notably from

radio source counts, began to favor the latter. The discovery of
the cosmic microwave background radiation in 1964 secured the
Big Bang as the best theory of the origin and evolution of the
cosmos? ”
“ 57
In a famous quote by Einstein, ‘...time and space are modes
by which we think and not conditions in which we live’. Steven
Hawking has looked at the mathematics of this state using the
fledgling physics of Quantum Gravity Theory, and confirms that
at the Big Bang, time was murdered in the most thorough way
imaginable. It may have been converted into just another
‘timeless’ dimension of space...or so the mathematics seems to
suggest. ”
Odenwald, S ten. T he B ig B ang Was Not a F ireworks Dis play! P ublis hed in the
Was hington P os t, Horizon educ ation s upplement, May 14, 1997.
http: // tronomyc os m/bang.html

“ 58Heisenberg's uncertainty principle also underlies one of the
most bizarre aspects of quantum theory. The vacuum of space-
time is by no means ‘nothing.’ It is a foaming sea of constantly
bubbling particles that flash into existence for fleeting
microseconds only to be absorbed back into the mother sea from
which they momentarily borrowed a tiny bit of energy.

“ Time and energy, like position and momentum, also are subject
to the uncertainty relation. If the time during which energy is
measured is known exactly, the amount of energy becomes
uncertain. The shorter the time interval, the greater the
uncertainty. When the interval is short enough, it allows energy
to appear from nowhere in the vacuum of space provided it
vanishes fast enough back into the mother sea to preserve the
vacuum's overall zero energy.

“ Every type of particle known is believed to emerge briefly from

the churning vacuum, the lighter particles such as electrons and
photons more frequently than heavier particles such as protons,
neutrons, and quarks. It is theoretically possible that a macro
object such as an apple might be created for an instant, but the
probability of this is far too low to allow it. These ghostly

S keptic al Inquirer, Ibid, p. 3, 8/1/07

particles are called ‘virtual’ to distinguish them from their ‘real’
forms that persist in time.

“ The fluctuation of particle pairs occurs within all quantum

fields, but mainly in electromagnetic and gravity fields. The
gravity field presumably generates the conjectured, but so far
undetected, massless graviton-antigraviton pairs. The energy-
time uncertainty also allows every real particle to be surrounded
by a cloud of virtual particles of all varieties that are constantly
being emitted and absorbed by the seething vacuum that
surrounds the real particle.

“ Here is how Heinz Pagels, in The Cosmic Code, describes the

vacuum of space:

“ Space looks empty only because this great creation and

destruction of all the quanta takes place over such short times
and distances. Over long distances the vacuum appears placid
and smooth - like the ocean which appears quite smooth when
we fly high above it in a jet airplane. But at the surface of the
ocean, close up to it in a small boat, the sea can be high and
fluctuating with great waves. Similarly, the vacuum fluctuates
with the creation and destruction of quanta if we look closely at

“ In 1973 physicist Edward Tryon made a startling proposal in a

two-page paper titled ‘Is the Universe a Vacuum Fluctuation?’

(Nature, Vol. 246, pp. 396-97). He suggested that a vacuum
fluctuation may have triggered the big bang! As he put it, ‘Our
universe is simply one of those things which happen from time to
time.’ This implies that space and time existed before the bang.
Other physicists have since proposed slightly different ways a
quantum fluctuation in a vacuum devoid of space and time could
create a runaway universe, though how something could
fluctuate without space and time is unclear. Of course our
universe could not emerge from absolutely nothing. There would
have to be quantum fields to fluctuate, leaving unanswered the
ultimate question of where quantum fields and their laws came
from, or why there is something rather than nothing. ”
“ 59Albert Einstein was the first well-known scientist who spent
most of his life trying to find a TOE; he believed that the only task
was to unify general relativity and electromagnetism.

“ Current mainstreams physics concepts require a TOE [Theory

of Everything] to unify all the fundamental interactions of nature,
which are usually considered to be four in number: gravity, the
strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, and the
electromagnetic force; it should also explain the spectrum of
elementary particles. There has been progress toward a TOE in
unifying electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force in an

Wikipedia, http: // heory_of_everything

electroweak unified field theory and in unifying all the forces
except for gravity (which in the present theory of general
relativity is not a force) in the grand unification theory. One
missing piece in a theory of everything involves combining
quantum mechanics and general relativity into a theory of
quantum gravity. Physicists believe this unification is possible
due to the fact that the current theoretic ideas seem to converge
towards a single theory. For example, from general relativity it is
known that gravity travels at the speed of light and not
instantaneous[ly] as predicted by Newton. This seems to show
some kind of underlying symmetry, as it is peculiar that both
gravity and electromagnetism propagates at the speed of light.”

“ One of the biggest mysteries in cosmology could be explained
by a controversial theory in which the universe explodes into
existence, not just once, but repeatedly in endless cycles of
death and rebirth.”

“ 61As Einstein said…if Michelson-Morely is wrong, then relativity

is wrong.”

“ 62As one of the leptons, the electron is viewed as one of the

fundamental particles. It is a fermion of spin 1/2 and therefore

s pac e.c om – R ec yc led Univers e T heory C ould S olve C os mic Mys tery ,
http: //www.s pac e.c om/s c ienc eas tronomy/060508_mm_c yc lic _univers e.html
E ins tein: T he L ife A nd T imes , C lark, 1971, World P ublis hing C ompany, p. 78
E lec tron A nd P os itron,
http: //hyperphys ic s .phy-as e/partic les /lepton.html

constrained by the Pauli exclusion principle, a fact that has key
implications for the building up of the periodic table of
elements. ”
“ 63In physics, a lepton is a particle with spin-1/2 (a fermion) that
does not experience the strong interaction (that is, the strong
nuclear force). The leptons form a family of elementary particles
that are distinct from the other known family of fermions, the

“ There are three known flavors of lepton: the electron, the muon,
and the tau. Each flavor is represented by a pair of particles
called a weak doublet. One is a massive charged particle that
bears the same name as its flavor (like the electron). The other is
a nearly massless neutral particle called a neutrino (such as the
electron neutrino). All six of these particles have corresponding
antiparticles (such as the positron or the electron antineutrino).
All known charged leptons have a single unit of negative or
positive electric charge (depending on whether they are particles
or antiparticles) and all of the neutrinos and antineutrinos have
zero electric charge. The charged leptons have two possible spin
states, while only one helicity is observed for the neutrinos (all
the neutrinos are left-handed, and all the antineutrinos are right-

Wikipedia, http: // epton

“ The masses of the leptons also obey a simple relation, known
as the Koide formula, but at present this relationship cannot be

“ When particles interact, generally the number of leptons of the

same type (electrons and electron neutrinos, muons and muon
neutrinos, tau leptons and tau neutrinos) remains the same. This
principle is known as conservation of lepton number.
Conservation of the number of leptons of different flavors (for
example, electron number or muon number) may sometimes be
violated (as in neutrino oscillation). A much stronger
conservation law is the total number of leptons of all flavors,
which is violated by a tiny amount in the Standard Model by the
so-called chiral anomaly.

“ The couplings of the leptons to gauge bosons are flavor-

independent. This property is called lepton universality and has
been tested in measurements of the tau and muon lifetimes and
of Z-boson partial decay widths, particularly at the SLC and LEP

“ Electrons are a well-known examples that are found in ordinary

matter. There are six leptons: the electron, muon, and tau
particles and their associated neutrinos. The different varieties of
the elementary particles are commonly called ‘flavors’, and the
neutrinos here are considered to have distinctly different flavor.
Of the six leptons, three have electrical charge and three don't.

The best known charged lepton is the electron (e). The other two
charged leptons are the muon (µ) and the tau (), which are
essentially electrons with a lot more mass. The charged leptons
are all negative. ”
“ The tau lepton (often called the tau, tau particle, or occasionally
the tauon, symbol) is a negatively charged elementary particle
with a lifetime of 2.90×10-13 seconds and a mass of 1777 MeV/c2
(compared to 938 MeV/c2 for protons and 0.511 MeV/c2 for
electrons). It has an associated antiparticle (the anti-tau) and
neutrinos (the tau neutrino and tau antineutrino).

“ The tau lepton belongs to the 3rd generation of leptons. It is the

third generation counterpart of the electron (1st generation) and
the muon (2nd generation). Like the electron and muon, the tau
lepton appears to be pointlike; no structure has been detected,
and if there is any, it would have to be on a scale of less than 10-
18 meters. Also, like the electron and muon, the tau has a spin of

“ The tau lepton and its antiparticle carry the same electric
charges as the electron and positron, respectively.

“ Feynman diagram[ed] the common decays of the tau lepton by

emission of a W boson.

“ The tau is the only lepton that can decay into hadrons—the
other leptons do not have the necessary mass. Like the other
decay modes of the tau lepton, the hadronic decay is through the
weak interaction.

“ Since tau-like lepton number is conserved in weak decays, a

tau neutrino is created when a tau lepton decays to a muon or

“ The tau lepton was detected in a series of experiments between

1974 and 1977 by Martin Lewis Perl with his colleagues at the
SLAC-LBL group. Their equipment consisted of SLAC's then-new
e+-e colliding ring, called SPEAR, and the LBL magnetic
detector. They could detect and distinguish between leptons,
hadrons and photons. They did not detect the tau lepton directly,
but rather discovered anomalous events:

“ The need for at least 2 undetected particles was shown by the

inability to conserve energy and momentum with only one.
However, no other muons, electrons, photons, or hadrons were
detected. It was proposed that this event was the production and
subsequent decay of a new particle pair:

“ Martin Perl shared the 1995 Nobel Prize for physics with
Frederick Reines. The latter was awarded his share of the prize

for detecting the neutrino.

“ The positron is the antiparticle of the electron, and when a
positron enters any normal matter, it will find an abundant supply
of electrons with which to annihilate. The energy released by the
annihilation forms two highly energetic gamma rays, and if one
assumes that the momenta of the positron and electron before
the annihilation, the two gamma ray photons must travel in
opposite directions in order to conserve momentum.

“ These coincident gamma rays at 180 degrees provide a useful

analysis tool. For one thing, eliminating all gamma events which
are not coincident at 180 degrees improves the signal-to-noise
ratio of experiments using positron annihilation. Another
interesting application is the use of the coincident gammas to
locate the source by back projecting. This is used in medical PET

“ The tau is the most massive of the leptons, having a rest mass
some 3490 times the mass of the electron, also a lepton. Its mass
is some 17 times that of the muon, the other massive lepton.

“ Muons make up more than half of the cosmic radiation at sea

level, the remainder being mostly electrons, positrons and
photons from cascade events. (Richtmyer) The average sea level
muon flux is about 1 muon per square centimeter per minute.

“ The muon is a lepton which decays to form an electron or


“ The fact that the above decay is a three-particle decay is an
example of the conservation of lepton number; there must be one
electron neutrino and one muon neutrino or antineutrino in the

“ The lifetime of the muon is 2.20 microseconds. The muon is

produced in the upper atmosphere by the decay of pions
produced by cosmic rays:

“ Measuring the flux of muons of cosmic ray origin at different

heights above the earth is an important time dilation experiment
in relativity.

“ Leptons and quarks are the basic building blocks of matter, i.e.,
they are seen as the ‘elementary particles’. There are six leptons
in the present structure, the electron, muon, and tau particles
and their associated neutrinos. The different varieties of the
elementary particles are commonly called ‘flavors’, and the
neutrinos here are considered to have distinctly different flavor.

“ Important principles for all particle interactions are the

conservation of lepton number and the the conservation of
baryon number.

“ Now that we have experimental evidence for six leptons, a

relevant question is ‘Are there more?’. The present standard

model assumes that there are no more than three generations.
One of the pieces of experimental evidence for that is the
measured hydrogen/helium abundance ratio in the universe.
When the process of nucleosynthesis from the big bang is
modeled, the number of types of neutrinos affects the abundance
of helium. The observed abundance agrees with three types of
neutrinos. ”
“ 64Several concepts in science are inter-related. The concepts:
Magnetic field, electric current and electrons constitute a group
of concepts in science, which are inter-related in a particular
fashion. Maxwell's equation relating an electric current to a
magnetic field is one such relation. Thus an electric current,
which is due to the motion of electrons, leads to a magnetic field
around the current carrying conductor. One may draw an analogy
between this relation with the relation ‘gravitation is the cause of
attraction between two bodies which leads to acceleration,’
between the concepts gravitation attraction and acceleration.
Using such relations we can explain a wide variety of
phenomena. For example, the relation between a electrons in
motion with magnetic field helps us to explain why there is an
electric current that can be detected in a coil of copper wire when
a magnet is brought close to it. As a scientist, we all learn to

Subatomic Particles: from Electrons to Quarks, by Rakesh Mohan Hallen, Published in
Science Reporter, New Delhi, India,

accept these relations are the basic axioms of science that
cannot (or need not?) be explained.

“ Elementary particles are particles, which are believed to make

up all particles so far observed. There are three main classes of
elementary particles. These are Quarks, Leptons and Field carrier
particles. Quarks make up the protons, neutrons and several
other particles like them (at present we know six kinds of
quarks). Leptons, which include particles like electrons, are also
six in number. The field carrier bosons, which include the well-
known photon and are said to be responsible for the [weak

“ One cannot explain why many protons carrying positive

charge, can exist close to each other in a stable nucleus of an
atom, using the concepts of the more familiar forces: the
gravitational force -- the force between all particles that have
mass, and the electromagnetic force – the force between all
particles having electric charge. Therefore, scientists had to
introduce the concepts of two other forces to explain the stability
of an atomic nucleus. These two forces are known as the ‘strong
force’ and the ‘weak force’. The strong nuclear force originates in
an attribute of particles known as ‘colour.’ This property which
has no connection with colour in the usual sense of the word, is
somewhat analogous to electric charge. Just as the electric
charge is the source of electromagnetic force, so colour is the
source of the strong force. Particles without colour, such as

leptons (a class of fundamental particles that respond only to
electromagnetic, weak and gravitational forces and do no take
part in strong interactions, electrons belong to this class), do not
feel the strong force. Only particles with colour, principally the
quarks, feel the strong force. It is a very short-range force. The
strong force binds quarks together in clusters to make more
familiar subatomic particles, such as protons and neutrons.

“ There are three possible ‘colours’ of the quarks: red blue and
green. Protons and neutrons have a net colour of zero and only
combinations of quarks having net colour zero are accorded
stability by the strong force. The strong force also depends on
the spin orientation of the nucleons (protons and neutrons). This
dependence adds to the complexity of this force. In an atomic
nucleus, the strong force between the protons and neutrons
(which does not depend on the electric charge on the nucleons)
competes with the electromagnetic force (which depends on the
charge). When the strong force is able to overcome the
electromagnetic force, the nuclei is stable. However, nuclei
having a number neutrons mach larger than the number of
protons are inherently unstable (radioactive) because the
stability of the combination due to strong force is less than the
unstability due to the electromagnetic force.

“ Not all-conceivable interactions between the various particles

are possible. Particle physicists have found a set of conservation
rules, which must be fulfilled, for an interaction to be possible.

Thus there are rules for conservation of mass; conservation of
charge, spin, etc. etc. The concept of graviton is a particle, which
can be said to be responsible for the gravitational force. It is just
like photons, which can be held responsible for the
electromagnetic force. Another group of particles, known as
gluons, is held to be responsible for the strong force has been
postulated but its acceptance by the scientific community awaits
experimental evidence. Thus the question why gravitons do not
result from a collision of neutrinos cannot be attempted as yet. ”
“ 65Scientists believe that the number of electrons existing in the
known universe is at least 10>9. This number amounts to an
average density of about one electron per cubic metre of space.
Astronomers have estimated that 90% of the mass of atoms in
the universe is hydrogen, which is made of one electron and one
proton. ”
“ 66The electromagnetic field is a physical field produced by
electrically charged objects. It affects the behavior of charged
objects in the vicinity of the field. ”
“ The electromagnetic fields extends indefinitely throughout
space and describes the electromagnetic interaction. It is one of
the four (4) fundamental forces of nature (the others are 1)
gravitation; 2) the weak interaction and the 3) strong interaction).

“ The electromagnetic field is a physical field produced by
electrically charged objects. It affects the behavior of charged
objects in the vicinity of the field.

“ The field can be viewed as the combination of an electric field

and a magnetic field. The electric field is produced by stationery
charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (current);
these two are often described as the sources of the field. The
way in which charges and currents interact with the
electromagnetic field is described by Maxwell’s equation and the
Lorentz Force Law. ”
“ 67
Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some
subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic
interaction. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and
produces, electromagnetic fields. The interaction between a
moving charge and an electromagnetic field is the source of the
electromagnetic force, which is one of the four fundamental

“ Electric charge is a characteristic of some subatomic particles,

and is quantized when expressed as a multiple of the so-called
elementary charge e. Electrons by convention have a charge of -
1, while protons have the opposite charge of +1. Quarks have a


fractional charge of 1/3 or +2/3. The antiparticle equivalents of
these have the opposite charge. There are other charged

“ In general, same-sign charged particles repel one another,

while different-sign charged particles attract. This is expressed
quantitatively in Coulomb's law, which states the magnitude of
the repelling force is proportional to the product of the two
charges, and weakens proportionately to the square of the

“ The electric charge of a macroscopic object is the sum of the

electric charges of its constituent particles. Often, the net electric
charge is zero, since naturally the number of electrons in every
atom is equal to the number of the protons, so their charges
cancel out. Situations in which the net charge is non-zero are
often referred to as static electricity. Furthermore, even when the
net charge is zero, it can be distributed non-uniformly (e.g., due
to an external electric field), and then the material is said to be
polarized, and the charge related to the polarization is known as
bound charge (while the excess charge brought from outside is
called free charge). An ordered motion of charged particles in a
particular direction (in metals, these are the electrons) is known
as electric current. The discrete nature of electric charge was
proposed by Michael Faraday in his electrolysis experiments,
then directly demonstrated by Robert Millikan in his oil-drop
experiment. ”
“ 68Faraday's law of induction (more generally, the law of
electromagnetic induction) states that the induced emf
(electromotive force) in a closed loop equals the negative of the
time rate of change of magnetic flux through the loop. This
simply means that the induced emf is proportional to the rate of
change of the magnetic flux through a coil.

“ In layman's terms, moving a conductor (such as a metal wire)

through a magnetic field produces a voltage. The resulting
voltage is directly proportional to the speed of movement:
moving the conductor twice as fast produces twice the voltage.
(The magnetic field, the direction of movement, and the voltage
are all at right angles to each other. ”
“ 69An electrical circuit is a network that has a closed loop, giving
a return path for the current.”

“ 70In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the

presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called
an electric field. This electric field exerts a force on other
electrically charged objects. The concept of electric field was
introduced by Michael Faraday.

Faraday's Law Of Induction, Wikipedia


“ Electric fields contain electrical energy with energy density
proportional to the square of the field intensity. The electric field
is to charge as acceleration is to mass and force density is to

“A moving charge has not just an electric field but also a

magnetic field, and in general the electric and magnetic fields are
not completely separate phenomena; what one observer
perceives as an electric field, another observer in a different
frame of reference perceives as a mixture of electric and
magnetic fields. For this reason, one speaks of
‘electromagnetism’ or ‘electromagnetic fields.’ In quantum
mechanics, disturbances in the electromagnetic fields are called
photons, and the energy of photons is quantized.

“ Similarities between electrostatic and gravitational forces:

1. Both act in a vacuum.
2. Both are central and conservative.
3. Both obey an inverse-square law (both are inversely
proportional to square of r).
4. Both propagate with finite speed c.

“ Differences between electrostatic and gravitational forces:

1. Electrostatic forces are much greater than gravitational
forces (by about 1036 times).
2. Gravitational forces are attractive for like charges,
whereas electrostatic forces are repulsive for like
3. There are no negative gravitational charges (no
negative mass) while there are both positive and
negative electric charges. This difference combined
with previous implies that gravitational forces are
always attractive, while electrostatic forces may be
either attractive or repulsive.
4. Electric charges are invariant under Lorentz
transformations while gravitational charges (relativistic
mass) are not. ”
“ 71In physics, Ampère's circuital law, discovered by André-Marie
Ampère, relates the circulating magnetic field in a closed loop to
the electric current passing through the loop. It is the magnetic
equivalent of Gauss's law.

“ Corrected Ampère's circuital law: the Ampère-Maxwell equation

James Clerk Maxwell conceived of displacement current as a
polarization current in the dielectric vortex sea which he used to
model the magnetic field hydrodynamically and mechanically. He
added this displacement current to Ampère's Circuital law at


equation (112) in his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force
( ”
“ 72In physics and mathematical analysis, Gauss's law is the
electrostatic application of the generalized Gauss's theorem
giving the equivalence relation between any flux, e.g. of liquids,
electric or gravitational, flowing out of any closed surface and
the result of inner sources and sinks, such as electric charges or
masses enclosed within the closed surface. The law was
developed by Carl Friedrich Gauss. By Divergence theorem
generalized Gauss's law can be used in any context where the
inverse-square law holds. Electrostatics and Newtonian
gravitation are two examples. The differential form of four
equations underpins electromagnetic theory. ”
“ The gravitational form of Gauss's Law is largely a theoretical
curiosity, but can be used by analogy to the electrostatic form of
Gauss's Law to prove that the gravitational force of any body on
any other body can be treated as though both masses were
concentrated at their centers. Like the electric field, the magnetic
field exerts force on electric charge — but unlike an electric field,
it exerts force only on a moving charge, and the direction of the
force is orthogonal to both magnetic field and charge's
velocity. ”


“ 73A changing electromagnetic field propagates away from its
origin in the form of a wave. These waves travel in vacuum at the
speed of light and exist in a wide spectrum of wavelengths.
Examples of the dynamic fields of electromagnetic radiation (in
order of increasing frequency): radio waves, microwaves, light
(infrared, visible light and ultraviolet), x-rays and gamma rays. In
the field of particle physics this electromagnetic radiation is the
manifestation of the electromagnetic interaction between
charged particles. ”
“ 74An electron cannot leave its proton neutron core too far
because of the strong proton pull… When a circuit is closed,
negative ions in the cell release an electron, side by side, the
particular electron is inserted into one conductor atom and the
conductor atom releases one electron. ”
“ 75An electric current i flowing around a circuit produces a
magnetic field and hence a magnetic flux Ø through the circuit.
The ratio of the magnetic flux to the current is called the
inductance, or more accurately, self-inductance of the circuit.
(term coined by Oliver Heavyside in February 1886.)

A natomy Of E lec tric al C onduc tion, Wikipedia
T rans vers e E lec tric Waves , Wikipedia

“ Any two adjacent conductors can be considered as a capacitor,
although the capacitance will be small unless the conductors are
close together or long. ”
“ 76Electric potential may be conceived of as ‘electric pressure’.
Where this ‘pressure’ is uniform, no current flows and nothing
happens. This is similar to why people do not feel normal
atmospheric air pressure: there is no difference between the
pressure inside the body and outside, so nothing is felt.
However, where this electrical pressure varies, it produces an
electric field, which will create a force on charged particles. ”
“ 77Coulomb's law, which describes the interaction of electric
charges is similar to the Newtonian gravitation law. This
suggests similarities between the electric field E and the
gravitational field g, so sometimes mass is called ‘gravitational

“ Electric potential is the potential energy per unit of charge

associated with a static (time-invariant) electric field, also called
the electrostatic potential, typically measured in volts. It is a
scalar quantity.

“ There is also a generalized electric scalar potential that is used

in electrodynamics when time-varying electromagnetic fields are
E lec tros tatic C harge, E xplanation, Wikipedia

present. This generalized electric potential cannot be simply
interpreted as a potential energy, however.

“ Electric potential may be conceived of as ‘electric pressure’.

Where this "pressure" is uniform, no current flows and nothing
happens. This is similar to why people do not feel normal
atmospheric air pressure: there is no difference between the
pressure inside the body and outside, so nothing is felt.
“ However, where this electrical pressure varies, it produces an
electric field, which will create a force on charged particles.

“ Classical mechanics explores the concepts such as force,

energy, potential etc. in more detail.

“ Force and potential energy are directly related. As an object

moves in the direction that the force accelerates it, its potential
energy decreases. For example, the gravitational potential energy
of a cannonball at the top of a hill is greater than at the base of
the hill.

“ As the object falls, that potential energy decreases and is

translated to motion, or inertial (kinetic) energy.

“ For certain forces, it is possible to define the ‘potential’ of a

field such that the potential energy of an object due to a field is
dependent only on the position of the object with respect to the
field. Those forces must affect objects depending only on the

intrinsic properties of the object and the position of the object,
and obey certain other mathematical rules.

“ Two such forces are the gravitational force (gravity) and the
electric force in the absence of time-varying magnetic fields. The
potential of an electric field is called the electric potential.

“ The electric potential and the magnetic vector potential

together form a four vector, so that the two kinds of potential are
mixed under Lorentz transformations. ”
“ 78Magnetic flux is a measure of quantity of magnetism, taking
account of the strength and the extent of a magnetic field. The SI
unit of magnetic flux is the weber (in derived units: volt-
seconds), and the unit of magnetic field intensity is the weber per
square meter, or tesla.

“ The flux through an element of area perpendicular to the
direction of magnetic field is given by the product of the
magnetic field and the area element. More generally, magnetic
flux is defined by a scalar product of the magnetic field and the
area element vector. Gauss's law for magnetism, which is one of
the four Maxwell's equations, states that the total magnetic flux


through a closed surface is zero. This law is a consequence of
the empirical observation that magnetic monopoles do not exist
or are not measurable. ”
“ 79In physics, a magnetic field is a solenoidal vector field in the
space surrounding moving electric charges and magnetic
dipoles, such as those in electric currents and magnets. Where
such a field is present, magnetic force acts on other such bodies.
All materials respond to a magnetic field to some degree, by
opposing it or being attracted to it.

“ In the static case of a bar magnet or other situation where the

generator of a magnetic field is at rest with respect to the
observer, the integral form of Gauss's Law can be proven using a
heuristic argument regarding the net flux proportionality to the
number of field lines that enter and leave a Gaussian surface. ”
“ The direction of a magnetic field can be demonstrated with
magnetic dipoles; magnetic dipoles in a magnetic field align
themselves to be parallel with the field lines, as can be seen
when iron filings are in the presence of a magnet. Unlike the
electric field, the force exerted by a magnetic field on a charged
particle is perpendicular to both the field and the velocity the
particle. Magnetic fields also have an energy density proportional
to the square of the field intensity.


“ The rotating magnetic field is a key principle in the operation of
alternating-current motors. A permanent magnet in such a field
will rotate so as to maintain its alignment with the external field.
This effect was conceptualized by Nikola Tesla, and later utilised
in his, and others, early AC (alternating-current) electric motors.
A rotating magnetic field can be constructed using two
orthogonal coils with 90 degrees phase difference in their AC
currents. However, in practice such a system would be supplied
through a three-wire arrangement with unequal currents. This
inequality would cause serious problems in standardization of
the conductor size and so, in order to overcome it, three-phase
systems are used where the three currents are equal in
magnitude and have 120 degrees phase difference. Three similar
coils having mutual geometrical angles of 120 degrees will create
the rotating magnetic field in this case. The ability of the three-
phase system to create a rotating field, utilized in electric motors,
is one of the main reasons why three-phase systems dominate
the world's electrical power supply systems.

“ Because magnets degrade with time, synchronous motors and

induction motors use short-circuited rotors (instead of a magnet)
following the rotating magnetic field of a multicoiled stator. The
short-circuited turns of the rotor develop eddy currents in the
rotating field of the stator, and these currents in turn move the
rotor by the Lorentz force.

“ In 1882, Nikola Tesla identified the concept of the rotating
magnetic field. In 1885, Galileo Ferraris independently
researched the concept. In 1888, Tesla gained U.S. Patent
381,968 for his work. Also in 1888, Ferraris published his
research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin.

“ According to special relativity, electric and magnetic forces are

part of a single physical phenomenon; an electric field perceived
by one observer will be perceived by another observer in a
different frame of reference as a mixture of electric fields and
magnetic fields.

“A moving charge has not just an electric field but also a

magnetic field, and in general the electric and magnetic fields are
not completely separate phenomena; what one observer
perceives as an electric field, another observer in a different
frame of reference perceives as a mixture of electric and
magnetic fields. For this reason, one speaks of
‘electromagnetism’ or ‘electromagnetic fields.’ In quantum
mechanics, disturbances in the electromagnetic fields are called
photons, and the energy of photons is quantized.

“ There are three different arguments for this assertion. The

earliest of these arguments came about in 1905 with Einstein's
famous paper on the special theory of relativity. A Lorentz
transformation is applied to Heaviside's versions of Maxwell's

equations and this results in the appearance of the magnetic
force term vXB.

“ In 1963, Edmund Purcell published another argument in which

he applied the Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction to a neutral current
carrying wire in order to invoke an electric charge density. The
principle behind Purcell's derivation was that the relativistic
gamma factor combined with the induced charge was able to
convert the Coulomb force into the vXB force.

“ More recently, textbooks on electromagnetism have been

mentioning yet another relativistic approach in which the four
vector for current density might be used to introduce an electric
current term into the Coulomb force such as to convert it into the
Biot-Savart law.

“ When an electric charge is moving from the perspective of an

observer, the electric field of this charge due to space
contraction is no longer seen by the observer as spherically
symmetric due to non-radial time dilation, and it must be
computed using the Lorentz transformations. One of the
products of these transformations is the part of the electric field
which only acts on moving charges — and we call it the
"magnetic field". It is a relativistic manifestation of the more
fundamental electric field.

“ The quantum-mechanical motion of electrons in atoms
produces the magnetic fields of permanent ferromagnets.
Spinning charged particles also have magnetic moment. Some
electrically neutral particles (like the neutron) with non-zero spin
also have magnetic moment due to the charge distribution in
their inner structure. Particles with zero spin never have
magnetic moment which is the consequence that a magnetic field
is the result of motion of electric field.

“ A magnetic field is a vector field: it associates with every point

in space a (pseudo) vector that may vary through time. The
direction of the field is the equilibrium direction of a magnetic
dipole (like a compass needle) placed in the field.

“ The Lorentz transformation of a spherically-symmetric proper

electric field E of a moving electric charge (for example, the
electric field of an electron moving in a conducting wire) from the
charge's reference frame to the reference frame of a non-moving
observer results in the following term which we can define or
label as ‘magnetic field’.

“ Maxwell did much to unify static electricity and magnetism,

producing a set of four equations relating the two fields.
However, under Maxwell's formulation, there were still two
distinct fields describing different phenomena. It was Albert
Einstein who showed, using special relativity, that electric and
magnetic fields are two aspects of the same thing (a rank-2

tensor), and that one stationary observer may perceive a
magnetic force where a moving observer perceives only an
electric Field. Thus, using special relativity, magnetic forces are a
manifestation of electric fields of charges in motion and may be
predicted from knowledge of the electric fields and the velocity of
movement (relative to some observer) of the charges.

“A thought experiment one can do to show this is with two

identical infinite and parallel lines of charge having no motion
relative to each other but moving together relative to an
observer. Another observer is moving alongside the two lines of
charge (at the same velocity) and observes only electrostatic
repulsive force and acceleration. The first or ‘stationary’ observer
seeing the two lines (and second observer) moving past with
some known velocity also observes that the "moving" observer's
clock is ticking more slowly (due to time dilation) and thus
observes the repulsive acceleration of the lines of charge more
slowly than that which the ‘moving’ observer sees. The reduction
of repulsive acceleration can be thought of as an added attractive
force, in a classical electrodynamics context, that reduces the
electrostatic repulsive force and also increases in magnitude
with increasing velocity. This pseudo-force is precisely the same
as the electromagnetic force in a classical context. ”

“ 80When a photon has quantum energy higher than the rest
mass energy of an electron plus a positron, one of the ways that
such a photon interacts with matter is by producing and electron-
positron pair.

“ The rest mass energy of the electron is 0.511 MeV, so for

photon energy above 1.022MeV, pair production is possible. For
photon energies far above this threshold, pair production
becomes the dominant mode for the interaction of x-rays and
gamma-rays with matter. ”
“ 81First of all, matter and energy are both composed of quanta
and today are considered to be merely two different aspects of
the same thing, which could be called, in the tradition of
spacetime, matterenergy. ”
“ 82Quantum mechanics can be used to describe spacetime as
being “bitty” at extremely small scales, fluctuating and
generating particle pairs that appear and disappear incredibly
quickly. Instead of being ‘smooth’, the vacuum is described as
looking like ‘quantum foam’. It has been suggested that this
seething mass of virtual particles may be the equivalent in
modern physics of a particular aether. ”
Wikipedia, J uly 26, 2007, http: // ether_theories

“ 83Zero-Point Energy (ZPE) is a term for the energy that
constantly fluctuates in the vacuum of space and at the heart of
all matter. ZPE keeps the atom constantly jiggling. (Werner)
Heisenberg’s famous uncertainty principle forbids it to become
motionless… The incessant fluttering of all particles when at
absolute zero has been verified in numerous ways… In the
famous Casimir effect, ZPE forces two parallel metal plates to
move closer together. ZPE causes low-level noise in microwave
receivers. It plays a role in the surface tension of liquids, in
images on eye retinas, in the scattering of light that makes the
sky blue, and many other physical phenomena. In Cosmology, it
sends out radiation from black holes. Its pressure prevents
gravity from collapsing white dwarf stars. ”
“ 84In particle physics, we’re familiar with the role of the vacuum
in very subtle and sophisticated ways. If you take an electron and
you put it down in a vacuum, that vacuum is full of particles of
negative and positive electric charge, appearing and
disappearing all the time on immeasurably short time intervals,
once you put the electron down, the oppositely charged,
positively charged virtual electrons in the vacuum all get slightly
attracted to this electron and surround it with a shield of positive
charge. So if you fire in another electron, it doesn’t interact and

S keptic al Inquirer: Zero-P oint E nergy, Martin G ardner, 8/1/07, pp. 2, 3


scatter as strongly as you might have thought. If it comes in with
a rather low energy, it doesn’t get a look at the negative charge at
the centre at all; it just sees the positive shield, and deflects
rather weakly. If you throw it in at high energy, then it goes right
through the penetrating shield and gets a look at the full negative
charge in the middle and deflects strongly. This can all be
measured, checked, rather precisely. It’s like having two hard
billiard balls, and you surround one with a woolly cloth cover. If
you throw the other ball in rather gently, it will tend just to
interact with the cloth cover, but if you throw it in rather hard,
then it will really bang into the ball and it will rebound strongly.
This is known as asymptotic freedom: as the energy becomes
greater, the electromagnetic interaction becomes stronger. The
Nobel Prize was given in physics this year for that discovery, to
Wilczek, Gross and Politzer. ”
“ 85Yet, our quest for an understanding of the origins of the
universe remains incomplete since gravity has yet to be brought
into unity with the remaining forces on a theoretical basis. ”
“Vacuum, unlimited in extent, of much higher quality than that
obtainable on earth and free from particulate and gaseous
contaminations. ”

T he Dec ay Of T he F als e V ac uum, S ten Odenwald, p. 5 of 5, 1983, K almbac h P ublis hing,
T he S pac e R eview, Marc h 22, 2004, J eff F ous t

“ 86Heisenberg's uncertainty principle also underlies one of the
most bizarre aspects of quantum theory. The vacuum of space-
time is by no means ‘nothing.’ It is a foaming sea of constantly
bubbling particles that flash into existence for fleeting
microseconds only to be absorbed back into the mother sea from
which they momentarily borrowed a tiny bit of energy.

“ Time and energy, like position and momentum, also are subject
to the uncertainty relation. If the time during which energy is
measured is known exactly, the amount of energy becomes
uncertain. The shorter the time interval, the greater the
uncertainty. When the interval is short enough, it allows energy
to appear from nowhere in the vacuum of space provided it
vanishes fast enough back into the mother sea to preserve the
vacuum's overall zero energy.

“ This energy that randomly pops out of empty space takes the
form of particle-antiparticle pairs that mutually annihilate. This
happens much too fast to be observed, but can be inferred from
other phenomena. On the average, the pairs exist for about
0.00000 00000 00000 00000 1 of a second, with a maximum
distance between them of about 0.00000 00001 of a centimeter.

S keptic al Inquirer, Ibid, p. 3, 8/1/07

“ Every type of particle known is believed to emerge briefly from
the churning vacuum, the lighter particles such as electrons and
photons more frequently than heavier particles such as protons,
neutrons, and quarks. It is theoretically possible that a macro
object such as an apple might be created for an instant, but the
probability of this is far too low to allow it. These ghostly
particles are called ‘virtual’ to distinguish them from their ‘real’
forms that persist in time.

“ The fluctuation of particle pairs occurs within all quantum

fields, but mainly in electromagnetic and gravity fields. The
gravity field presumably generates the conjectured, but so far
undetected, massless graviton-antigraviton pairs. The energy-
time uncertainty also allows every real particle to be surrounded
by a cloud of virtual particles of all varieties that are constantly
being emitted and absorbed by the seething vacuum that
surrounds the real particle.

“ In 1973 physicist Edward Tryon made a startling proposal in a

two-page paper titled ‘Is the Universe a Vacuum Fluctuation?’
(Nature, Vol. 246, pp. 396-97). He suggested that a vacuum
fluctuation may have triggered the big bang! As he put it, ‘Our
universe is simply one of those things which happen from time to
time.’ This implies that space and time existed before the bang.
Other physicists have since proposed slightly different ways a
quantum fluctuation in a vacuum devoid of space and time could
create a runaway universe, though how something could

fluctuate without space and time is unclear. Of course our
universe could not emerge from absolutely nothing. There would
have to be quantum fields to fluctuate, leaving unanswered the
ultimate question of where quantum fields and their laws came
from, or why there is something rather than nothing. ”
“ 87Since a ‘perfect vacuum’ contains no charged particles,
vacuums normally behave as perfect insulators.

“ Metals are good conductors of electricity and heat because

they have unfilled space in the valence energy bond. ”
“ 88As we approach the end of the Planck Era, the random
appearance and disappearance of innumerable gravitons will
eventually force us to give up the concept of a specific geometry
to 3-dimensional space. Instead, the geometry at a given moment
will have to be thought of as an average over all 3-dimensional
space geometries that are possible. Once again, the reason for
this is that particles are squeezed so closely together that we can
now see individual gravitons moving around in the space
between them causing space to become curved. We can no
longer get away with saying that the space between two quarks,
for example, is flat. This is what we mean when we say that the

V ac uum, Wikipedia
T he P lanc k E ra, S ten Odenwald, C opyright © 1984 K almbac h P ublis hing.

gravitational force between them is insignificant when compared
to the other three forces of Nature. ”
“ 89It is this curvature of space that results in gravity, not the
direct action of one object on another.

“ But beautiful as it was this change in gravitation theory was not

what captured the imagination of scientists and the press. It was
Einstein’s cosmological speculations of a closed, finite universe.
Gravity, Einstein argued, would curve the entire cosmos around
a four-dimensional sphere, finite but without boundaries.
Einstein’s spherical universe is static, eternally unchanging,
ruled by his eloquent equations. ”
“ 90According to theories developed since the 1930's, what we
call a 'force' is actually a collective phenomenon caused by the
exchange of innumerable, force-carrying particles called gauge
bosons. The electromagnetic force … is transmitted by gauge
bosons called photons, the strong force that binds nuclei
together is transmitted by gluons and the weak force which
causes particles to decay is transmitted by the, recently
discovered, W and Z Intermediate Vector Bosons. In an
analogous way, physicists believe that gravity is transmitted by

Newton, Mac h, E ins tein, Infinite Mas s P aradox, C os mology/A s trophys ic s , J uly 2007

The Planck Era, by Sten Odenwald, Copyright (C) 1984 Kalmbach Publishing.

particles called Gravitons. If gravity really does have such a
quantum property, its effects should appear once quarks and
electrons can be forced to within 10(-33) centimeter of one
another, a distance called the Planck length.

“ Before the universe was 10(-43) seconds old, matter routinely

experienced collisions at these energies. This period is what we
call the Planck Era.


“ Since our technology will not allow us to physically reproduce
the conditions during these ancient times, we must use our
mathematical theories of how matter behaves to mentally explore
what the universe was like then. We know that the appearance of
the universe before 10(-43) second can only be adequately
described by modifying the Big Bang theory because this theory
is, in turn, based on the General Theory of Relativity. General
Relativity tells us how gravity operates on the macroscopic scale
of planets, stars and galaxies. At the Planck scale, we need to
extend General Relativity so that it includes not only the
macroscopic properties of gravity but also its microscopic
characteristics as well. The theory of ‘Quantum Gravity’ is still far
from completion but physicists tend to agree that, at the very
least, Quantum Gravity must combine the conceptual elements of
the two great theories of modern physics: General Relativity and
Quantum Mechanics.

“ In the language of General Relativity, gravity is a consequence
of the deformation of space caused by the presence of matter
and energy. Gravity is just another name for the amount of
curvature in the geometry of 3-dimensional space. In Quantum
Gravity theory, gravity is produced by massless gravitons so that
gravitons now represent individual packages of curved space
that travel through space at the speed of light.

“ The appearance and disappearance of innumerable gravitons

gives the geometry of space a very lumpy and dynamic
appearance. John Wheeler at Princeton University thinks of this
as a foamy, sub-structure to space where the geometry of space
twists and contorts so that far flung regions of space may
suddenly find themselves connected by ‘wormholes’ which
constantly appear and disappear within 10(-43) seconds. Even as
you are reading this article, this frenetic activity is occurring in
the hyper-microscopic domain, 100 billion billion times smaller
than the nucleus of an atom. For a comparison, the size of the
sun and the size of a single atom stand in about this same
proportion. Although Quantum Gravity effects are completely
undetectable today at the atomic and nuclear scale, during the
Planck Era, macroscopic and microscopic worlds merged and
the Quantum Gravity of the microcosm suddenly became the
Quantum Cosmology of the macrocosm! ”

“ 91…The attractive force of gravity arises due to exchange of
virtual gravitons, in the same way as the electromagnetic force
arises from exchange of virtual photons. This reproduces general
relativity in the classical limit. However, this approach fails at
short distances of the order of the Planck length, where a more
complete theory of quantum gravity is required. Many believe the
complete theory to be string theory. ”
“ 92The gravitational form of Gauss's Law is largely a theoretical
curiosity, but can be used by analogy to the electrostatic form of
Gauss's Law to prove that the gravitational force of any body on
any other body can be treated as though both masses were
concentrated at their centers.

“ If the only assumption being made is that gravitational field

lines look like electrostatic ones then no prior knowledge of
Newton's work is needed. ”
“ 93The Casimir effect is a small attractive force which acts
between two close parallel uncharged conducting plates. ”
“ 94The Casimir force arises from quantum vacuum fluctuations
of the electromagnetic field. Quantum physics propounds the

P hys ic s F A Q1, Don K oks , P hillip G ibbs , 2002,
http: //www.gres .uk/printtrans c p? E ventId=258

supposition that, the universe, at a quantum level teems with
virtual particles in a continuous state of fluctuation. The Casimir
effect has been measured with respect to photons. Experiments
found this force emanating from virtual photons in a vacuum –
particles of light. – flitting in and out of existence.

“ At the heart of these experiments is the Casimir effect, a

phenomenon from quantum electrodynamics (QED). QED
dictates that all space, even empty space, is filled with an infinite
number of electrodynamic vibrations.

“ Quanta are not just things in space, even where no quanta

appear to be. ”
“ 95However, vacuum fluctuations are not some abstraction of a
physicist’s mind. The have observable consequences that can be
directly visualized in experiments on a microscopic scale. For
example, an atom in an excited state will not remain there
infinitely long, but will return to its ground state by
spontaneously emitting a photon. This phenomenon is a
consequence of vacuum fluctuations. Imagine trying to hold a
pencil upright on the end of your finger. It will stay there if your
hand is perfectly stable and nothing perturbs the equilibrium. But

P hys ic al R eview L etter 87, 211801, 19 November 2001, p. 1

“ T he C as imir F orc e…” , P hys ic s World, A s trid L ambrec ht, 9/1/2002,

the slightest perturbation will make the pencil fall into a more
stable equilibrium position. Similarly, vacuum fluctuations cause
an excited atom to fall into its ground state. ”
“ 96I mentioned my results to Niels Bohr, during a walk. That is
nice, he said, that is something new. I told him that I was puzzled
by the extremely simple form of the expressions for the
interaction at very large distances and he mumbled something
about zero-point energy. That was all, but it put me on a new
track. ”
“ 97All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed.
Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being
self-evident. ”

H. B . G . C as imir, P . W. Milonni, T he Quantum V ac uum, (A c ademic P res s , New Y ork,
A rthur S c hopenhauer


In 1919, when Hubble s tarted working as an as tronomer at

the Mount Wils on Obs ervatory, prevailing wis dom believed and
taught that the entire univers e c ons is ted of the Milky Way. T he
100-inc h Hooker T eles c ope, and Hubble, in 1924 dis c overed the
A ndromeda G alaxy. T his work, over time, fueled inc reas ed
interes t in, and inves tigation, of the univers e. Hubble’s law s tates
that the greater the dis tanc e between any two galaxies , the
greater the s peed of their s eparation.

B y 1917, E ins tein unders tood that his own general relativity
mathematic al equations required that the univers e mus t either be
expanding or c ontrac ting. E ins tein introduc ed his c os mologic al
c ons tant to pos tulate a finite s table univers e. B ut by 1935, when
E ins tein applauded (literally) the work of L emaître’s B ig B ang
T heory of the C reation of the univers e, he abandoned the
c onc ept that the univers e was eternal, s table and finite.

F ather G eorges L emaître propos ed his “ B ig B ang” theory in

1927, later expanding it to inc lude the c reation of the univers e
from an extremely dens e and hot “ c os mic egg,” or atom. E ins tein
oppos ed this expanding univers e until 1935. L emaître in his 1927
paper was a genius who even artic ulated “ Hubble’s L aw” two
years before Hubble did. T his J es uit pries t derived his B ig B ang
T heory from his analys is of E ins tein’s general relativity – even
while E ins tein held to the view of an eternal finite-s ize s tatic

univers e. In 1935, L emaître even predic ted that c os mic rays may
be left over artifac ts of the B ig B ang’s c reation of the univers e.
B efore his death in 1966, L emaître learned of proof of his theory
by P enzias and Wils on.

When P enzias and Wils on, in 1964, dis c overed the s moking
gun of c os mic mic rowave bac kground radiation, they provided
definitive proof of a “ B ig B ang,” c urrently c alc ulated as
oc c urring approximately 13.7 billion years ago.

T his res idual c os mic mic rowave bac kground radiation was
predic ted by G amow and A lpher, in 1948, in their famous
c os mogony paper, whic h importantly advanc ed the B ig B ang
theory of the c reation of the univers e. T hat paper outlined, with
great pres c ienc e, their predic tions about the univers e’s relative
perc entages of hydrogen and helium. Moreover, perhaps mos t
as tonis hingly, s aid paper predic ted that the afterglow of this B ig
B ang would now res ult in a univers e wide temperature of 5
degrees K elvin above abs olute zero. 16 years later, it was
determined that the univers e wide temperature is 2.7 degrees
K elvin above abs olute zero.

S ubs equent c os mic inflation theory work by G uth, who in

1981, propos ed the idea that the nas c ent univers e pas s ed
through a phas e of exponential expans ion that was driven by a
negative vac uum energy dens ity (pos itive vac uum pres s ure). T he

res ults of the WMA P mis s ion in 2006 made the c as e for c os mic
inflation s eem very c ompelling.

A s s uming arguendo, that F riedman, L emaître, E ins tein,

G amow, A lpher, Hubble, P enzias , Wils on, et al., have brought
genius ’ ins ights into furthering mankind’s unders tanding of the
univers e, then what? Well, the ans wer to that will develop for as
long as s entient beings and/or mac hines exis t.

Hoyle’s c onc ept of nuc leos ynthes is within s tars was firs t
publis hed in 1946. T his explained, c onvinc ingly, the pres enc e in
the univers e of elements heavier than helium. In 1948, when
G amow and A lpher publis hed a paper pos tulating that hydrogen
and helium (in their predic ted proportions as s inc e c onfirmed)
had to have been c reated in the B ig B ang, s c ienc e took a giant
s tep forward. Hoyle advanc ed this work by his theory that the
rarer elements have been c reated in s upernovas .

A lthough G amow-A lpher’s B ig B ang and Hoyle’s s teady

s tate theories have always been vigorous ly debated, they both
have been key elements advanc ing our c omprehens ion of the
his tory and future of the univers e. B oth of thes e theories have
informed me in developing my own inc hoate c os mologic al
res earc h, experiments and theories .


• E xperimental res ults of tes ting with my dark matter motor

prototype c onc lus ively prove that its input energy is
multiplied by its output energy and work.
(www.darkmattermotor.c om)

• My exemplary rotary and pis ton embodiments of this

over/unity tec hnology c an be built and operated by anyone
for the purpos e of s c ientific res earc h, with my permis s ion.

• T he over/unity tes t res ults of the dark matter motor tes t

s tand prove that the multiplied output energy does not
c ome from the neodymium iron boron magnet’s metal at all
– but rather from dis turbanc es in the fields permeating and
s urrounding the metal.

• S inc e elec tros tatic ac c retion, magnetic attrac tive and

repuls ive, elec tromagnetic and gravitational forc es exis t
throughout the Univers e, one is inexorably led to the
following logic al c onc lus ions .

• T he Univers e exis ts beyond and is greater than any

arbitrarily large value. In that s ens e, it is infinite.

• T he Univers e is A lpha and Omega – it extends from

everlas ting to everlas ting.

• T he Univers e is bounded by an elec tromagnetic minis c al

layer – it is a bubble in the V oid.

• L es s than 1 billionth of a billionth, at mos t, of the total
matter and energy of the Univers e exis ts as s omething as
large and detec table as a quark or lepton.

• T wo of the four known forc es , gravity and

elec tromagnetis m, operate throughout this Univers e. In the
c enter of the Univers e is a s mall bubble, approximately 13.7
billion years old– the “ univers al bubble” within the
Univers e.

• T he “ univers al bubble” within the Univers e als o c ontains

the s trong nuc lear forc e and the weak nuc lear forc e – the
lates t B ig B ang brought them into exis tenc e; again.

• A ll but 1 billionth of a billionth, at mos t, of the Univers e’s

matter and energy is uniformly but dynamic ally dis tributed
throughout the Univers e.

• Weakly Interac ting P aired P artic le/Waves make up all but

les s than 1 billionth of a billionth of the total matter and
energy of the Univers e – inc luding the “ univers al bubble.”

• T he “ univers al bubble” is the produc t of tiny anomalies in

the Univers e brought about by torque, the c ons ervation of
angular momentum, elec tromagnetis m and gravity –
s parked by c ompres s ion and fric tion.

• T he Univers e may be c ons idered as a bubble filled with

WIP P /Wave quantum s oup.

• T he “ univers al bubble” may be c ons idered as an expanding

bubble within the Univers e – expanding until it nears the
minis c al layer of the Univers e, where it will be turned bac k
toward a B ig C runc h and another B ig B ang, ad infinitum.

• L eptons and quarks , over 4 billion times a s ec ond, having
pic ked up energy from c utting the lines of forc e of paired
dark matter partic le/waves , power the “ univers al bubble.”

• In 1982, res earc h res ults obtained by tes ting of our firs t dark
matter motor prototype inexorably and immediately led me
to c onc lude that the “ univers al bubble” mus t be expanding
with s lowly but ever inc reas ing s peed. T his c onc lus ion was
c onfirmed in 1998.

• T he expans ion of the “ univers al bubble” will c ontinue to

ac c elerate until it nears the elec tromagnetic minis c al layer
of the Univers e. A s the “ univers al bubble” approac hes the
Univers e’s minis c al layer, it will be turned bac k toward its
next B ig C runc h.

• T he “ c os mologic al c ons tant” of E ins tein’s awes ome

imaginative genius may be s aid to exis t in the Univers e as
intrins ic properties of the WIP P /Waves .

• Hyperinflation, in light of an analys is of my dark matter

motor prototype tes t res ults , has bec ome a s uperfluous

• T he s peed of light in the quantum s oup thus really is the

Univers e’s s peed limit.

• T he “ univers al bubble” might be thought of as flec ks of

s pic e in the quantum s oup of the Univers e.

• T he Univers e quantum s oup provides the ans wer to ac tion-

at-a-dis tanc e, and is the aether, the all-pervading medium of
the propagation of all partic les and waves . E ven quarks and
leptons are c ompletely permeable to WIP P /Waves .

• Mic hels on-Morley did not des troy WIP P /Wave aether.
E ins tein’s s pec ial relativity and photoelec tric effec t did not
des troy WIP P /Wave aether. A t the Univers ity of L eiden, in
1920, E ins tein hims elf s aid “ We may s ay that ac c ording to
the general theory of relativity s pac e is endowed with
phys ic al qualities in this s ens e, therefore, there exis ts an

• S c ientis ts s hould look again at E ins tein’s s tatement: “ If

Mic hels on-Morley is wrong, then relativity is wrong.”
E ins tein did mis s the WIP P /Wave aether and that forc es
modific ations to the photoelec tric effec t, s pec ial and
general theory of relativity as s umptions and c onc lus ions .

• 98
When the “ univers al bubble” of our lates t B ig B ang was
one year old, the s eparations between the galaxies were
NOT inc reas ing at 300 times the s peed of light. T he s peed of
light is s till the Univers al s peed limit.

• S pac e c an expand fas ter than the s peed of light, ac c ording

to general relativity only if one believes that “ empty” s pac e
does not repres ent matter or energy.

• S pac e and time did not c ome into exis tenc e with the las t B ig
B ang, at “ time zero.”

• B eyond the s pheric al Univers e, s pac e and time do exis t.

• Matter and energy are eternal, they were not “ c reated quite
literally from the nothingnes s of c urved s pac e time.”

S ky P ublis hing C orporation, S ten Odenwald, 1993

• E ins tein unders tood that gravity was tugging at every bit of
matter – s o the “ univers al bubble” had to c ollaps e into a B ig
C runc h under its own weight. S o E ins tein made up the
c os mologic al c ons tant, a L ambda notation that expres s ed
that empty s pac e is not really empty at all – it has a latent
energy. F riedmann’s mathematic s and Hubble’s
as tronomic al obs ervations toppled the L ambda s ign in
general relativity. WIP P /Wave theory is a tool to find the
truth of c os mology.

• C hris tiann Huygen’s “ uns pec ified medium of the

trans mis s ion of light, like s ound is a vibration in the air,” is
the dark matter/energy that is equally dis tributed throughout
the Univers e.

• Newton’s three laws of motion mus t now give way to dark

matter/energy WIP P /Wave theory mandated modific ation.

• When E ins tein obs erved: “ for if no partic ular s tate of motion
c an be as c ribed to the aether, there does not s eem to be any
ground for introduc ing it as an entity of a s pec ial s ort,”
there was s c ant evidenc e of a W IP P /Wave quantum s oup
Univers e.

• When that towering genius , H. A . L orentz opined that “ the

s eat of the elec tromagnetic forc e is the empty s pac e,” he
hadn’t s een dark matter motor tes t res ults that prove that
“ empty s pac e” is ac tually WIP P /Wave quantum s oup.

• Dark matter motor tes t res ults likewis e forc e the nec es s ary
modific ations of the applic able work of F araday, Maxwell,
Hertz, Huygens , F res nel, and P lanc k, among others .

• F res nel’s aether hypothes is was c orrec t, as far as it went.

• “ T he (H. A . L orentz elec trodynamic theory) failed, moreover,

to give any explanation c onc erning the tremendous forc es
whic h hold the elec tric c harges on the individual partic les . .
.” (A lbert E ins tein)

• A s E ins tein onc e wrote: “ Now a ques tion aris es . S inc e the
(elec tromagnetic ) field exis ts even in a vac uum, s hould one
c onc eive of the field as a s tate of a “ c arrier,” or s hould it
rather be endowed with an independent exis tenc e not
reduc ible to anything els e? In other words , is there an
aether whic h c arries the field . . .? ” T hat ans wer is yes .

• “ 30Meanwhile, partic le theoris ts have realized that the

c os mologic al c ons tant c an be interpreted as a meas ure of
the energy dens ity of the vac uum.” It is a meas ure of the
“ obs ervable” energy of the WIP P /Waves in the “ vac uum.”

• “ 31. . . it (vac uum energy) is us ually thought to be eas ier to

imagine as an unknown mec hanis m whic h would s et it
prec is ely to zero than one whic h would s uppres s it by jus t
the right amount to yield an obs ervationally ac c es s ible
c os mologic al c ons tant.”

• E ven the c onc eption of B orn and Heis enberg that the
phys ic al world c ould be regarded either in terms of waves
or partic les is rendered s us c eptible to reanalys is by the
prototype dark matter motor tes t res ults .

• P lanc k’s law of radiation mus t now inc orporate WIP P /Wave
theory. P lanc k’s univers al c ons tant “ n” and WIP P /Wave
theory require s c ienc e to “ (find) a new c onc eptual bas is for
all phys ic s .” (E ins tein)

• Neither time nor s pac e time began at the moment of the
lates t B ig B ang.

• Dark matter/energy does not bec ome diluted anywhere in

the Univers e; but regular matter does bec ome diluted as it
s preads ac ros s the “ univers al bubble.”

• My experiments res ult in c onfirmation of the s tatement:

“ 50Quantum mec hanic s adds another c ontribution, from the
zero-point energies as s oc iated with vac uum fluc tuations . .

• T he fac t, dis c overed by F araday in 1831, that an elec tric

c urrent c an be “ induc ed” to flow in a c oil of c opper wire
when a magnet is brought c los e to it, c an now be explained.
It is a dis turbanc e in the WIP P /W ave fields of dark

• Dark matter/energy WIP P /Waves als o explains why many

protons c arrying a pos itive c harge c an exis t c los e to eac h
other in a s table nuc leus of an atom.

• A mpher’s c irc uital law and G aus s ’s law mus t both be

modified to ac c ount for WIP P /Wave theory. T he s ame is true
for C oulomb’s law.

• E lec tric and magnetic forc es are part of a s ingle phys ic al

phenomenon, as s pec ial relativity pos tulates – both are
powered by dark matter WIP P /W ave energy.

• T he B iot-S avart law als o mus t be modified to inc lude

WIP P /Wave theory.

• “ 79T he L orentz trans formation of a s pheric ally-s ymmetric
proper elec tric field E of a moving elec tric c harge from the
c harge’s referenc e frame to the referenc e frame of a non-
moving obs erver res ults in the following term whic h we c an
define or label as ‘magnetic field’ mus t inc orporate
WIP P /Wave theory.




Dec ember 5, 2007