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U. S. House of Representatives Reminded of Armenian Massacre Iby the Turks

Armenians and their friends observe solemnly every year the 24th of April as a day of mourning for it is the anniversary of the wholesale massacre of Armenians by the Turks in the years 1915-1918.

All over the world, the day has been dedicated to the Armenian Martyrs and last year, on the 49th anniversary of the tragic events of 1915, an American Congressman, Mr. William L. St. Onge of Connecticut, reminded the United States House of Representatives of an act of genocide which shocked mankind.

The American Congressman said :-

«Mr. Speaker, April 24 each year marks a sad day in the history of the Armenian people. It was on that day in 1915 when some two on three million Armenians the whole Armenian population in Turkey-were slaughtered or deported. This traglc event is observed annually by Armenians in the United Sta~es and in other countries as «Martyrs Day.

On this day, people or Armenian descent and all freedomloving people. pay their respects to those martyrs who nearly a half century ago were Innocent victims of a cruel and despotic regime which sought to further its dreams of conquest by undertaking wholesale massacres of a peaceful people. Thi was certainly an act of genocide-the murder of a whole people, a tragedy that shocked all mankind.

Beginning on that infamous day in 1915, all prominent Armenians in Turkey were arres ed and later deported to various parts of that country-only to be executed there. Among them were clergymen. intellectuals, well-known merchants, artisans and others-in all about a thousand persons representing an classes of the Armenian community in Turkey. But they were only the first group of victims of a well-organized

266

8 b 1" U. fit II Ju II rf U. ),

genocide plan to destroy this minority people in Turkey.

Others followed within a matter of weeks. It soon became evident to all Armenians in Turkey that they were doomed to death and destruction, and that they were faced with a tragedy of national proportions-a tragedy which was unheard of until tha ~ day in the annals of civilization. In a period of less than 6 months the Turkish Government decimated the Armenians within its borders by massacres. deportation, famine, and otner means. Only a small segment of he Armenian community succeeded in escaping.

The people ()f Van consolidat« the position. •.

In the United. State today we have several hundred thousand people of Armenian extraction. They are loyal and devoted citizens, inteUigent, hardworking, deeply rellglous, and a great asset to our country. To an of them and to their kinsmen in other countries, I wish to extend my deep sympathy on this day and to join with them in paying tribute to the memory of the Armenian martyrs of 1915. Only by keeping their memory alive and retelling the tragic events of that genocide can we hope to prevent such acts In the future".

u t • n w 267

THE TRAGEDY

Among the carnivorous animals there are those that prey on others to satisfy their hunger saving their left overs for the next" meal, there are also those that keep on kUling for the sheer pleasure of it. Man, the most ubiquitous of all animals, partakes of both of these instincts.

All conquests and all empires in human history, with minor deviations bear the stamp of el ~her one of these c1nstmctss Strictly speaking these are not as rigid as animal instincts; rather, these are overpowering propensttles. These racialidlocyncrasles are sufflcien~ly strong and permanent to be called dnsttnetss ReUgious. racial fanaticism, patriotism and mass hysteria expose these dnsttnctss in sharp outUne. Each race, without exception, entertains a notion of superiority. This last «instincb has been for some people construethe and Inspiring force in attempting to excel In all areas of civilization; others justify their clarm by the dimensions of their brutal force.

The Greek, the Roman and the British empires based their statesmanship on the premise that it was wise to invest In he friendship. and well being of the subject races. There bave been, luprldtngty, few bloody revolts against British rule in its globe circling empire. After the demise of the empire it is surprising to :find that former subject people 10. Asia, Africa and America whUe cherishing their independence, have chosen not to sever all ties, by becoming members ot the Commonweal h. In contrast Gengls Khans, Timur Lanes. CaUphs and Sultans swept over the lands like a devastating hurricane. Total carnage and utter destruction marked their conquests. These fanatical warriors quickly deteriorated into an arrogant, Indolent. Ignorant and intolerant ruling crass, Of necessity their statesmanshIp was to be based on plunder, massacres, arson and forced proselytizing.

We Armenians had the misfortune of being subject to the Ottoman-Turkish rule for five hundred years.

At the apex of its power of the Ottoman Empire extended

258

from the north shores of Africa to the Adriatic sea. More than a dozen different races feU under its crushmg yoke. The weakness and fragmentation of Europe, the Yeni Cherry corps (infants from Christian races who were taken and brought up as Moslem warriors) and later the lavish assistance tendered by the Western powers, helped prolong the ex1stance of this power which should have perished a long time ago, as it carried the seed of its own destruction. After prolonged revolutionary effort and at the cost of tremendous sacrifices, Greece, Roumania, Serbia and Bulgaria succeeded in emancipating themselves, aided by interested western powers.

During the nineteenth century the decline was accelerated. Turkey was known as the «sick mans. The empire had shrunk and its natural and agricultural wealth had been asSigned to other powers against loans. We were the only Christian subjects exposed to the full fury of their instinct. suttan Hamid the Second organised repeated massacres on an extensive scale all over the Armenian provinces. Some Western

A scene of the horrors.

Powers protested, called Hamid the Red Sultan. demanded reforms. Hamid agreed to carry out reforms then continued to massacre more Armenians. Hamid reported that «perfect peace reigned ever the land) (Assatsh ber kemal dir) and handsomely rewarded the conniving western powers. At the turn of the century the «sick mar» was in the throes of death ...

It was at this time that a number of Turks, secretly, met in Salonika to save the empire. The best brains, most of them specialists, were gathered for consultatton and action. The hour was critical, it required sober analysis of the causes of their weakness and dispassionate conclusions. But these men were also very patriotic (Patriotism a Ia Turk). They decided on the creation of a new and bigger empire from the Balkans to Himalayas to Afganistan. They were to bring forth the new Pan Turanic Empire. They were unanimous in concluding that two causes were at the bottom of all their trouble. First the extstance of racial minorities, (they correctly reasoned; if the Greeks, Roumanians, Serbs and Bulgarians had been throughly liquidated in the past, those lands would still have been parts of Turkey). In their plans for this Turko-Tartar empire the presence of Armenians and Armenia was a serious block; this fact by itself alone was sufficient reason for them to unanimously resolve to annihilate all of them. Second, it was necessary to abrogate the «Capi tula ttonss which had served as an excuse for foreign powers to interfere in the internal affairs of their country. It was necessary to remove the stigma of the csick man' it was necessary to gain some sort of prestige and favorable comment to cover up the carrying out of their plans for the one race-one religion Turanian empire.

This was brought about by the military coup d'etat of 1908, changing the form of government from despotism to constitutional monarchy. Sultan Hamid II was retained as the titular monarch. In the Balkan war, in 1911 Turkey suffered a humiliating defeat and was all but kIcked out of Europe. Their fate would have been far worse had not the Eu-

269

ropean concert or powers intervened. They had to depend on the skill of the Armenian minister of foreign aU airs to extricate them from a very bad situation. The following year 30,000 Armemans were massacred in Adana for no reason at all, except that the frustrated Turk was reeking revenge for the shameful defeat at the hands of its former subject races. This massacre was blamed on the Sultan, who while very happy at the results, was really not the culprit. The party ot «Union and Progress» the standard bearer (Turkish type) of cL:1berty, Justice, Equality and Brotherhood) was merely carrying out the plans ...

In World War I. Turkey plunged into the struggle whole heartedly on the side of the Axis Powers. Soon after, Talaat Pasha, minister of the Interior, issued secret, strict and detailed orders to all officialdom concerning the fate of Armenians In Turkey. There were also successive pl.ansfor the extermination of Kurds and Arab races; the master plan called for inducing these minorities to exterminate each other. Thus, the carnage and plunder prone Kurd was let loose upon Armenians to the extent of evacuating all prisons for thls purpose.

Based on authentle and documented evidence, the directives of Talaat were:

1. MaLntain absolute secrecy of each operation, in each locale. so as not to stir anv effective opposttaon.

2. SLmutaneous arrest and slaughter of all individuals capable of leadership. This included all intellectuals, professionals, journalists, teachers, etc. This order was carried out on 24th of April, 1915; marking the beg1ning of the unparalleled tragedy in human annals.

3. Forced conscription of all young men into the army; their later transfer to the labor corps; wholesale murder at convenent locations.

4. Confiscation of all weapons. through house to house search for them.

5. Evacuation on 2-4 hours notice; declaring it to be a war measure tor the~r own protection.

Step No.5 was to be carried out as tollows:

u. t. fq n U·

0.. A 1 deportee caravans to be led through arid lands,

a way from cities and villages.

b. - Af zer couple days of forced march they should be robbed of an means of transportation and an valuables.

c. - Ten to twelve days forced march accompanied by hunger, fatIgue and sickness will have broken their spirit. Armed bands are to carry away all young women and girls, kill youths and other able boddied men, kill all who attempt to resist.

d. - At a later date, mop up any and all that have been missed.

e. - Survivors, if any, are to be left in the desert of Deir El Zor or marshy lands.

f. The duty of the gendarmes is to prevent escape by

deportees and assist brigands in the discharge of their epatrtottcs duties.

This part of their «war efforb was quite successful thanks to the whole hearted cooperation of the Turkish pop ulaee. Mass deportation was not resorted to in Constantinople and Smyrna for obvious reasons, instead many thousands of persons were «banished, into the interior. In some cities Armenians were able to put up heroIc resistance. In Shabin Kara Hissar, onrta, Mardin and Alntab, they died fighting to the last round of ammunition, then committed wholesale suicide. The people at Mousa Dagh and Vasbouragan put up a valiant fight and were saved. Some two mUlion Armenians of all ages and both sexes lost their lives. We have avoided the description of the horrors associated with this genocide. The reader is referred to the many authentic accounts by Engllsh, German, American eye witnesses and to the Memories Of Nairn Bey. an official charged with the duty ot carrying out the orders. Halide Edib Hanum was a WOMAN, of high intellectual caliber, according Turkish standards, she was graduate of an American College of missionary origin. This creature for whom giving as well as preserving life should be instinctive, personally ordered and supervised the drowning of boatloads of ArmenIan orphans In the harbour at Trebl-

262

8 b It u. tfJ II ,., fJ. I, U. 'L

zond. As A.T. Wegner, a German eye witness says «They died all the deaths on the earth the deaths of aU ages» ...

To-day the Turk denies any culpability and blames the victims. They also claim to have been transformed, by the touch of the magic wand of their national idol Ataturk, from being a blight to being the bright spot of twentieth century clvtltzatlon. This Ataturk, or Mustafa Kemal, as his real name was a military of no distinction. Had the armistice been declared than the Allied powers started their intrigues. They wanted Turkey defeated but not destroyed. Mustafa Kemal being in Anatolia was a good rallying point, Arms and ammunitions which were supposed to be delivered to the Allies were left to strengthen Kemal's army. This genuine «Turk:. attempted to annihilate the Armenians beyond its boarders, in the Caucassus. In the battles of Sardarabad and Kara Kilisse his armies and his generals were roundly beaten by the tattered and in equipped Armenian forces,. The Greek army sent to occupy the lands promised them by treaty, were eventually driven back in defeat. The Greek and Armenian population, in and around Smyrna, were slaughtered with the thorough- 1 ess or the Turk and their cities and villages burnt to ashes. There were many Allied battleships anchored in the bay of Smyrna. The former allies of heroic Greece, were now in unholy, debasing and shameful aUiance wttn the Turk: covertly, of course, yet so ecovertly» as to refuse asylum to the few that were able to swim to their boats, letting them drown or be picked Q1ff by Tur.kisb sharpshooters. Later, and in line with their philosophy of homogenious population all Greeks were expelled from Turkey. with the exception of Constantinople.

In the forties Ataturk's Turkey devised a legal means of robbing the non Turk elements; the law of «Varllke Vergissb or «soak the rich» law. Their property or business was assess. ed from 25-50 times its real value. Unable to pay the tax, the property or business was confiscated, and the owners were banished into the interior to cruch stone and die. Again in the late fifties, this gem of Civilization in the Near East, organized

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plunder and pogrom smashing, pillaging, destroying all nonTurk businesses, murdering many Greek and Armenian prelates and people, burning and desecrating churches. In the early sixties, having scraped the bottom of the non-Turk barrel, they instigated the incidents in Cyprus. The Turk that would not tolerate elementary reforms for Armenians, is demanding complete independence for a small minority in Cyprus. To enforce this demand, she has sent squadrons of its wa planes to strafe and burn Greeks and their villages. Ii is claimed that these planes were named cSheitan~ meaning satan or devil, the country whence they came would be the land of cSheitansJ. Can it be, that at long last, the Turk has come to know himself?

Ataturk had them cast away the veil, substitude a hat for the fez, and borrow another alphabet, but Ataturk never tried and never could change the Turkish instinct. From Mohamed I to Sultan Suleiman, from Hamid II to Ataturk, from lnonu to the next leader of the cSheitans~ history has recorded unmistakable evidence, with cyclic regularity, of the existance of this devil instinct in the Turk.

During the second world war, Hitler decreed the extermtnation of the jews in Germany. Everybody in the world knows about it All the media of communications have been freely used to shock humanity and this is till gomg on. The world h~1 forgotten and most governments, including that of the United States, have pressed the blood stained hand of the Turk in friendship ...

I~ is gratifying to witness the unified attitude of Armenians in the commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of our great tragedy. It is encouraging to see that undounted by the indifference or hostility of all major powers, we are going to press our demands through all possible channels. Some wiU ask, why have we waited fifty years to take any sort of positive and collective action? The answer, in my opinion, is that it took more than one generation for us to recover our mental and spiritual balance after the staggering death blows of 1915 to 1920. We approach this sad anniversary with not only grief.

26B

264

and a deep veneration of the memory of our two m1ll1on martyrs but also with a new realization, a new consciousness of our responsibilities.

The forced scattering of the Armenians, by the Turk, to the four corners of the earth has given us the very potential needed to reach our national goal and to bring our enemy, the enemy of all that is human and humane, to her knees. We can not revere the memory of our martyrs in a better manner than to direct all our collective efforts towards that one supreme end; and to imbue the younger generation, and if need be, generations to come, with the ennobling and glorious vision of OUR Jehovah the God of rtghtous retribution. FOR A PEOPLE WITHOUT VISION CAN NOT SURVIVE.

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fJ. t til n If 286

A LETTER

The Editor, Heghapokhagan Album, Peintre Ava,

Rue Saitj

Beyrouth Liban

Sir,

I would like to express my gratitude and wish you success for your wonderful work cHeghapokhagan Album" in which we are able to read the recent History of a gallant and brilliant nation.

I sincerely wish that our schools all over the world accept this monthly as a National History book parallel with the ancient history of Armenta known as cHayots-Badmoutune" in order to bring up our new generations with the same spirit as at their predecessors, They must do such as Plato in the Protagoras by placing before our young ones the work of great patriots, containing admonitions, adventures, praises and encomia of our famous men. They must make our young generations read and learn by heart the heroic works and selfsacritles of our great patriots, in order that they may imitate or emulate and desire to become like them.

Heghapokhagan Album has an that Is needed to inspire and carve a new nation, it speaks of a peace loving intelligent nation that gave so much in the name of Freedom!

Ypurs sincerely, K. EDJOURIAN

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