22.01 Introduction to Ionizing Radiation Fall 2003 Lecture Notes on "Well Lopginp" (S.

Yip, 11/19/03) Introduction Study of geological formation on Earth is a fundamental scientific undertaking as well as a practical endeavor which affects human society in the most profound manner - it is the problem of energy resources worldwide, the exploration and extraction of oil and gas. We are interested in a particular aspect of the oil-well logging science and technology, the use of nuclear techniques in the determination of hydrocarbon contents in the rock formation. In this brief look we will focus on a description of the problem and the principles underlying the measurement of neutron logs which enable the determination of the formation porosity.

I. Basic Concepts
1. A "log" in the oil industry means "a recording against depth of any of the characteristics of the rock formation traversed by a measuring apparatus in the wellbore". 2. Logs, sometimes referred to as "wireline logs" or "well-logs", are obtained by means of measuring equipment (logging tools) lowered on cable (wireline) into the well. Measurements are transmitted up the cable to a surface laboratory or computer unit; the recording of this information on film, paper, or magnetic tapes constitutes the well-logs.

3. Geology is the study of the rocks making up the Earth's crust. The aspect of geology most important to the oil industry is sedimentology, which involves a precise and detailed study of the composition, texture and structure of the rocks.

4. The geologist depends on rock samples for his basic information. Surface samples have a known point of origin and are easily available; however, the information may not be what is relevant. Subsurface samples, cuttings and cores obtained from drilling, can suffer from difficulty in characterization due to measurement imprecision, contamination, etc. An alternative is to take in situ measurements by running well-logs. In this way, parameters pertaining to porosity, lithology, hydrocarbons, and other rock properties can be obtained.
5. Porosity is the fraction of the total volume of a rock that is not occupied by solid constituents. [It is dimensionless, expressed as a percentage (30%), a decimal (0.30), or in porosity units (30 p.u.).] There are several types. Total porosity

4, = 4, = (V, - V,) / V, = V , I V,

where V,, V,,V, are volume of empty space (pore and channel, generally occupied by oil, gas or water), solid materials, and entire rock, respectively. See Fig. 1-2.

6. Lithology refers to the nature and percentage of clays present, and traces of conductive minerals.

We will focus on nuclear measurements which are carried out by irradiating the formation with gamma rays or neutrons. tar. . Following are the principal methods. The first well-log. Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock formed by the consolidation of clay or silt. or porosity. Log data constitute a "signature" of the rock: the physical characteristics they represent are the consequences of physical. Since then scientific and technological advances have led to the development of a vast range of highly sophisticated measuring techniques and equipment. Thus resistivity of a formation is an important log measurement. gas.poor electrical conductivity. First concern is to determine the rock composition . s e e Fig. is a relatively good conductor by virtue of the dissolved salts. 12. Subsequent radiation is detection in several forms -. Logging Techniques and Measurements 1 11. on the other hand. This is feasible only if there exist well-defined relationships between the log measurements and the rock parameters of the interest. Fluids here refer to water. 10. Formation Density: y emitted from a source is scattered (Compton scattering) in the formation and detected in the form of gamma-gamma log. oil. an electrical resistivity measurement. 1-2. available. particularly hydrogen. (b) y emitted when the thermal neutrons are captured by the atomic nuclei (neutron-gamma logging). Log measurements fall into two broad categories: natural phenomena where only an appropriate detector is required. (c) neutrons not yet slowed down to thermal energies (neutron-epithermal neutron logging).(a) neutrons slowed down to thermal energies (neutron-thermal neutron logging). Mean Atomic Number: Photoelectric absorption measured at low y in the form of lithodensity log. chemical. Water. Log interpretation therefore should have the same objectives as conventional laboratory coreanalysis. saturation) of the interstitial fluids. Hydrogen Index: High-energy neutrons sent into the formation are slowed down by successive elastic collisions with atomic nuclei. Just how much fluid is contained in a rock depends on the space. pore-fluids have one important property in common with the matrix minerals . See Table 2-1.7. 9. A simple mairix lithology canconsist of a single mineral such as calcite or quartz.mineralogy and proportions of the solid constituents ("matrix" and "shale") and the nature and proportions (porosity. etc. (This statement is applicable to any diagnostic technique in science. 8. was made by Marcel and Conrad Schlumberger in 1927 in France. Knowing the percentage of water in the rock and also the porosity one may deduce the percentage of hydrocarbon present (the hydrocarbon saturation). 1 . and biological conditions prevalent during deposition and evolution through the course of geological history. and induced phenomena where in addition one needs some means of 'exciting' the response of interest in the rock formation. air. With the exception of water.

neutron-thermal neutron. 13. these are relatively unimportant for our discussion. 18. 2-28. At the end of slowing down. presence of corrosive gases. such as HS.6 Mev whereas neutrons from an accelerator typically have energies of about 14 Mev. Measurement is made using scintillation of Geiger-Mueller detectors. Log measurements are made using a apparatus called ihe sonde which is lowered into the borehole on a cable from a winch mounted on a logging truck or offshore unit. 8-2 and 8-3.000 ft). . and Figs. may require special precautions and resistant equipment. 8-4 for a point source in an infinite homogeneous medium. Hydrogen is the most effective element for slowing down neutrons. See Fig. as shown in Table 81. 111. Elemental Composition: y emitted from interaction between high-energy neutron and certain atomic nuclei are analyzed spectroscopically -.000 psi (1000 atmospheres). 15. Neutron Logs 15. (c) activation and subsequent radioisotope decay (activation logging). Proton Spin Relaxation Time: Pulsed DC magnetic field momentarily aligns the magnetic moments of the protons in the formation which then precesses about the Earth's magnetic field and gradually stops. while chlorine is most effective for thermal capture. Neutron logs are measurements of the apparent concentration of hydrogen atoms per unit volume. In addition. The neutron energy loss vs time and the spatial distribution of the neutrons and capture y are shown in Fig. When the formation is bombarded by high-energy neutrons. Some inelastic scattering and transmutation with subsequent y emission can occur. 16. 17. Well-bore temperature and pressure increase with depth as a function of geothermal gradient and mud density respectively. A deep well can reach 6 km (about 4 miles or 20. the thermalized neutrons can be captured or cause transmutation. pressure can be 150C (300F). The three major types are neutron-gamma. See Fig. 2-12. several types of interaction can occur which lend themselves to logging techniques. Data in the form of digital magnetic tape are first processed in the logging truck on site and then taken to a remote terminal for transmission via telephone line to log processing center or base station where the tape is played back and recorded as film log. 14. (b) neutron capture (chlorine logging). and neutron-epithermal neutron. where temperature. The thermal neutron density is constant over the surface of any sphere centered about the source and decreases with distance from the source. Thus logging tools therefore must withstand very hostile environments of extreme temperatures and pressures. Same is true of the capture y . The spin relaxation time can be used to evaluate residual oil in the formation (nuclear magnetic resonance log). Neutron-gamma log is based on the y emission rate due to thermal neutron capture. Neutrons from a radioisotope source have energies 4 .(a) inelastic neutron scattering (carbon-oxygen logging). 8-6.Macroscopic Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Section: Measurement of decay rate of thermal neutrons in the formation following a burst of high-energy neutron emission (thermal neutron decay time logging). Source neutrons undergo fast capture or slowing down by elastic scattering. See Tables 8-2 and 8-3. See Fig.

8-7. R. it follows that the neutron log is a porosity measurement. Pure water therefore has HI of 1. H. calcium. the following references are suggested. Since hydrogen content of most pure rock grains (quartz. See Fig. See Table 2-1. Capture of thermal neutrons results in emission of gamma rays which have discrete values characteristic of the absorbing element. HI ranges from nearly zero (low pressure gas) to close to 1. corrections for fluid characteristics and rock type will be necessary. For hydrocarbons. IV. etc. This means each element has a capture y signature which can be detected to signify its presence. measuring the count rate of the capture y leads to the determination of the relative proportions of the elements present in the medium.Neutron-thermal neutron log is a measure of the as yet uncaptured thermal neutron density in the formation.0 (heavier oils). 8-8. This is the basis for an induced capture y spectroscopic analysis of the constituent elements and their abundance in the reservoir rock. Well Logging for Physical Properl York (1985). Fundamentals of Well-Log Interpretation.713 J. calcite. References: 0. Serra. Additional Topics 21.0. Hydrogen index (HI) of a material is defined as the ratio of hydrogen concentration [atoms per cm] to that of pure water at 75F. See Fig. 23. and chlorine. In addition to elemental identification. Besides nuclear techniques. Elsevier.0. 22.1 eV) in the formation. . provided HI of the pore-fluid is 1.) is zero. For further reading. Elements of greatest interest which can be treated in this way are hydrogen. 20. 24. Neutron-epithermal neutron log gives the density of epithermal neutrons (energy between 100 eV and 0. See Table 5-1. Hearst and P. An example is the chlorine log which gives information about salinity. He(3) detectors are used. Nelson. 7-d . See Table 8-4 for a number of reservoir fluids and minerals. other methods such as electrical resistivity and acoustic (ultrasound) are also used. There are several types of nuclear logs besides the neutron logs which we have just described. 19. Am s/+ . Under non-ideal condition. silicon.

Fig.. 1-2. GST ' Photoclcctric absorption cross-section LDT F D C L D T D. '.. This partics ular rock i water-wet. BHC .. V D L ' Mechanical ~ r o ~ e r t i (amplitude of acoustic waves) e . - . SL. . . or thermal neutron decay time (neutron lifetime) TDT'. Resistivity: (a) Long-spacing devices: non-focused: focused (b) Micro. . SFL ' ML. . L(atera1). LSS . Section o f rock saturation by hydrocarbons. C D M H D T SHDT Form?tion dip A. '.devices: non-focused focused (e) Ultra long-spacing devices Conductivity D i c l r t r i c constant (electromagnetic propagation) Hydrogen index (using neutron bombardment) . 1-16. Acoustic velocity DM. I G T GST HRS ' Elemental cornporitian (induced gamma-ray spectroscopy) SV. o Baric cquipment-Single detector (passive system) Spontaneouspotential SP Natural gamma-ray activity Total GR Spectrometry NOS (spectralog) .. WST . N T SN(P) CN(L) ' Neutron capture cross-section. '.~ i (nuclear magnetic resonance) . land-rig. TABLE 2-1 A elarsifieation of log mearurcrnents I N~rural r rponraneousphenomena . Temperature Hole Diameter Deviation T CAL DEV 2. ES LL *.. M L L PL'.. . . . Interstitial spaces i n a clartic rock Grain ~ i ~ schematic representation of a logging "set-up" on a 2-12. N(ormal). Mark o f Schlumbcrgcr . .s . NLL. '. the hydrocarbon is the non-wctting phase. . MSFL ULSEL IL EPT N. C D Electron density NML n Relaxation time o f roto on s. Phyricalproperlier mnuuredby inducing o response/rom rheformolion Basic cqui~ment-source (or emitter)+detectar (r).Channel Grain / Fig. NE.

Decay ofpmton spin precession induced by o ~trong magnctic/ield NML N o t e that the LDT makes both measurements.~ GST IGT SNP CNT - Spectroscopy of y-rays emitted by thermal neutron capture Epithermal neutron density at a f i i distance from a high-energy neutron source Thermal neutron density at a fixed dislancc from a high-energy neutron source.TABLE 5-1 Principle of the different nuclear lag@ng techniques Medsurement principle Natural radio-octiuity Schlumbergcr tool SGT(GR) NGT GST IGT Natural y-radioactivity (total) Natural y-ray spectroscopy Spectroscopy of y-rays emitted by the activation of oxygen: '60(n.p)'6N(!3 -) '60. .(y6.n'y6. 1. by: (a) detection of neutrons thcmselves (b) detection of gamma-rays arising from capture of the thermal neutrons Decay rate of the thermal neutron population.7X lo-" sec HRS GSI IGT c.13McV)'60 Radiation induced by neutron bombardment or the activation of a wide range of elements Spectroscopy of y-rays emitted from fast neutron interactians (mainly inelastic): cg'6qn. The thermal neutron density is sampled a t two different cimss between neutron bursts. This prsssrion decays with a time eharacteristic of the formation fluids. LDT .13MeV)'60. by detecting the captvrc gamma-rays. Compton scortcr ofgommo myr CNT GNT TDT Gamma rays emitted from a source are r a t l r r e d by the formation.. Photo-electric absorption FDC LDT' Low-energy gamma absorption by the pholc-electric effect Protons are caused to precess about the local &rth magnetic field by a strong DC magnetic pulse. The count-rate of thow reaching the detector is mcaFured.

. 0.369 0.158 0.442 0. 14.334 0.0555 (H) Carnalite Limonite Cimmt Kernitc Gypsum Kainite Trons Potash Anthracite Kaolinire Chlorite Kicscrite Serpentine Nahcolitc Glauwnite Montmodloritc Polyhalitc Muswvite Illite Biotite I 1 .24 0.210 0.419 0. Water.7 psi 200'F. C 68°F.115 0. snlted. . @OF. 68OF.66 0. 14.49 0. a. 0.7 psi 2WDF.. 14.7 psi 200-F. b.Slowing down Foyer of elcmcnu (from I.H.309 0.667 Hydrogen Index Fig.7 psi 200'F.250 0.0023 0.50 env.192 0.662 0.17 0. bituminous 0.90 0. 700 psi Coal.06 - i 8 Compared with that of fresh-water (under identical pressure and temperature conditions) in the c a r of fluids.40 0.8424 (C) 0.37 0.0015 0.96 1.29 0.0010 0.493 0.059 0.0017 0.7 psi 200°F. 7000 psi Ethane CzH.01 0.639 0.u n d s ~ n c . 14.089 0.602 0. pure 60°F. 1.31 0.00 0.19 0.7 psi ZW'F. 14.667 0.325 0. 7000 psi N ..669 0.7 psi 20O0F.H 6B°F.127 0.42 0.653 0. 14.025 eV 18 114 I50 257 329 368 Hydrogen Carbon Oxygm Siliwn Chlorine Calcium Nvclur Physics.684 0.337 0.7000 psi N-dccane C.32 0.645 0.17 0. 14. -~ TABLE 8 4 Hydrogen wntents of same substances Material Number of hydrogen atoms per c d ( X loz3) 0. 7000 psi N-octane C.97 1 . Irving Kaplan.282 0.268 0.041 0.B 68OF.Hz.63 0.7 psi 200°F.02 0.0015 0. 60°F. 7000 psi N-nonane C.614 0.46 0.02 0. 7000 psi Water.001 1 0.50 0.98 1.54 1. Neutron energy versus time after emission (courtesy of khlumbergcr).213 0.13 0.H.284 0.363 0. 1977).74 0. 200000 ppm NaCl 60°F. Kaplan) Element TABLE 8-1 Schematic clasrificntion of neutron techniques in nuclear geophysics (from Brafman ct al. 7000 psi Methane CH. 8-4. Number of wllisions n d c d to reduce the mergy of neutrons from 2 MeV to 0.42 0.111 0.675 0.329 0. 14.92 0.99 0. Schematic of spatial distribution of neutrons and gamma rays during continuous neutron emission. 7000 psi Natural gas (mean) 64°F..55 0.49 0.680 0.7 psi 2OoPF.. 14.09 0.

39 0.TABLE 8-2 n ~ e r m a neutron capture cross-section lor the principal elements l Elements Cross-section in barns ( 10-" cm') lor neutrons (0.064 3. Cleveland.36 .44 0. .W02 0.16 Magnesium 0.S.232 Silicon 0. by collision I Gadolinium Bare Lithium Chlorine ! Potassium Barium Iron Sodium Sulphur Calcium Hydrogen Aluminium 0.95 4.W m / s ) 4n MO - Energy of emitted gamma rays (MeV) Probability or emission M a loss of energy .0034 ! Oxygen 0.14 i Carbon 0.1 I From Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.45 3. Ohio..49 0.83 4. 62 edition (1981-1982). I 0. Chemical Rubber Publishing Co. U.A.15 0.05 0.05 3. .332 0.16 0.

... The ncutron-thermal (n.. ..~- ~ Fig. n 4 ) logging princiPIC. % A ~ S O ~ ~ 01 ~Y ~rays I ~ . . n. .. I : Fig.Fig..?) logging principle... 8-7.) I .. lagging principle. . 8-8.... 8-6. ~ . . ! Fig.... A composite lag prcrentalion obtained with CSU. . Thc neutron-gamma(n.. 2-28. .. The neutron-cpithcrmal neulron (n.. - Other atoms : ..

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