ANALYSIS OF OIL SPILL TRENDS IN THE UNITED STATES AND WORLDWIDE

Dagmar Schmidt Etkin Environmental Research Consulting 750 Main Street Winchester, Massachusetts 01890
ABSTRACT: This presentation examines trends in U.S. oil spillage, with respect to historical and current trends in the United States and worldwide, and analyzes potential influences on spill frequencies. Contrary to popular perceptions, the numbers of oil spills, as well as the amount spilled, have decreased significantly over the last two decades, particularly in the last few years despite overall increases in oil transport. Decreases are pronounced for vessels. U.S. pipelines now spill considerably more than tankers. Overall, U.S. oil spillage decreased 228% since the 1970s and 154% since the 1980s. This decrease mirrors international trends and can likely be attributed to reduced accident rates, due to preventive measures and increased concerns over escalating financial liabilities. xylene, ethylene, and toluene), or liquefied natural or petroleum gas. “Facilities” include oil terminals, storage tanks, refineries, industrial facilities, utilities, and other stationary sources with the exception of pipelines.

U.S. oil spill trends
Vessels. Oil spills from vessels in U.S. waters have followed a pattern of increase from 1985 through 1993, followed by a decline from 1993–1995, and gradual increase from 1995–1999. Vessels other than tankers and barges that carry oil as cargo drive much of this trend (Figure 1). Tanker and barge spills decreased during 1985–1999, with a particularly significant drop since 1990 (Etkin, 2000a). The number of spills from tankers and barges in 1999 was only 12% the number in 1990. Much of this decrease can be attributed the decrease in oil transport by tankers and barges through U.S. waters over the last several years. At the same time, freight transport has increased somewhat, increasing the likelihood of spills from freighters. Overall, oil movement to and from the United States has increased by over 42% since 1988. Spills from tankers and barges comprise only 13% of the total annual spill number, but, since the largest vessel spills tend to be from oil cargo vessels, 78% of the volume of oil spilled from vessels comes from tankers and barges (Figure 2). Barge spills have exceeded tanker spills in number and amount spilled. Since 1990, the average barge spill has been larger than the average tanker spill, and barges overall have spilled more than tankers (except for 1997) (Etkin, 2000a). The frequency distribution of spill size classes shows that spills under 100 gallons represent 92% of the total spill number, but only about 1% of the total spill volume from vessels (Figure 3). The total volume from spills of less than 100,000 gallons has not changed appreciably since 1985, with spills of at least 100,000 gallons contributing the most to annual fluctuations of total vessel spillage (Figure 4). Tanker spills show similar trends to barge spills over the last 15 years (Figure 5), as is the case when the spills in the different size classes are analyzed as a percentage of the total spill number. Both tankers and barges show no appreciable change in frequency of the largest size classes, an apparent decrease in spills of 100–999 gallons (0.34–3.4 t), and an increase in the percentage in the 1- to 9-gallon size class. The smallest size classes usually are associated with bunkering, lightering, and loading, or to structural and equipment failures not attributable to accidents. This generally holds true for barges, tankers, and freight vessels (Etkin, 2000a). Freighters

Methodology
Oil spill data used in this study are from the Environmental Research Consulting Spill Databases, which collate data from a large number of sources and databases, including information from the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), U.S. National Response Center (NRC), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS), U.S. Minerals Management Service (MMS), various U.S. state databases, Environment Canada, Oil Spill Intelligence Report, International Maritime Organization, International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation, Tanker Advisory Center, and other national and regional environmental agencies. On a continuously updated basis, the data are crosschecked and corrected with current information and new information on past events. U.S. data are subject to reporting errors, occasional duplications of records of events, and other anomalies. Worldwide data largely reflect trends in reporting, both over time and on a regional basis, and should be treated as underestimates, particularly for smaller-sized spill events (under 100,000 gallons or 340 t), for spills from regions where reporting is compromised for political or logistical reasons, and for spills from nonvessel sources. An “oil spill” is defined as discrete event in which oil is discharged through neglect, by accident, or with intent over a relatively short time. It does not include an event in which oil leaks slowly over a long period of time, nor does it include operational spillages allowed by international or national regulations (such as MARPOL discharges from tankers) or that occur over a relatively long period of time (such as >5 ppm oil discharges in refinery effluents) even if those discharges violate pollution regulations. “Oil” is defined as a petroleum-derived substance as defined in MARPOL Annex I, and does not include BTEX (benzene,

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0 0 0 . 1 4 .8 Cum .0 0 0 4 . vessel spills (1985– 1999) (Environmental Research Consulting Database).9 4 8 .0 0 0 0 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Figure 4. 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 .S.0 0 0 2 .0 0 0 .000 0 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Figure 1.0 0 0 .4 0 .0 0 0 1 2 . waters (1985–1999) spill amounts from spills over and under 100.000 Number of Spills 3.0 0 0 0 1 98 5 198 6 19 87 19 88 19 89 1 990 1 991 1 99 2 199 3 1 99 4 199 5 19 96 19 97 19 98 1 999 Figure 2.2 8 .0 0 0 1 0 .0 0 0 2 .0 0 0 4 . Annual number of oil spills (1 gallon and over) from vessels in U.5 9 0 .5 3 3 .0 0 0 Gallons B a rg e s a n d T a n k e rs A ll O th e r V e s s e ls 6 .0 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 0 0 Gallons S p il ls > 1 0 0 .4 1 .000 2.1292 2001 INTERNATIONAL OIL SPILL CONFERENCE 6. % A m t.000 Total Barge+Tanker 4. % Num ber C u m .0 0 .9 Figure 3.S.6 9 8 .0 0 0 .0 0 .0 0 0 .000 All Other Vessels 5. 0 0 0 G a l lo n s S p il ls < 1 0 0 . Cumulative percentage of total oil spillage (number of spills and amounts) by size class: U.0 0 0 1 0 . Annual amount of oil spilled by vessels in U.S.1 0 .0 9 9 .000 gallons (Environmental Research Consulting Database). 9 6 .5 7 6 . 0 0 0 G a l lo n s 6 . 0 0 0 .0 0 0 8 .000 1.0 0 0 1 2 . Total amount of oil spilled from vessels into U. . 0 0 0 .7 1 0 0 .S. 1 4 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . waters: Barges and tankers versus other vessels (1985–1999) (Environmental Research Consulting Database). 100 90 80 70 60 % Total 50 40 30 20 10 0 10000000 1000000 100000 10000 1000 100 10 1 S p ill S iz e ( G a llo n s ) 2 5 .0 0 0 . waters in spills of 1 gallon and over (1985–1999) (Environmental Research Consulting Database).0 0 0 8 .

Accidents and errors during bunkering. 0 0 0 S p il ls > 1 0 0 . while representing only 8. 0 0 0 1 .000 tanker transits result in accidents. These 4 .5 0 0 3 . 3 . Annual Number of Tanker Oil Spills In US Waters By Spill Size Class (1985-1999) (Environmental Research Consulting Database) tend to have lower overall spill sizes. make up over 98% of the amount of oil spilled between 1987 and 1999.5 0 0 .S.0 0 0 500 0 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1997 1999 Figure 6.S.2% of the more than 41. only 0.5 0 0 . marine and navigable waterways and originating from fixed facilities (not pipelines) have decreased dramatically since peaking in 1991 (Figure 6). lightering.0 0 0 G a llo n s 2 .46% of the spill number. Annual amount of oil spilled from facilities (excluding pipelines) into U. The actual number of tanker accidents (allisions. and of these accidents less than 2% result in oil spills. carrying large amounts of oil cargo. following a pattern similar to vessel spills.0 0 0 . air transport facilities.5 0 0 Land-based facility spills. fixed industrial facilities. 4 . Spills from U.05%) of the spill number that represents spills of 100. undoubtedly contributing to the decrease in tanker spillage.0 0 0 .000 gallons or more (Figure 7). and 53% of freighter spills.0 0 0 Number of Spills 2 . The largest vessel spills arise from accidents involving tankers.0 0 0 G a llo n s S p il ls < 1 0 0 .S. 2000a).5 0 0 1 . Water-impacting facility spills follow the same frequency distribution pattern as vessel spills. land-based sources (pipelines.RESPONSE ISSUES 1293 180 160 140 120 Number of Spills 1000000 gal 100000 gal 10000 gal 1000 gal 100 gal 10 gal 1 gal 100 80 60 40 20 0 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Figure 5. waters (1985–1999) (USCG data with analysis by Environmental Research Consulting). and groundings) has decreased to about 30 per year since reaching a peak of nearly 180 accidents in 1990 (Etkin. and motor vehicles) not impacting marine and navigable waterways decreased by 56% in the last 6 years (Figures 8–10) to an average of 4. and occasionally barges. and loading caused 57% of tanker spills. Spills of over 100 gallons. 0 0 0 2 . 0 0 0 5 0 0 . The percentage of tanker accidents resulting in oil spills of 1 gallon or more decreased sharply since 1990 (Etkin. waters (1985–1999) (USCG data with analysis by Environmental Research Consulting).0 0 0 0 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1997 1999 Figure 7. 2000a).0 0 0 3 .0 0 0 . . The total amount spilled is dominated by a tiny fraction (0. storage facilities. The spill rate for tanker accidents has decreased since 1990.0 0 0 1 . 71% of barge spills. railways. Spills impacting U. collisions. Annually. likely due to improved safety regulations and tanker construction. since the oil originates from fuel tanks and machinery spaces rather than from cargo holds. Annual number of facility spills of 1 gallon and over (excluding pipelines) impacting U.5 0 0 2 .800 spills of one gallon or more annually.S. 0 0 0 Gallons 1 . The smallest spill size classes represent a large fraction of the spill number but only a small fraction of the total spill amount.

000. pipeline spillage is largely due to the fact that since 1990. The annual number of pipeline spills has decreased by 500% over the last 30 years (Figure 13). U.S.6% of total spill volume.000 0 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 HIGHWAY RAILWAY STORAGE TANK PIPELINE FIXED FACILITY Gallons 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Figure 10.3% carried by vessels (tankers and barges). Overall.S.000.S. Since 1991.000.0 0 0 5 . Fixed and storage facilities. and pipelines.000 2. 0 0 0 .0 0 0 2 0 .000 8.S. spills contribute over 9 million gallons of oil to U. 0 0 0 . 2 5 .0 0 0 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Figure 8. pipelines now carry 69.3% of oil transported. pipelines transport more oil across more miles than water carriers (Figure 12) though the actual pipeline mileage has not increased appreciably. 14.0 0 0 Number of Spills 6 . Spills of 1. Total amount of oil spilled onto land in the United States in spills of 1 gallon or more (1987–1999) (EPA data with analysis by Environmental Research Consulting).5 0 0 6 .000 4. Over 74% of pipeline spills involve 100 gallons or less. 0 0 0 . Since 1985. . Total annual number of U. land and groundwater resources each year.5 0 0 5 . 0 0 0 . make up the bulk of this spillage. Annual amount of oil spilled onto land in the United States by source type (1987–1999) (EPA data with analysis by Environmental Research Consulting). land-based oil spills of 1 gallon or more (1987–1999) (EPA data with analysis by Environmental Research Consulting).0 0 0 4 . 0 0 0 .S.0 0 0 0 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Figure 9.000.000 gallons (Figure 11). Spills of at least 100 gallons represent 47% of spill number and 99. Pipelines.000.000 10. pipelines have annually spilled 37 times as much as tankers.000. 90% of spills are under 1.000 AIR TRANSPORT 12.000 gallons.1294 2001 INTERNATIONAL OIL SPILL CONFERENCE 8 .5 0 0 4 .000 gallons and over represent 16% of spill number and 97% of spill volume.0 0 0 Gallons 1 0 .000 6. Most of this input is from a small number of spills of at least 100.000.5 0 0 7 .0 0 0 1 5 .8% of the total amount spilled.0 0 0 5 . The change in the proportion U. while spills in these smaller size classes contribute only 0.0 0 0 7 . Spill amounts are dominated by a small number of large events. U. the amount spilled has decreased (Figure 14). compared to 30. pipelines have spilled more oil than tankers and barges combined.

0 0 0 .0 0 0 2 0 .00 0 20 .0 0 0 .0 00.0 00. oil transport pipelines (1968–1999) (Environmental Research Consulting Database). 600 500 400 Number of Spills 300 200 100 0 19 70 19 78 19 68 19 84 19 90 19 92 19 72 19 74 19 76 19 98 1996 1998 1999 19 19 19 19 80 19 19 19 19 82 19 86 19 19 88 19 19 19 19 94 19 Figure 13.00 0 Gallons 30 .0 0 0 . 70 .0 0 0 S p ills > 1 0 0 .0 0 0 2 5 . 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 94 92 95 84 82 81 85 76 75 77 78 79 80 83 86 87 88 89 90 91 93 96 1997 Billion Ton-Miles Pipelines W ater carriers 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 Figure 12. Number of oil transport pipeline spills in United States (1968–1999) (Environmental Research Consulting Database). 19 96 19 19 97 .0 0 0 .0 0 0 1 0 .000 gallons (EPA data with analysis by Environmental Research Consulting). oil transport by pipelines and water carriers (1975–1999) (Bureau of Transportation Statistics data with analysis by Environmental Research Consulting). Total annual oil spillage onto land in the United States: Spills over and under 100.RESPONSE ISSUES 1295 3 0 .00 0 60 .0 00.0 00.0 00.0 00.0 0 0 .00 0 0 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Figure 14.0 0 0 0 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Figure 11.00 0 50 .0 0 0 . Amount of oil spilled from U. U.00 0 10 .0 0 0 5 .S.0 0 0 G a llo n s S p ills < 1 0 0 .0 0 0 G a llo n s Gallons 1 5 .S.0 00.00 0 40 .

Data presented (Figure 23–25) are underestimates for both numbers and amounts. occasional spills (less than 10 per year) from nearshore and offshore pipelines contribute to marine oil input (Figure 15).S.S. While 98% of U.0 0 0 3 0 0 .8 2 50 -0 . for smaller spills.100 gallons). Annual number of oil spills from U.0 0 0 0 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 Worldwide oil spill trends Reductions in U. International estimates for the amount spilled and spill number in marine waters were derived by estimating the number of spills under 10. but only 5% of the actual numbers of spills. and over 2% are over 70 years old—more spills caused by structural failure may be expected in the future.000 gallons per year. pipeline spills. . 80% of OSC spills are from platforms as opposed to OCS pipelines (Figure 17). since data collected on an international basis are subject to serious reporting errors and omissions. Spills from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) exploration and production (E&P) facilities have also decreased significantly since U.S. Vessels contributed only 15%.0 0 0 7 0 0 . Total OCS spillage has averaged 200. Most of the oil spilled in the 1990s came from fixed facilities and land pipelines. 8 0 0 .7 0 0 19 97 19 71 19 87 19 79 19 89 19 81 19 77 19 73 19 75 19 83 19 85 19 91 19 93 19 95 19 99 Figure 16.S.4% of the total oil spillage.S.1296 2001 INTERNATIONAL OIL SPILL CONFERENCE Structural failures are the most common cause of U. 1999). Overall 1990s oil spillage in the United States. particularly for spills from particular regions. “Outside force damage”—ramming by bulldozers or other equipment or natural damage from floods or earthquakes—cause 27% of spills.0 0 0 Gallons 4 0 0 . With an aging pipeline infrastructure in the United States—46% of pipelines are over 30 years old. Offshore spills. spills. oil spillage largely mirror international trends (Figures 21–22).000 gallons and the amounts spilled in those size classes based on size class frequency distributions for more well-documented U.S.000 gallons represent 90% of the amount spilled. pipeline spills occur onto land. For example. 16% are over 50 years old. The total amount spilled in the 1990s was 134 million gallons. This logic was applied in analyzing the data shown in Figure 26. On average. 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Figure 15. vessel spills receiving media coverage because of their high-profile location or particular circumstances are more likely to be reflected than smaller pipeline spills in remote areas. Spill numbers and amounts have decreased since 1990. waters by marine pipelines (1986–1999) (Office of Pipeline Safety data with analysis by Environmental Research Consulting). Annual amount of oil spilled into U.S. a significant decrease from the previous two decades where 305 million gallons and 206 million gallons of oil spilled (Figure 20). and 10% to defective welds. OCS exploration and production facilities (1971–1999) (MMS data with analysis by Environmental Research Consulting). The decrease is encouraging in light of a 46% increase in oil movement worldwide since 1988.0 0 0 2 0 0 . spills of at least 10. representing 40% of spills. and for spills from non-vessel sources.S. Nearly 94% are spills of less than 50 barrels (2.0 0 0 1 0 0 . 15% to defective pipes.8 0 x 2 R = 0 . offshore E&P activities began (Figure 16). spill data sets (based on the methodology in Etkin.0 0 0 5 0 0 . 75% of structural failure is attributed to corrosion. spill amounts for 1990–1999 are shown in Figure 19. 300 250 200 Number of Spills TO TAL T O T A L < 1 -5 0 b b l) T O T A L (> 5 0 b b l ) 150 100 y = 3 2 7 . OCS E&P facilities contributed only 1. though very large spills can skew oil amounts. Overall U. much of this is due to a small number of very large spills (Figure 18). 1998a.0 0 0 6 0 0 .S. Assuming spills internationally follow similar patterns of spill size frequency distributions to U.

7% Figure 19.0 0 0 T a n k e rs P ip e lin e s F a c ilitie s B a rg e s E&P N o n -T a n k V e s s e ls O th e r 1 2 0 .0 0 0 2 0 0 .0 0 0 4 0 0 .0% Barges 5. oil spillage (amount spilled from 1990–1999) (Environmental Research Consulting Database). Annual number of U.0 0 0 Gallons 8 0 . Estimated annual amount of oil spilled in the United States by source (Environmental Research Consulting Database).RESPONSE ISSUES 1297 2 50 2 00 Number of Spills 1 50 P latfo rm P ipe lin e 1 00 50 0 3 5 3 7 9 9 1 3 1 5 7 5 1 7 19 9 19 9 19 8 19 7 19 8 19 8 19 7 19 7 19 7 19 7 19 8 19 8 19 9 19 9 19 9 1997 1998 Figure 17.S.2% Highway 3.0% Air Transport Facilities 0. 1 4 0 . OCS facilities (1971–1999) (MMS data with analysis by Environmental Research Consulting).3% Fixed Land Facilities 30. 1 . 0 0 0 .0% Land Pipelines 22.4% Unknown Land Facilities 7.0 0 0 .0 0 0 Gallons 6 0 0 .4% Marine Facilities 6.0 0 0 .0 0 0 . OCS E&P 1. OCS platform and pipeline spills (1971–1999) (MMS data with analysis by Environmental Research Consulting).0 0 0 .9% Marine Pipelines 1.0 0 0 .2% Tankers 5.4% Other Vessels 4.S. Sources of U.0 0 0 .0 0 0 8 0 0 .2% Storage Tanks 10.0 0 0 0 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1999 Figure 18.3% Railroad 2.S.0 0 0 0 1960s 1970s 1980s Figure 20. Total annual spillage from U.0 0 0 4 0 .0 0 0 1 0 0 . 9 .0 0 0 2 0 .0 0 0 6 0 .0 0 0 .

874. E&P 11.0 0 0 3 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 4 5 0 .2 % N o n -T a n k V e s s e ls 0 .0 0 0 5 0 .0 0 0 2 5 0 .2 % Tankers 33.1 % P ip e lin e s 4 .6 % Figure 23. 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 .0 0 0 4 0 0 .0 0 0 1 0 0 .6% Unknown/Other 0.2% 19 98 19 68 19 80 19 82 19 74 T a n k e rs 7 4 .985.4% Figure 24. 0 0 0 .500.000 tons) (Environmental Research Consulting Database). 0 0 0 . Total amount spilled: 844. 0 0 0 .2% Non-Tank Vessels 1.000 gallons (34 tons) or more worldwide (1968–1999) (Environmental Research Consulting Database).0 0 0 3 5 0 .0 0 0 2 0 0 .0 0 0 0 94 76 78 80 70 72 68 74 84 86 90 82 92 88 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 98 Figure 22.6% Facilities 34.000 tons) (Environmental Research Consulting Database).000 gallons (4. Estimated total amount of oil spilled into marine waters worldwide (1980–1989).970.8% Pipelines 18.465.2 % 19 86 19 92 B a rg e s 0 . Total amount spilled: 1. 0 0 0 .2% Barges 0. Annual amount of oil spilled worldwide (1968–1999) (Environmental Research Consulting Database). Estimated total amount of oil spilled into marine waters worldwide (1970–1979).1298 2001 INTERNATIONAL OIL SPILL CONFERENCE 450 400 350 300 Number of Spills 250 200 150 100 50 0 19 72 19 78 19 90 19 94 19 84 19 96 96 19 76 19 70 19 88 Figure 21. .000 gallons (2.0 0 0 1 5 0 . Annual number of oil spills of 10. Gallons F a c ilitie s 7 .8 % U n k n o w n /O th e r 0 . 0 0 0 .9 % E&P 1 2 .

along with increases in oil spill damage liability and penalties (Etkin.M. Another important influence on spillage rates has been realization by tankers owners and other potential spillers that spills in the United States could result in astronomical costs for which the spiller could have unlimited liability (a result of OPA 90). dominate spill amounts. such as the 1991 Gulf War spills and the 1979 Ixtoc I well blowout. largely the impetus for passage of the Oil Pollution of 1990 (OPA 90). seriously raised the stakes for potential oil spillers. there is no room for complacency. and Ph.2% Figure 25. however. despite overall increases in oil movement.000 gallons (3. Her environmental science experience includes: 12 years investigating population biology and ecology. Increased international attention to tanker safety has had a positive influence that is sorely needed in other vessel categories and for nonvessel sources. data analysis. oil spill frequencies and total spillage have decreased significantly over the 20 years. and business. exercise programs. could change the oil spill picture on a worldwide basis. Environmental Research Consulting. The percentage of oil contributed by tanker spills has decreased from 74% in the 1970s to 34% in the 1990s. Improved safety standards. was realized before the implementation of OPA 90 and other regulations and conventions.D.000 tons) (Environmental Research Consulting Database). Estimated total oil spill amounts by source type (Environmental Research Consulting Database). While the statistics show encouraging downward trends. risk assessment. particularly in the last few years. and cost analyses. Much of this reduction.4% Non-Tank Vessels 1. Estimated total amount of oil spilled into marine waters worldwide (1990–1999). spillage.4% Unknown/Other 0. and 11 years specializing in oil/chemical spill database development. most recently in her own independent consulting firm. Discussion Contrary to popular perceptions after recent catastrophic events. degrees from Harvard University. may be “ticking time bombs” especially as they become subjected to increasing oil throughput and transport in future years.3% Tankers 57. . contingency planning. may be attributed to a variety of influences. Extremely large spills. With OPA 90. Total amount spilled: 943. occasionally.5% Facilities 12. An ill-timed oil spill that occurs in a sensitive location. and. Aging pipeline and facility infrastructures. 1998b. particularly pipelines. and large tanker spills in the 1970s.RESPONSE ISSUES 1299 E&P 21.208. can cause devastating damage to natural environments. 2000b) for all spill sources. to human lives. penalty. the United States has the strictest tanker regulations.4% Pipelines 6. International conventions and national legislation have reduced worldwide oil spillage. and other measures have helped reduce U.7% Barges 0. regardless of spill size. 1000 900 800 700 Million Gallons 1 9 7 0 -1 9 7 9 1 9 8 0 -1 9 8 9 1 9 9 0 -1 9 9 9 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 T a n k e rs B arg es N o n -T a n k V e s s e ls P i p e li n e s F a c i li t i e s E&P Figure 26. but in the United States in particular. The decrease in oil spills worldwide. Cleanup.S. as well as aging vessel fleets.170. property. and damage costs associated with the Exxon Valdez spill and other significant events in its aftermath have Biography Dagmar Schmidt Etkin received A. Cleanup costs have risen dramatically in the last two decades even when corrected to current values (Etkin. Worldwide. c). tanker spills dominated the oil spill picture until the 1990s when large pipeline and facility spills occurred. The impacts and repercussions of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill. were watched worldwide. Implementation of pending increases in environmental damage liability nationally or as part of international liability and compensation conventions.

Factors in the Dispersant Use Decision-Making Process: Historical Overview and Look to the Future. Ottawa. Cutter Information Corp. 1998c. 1998a. MA. Winchester.S. 3. 2000a. Environment Canada.S. D. D. Pipelines. Marine Oil Spills Worldwide: All Sources. Cutter Information Corp. US Vessel Spills 1985–1999: A Statistical Review. Exploration & Production Activities. 1998b. 1999. 2. MA. Report to Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Protection (GESAMP) Working Group 32: Oil Input Into the Marine Environment. D. D. MA. Proceedings. Ontario. Financial Costs of Oil Spills in the United States.. Etkin.. MA. and Un- 4. pp. Etkin. Environmental Research Consulting.S.1300 2001 INTERNATIONAL OIL SPILL CONFERENCE known Sources. . November 1998. 6.S. Oil Input Into the Marine Environment: Accidental Releases From Vessels. 5. 2000b. Arlington. Etkin.S. D. Winchester. Arlington. Twenty-First Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar. References 1.S. D. Etkin. 281–304. Etkin. A Worldwide Review of Oil Spill Fines and Penalties. Environmental Research Consulting. Etkin. Facilities.

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