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Equality and diversity interventions and change
OZBILGIN TEXT GRA .EE .GRAHAMS IMAC:Users:Graham:Public:GRAHAM'S IMAC JOBS:11651 .OZBILGIN:M1780 .
all cultures can equally claim their rights and identity. multiculturalism is the practice of a multicultural lifestyle. Inclusion and diversity as an intercultural task José Pascal da Rocha INTRODUCTION The debates on multiculturalism are developing in different directions. many argue on the grounds of cultural relativism. sustaining the principles of pluralism (see Greene 1992. The right of self-determination is a status of principle. 289 . According to the cultural anthropologist Spiro and his theory of ‘moral cultural relativism’ (Spiro. Propelled by the effects of globalization. heterogeneity would follow and characterize the relationships between cultures. 250–61). a construct of Western academic theory. that it cannot be understood from the outside perspective. Therefore. tendencies and different value systems. It is no longer a question of ‘if’. The issues at hand still remain: how does intercultural communication add up to diversity and inclusion? Where to place it in this relationship? How to assess it according to cultural relativism if the assumption is that any form of acculturation is deculturation? TOWARDS PLURALISM Many European societies have adopted the realities of multiculturalism in their societal and organizational strategies.OZBILGIN TEXT 22.OZBILGIN:M1780 .GRAHAMS IMAC:Users:Graham:Public:GRAHAM'S IMAC JOBS:11651 . scholars as well as practitioners face the new realities. fast-spreading technology and general migration. Negotiation between diverse cultures and their daily side-by-side coexistence has become an intercultural challenge for any type of organizational. with different assumptions. Nevertheless.1 Thus. Thus. 1993). societies and cultures. which renders any critique of cultural norms impossible. fluctuation of goods and persons. that each culture maintains its own value system. but a matter of ‘how’ to adapt theories and practices of disciplines to the hybridity of people.EE . societal and managerial structure. equality becomes a matter of equal value.
many scholars have pointed out that productive intercultural relations can only be formed with the help of a universally valid normative order (ibid. 8). Thus. that is.GRAHAMS IMAC:Users:Graham:Public:GRAHAM'S IMAC JOBS:11651 . which Rawls and others developed and which can also be found in ‘The law of peoples’ (Rawls 1993). .OZBILGIN TEXT GRA 290 Equality. The core of this book. The issues of this construction are at hand and they are normative ones: that is. Yet. for the particular identities of the people and their beliefs remain untouched.. there have to be ways to publicly manifest cultural diversity and pluralism and to integrate the input of the ‘people of color’ into the societal context (Wallace in Hall 2004. the authorities and other governmental institutions. whether all cultural practices are recognized as being equal (and at the same time the danger is to get entrapped in possibly inhumane practices in some cultures of the world such as slavery or genital mutilation of women in most parts of Eastern Africa). Further. the hybrid mixture of all cultures stands for the power of the American dream (2000.OZBILGIN:M1780 . 191). Michelle Wallace states that multiculturalism is certainly not paradise. 886). According to Leggewie. While the Western world rejects ethno-centrism. but even in its most cynical and pragmatic form. or we praise a single cultural and moral value valid for all. such as postulated by Huntington. is the sketch of a globally acceptable legal basis apt to guarantee a minimum of individual freedom. medical care. 83–85). THE CONCEPTS OF POST-MODERNITY A possible way out of the normative dead-end without being locked into cultural imperialism might be found with Charles Taylor and his book Multiculturalism and ‘The Politics of Recognition’ (1992).EE . His startingpoint was based on the concepts of Communitarianism and the prevailing disappointments of many scholars about John Rawls’s liberal book A Theory of Justice (1971). 29. it encourages it in non-Western cultures without a second thought (Abou 1995. 305). The West itself is stumbling across a whole world of concepts trying to balance out this dilemma. 79–80. 28). scholars do support the idea of cultural norms. or parts of the Marxist tradition or liberalism. but with a strict neutral position of the state. diversity and inclusion at work The critiques of that concept are divided: Samuel Huntington states that multiculturalism is a source of weakness for his American society: ‘A multicultural country with many civilizations is a country without any civilization and cultural center at all and as such doomed to vanish’ (Huntington 1998. without labeling them as cultural imperialism or even racism (Tibi 1995. multiculturalism has something worth living. The primary demands of the citizens towards the states enclose so-called ‘universal rights’ to satisfy ‘universal needs’ such as a salary.
On the other hand. 166). with respect to women’s financial compensations for agreeing to a polygamous family life. In fact. but also the recognition of the individual through the cultural society as a primary. but throughout the whole life. or imposed. At the same time. and the valorization of this space should stand at the core of executive policies. Liberalism has to define boundaries and clarify what can be public and what belongs to the private sphere. looking at today’s realities and taking the example of women in reformed Morocco.OZBILGIN TEXT Inclusion and diversity as an intercultural task 291 freedom of speech and religion. Yet. Only if we start looking at ourselves through others’ eyes. the state is in the line of duty to defend and protect marginalized cultures. Therefore. for Rawls. However. only through identification with others can we appreciate what should be and what should not. groups and minorities. Rawls’s model fails to stand the test and to offer practical utility in two major areas: first. positive right (Taylor 1992. but rather the right to be different should be postulated. This . 4). among others (Amy Gutmann in Taylor 1992. Taylor suggests that the ‘primary needs’ or ‘primary rights’ entail not only the supply of economical and judicial resources. development and formation of individuals. Only through recognition from the cultural group and society can the Self gain identity. 26. against the oppression by the majority culture or titular nation (ibid.OZBILGIN:M1780 . see also Amy Gutmann in Taylor 1992. even if the ‘Other’ disappears from our life (Taylor 1992. 43. there are issues with such concepts if they are tested against the realities of the various cultural contents. Liberalism cannot offer neutralities in which all cultures can meet and coexist and it cannot and must not provide cultural neutrality. second. A substantial ‘Self’. 5). In an organization such as an economic entity. Nevertheless.GRAHAMS IMAC:Users:Graham:Public:GRAHAM'S IMAC JOBS:11651 . it is the different cultural and political value systems that maintain primary validity. other particular rights should not be considered by the constituent. protected and sustained by governmental bodies and agencies. See also Kymlicka 1989. space should be negotiated for the interaction. 33). will we learn who we ‘really’ are. Taylor’s solution is based on the premises of liberalism (Taylor 1992. a personality with self-confidence and an ‘I-identity’ can only be reached through the interaction with significant others (Mead 1962). 36–68). the model does not even indicate which direction the position of women in Morocco (90 per cent are illiterate) might take. The Self is constituted through the dialogue with the significant other – not only at the beginning.EE . Yet. Rawls excludes from the primary rights the positive freedoms at the core of human rights in order to avoid potential conflicts with non-Western cultural norms or the potential charge of neocolonialism (1993. 63). Equality should not be dictated. with respect to a man’s infinite possibilities of turning a woman out of his house.
similar to solidarity. ‘Tolerance’ itself is a vague term. Briefly. if a majority culture or the titular nation does not recognize the minority culture as equivalent in rights or as (a) rightholder(s) (Taylor 1992. this poses important questions for the concepts of diversity. For post-modernists (for example. Taylor did not provide a convincing answer (see Kuper 1999. tolerance and respect fail as normative guidelines. these concepts. To practice tolerance and respect requires reciprocity as well as the development of a shared horizon of values that allows for a precise definition and critical assessment of the boundaries of these concepts. Equally. equality and inclusion within an organization: if such core concepts are communicated by leadership and at a higher level of the organizational hierarchy. 23–46. If recognition is a primary right protected by rights and having the same level of protection such as the guarantee of human rights. we tend to drown in the mainstream debate of multiculturalism and constructions of conflicts between the Christian civilized world and Islam. Scholars still have to determine to what extent tolerance is a justifiable response to intolerant and aggressive behavior.EE . Another solution provided by Taylor in order to mediate the different types of conflicts in the concepts of multiculturalism with a perspective on liberalism is tolerance. The new acquired . Returning to Taylor’s concept of recognition. he strongly argues for an assumption of equality of all cultures. also. Unwillingly. and one’s own values are being re-evaluated. prevents any form of critical engagement. The ideal stage is when both horizons and comprehension merge into one another. In this regard. Yet the valorization of cultural diversity in the sense of a radical equality of all cultures. 223). Maxwell 1994). For instance. and even subcultures.OZBILGIN TEXT GRA 292 Equality. which is also the narrative used by political leaders. Taylor refers to Gadamer’s Wahrheit und Methode (1960). But even this assumption has to be justified and transparent and be the object of hermeneutical findings. 59–63). 66). where some authors even argue the lack of an equivalent to the Age of Enlightment (see Tiel 1998.OZBILGIN:M1780 . then it is a breach of human rights and of justice. Acceptance and tolerance lead to a shift in perspectives and comprehension of the Other’s system. In the context of the intercultural conflict of values. this concept starts with the understanding of values and beliefs of another culture. thus contradicting the notions of a universally valid reason or a binding ethical norm.GRAHAMS IMAC:Users:Graham:Public:GRAHAM'S IMAC JOBS:11651 . the concept of culture is an exclusively pluralist one (see Kuper 1999. although en vogue in Western concepts of multiculturalism. diversity and inclusion at work is especially applicable to politics and religion. 236–37). What is important for the ‘Other’ has to be understood by one’s ‘self’. become not only strategic but also political. it lacks a productive foundation. both in the public and private spheres. tolerance proves to be useless as well as detrimental if merely employed as a political catchword.
there are two criteria: first. which culture provides better protection for the basic existential needs of human beings (this includes Rawls’s ‘primary goods’) and. This concept reveals a variety of views. every metropolis is accessible. 169) argues that the collective dimensions of identity provide people with narratives of personhood and life scripts. However. and he argues for a much closer concept to a transcultural socio-political space shaped by Cosmopolitanism. Others argue for the share of a moral community.OZBILGIN:M1780 . a concept started by Taylor and picked up and developed by other learned scholars (see Sen’s ‘capability set’ 1999. Nussbaum’s ‘Gerechtigkeit’. and puts him unwillingly in the line of Euro-centrism. human variety matters because people are entitled to options and strategies to shape their lives and relationships with others (p.EE . anytime. Yet others conceptualize the universal community in terms of political institutions to be shared by all. Taylor’s concept is still arguable as he firmly divorces himself from Communitarianism (see Etzioni 1996). emotionally. but also tends to another understanding of institutions and systemic powers as already elaborated by Michel Foucault (1977) and his discourse theory. the person who is not subject to such constructions as ‘diversity’. 74–110. the cosmopolitan encourages cultural diversity and appreciates mixtures. 101). Seen from a comparative perspective. for instance. In recent philosophical literature.OZBILGIN TEXT Inclusion and diversity as an intercultural task 293 perspective not only changes the apprehension of a value of a culture upon another culture. Everything is integrated. some argue for community among all humans. For instance. regardless of their social and political affiliation. states that Cosmopolitanism can acknowledge culture as a societal linkage between humans. while at the same time denying that this would logically imply that a person’s cultural identity should be defined by homogeneous . Waldron (1992). thus it does not belong to a specific Western or even Chinese concept. 104). and it construes such membership as the basis of collective rights. ‘difference’ or ‘in-/out-group’. According to Appiah. 1997. Yet the question still remains on how to assess the validity of culture in the post-modern society. Cosmopolitanism stands for the world citizen. which culture provides better opportunities to realize the ‘good life’. intellectually and physically (p. essentialism and cultural relativism. second. Appiah (1994.GRAHAMS IMAC:Users:Graham:Public:GRAHAM'S IMAC JOBS:11651 . anywhere. The trouble with multiculturalism is that it imposes concepts of membership in collectivities that are defined by their ‘cultures’. his strong support of Liberalism and concept of a ‘good life’ is its weakness as well. 187–226). yet he/she rejects nationalism and nation-state narrative in media. every market. In this sense. The implication of an institutionalization of cultures leads to a freezing of cultural differences and a reifying of cultural ‘communities’. It advocates for another approach in today’s reality of globalization: every person.
THE CONCEPTS OF POST-STRUCTURALISM Addressing the term ‘inequality’. Orloff. without. McCall. In the context of the social concepts of Cosmopolitanism and hybridity. should interview individuals not only with regard to the position that needs to be filled or some politics of diversity from the corporation leaders. critical) feminism. Nussbaum (following Aristotle) argues empirically. I brief mention will be made of various theories and approaches to (liberal. 2000). say. post-structuralist approaches and queer theory.EE . these elaborations are useful and helpful in their basic conceptions. difference and equality do not really seem to present an open door. I should like to advocate that the center of gravity for any debate on diversity. the manager in the human resources department. suggesting possible solutions for reaching diversity and inclusion. masculinity studies. whether at the domestic level or in the organizational hierarchy. 190). While accepting the validity of some of Rawls’s ‘primary goods’. This also means that. Cultural purity is an oxymoron as it defies today’s reality.OZBILGIN TEXT GRA 294 Equality.GRAHAMS IMAC:Users:Graham:Public:GRAHAM'S IMAC JOBS:11651 . values and culture. 1993. dignity. elaborations on the concepts of culture. which is a construction of both his own interests and his environment. . Martha C. in a first step. then his/her possible contribution to the workforce.. and emotional well being’ (ibid. Nussbaum considers the opportunity to make full individual use of these primary goods – rather than human rights (as guaranteed by the constitution) – as a prerequisite for a ‘good human life’ defined as the opportunity to develop into ‘full personhood’. and cultural aspects specific to one cultural unit cannot be imposed upon or assumed for another cultural unit.OZBILGIN:M1780 . the literature shows an abundant number of theories. roots and causes of inequality and the problem for gender diversity and gender equality (for example. 204). Yet. the individual. diversity and inclusion at work cultural assets. correlations and interdisciplinary value for a comparative approach to solutions. As seen in the above. Nussbaum proposes a ‘conception of person’ grounded in ‘central human capabilities’ (1997. but to take the concept of personhood as the basic starting-point. equality and inclusion should start with the person. taking into account his (or her) background. I shall now recall less rigid binary approaches that can be applied to gender pluralism. basing the validity of her concept of personhood on the self-interpretations of different cultures as they manifest themselves in ‘myths and tales’. as they all hold validity. From the exhaustive literature. to see the person first. To prevent someone from utilizing these primary goods is tantamount to preventing him/her from fully achieving ‘personhood’ and thus disregards human ‘autonomy. Thus. research.
the emphasis is on individual rights and it proves to be useful for supporting diversity. Prosser (1998) and More (1999) discuss accounts of transgender that draw on psychoanalysis.GRAHAMS IMAC:Users:Graham:Public:GRAHAM'S IMAC JOBS:11651 . 52). ranging from conservative and mythopoetic to pro-feminist and post-modern perspectives (see Monro 2005).OZBILGIN TEXT Inclusion and diversity as an intercultural task 295 Liberal feminism stems from 18th. the self and sexuality are socially constructed via language – a very useful theory. radical feminism evolved. With linkage to psychoanalytic feminism. Spivak (1987) examines how racism operates to construct racial boundaries. Liberal feminism can be used as a basis for developing a politics of sexual and gender diversity. Post-structuralism is. limited state intervention and freedom from prejudice (ibid. linking unconscious mental phenomena with the construction of feminity at both social and psychological levels. Instead.EE . For Lacan. a theory which argues that subjectivity is socially constructed. along with post-colonialism and post-modernism. According to Monro (2005. Monro (2005) contributes useful theories regarding application fields and limitations of the post-structuralist approach. men as a group are considered to be the beneficiaries of this systemic and systematic form of power (Beasley 1999. With a linkage to postcolonialism. linked to masculine subjectivities. Thus. which continue to organize both the colonialization of indigenous peoples and the black/ethnic/‘diaspora’ communities. these theories discuss the psychological processes that lead to the formation of women as different from men. In her work on gender politics.. From this issue. contradictory and fragile. particularly in the public sphere (Beasley 1999: 51–2). reality is seen as constructed via the exclusion of ‘others’ or other options (Beasley 1999). The issue with the liberal approach is the rationalism of the collective nature of politics involved. Black and white feminism give rise to further approaches and theories (see Davis 1981).OZBILGIN:M1780 . French feminists such as Kristeva (1985) draw on Jacques Lacan (1988). indicating causes and roots of sexual oppression and other forms of power as purely coming out of social systems of male domination.and 19th-century thinking regarding individual equal rights (Tong 1998. There is an emphasis on the rights of the individual. Post-structuralist approaches deconstruct not only rigid gender roles. Post-structuralist theory provides important tools for understanding gender diversity. 24). 10). though the nature of identity does not necessarily have . Other studies address the issue of masculinity. 55). Marxist feminism also extends modeled sexual oppression as an aspect of class power just as socialist feminism evolved at the intersections between radical and Marxist feminism and involves various approaches with combined strands of thinking. and it rejects the notion of an underlying ‘reality’. but also notions of ‘male’ and ‘female’. the strongest critique being an overemphasis on construction. It involves a focus on achieving equal rights via reform.
primarily through the interpretation of the cultural text.OZBILGIN:M1780 . The current Western emphasis on the concept of personhood is related to the fact that philosophers as well as cultural critics and historians have moved the notion of ‘virtue’ to center-stage in their discussion of values. diversity and inclusion. Peter Frederick Strawson (1992) similarly insists on an intersubjective aspect inherent in the concept of personhood. Its roots mainly depart from post-structuralism with its strong linkages to the work of Foucault (1977). ENGAGING THE ‘OTHER’ Intercultural negotiations demand a new kind of theory. loss of job security and relativity of workforce value do have implications. psychology.GRAHAMS IMAC:Users:Graham:Public:GRAHAM'S IMAC JOBS:11651 . The transition to the service economy. queer theory can be a useful counterpart to rigid post-structuralism and it can support multiplicity (see Butler 1990 for further details). bifocal thinking as social practice (see also Geertz’s . At the same time. The last approach in the field of gender theories is queer theory has been discussed in gay and lesbian academic work in the area of literary and cultural studies. According to Sedgwick (1991). ‘otherness’ and ‘personhood’. especially in connection with an ‘ethical attitude’ and (especially since Jean-Paul Sartre) the existential personal decision. has gained importance in literary criticism. defining a person as someone who acknowledges other people as persons and vice versa. namely. Gender pluralism and transsexuality form the new framework for debates on gender. which re-emerge in the social and cultural concepts of ‘center’ and ‘periphery’. McCall (1998) addresses these issues through an investigation of the social composition of inequality – including gender. the term ‘character’. Yet.OZBILGIN TEXT GRA 296 Equality. and ethics. Therefore the politics of gender and diversity has an effect on policy strategies. 305). queer theory deconstructs gender and sexual identities. The concept of personhood is thus a reciprocally relational term. thinking and acting. job-sharing. Finally. the most promising results for qualitative and quantitative data on inequality would be gathered from the assumption that modern inequality has both a gendered and a racial character. thus closing the interdisciplinary circle from social and cultural concepts to economic issues and back to concepts of power. All these theories provide the basic tools for an interdisciplinary approach to gender diversity in economic entities. racial and class dimensions. diversity and inclusion at work to be constructed in the way that post-structuralism assumes.EE . neglected since the rise of Modernism. J. Melvin Woody comes to the conclusion that ‘freedom’ is meaningless without ‘integrity of character’: ‘Freedom of choice’ and ‘character’ are two sides of the same coin (1998.
Understanding and engaging the human factor is paramount for a prospering organizational culture. Mediators (practitioners. making it possible to share values and to benefit from those shared values. capabilities and capacities to support and foster translation and transition. This is all the more true of intercultural translations. At best. and the cultural. they help us to familiarize ourselves with and adopt the foreign. the personal. the structural. removing its foreign quality. Thus. they also throw into relief our own irreducibly foreign quality in encountering the ‘Other’. and without a large-scale intercultural cooperation. The objective must be translation and transition and certainly not homogenization. however. yet they also create new obstacles.GRAHAMS IMAC:Users:Graham:Public:GRAHAM'S IMAC JOBS:11651 . Transition demands transcultural awareness and sensibility and contextual situatedness. Translation. translation is often interpretation. without. based on the aforementioned . intercultural communication and day-to-day life and business. CONCLUSION The constant flux of changes and asymmetric contexts renders new assumptions on the negotiations of relationships. 6. in which difficulties in understanding semantic and cultural codes add up and multiply (Clifford 1999. Mediators have the tools. understanding the other’s system. societies and individuals to build a knowledge management system. however. at the same time. and the process of interculturality occurs by focusing on three levels of action: ‘de-centring’. Appiah 1996). is apt to produce misunderstandings. by adopting each other’s perspectives – can culturally specific and hence different modes of subjectivity and discourses be reintegrated into an ‘inter-discourse’ without subjecting the culturally competing elements to a new master discourse (for example.OZBILGIN TEXT Inclusion and diversity as an intercultural task 297 (1973) ‘bifocal understanding’ and ‘cross-traveling’ and Hall’s (2004) ‘bifocal perspective’). The intercultural approach functions by taking into account three levels of system. such a dialogue cannot be realized. traduttore traditore (translators are traitors). Only by employing a dialectical discourse – that is. Moreover. 182–5). The concept of personhood and capability used as a de-constructing method of nationhood narratives and the use of post-structuralist approaches certainly help organizations. 41–2. 36–8. The most important asset and focus on investment for a company should certainly be the human factor. Without drawing on Foucault’s archeological methods.EE . multiplicators of all sorts as well as media) build bridges.OZBILGIN:M1780 . as the old dictum goes. and negotiation between the systems. the merging points of the different cultures can be taken into account by a focused diversity management program.
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