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A Study Note on MBA Project Report

(Selection of Topic, Format of Project Report, Terminal Points and Key Instructions)

Dr. V.S.Shitole

I. Selection of Topic
II. Beginning Pages of Project
III. Content of the Report:
IV. Key Instructions

Selection of Topic
As per the requirements of the University of Pune, all the
students of Master of Business Administration [MBA] programme are
required to undergo 'Summer Training' in a particular business
organization as a partial fulfillment for their Master's degree towards the
end of their first academic year, (during summer vacation). This in-plant
training is for a minimum period of 50 days, which is popularly known
as SUMMER TRAINING. This training has the following objectives:
1) To expose the students to the current business environment.
2) To establish link between theory and practice.
3) To apply multi disciplinary concepts, tools and techniques to solve
organizational problems.
4) To understand the functioning of a business organization.
5) To acquaint with the hierarchy of the various levels of
6) To understand the processes involved in the working of the various
functional departments of the organization.
7) To know the relationship among the people working in the unit.
8) To know the current status of the business unit.
9) To create awareness for various research topics in the business

The students of Master of Business Administration [MBA] are

required to submit a project report based on their observation in the field
of functional area or general business environment. The project report is
to be written in a technical and scientific manner, which is not only in a
presentable form but also complete in all respects. This project report is
basically a kind of research project. Research is a systematic effort of
gathering, analysis and interpretation of the problems to find
meaningful solutions. Research Project Report should aim at:

1) To discover the answers to business problems.

2) To achieve new insight in to a business phenomenon.
3) To portray accurately the features of particular business situation.
4) To find the frequency of occurrence.

1. Deciding the method of study:-

There are different kinds of methods are used in management

research. Each method has its own advantages and limitations. The
research worker should therefore, decide in the very beginning as to

what particular method he is going to use. In selecting the method he

should take into consideration not only the suitability of the method,
but his own knowledge of it also. More than one method may be
applied but a prior planning of the same is essential

2. Survey Method

Surveys under management discipline may be classified into

various types according to their subject matter, techniques of data
collection, regularly etc. Classification on the basis of subject matter
has already been given in the previous pages. Following are other

i. General or specific surveys: When a survey is

conducted for collecting general information about any
population, institution or phenomena without any particular
object or hypothesis it is known as a general survey. Such
surveys are mostly undertaken by the government for
supplying regular data on many socio-economic problems.
Census of population every tenth year is a typical example
of such a survey. Specific surveys are conducted for
specific problems or for testing the validity of some theory
or hypothesis. These surveys are naturally more pointed
and only such information as a directly related to the
specific purpose is collected. Information gathered through
these surveys is generally of very little value-outside the
problem under study.

ii. Regular and ad-hoc surveys: Some surveys are regular

in Mature and must he repeated after regular intervals. For
such surveys permanent machinery for collecting
information has to be set up. Most of such surveys are
mainly economic surveys. A study of family budgets can be
cited as example. Rural Credit Survey of family budgets
can be cited as exam Rural Credit Survey of the Reserve
Bank of India which call information regarding the
condition of rural credit annually is of the same type.
Such surveys are undertaken where continuo' data is
required to study the trend or the effect of time upon
phenomena under study. Ad-hoc surveys are undertaken
once for all. They may also be conducted in phases if the
area of investigation is „large, the whole survey being
finished in two or more installments. This would not entitle
them to be termed as regular or repetitive type unless the
same information is collected over and over again. Ad-hoc

surveys are undertaken mostly for testing a hypothesis or

supplementing some missing information regarding any
research problem.

iii. Preliminary and final surveys: A preliminary survey is

generally known as 'pilot study' and it is therefore runner
of the final survey. The purpose of this survey is to get the
first hand knowledge of the universe to be surveyed. It
helps a person to get acquainted with the problem and the
nature of respondents from whom the information it to be
collected. It is therefore, very useful in preparing the
schedule or questionnaire and organizing the survey on
proper lines. Final survey is made after the pilot study has
been completed.

iv. Census and sample surveys: In a census survey every

single unit in the universe is to be contacted and
information collected from him. In case of a sample survey
only a small part of it is taken as representative of the
whole and data collected from it are made applicable to
the whole universe. For example, in a study of smoking
habit among the students at Pune, we may contact each
one of the several thousand students to get requisite
information or a sample of few hundred may be taken and
data so collected may be made applicable to the whole
group. Sample surveys are becoming more popular these
days because of their convenience, time saving and low
cost. Besides, this, techniques have been developed which
permit the calculation error with adequate precision.


The survey is like establishing and running a business enterprise.

Both require technical knowledge and skill, administrative ability and
specific experience or training in work similar to that being organized.
Planning of management research programme is necessary for its
successful execution. An unplanned research work may entail a lot of
fruitless labour and wastage of time, money and effort. Most of the
unplanned studies fizzle out before they have reached their final stage
because the researcher may find himself face to face with difficult
problems which he had never thought of and for which he is never

prepared. A number of problems have to be considered in planning a

Management related research project some of these are given below:

4. Selection of the problem:

The first and the foremost thing to be decided by the research

worker is the selection of the Project research problem itself. It is
probably the most important matter to be decided by the
research workers. Selection of an unsuitable problem would
result in the inevitable failure. Following factors may be kept in
mind while selecting the problem.

(a) The research project should be such, in which

researcher may be deeply interested. His own interest will
not only inspire him to work hard but also increase in
power to grasp things quickly and keep his morale high in
times of difficulties.

(b) The research Topic should be allied with the

chain of thinking or research already in existence. Stray
problems if selected become difficult to co-ordinate and do
not add to the whole some development of the theory.

(c) The Research Topic selected should not

necessarily be new. It may be an old problem or one on
which work has already been done. There is a general
temptation for the new research worker to hit upon some
new problem, as it satisfies his sense of vanity, but from
purely scientific point of view verification of an old problem
may be equally useful. Any hypothesis successfully proved
in the repeated tests that hypothesis assumes the form of
a perfects theory.

(d) The project topic should be within manageable

limits. It should not be too comprehensive, Here again a
good deal of caution has to be taken. There is general
tendency to select vast topics, as they appear grander.
Vast subject of study, howsoever, grand they may appear,
are unfit for real research work. It requires a real sense of
humility and a definite control over temptation on the part
of the research worker to confine him to narrow topics. But
they are very essential for successful scientific study.

(e) The topic should preferably possess some direct

utility.' This point raises the controversy of basic versus
applied research. Basic research although so important for
social theory has little practical value. Applied research
may possess immediate utility to some interested persons.
Both of them have to be taken up but in order to make the
research work financially self-sufficient due stress has to
be given to applied part.

(f) The topic should be practically feasible.

Practical feasibility conveys many implied conditions.
They relate to technique, time, money and other resources
at the, disposal, of the research worker. The topic selected
should not be such as can not be dealt with through
existing techniques. Time, money and other resources at
our disposal not only limit the dimension of our studies but
also the nature of studies. All these factors must be
thought out well in advance and a budget showing the
proposed expenditure should be prepared before the
research work is actually started.

(g) The title of research topic must be appropriate

and capable to expose what is being included in the
research project.

5. Type of Research Project:

The research project may be from any one of the following types:
1) Compressive case study covering single organization
multifunctional area, problem formulation, analysis and policy
2) Field study with empirical orientation.

Research Project Broad Areas in the Management Research

The students can take up the research project in areas such as:
1) General Management
2) Accounting and Finance
3) Human Resource Management

4) Organizational Behaviour
5) Organizational Design
6) Operation Management
7) Marketing Management
8) Information System
9) Corporate Management
10) Any other [specify]

Students frequently are in difficulties while selecting a suitable

project. In order to overcome these difficulties, the selection of an
enterprise or topic for the purpose of the summer project must be
made in consultation with their guides. The possible project subjects
are illustrated below:

1) A study Non Performing Assets (NPAs) Management

2) A study of Cost Components of a sugar Industry
3) A study of Financial Incentives
4) A Study of Financial Resources of Bank with special reference to
Janata Sahakari Bank
5) A study of Job Evaluation
6) A study of Non Financial incentives
7) A study of Training & Development in
8) Advertisement & Sales Promotion.
9) Advertising Practices.
10) An analysis of financial Resources of LIC.
11) Analysis of P & L A/c.
12) Balance Sheet Analysis.
13) Barriers of Communication in Enterprise
14) Brand Management.
15) Budgetary Control.
16) Collective Bargaining.
17) Communication Methods in Enterprise.
18) Communication Techniques
19) Compensation Payment Management in
20) Competitor Analysis.
21) Consumer Behaviour with Special Reference to Selected Product.
22) Customer Satisfaction.
23) Demand Potential for Baja Three Wheelers
24) Distribution Channels.
25) Effects of Advertising.
26) Evaluation of Training Effectiveness- with special reference to
27) Export / Import Documentation.
28) Export Marketing of ABC company
29) Export Practices or Export of Product.
30) Factory Environment.

31) Finance Audit of a company

32) Finances of retailing business :-A case of selected shopping
Malls in Pune
33) Financial Ratio Analysis based on Annual Reports
34) Fund Flow Analysis
35) Govt. Assistance to Enterprise.
36) HR Climate Survey.
37) Import Practices or Import of Product.
38) Industrial Relations.
39) Internal Control Systems
40) Inventory Control Management
41) Job Satisfaction.
42) Labour Welfare Practices in organized shopping malls
43) Legal Aspects of Business.
44) Man Power Planning,
45) Marketing business Through TV Media
46) Marketing of Financial Services : A case of Nationalized bank
47) Marketing Practices in.....
48) Marketing Practices.
49) Marketing Survey for Product
50) MIS of an Organization
51) Motivation,
52) Operational Control.
53) Organizational Structure of
54) Packaging & Labeling Practices for selected consumer goods
55) Performance Appraisal
56) Placement & Induction Programmes in----
57) Plant Layout.
58) Portfolio Management.
59) Pricing Strategies of Transport operators
60) Production Practices.
61) Productivity Measurement
62) Promotion of Enterprise.
63) Recruitment & Selection.
64) Relationship Marketing.
65) Retailing Business in groceries
66) Sales Forecasting.
67) Salesmanship at Traffic Signals
68) Selection Process
69) Study of Financial Statements of ......
70) Study of Selection Tests Practiced in .....
71) Supply Chain Management.
72) Time Management of MBA students
73) TQM.
74) Training Needs & Analysis with special reference to small hotels
75) Training of Salesmen.

76) Valuation of Human Assets.

77) Wholesaling in vegetable Markets
78) Wholesaling Practices
79) Working Capital Management.

(The students may have the research Topics other than those mentioned
herewith. provided they should consult with their research Guide)

6. Preliminary preparations:-

The researcher must acquaint himself with all the material that is
available on the matter. This may consist of written texts, research
work, and unpublished information. The research scholar should go
through them. Allied matter should also be read. He should find out the
persons who have conducted research or special study of the problem,
should contact them, discuss with them, the problem, their findings,
technique followed by them and the difficulties faced. This early
preparation will make him more equipped and better suited to tackle
the problem under study.

7. Selection of sample:-

Management variables related with people are very vast. It is

practical impossibility to contact each and every person to assess the
impact or relations with the managerial variables. Moreover the
problem under study may not concern everybody. Therefore a sample
is generally drawn from amongst the people about whom the study has
to be made. There are different methods of drawing out a sample and
they have been explained by the teachers. For MBA project only a brief
mention is enough.

• The most essential feature of a good sample is its representative

ness. The sample should include as fully as possible the qualities
and attributes of the homogeneous universe.

• It must be capable of yielding as accurate and reliable picture of

the total. The sample must be simple and easy to be drawn.

• It should be possible to assess the precision of the sample and

determine mathematically the limit of the errors.

• Above all, it must be practicable. An impracticable sample,

however excellent, is of no real use.

• In order to draw a representative sample the 'universe' or the


total population that has to be studied, must be known.

Thus for example, if it is proposed to conduct a survey of the
employment among middle class women and its effect upon the family
organization in the city of Pune, 'we must know the total number
middle class women employed in different jobs in Pune. A list of all
cases, of universe, known as source list is thus prepared and the
sample is drawn according to systematic sampling methods. Even after
a sample has been drawn it should be tested by internal and external

8. Nature of information to be collected:-

Social phenomena are generally very complex and influenced by

a number of variables. It is, therefore, essential to decide before hand
for information is to be collected. Questionnaire and schedules are
generally prepared for this purpose. They contain certain set of
questions that are to be asked from the informants. Questionnaire
and schedule bring uniformity and thus introduce objectivity in the
study. A proper drafting of these documents is very essential. Any slip
in the language may distort the meaning and may create a bias in the
replies. Information required should be complete. After the study has
been completed, if some important information has been left out, it will
require the same amount of labour and effort again to gather it.
Therefore enough care should be exercised in this respect. Detailed
discussion about the schedules and Questionnaires has "been given in
the succeeding chapters.

Formal questionnaire may be not needed in some type of

research work as case study, field observation, narrative interview etc.
But even is such case the researcher has to make a plan, how-over
short and sketchy, to get an idea as to what information is to be
collected. It may be in form of interview guide, giving broad headings
upon which questions are to be put or only a summary of the nature of
information to be collected. Such a plan is sufficiently elastic and not
fixed and unchangeable like schedule or questionnaire. The observer
may make necessary changes in the matter to be observed as the
research work is in progress and more experience is gained about the
nature of the problem and the type of response available. In any case
some sort of previous planning is absolutely essential in every case.

9. Organization of survey:
If it is a quantitative survey a good deal of organizational work is
required for successfully conducting it. A number of field workers may
be required. If they are not trained, they must be given necessary
training. Proper arrangement should be made for checking and

supervising their work so that they may not give false reports. After
the report has been received, it has to be edited. A thorough checking
of the forms has to be undertaken. After this the data has to be
classified, coded and presented in form of tables. It is subjected to
various kinds of analysis and ultimately conclusions are drawn proving
or disproving the hypothesis. All this organizational work should be
pre-planned. The researcher may put up his own organization or may
take the help of some already existing professional body. If the project
is quite big and likely to take enough time, it is generally more useful
to set up one's own research organization. In short surveys, help may
be taken from professional organizations because selection and
training of the field workers is a time consuming process and may
require a lot of preparatory expenditure. Even if a separate
arrangement is made for this purpose, occasional guidance may be
taken and consultations made whenever some special technique is

10. Pre-testing or pilot study:-

Even after a theoretical preparation has been made some sort of
trial survey is necessary to gain specific knowledge of the subject and
get an idea of the various problems likely to be faced in the in course
of the survey. These trial surveys arc variously known as pilot study,
pre-testing, test tube survey etc.
In pre-testing the same procedure is allowed as is to be
adopted in actual survey. Every detail is to be followed with same
precision. The number of cases to be included in the pilot study sample
differs according to nature of survey. Generally 100 or 200 cases are
taken. Sometimes even 25 cases are considered enough.
In case of any schedules or forms are to be used, they must be
given a trail in the pilot study. The pilot study sample should be as far
as possible representative of the main sample, in other words it must
include cases from all the different strata. Necessary amendments
should be made in the questionnaire, method of study, the sample
drawn and other plans of field organization. If a substantial change has
been introduced as a result of the pre-testing a second or even a third
pilot study may be essential.

11 Cost estimates:
Every survey entails some financial expenditure which varies
from survey to survey, according to the scope and size of the survey,
time required nature of information to be collected etc. A prior
estimate of financial requirement is absolutely essential. A hurried
start without a definite plan may result in financial bottle-neck in the
advanced stage of the survey and may even result in utter waste of

time and money previously employed on it. Not only the expenditure
required but also the resources through which the finances arc to come
should be pre-planned and definitely ascertained.
In preparing cost budget all the necessary items of expenditure
may be taken into account. They may include such items as purchase
of books, stationery, files, payment to be made to staff clerical and
field workers, conveyance and traveling expenses as well as other
charges incidental to the survey work. A reserve of 10% for any
contingencies must be made. Expenditure to be incurred on report
must also be taken into account.

No hard and fast rules can be framed regarding the amount of

expenditure likely to be incurred. It entirely depends upon the nature
of the survey and the circumstances in which it is to be carried. The
general method is to divide the survey into following three parts, each
part requiring almost equal expenditure.
1. Planning the survey and drafting schedule forms and
2. Investigation in the field, collecting data, editing schedules.
3. Coding, tabulating, analyzing data and writing report.
As described above, formation of correct budget is a matter of
experience and it will not be unwise if help is taken from professional
organizations in this respect.

12 Time estimates:

In any kind of planning, time factor plays a dominant role. The

work has to be carried on according to time schedule. In fundamental
research work time may not be an important factor and the researcher
may take any period of time for completing his research, but in many
types of short surveys specially those dealing with problems of
immediate and transitory interest only, the time factor has a great
importance and the survey must be completed within specified time if
findings are to be of any interest to the people.

Sometimes the report of the survey has to be given as quickly as

within 48 hours. Telegraphic or telephonic surveys are conducted in
such cases. Such surveys generally deal with attitude and opinion polls
about some problem immediate Importance e. g. chances of a
particular candidate in election, In such a case information may be
collected on telephone or actual interview and is dispatched
telegraphically to the head office. Day and night work has to be done
to tabulate the information collected and bring out the result in time.

13. Report:-
After the data have been analyzed deductions are drawn. These
generalizations are often put in form of a report. If the survey has been
undertaken at the instance of a third party care should be taken to see
that all the information demanded by him has been supplied. At such
times the surveyor may give his own opinion as well as the suggestions
regarding the problem under study. The form of report to be submitted
should be decided before hand as it is very helpful in deciding the
nature of information to be collected and the form in which it is to be

II: - Beginning Pages of Project


1) Title of the Project:

• It should be in capital letters
• It should have clarity
• It should be original or new
• It should be object oriented
• It should be eye view of the project
• It should be in minimum words
• It should be in inverted commas

A Project Report on



Submitted to the University of Pune in Partial

Fulfillment of Requirements
For the Award of Degree of



Mr. Sen Gupta,

MBA –III Semester
Exam No.-

Under the Guidance of

Prof. Dr. V.S. Shitole

JSPM’S Jaywant Institute of Management Studies,




I, the undersigned, hereby declare that the Project Report entitled

"…………………………." written and submitted by me to the University of
Pune in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of
Master of Business Administration under the guidance
of---------------------- is my original work and the conclusions drawn therein
are based on the material collected by myself.

Place : Pune (Name)

Date : Research Student



This is to certify that the Project Report entitled " ………………" which is
being submitted herewith for the award of the degree of Master of
Business Administration of University of Pune is the result of the original
research work completed by Mr.………………….. under my supervision
and guidance and to the best of my knowledge and belief the work
embodied in this Project Report has not formed earlier the basis for the
award of any degree or similar title of this or any other University or
examining body.

Place : Pune (Name of the Guide)

Date : Research Guide


Note: This certificate is to be obtained on original letterhead of the

company by the project student where he/she carried out project work.

TATA Group of Company, Address


This is to certify that Miss.XXXXXXXXXXX has worked in the

finance department from 7'" May 2011 to 7'" July 2011 in our
organization. During this period, she successfully completed the work
assigned to her. She has been sincere, hardworking and punctual in her
work. I wish good and prospers carrier for her future.

Name of the Person
Designation with Office Seal

Note: The above-cited content certificate is to be obtained on original

letterhead of the company by the project student where he/she carried
out project work.



Page No.


A page for Acknowledgment


In this page, the students can acknowledge for the people who are
concern to the work and project.



For example:

Table No. Title of the Page
Table No.
Table No.
Table No.
Table No.
Table No.
Table No.
Table No.
Table No.
Table No.
Table No.
Table No.

Tables may be more or less depending upon the tables in the each



For example:

Figure No Title of the Page
Figure No.
Figure No.
Figure No.
Figure No.
Figure No.
Figure No.
Figure No.
Figure No.
Figure No.
Figure No.
Figure No.
Figure No.
Figure No.

Figures may be more or less depending upon the figure in the each


All the abbreviations used in the research project should be listed

alphabetically here.


This page should consist of the executive summary of research

project carried out by the project student/researcher.

III) Content of the Report:

Chapter I

The first chapter may cover the following points:

1) Basic Theoretical Concepts of the Topic
2) Literature Review
3) Need for the Study
4) Statement of the Problem
5) Objectives of the Project
6) Research Hypotheses
7) Scope of the Study

The detail descriptions of these points are as under:

2. Basic Theoretical Concepts of the Topic(self explanatory)

1.2 Literature Review:-

This point should cover the following:

• A brief note of overview of work already done in the area of the
selected research topic.
• Minimum ten projects/Articles should be reviewed.
• Review write up should be in scientific manner covering:
(i) Name of the author whose paper is under review.
(ii) Title and objectives in summery form.
(iii) Methodology adopted to study the objectives.
(iv) Summarizing the major findings.
(v) Highlighting research gaps.
• Scientific style of foot note reference.

1.3. Need for the Study:-

This point should cover the following:


• Why this study.

• Sources of key originating research question(s).
• The selected problem in the theoretical context of the concerned
discipline should be specified.

1.4 Statement of the Problem:-

This point should cover the following:

• The problem to be investigated should be presented clearly and

• Statement should emerge from the need for the study.
• It should be object oriented.
• It should be eye view of the project.
• It should be in inverted commas.

1.5. Objectives of the Project:-

This point should cover the following:

• The objectives of the project should be made in clear, specific
and precise terms.
• The objectives of the project should be put in serial points.
• They should cover summary of the title of the research project.
• They should be in minimum words.
• They should indicate scope of the study.
• They should drive the research project.
• They should be in minimum number.

1.6. Research Hypotheses:-

This point should cover the following:

• A hypothesis is a tentative generalization- the validity of which
remains to be tested.
• Specify research hypotheses that you wish to investigate in this
• They should be clear, specific & precise.
• They should state the relationship of variables.
• They should be simple.
• They should be limited in scope.
• They should be testable statements.
• They should be in minimum number.

1.7. Reference Period for study


1.8. Scope of the Study:-

This point should cover the following:

• Specific mention should be made of the rational scope of the
research problem of the project, such as:
• Geographical scope of the study.
• The topical scope of the study.
• Analytical scope of the study.
• The functional scope of the study.

1.8Limitation of Study

Chapter II
Conceptual Logic behind the topic and Profile of the

This is the second chapter of the project, which may focus the

• Conceptual Logic behind the topic

• Name, Address and Location of the
• Vision and Mission of the Organization
• Historical Background of the Organization
• Different Departments of the Organization
• Organizational Chart of the Company
• Different product profile of the
• Current Status of the Company
• Future Plans of the Organization
• Any special awards to the Organization
• Any other relevant information of the

Chapter III
Research Design and Methodology

A good research design ensures against wasteful expenditure of

time, money and energy. The chapter may cover the following points:
1) Sampling Design
2) Source and methods of Data Collection
3) Methods of data Analysis and Statistical Techniques
4) Key concepts and Definitions
5) Scheme of the Study
6) Limitations of the Study

The detail descriptions of these points are as under:

1. Sampling Design:-

This point should cover the following:

• Define population with reference to project.
• Sampling unit should be specified.
• Sampling frame should be defined.
• Sample size should be defined.
• Sampling procedure should be defined.
• Know the Budgetary constraints.
• An explanation of the determination of size and type of sample
will also be necessary.
• Proposals not requiring a sample selection should specify their
strategy appropriately and describe the rationale.

2. Source and methods of Data Collection:-

This point should cover the following:

The different types of data that are proposed to be gathered and to be
used should be specifically mentioned. Data collection methods may

be as:

I) Sources of Primary Data collection:

• Observations,
• Field Observation,
• Interview Schedule,
• Questionnaire,
• Discussion with Some Concerned People.

II) Sources of Secondary data Collection:

• Bibliography database,
• Abstract database,
• Full text database,
• Online database,
• Unpublished database.

Ill) The sources for each type of data and the tools and techniques
that will be used for collecting different types of data should be

3. Methods of data Analysis and Statistical Techniques:-

This point should cover the following:
• Different types of data analysis techniques used in the research
project should be specifically mentioned. Such as:
1) Basic analytical tools, which include Tabular Analysis, Graphical
Analysis, Percentage Analysis or Ratio Analysis etc., should be
2) Project students can use some advanced techniques in the
project for data analysis, which includes Regression Analysis,
Multivariate Analyses, ANOVA etc., should be specified.

4. Key concepts and Definitions:-

This point should cover the following:

• If some special technical terms used in the research
project, those terms should be defined clearly.

5. Scheme of the Study:-

This point should cover the following:

• Outline of all the chapters should be given here.
For example.
• Chapter I
• Chapter II
• Chapter III

• Chapter IV
• Chapter V
6. Limitations of the Study:-

This point should cover the following:

• Major limitations of the study should be specified.

Chapter IV
Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

This chapter should contain information on the following points:

1) Getting data ready for analysis
2) Data Analysis
3) Interpretation of results
4) Discussion on results derived
5) Research Questions Answered

The detail descriptions of these points are as under:

1. Getting data ready for analysis:
• Editing data
• Handling blank responses
• Coding data
• Categorizing data
• Creating data file
• Programming

2 Data Analysis:
A. Present data in tabular forms:
(i) Frequency tables
(ii) Response tables
(iii) Contingency tables
(iv) Univariate tables
(v) Bivariate tables
(vi) Statistical tables
(vii) Time Series tables

B. All tables should have technical features, such as:

(i) Table Number
(ii) Title of the table
(iii) Captions (Columns Heading)
(iv) Stubs (Row Heading)
(v) Table Body
(vi) Head Note

(vii) Foot Note

C. Feel for the data
Use basic of statistics such as:
(i) Frequencies
(ii) Mean
(iii) Standard Deviation.
(iv) Coefficient of Variation
(v) Correlation
(vi) ANOVA
(vii) Etc.

D. Righteousness of Data
1. Reliability
2. Validity

E. Hypotheses Testing

3 Interpretation of results:-
• Feel what findings/results are
• Mean what findings say
• Read, think and present the inference

4 Discussion on results derived:-

• Link the objectives with results of the data
• Implications of findings
• Personal perspective of the student on derived results
5 Research Questions Answered:-
• Feel the research questions are answered
• Draw and Develop conclusions or generalizations

Chapter V
Findings and suggestions

This chapter should cover the following:

1) Main Findings
2) Policy Suggestions
3) Scope for further research

1. Main Findings:-
• Findings are statements of factual information based upon the
data analysis
• List all the major findings of the project serially
• Put the findings in sequence of the study

2. Policy Suggestions:-
• Policy Suggestions or Recommendations should flow from the
• They should be very rational and practical
• They should be specific
• They should be indicative

3. Scope for further research:-

• Project study should indicate scope for further research

vi) Terminal Items:

This point should cover the following points:

• Bibliography
• Questionnaires or Interview Schedules
• Glossary terms
• Index of Key words

A bibliography is the listing of the work that is relevant to the
main topic of the research interest arranged in the alphabetical order of
the last names of the author(s). A reference list is a subset of the
bibliography, which includes details of the all the citation used in the
literature survey and elsewhere in the report, arranged again, in the
alphabetical order of the last names of the author(s).

At least three modes of referencing are followed in the business

research. These are based on the format provided in the publication
manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), (2001), the
Chicago Manual Style (1993), and the Turabian style (1996).

Each of these style specifies with examples, how books, journals

newspapers, dissertations and other documentation materials are to
be referenced in the manuscript. Since the APA format is followed for
referencing by many journals in the management area, the monograph
will highlight the distinctions in how books, journals, newspapers,
dissertations and other documentation materials are referenced using
APA format as specimen referencing format below:

Book by single author:-

1. Benni, Basavaraj, S., (2005), Dairy Cooperative Management and
Practice, Rawat Publication, Jaipur.

Book by more than one author:

1. Krishnaswamy, K. N., Appa, Iyer, Sivakumar, & Mathirajan. M..
(2006), Management Research Methodology: Integration of Principles,
Methods and Techniques, Pearson Education, New Delhi.

More than one Book by the same author:-


1) Roy, A., (1998a) Chaos theory, McMillan Publishing Enterprise,

New York.
2) Roy,A.,(1998b)ClassicChaos, McMillan Publishing Enterprise, New

Edited Book:-
1. Pennathur, A., Leong, R T, & Schuster, K (Eds), (1998), Style and
substance of thinking, Paradise Publishers, New York.

Chapter in the edited book:-

1. Benni, Basavaraj, S.. (2007), Infrastructural Development and
Regional Disparity - A Comparative District Level Analysis in
Karnataka, in Dash L. N., (Ed) Economics of Infrastructure, Regal
Publication, New Delhi.

Journal Article:-
1. Benni, Basavaraj, S., (2006), Sugar Factory Efficiency
Measurement: Application of Data Envelopment Analysis-A New
Insight for Managers, Paradigm. The Research Journal of Institute
for Management and Technology, Vol. X, No. 2, July-December.
Conference Proceedings Publication:-
1. Benni, Basavaraj, S., (2007), Status of Public Services in
Karnataka-A Comparative District Level Analysis, inShahu.A.,
(Ed), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on
Services Management, Oxford Brookes University & IIMT New

Doctoral Dissertation:-
1. Benni. Basavaraj, S., (2001), Dairy Co-Operative Societies in
Karnataka, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Kamatak
University, Dharwad.

Paper presentation at conference:-

1. Benni, Basavaraj, S., (2004, August 27!h to 29'"), Empowering

Decision Making Capacity of Global Corporate Managers through
Econometric Tools, paper presented a for "Best Research Paper
Competition" in 16lh Annual Management Education Convention,
conducted by Association of Indian Management Schools, Goa.

Government Publication:-
1. Ministry of Law, Government of India, (1960), The Copyright Act,
14 of 1957, Delhi.

Unpublished Manuscript:-
1. Pringle, P.S., (1991), Training and Development in 90s,

unpublished manuscript, Southern lllinos University, Diamondale,


Newspaper Article:-
1. The new GM pact, (1998, July 28), Concord Tribune, p-1

IV:- Key Instructions

Features of Good Report Write-up:
The research report written in scientific manner use to have the
following fifteen principle characteristic features:

1) Consistency
2) Connectivity
3) Indentation
4) Continuity
5) Highlighting
6) Openness
7) Clarity
8) Asserting
9) Ordering
10) Compatibility
11) Jargon
12) Elaboration/Brevity
13) Self-Sufficiency
14) Enrichment
15) Synthesis-analysis-synthesis

Guidelines for Reviewing Draft:-

The draft of the research report should be reviewed for an

appropriate number of times so that the errors are completely avoided.
While reviewing the draft, certain guidelines are to be followed, as
indicated below:
1) The text of the report should be free from ambiguity.
2) The text must convey the intended messages.
3) The text must cover the scope of the research work.
4) The report should be organized in hierarchical form.
5) There should be continuity.
6) Avoid using lengthy sentence.
7) The length of the report may be may be about 70 to 85 doubled

typed pages

Typing Instructions:-

After thoroughly checking the draft of the research report, it

should be given for final typing. While typing the report, typist should
take care of the following:
1) Font: The entire report of text body should be typed in the font
style of Times New Roman. Prefatory items of the reports may by
be printed according to the choices of the student.

2) Size: The size of font for the text body of report should be 13.
Font size for prefatory items of the reports may by be of choices
of the student.

3) Line spacing: The entire report should be typed with doubled

spacing except intended paragraph, tables and footnotes. The
tables and footnotes are to be typed with single spacing.

4) Paragraph spacing: The entire report should be typed with six

(06) points before and after paragraph spacing.

5) Indentation: The first line of the paragraph should be typed

with 0.5 indentations.

6) Margins: The entire report should be typed with Left margin-

1.5", Right margin 1", Top margin 1"and Bottom margin 1".

7) Alignment: The entire report should be typed with justified

alignment except tables. The tables are to be typed with centre

8) Tables and Graphs: Tables and graphs should be placed as near

possible to the text. Possibly do not break the tables in to pages.

9) Headings/Titles: Headings and title of the text paragraph and

text material should be in same page.

10) Quotations: Quotations should be quoted in inverted comma.

11) Citing Reference Number: While citing the reference number in

the text superscript number style should be used.

12) Pagination: The main part of the text body should be numbered
continuously in Arabic numbers. Page number may be inserted in
the header right most top or at center of bottom in the footer.
Prefatory materials should be numbered continuously in roman

Proofreading of the Manuscript:-

It is process of a word by word search misspelling, mis

punctuation, grammar errors and typing errors. All the errors should be
corrected before the final print. Proofreading should also ensure three
aspects of language check, methodology sequence check and whether
the research questions are answered or not.

Printing the Final Report:-

After careful proofreading, all the errors should be corrected

before the final print. Check the page break-ups. Feel the project is
complete in all respects and sense. Then get it approved by the guide
for the final print. While taking the final print of the project, the following
points are to be considered:

1) Paper Type:
a. Paper; EXECUTIVE BOND papers.
b. Size:A4
c. Paper Color: White
d. Variety: Plain Finish
e. Length: 29.7 Cms
f. Width: 21.0 Cms
g. GSM: 75 or 85

2) Ink Color: Black color for the text and may be multicolor ink for
diagrams and charts.

3) Only one side of the sheet of the paper should be printed.

Binding the Report:-

After the final print of the four copies of the reports, candidate is
supposed to check and confirm the sequence of pagination. Then
project report is to be given for binding. In the process of binding, the

following things are to be carefully monitored:

1) Give the cover page for Golden Embossing.
2) Do careful proofreading of the cover page.
3) Clearly indicate the colour for the front page, normally Navy Blue
or Black.
4) Give proper instructions to the binder regarding insert of extra
blank butter or plastic pages.
5) Ask only for Hardbound copies of the projects, (Plastic/Spiral
bound not allowed).
6) Binding should be neat and attractive.
7) Clearly indicate the time and date to complete the binding task.
8) Get fully dried project from the binder.

Submission of the Report:-

Four copies of the research project should duly singed by the

candidate and research guide with date. Get the signature of the
director with seal. Complete submission formalities in the office. Keep
one copy with you and one with research guide. If company, where you
carried the work, demands the project, submit a copy of the project to
the organisation.

Benefits from Good Research Project:-

1) Nature of work of the project may help in getting final
2) Some time company may offer placement due to project work
3) Due to project work, self-esteem status of the candidate may be
4) Due to successful project work, the candidate's level of
confidence will be very high.
5) It will boost the skills level of the candidate

Tips for Viva-Voce:-

The research project student has to attend the viva-voce

examination. There will be set experts who will be asking clarifications
from the project student. The research student is expected explain and
defend his/her research report in the viva-voce. To make this more
effective, research student should adopt the following tips:
1) Know the date and time of viva-voce.
2) Prepare thoroughly for viva-voce.
3) Guess Questions and try to answers.
4) Viva-voce may be for 20-30 minutes
5) Remain present at place scheduled for viva-voce at least before
twenty minutes.
6) Come in formal institute dress code.
7) Be neat, cool and in presentable form.
8) Carry your personal copy of the research project.
9) Have separate copy of executive summary of the research
project for quick reference.
10) Seek permission, great the examiners.
11) Answer the question asked only, don't talk unnecessary and argue
with examiners.
12) Choose good presentable words to answer the questions.
13) Listen and take note of the suggestions of the examiners.
14) After completion of viva-voce, say thanks before living the chair