Sentence structure

Sentence Structure
Contents
1. Building blocks .....................................................................................2 2. Simple sentence ««««««««««««««««««««.....4 3. Compound sentence «««««««««««««««««««5
3.1 3.2 Compound sentence with coordinator«««««««««« 5 Compound sentence with conjunctive adverb««««««.. 6 Compound sentence with semicolons««««««««««.8

3.3

4. Complex sentence««««««««««««««««««««...9
4.1 4.2 4.3 Noun clause ««««««««««««««««««««««9 Relative clause«««««««««««««««««««««11 Adverb clause«««««««««««««««««««««.15

5. Compound- complex sentence «««««««««««««... 23

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Sentence structure

1. Building blocks
An essay is built from paragraphs. A paragraph is built from sentences. A sentence is built from clauses, phrases, and words.

Word: + noun: pen, human, city«.. + adjective: dangerous, necessary, beautiful«.. +adverb: luckily, anxiously, potentially«. +preposition: from, in, at«.

Phrase: + noun phrase: her dog, beautiful garden «. +phrasal verb: close up, wipe out, break out « + adjective phrase: too hot, very sweet«. +preposition (prepositional phrase): in front of, next to, in the middle of«.. + adv phrase: at the sunrise, at the seaside, because of the traffic jam«.

Clause: + Independent clause (IC) S + V+ O The most popular form of instant communication is television. Nonverbal communication is used everywhere in the world.

+ Dependent clause (DC) Subordinator S + V + O

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Sentence structure

There are 3 types of dependent clauses: Noun clause: that Ngo Bao Chau won the Field Prize if the air plane landed safely or not Adjective clause: who has the highest score in my class which is the first Chinese restaurant in Hanoi

Adverb clause:

when she was five years old. although the water is very hot

There are 4 types of sentences in English: y y y y Simple sentence Compound sentence Complex sentence Compound-complex sentence

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Sentence structure

2. Simple sentence
A simple sentence is one independent clause.

S + V +O
I He My parents enjoy playing went to are now living tennis Paris with my friend every week. last summer.

in Thai Nguyen.

Subject of a simple sentence can be noun(s) or noun phrase(s)

If subject is a noun Women live longer than men. Basketball is my favorite sports.

If subject is a noun phrase

My lovely daughter likes playing with dolls. That red skirt is mine.

(Normal N phrase)

Reading book is a good habit for children. Becoming a famous fashion designer is my dream.

(Gerund)

To understand about sentence structure is necessary for TOEFL test. To help people is his mission.

(to + infinitive)

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Sentence structure

3. Compound Sentence
A compound sentence has two independent clauses. There are 3 ways to join two independent clauses in to a compound sentence: + Use coordinators + Use conjunctive adverb + Use semicolons

3.1. Compound sentence with coordinator
IC, coordinator IC

There are 7 coordinators For And Nor But Or Yet

You can remember this 7 coordinators by the phrase FANBOYS. Coordinator For Meaning The second clause gives the reason for the first clause Example Women live longer than men, for they take better care of their health.

And

The two clauses express equal, similar ideas. Nor means ³ and not´ It joins 2 negative independent clauses. Notice that question word order is used after nor. The two clauses express equal, contrasting ideas.

Women follow more healthful diets, and they go to the doctor more often Women don¶t smoke as much as men do, nor do they drink as much alcohol.

Nor

But

Men may exercise harder, but they may not exercise as regularly as women do.

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Sentence structure

Or

The two clauses express alternative possibilities. The second clause is a surprising or unexpected contrast to the first clause.

Yet

Both men and women should limit the amount of fat in their diets, or they risk getting heart disease. Women used to be known as ³weaker sex´, yet in some ways, they are stronger than men. Men are less cautious than women, so more men die in accident.

So

The second clause is the result for the first clause.

3.2. Compound sentence with conjunctive adverb
IC; conjunctive adverb, IC

All conjunctive adverbs are sentence connectors. Conjunctive adverb Also Besides Furthermore In addition Moreover Too Examples To introduce a similar additional idea Community colleges offer preparation for many jobs; Also, they prepare students to transfer to four-years colleges or university Besides Furthermore In addition Moreover Too To introduce compare things Hawaii has sunshine and friendly people, similarly, Mexico¶s weather is sunny and its people hospitable. Also Likewise Too To introduce unexpected result The cost of attending a community college is low; however, many students need financial aid. Nevertheless Nonetheless Still

Also Likewise Similarly Too However Nevertheless Nonetheless Still

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Sentence structure

However In contrast Instead In/by comparison Nevertheless Nonetheless On the other hand On the contrary Still For example For instance

To introduce direct contrast / opposition I studied very hard; however, I failed the exam. In contrast Instead In/by comparison Nevertheless Nonetheless On the other hand On the contrary Still

In fact

Indeed That is

To introduce an example Colors can have different meanings; for example, white is the color of weddings in some cultures. for instance To introduce emphasize Mangoes are very common fruit; in fact, people eat more mangoes than any other fruits in the world To explain and restate Some cultures are matriarchal; that is, the mothers are the head of the family. Indeed To introduce an alternative Students must take final exams; otherwise, they will receive a grade of incomplete. To introduce an effect or result Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; therefore, more schools provide separate English classes for each group. Accordingly As a result As a consequence Consequently Hence Thus

Otherwise

Accordingly As a result As a consequence Consequently Hence Thus Therefore

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Sentence structure

3.3 Compound sentence with semicolons
IC; IC.

3.3.1 IC; IC = IC, and IC. My older brother studies law; my younger brother studies medicine. Poland was the first Eastern European country to turn away from communism; others soon followed.

3.3.2 The second clause gives the reason for the first clause by supporting more information or giving examples. Jones is the most outstanding student in my class; almost her scores are 100/100. Mary is not a good girl; she usually steals her parent¶s money and go out very late without her parent¶s permission.

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Sentence structure

4. Complex sentence
Complex sentence has one independent clause and one (or more) dependent clause subordinator S+ V+ O, IC. There are 3 kinds of dependent clause: + Noun clause + Adjective clause + Adverb clause

4.1 Noun clause
A Noun clause functions as a noun, It can be a subject or a object in a complex sentence. That he passed the final exam surprised his classmates. (in this sentence, subject is a noun clause)

I don¶t know who teaches you Math. (in this sentence, object is a noun clause)

A noun clause begins with that, a wh-question word, or whether/ if. There are three types of noun clause: That-clause, wh-word clause and if/whether clause.

4.1.1 That-clause A that-clause is composed of: That + S + V+ O The word that is often omitted if the meaning is clear without it. The Russian president and his wife told the press (that) they were enjoying their visit. The professor explained (that) the brain is the master control for both mind and body.

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Sentence structure

After certain verbs and adjectives in an introductory clause, the verb in that-clause is in the simple tense or bare form, called subjunctive. These verbs and adjectives indicate urgency, advisability, necessity, and desirability. Verbs Advise Ask Command Demand Direct Insist Move Propose Recommend Suggest Urge Advisable Essential Necessary Adjectives Important Urgent Vital

The company president urged that the marketing department be more aggressive. It is necessary that each salesperson work longer hours.

4.1.2 Wh-word clause A wh-word clause begins with a wh-word such as who, what, where, when, why, how much«. A wh-word clause is composed of: Wh-word +S + V+ O Or Wh-word + V+ O (when the wh-word and the subject of the clause is the same word) Examples: I don¶t know who started the band. Can you tell us which vocalists have sung with the group? I can¶t remember how often the group performs during the year. We asked who lead singer was.

4.1.3 If/Whether- Clause A whether/if clause begins with the subordinator whether or if, and is composed of: Whether / If + S + V + O

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Sentence structure

We want to know if Dr. Chen practices acupuncture (or not). The question is whether (or not) American and European companies understand the Russian business environment (or not).

4.2 Adjective clause (relative clause)
An adjective clause functions as an adjective, it modifies a noun or a pronoun in the main clause. It can also modify the whole main clause. Many Vietnamese students are awarded VEF scholarship, which improves Vietnam¶s human recourses. Relative clause comes after the noun or pronoun that it modified. An adjective clause can be restrictive or nonrestrictive. If it is nonrestrictive, add comas after and before it. WTO, which promotes trading activities, approved Vietnam¶s membership. Everyone who studied for the exam passed it easily. A relative clause begins with a relative pronoun or relative adverb.

Relative pronoun
Who Refers to humans Subject in its own clause Restrictive or nonrestrictive The professor who teaches my biology class won a Nobel Prize 2 years ago. Professor Jones, who teaches my biology class, won a Nobel Prize 2 years ago. Whom Refers to humans Object in its clause Restrictive or nonrestrictive She loaned her car to someone whom she didn¶t know. Professor Jones, whom I have for biology, won a Nobel Prize 2 years ago Whose Refers to humans, nonhumans, and things; show possession Subject or object in its own clause Restrictive or nonrestrictive I studied algebra from a professor whose name I have forgotten. Apple Computer, whose Macintosh computer changed computing, was started by 2 men working in a garage.
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Sentence structure

Which Refers to nonhumans and things

Subject or object in its own clause

Nonrestrictive She teaches biology, which is my only favorite subject. Her husband teaches algebra, which I enjoy the least.

That

Refers to nonhumans and things, informally, refers to human

Subject or object in its own clause If that is an object, it may be omitted.

Restrictive only

The class that meets in the next room is very noisy. The subject that I enjoy the least is algebra. The subject I enjoy the least is algebra.

Relative adverb
When Refers to a time Restrictive or nonrestrictive I work full time on days when I don¶t have classes. I didn¶t work last week, when I had my final exam. Where Refers to a place Restrictive or nonrestrictive She has never returned to the city where she was born. First City Bank, where I have checking account, was robbed last week. Relative pronoun can be the subject or the object in relative clause.

Relative pronouns as subjects Who Which That Whose +noun +V+O

Football, which is the most popular American sport, began at Harvard University People who use microwave ovens save time and energy.

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Sentence structure

Princess Diana, whose life ended in a Paris car crash, was the most photographed woman in the world.

Relative pronouns as object
Whom Which That Whose + noun +S+V+O

The professor whom you should see is chair of the English Department. The book that the professor translated was written in German. Environment science, which Dr. White teaches, is one of the most popular courses in the college. The citizens whose property the government had confiscated could do nothing.

A relative pronoun may be the object of a preposition in its own clause. In formal way: Preposition+ whom + S + V+ O which The person to whom I mailed the letter never received it. The position of office manager, for which he applied, had already been filled.

In informal way: Whom Which + S + V + O + preposition That The candidate whom I vote for lost the election. No one had read the book that he quoted from.

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Sentence structure

Reduction of relative clause
If relative pronoun is the subject of its own clause, it can be reduced. 1. If the verb in relative clause is active + Delete the relative pronoun + Change the verb into V-ing form.

The man who spoke to John is my father. The man speaking to John is my father.

The man who sat next to me on the train looked gentle. The man sitting next to me on the train looked gentle.

2. If the verb in relative clause is be- verb Delete the relative pronoun and the be-verb The picture which is on the wall is valuable. The picture on the wall is valuable. TOEFL ibt, which is a standard test, is designed by ETS. TOEFL ibt, a standard test, is designed by ETS.

3. If the verb in relative clause is passive Delete the relative pronoun and be The Sport Game which was held in India in 1951 was the first Asian game. The Sport Game held in India in 1951 was the first Asian game. Have you read the book that was written by Nguyen Du? Have you read the book written by Nguyen Du?

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Sentence structure

4. «.the first/second« + noun + relative pronoun+ V + O + Delete the relative pronoun + Change the verb into to-inf form Yuri Gagarin is the first man who flew into space. Yuri Gagarin is the first man to fly into space.

Don¶t let me be the last person who knows your decision. Don¶t let me be the last person to know your decision.

4.3 Adverb clause
In a complex sentence, adverb clauses modify the verb in main clause or the main clause. They express a relationship of time, place, distance/frequency, manner, reason, result, purpose, concession, and contrast, they answer questions such as when, where, how or why. It can come before or after an independent clause. If it comes before an independent clause, a comma is placed after it.

Types of adverb clause
Type of clause 1.Time subordinator after Meaning Following the time that example After I finish college, I will work in my father¶s company. Notes

before

Earlier than the time when

In this example, the speaker is talking about the future, but note that a future tense is not used in adverb clause. Always use the simple present tense in adverb clauses of time that talk about the future. Before I started this job, The use of the past I (had) worked for a perfect in sentences with travel agent. before and after clause is optional, as in this example.

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Sentence structure

when

A point in time/ short duration

Joe was in college when he met Jill. They had known each other 2 years when they got married.

In the first example, when means during or at that time. In the second example, when means before, the past perfect is necessary in the main clause. A progressive tense is usually used in while and as clauses, as it is in 2 examples.

While/as

At the same time/ longer duration

The children are in day care while Lou Anne is working.

As Lou Anne was taking her children to day care, While and as have the she saw a bus hit a same meaning (at the tractor trailer. same time). since From that time/ moment Sue has been working since Johnny was born. Use an appropriate perfect tense in the independent clause of a sentence with a since clause. In this example, the present perfect progressive is used. Whenever= each time that. Use a simple present or past tense in a whenever clause, this example uses a simple present to express his habitual activity. Note that this example is a sentence about the future, use the future tense in the main clause, but the simple present tense in the adverb clause. Don¶t use a future tense in the adverb clause with as soon as.

whenever

At any time

Whenever George thinks about getting married, he gets butterflies in his stomach.

once

after

Once Carole graduates from high school, she will move to New York.

As soon as

Immediately at or instantly after the time that

As soon as she moves there, she will rent an apartment.

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Sentence structure

Until/till

Up to the time of During the entire time that A definite place Any place

As long as/ So long as 2.Place where

Alex won¶t get married until he can afford a house. Joan will never leave her home town as long as her mother is alive. I want to live where my children will be safe I will not raise my children anywhere (wherever) there is crime. Everywhere he travels, he sees poverty in the big cities. Because her parents divorced when she was small, Marry is reluctant to marry. As long as you are in the kitchen, could you get me a glass of water? Now that Maria¶s father has moved far away, she only sees him once a year. Her parents were granted a divorce inasmuch as they had irreconcilable differences. Due to the fact that you failed to file your income taxes on time, you must pay a penalty. Jim studied business so (that) he could work for his father

Anywhere/ wherever

Everywhere

All places

3.Reason

Because/ since/ as

For the reason that

All of these subordinators state a cause and have the same meaning as because. As/so long as is used more in conversation. Now that is used to express time and clause, it means because now. These subordinators all mean because. They are more formal and are mainly used in formal writing and speaking.

As long as/ so long as Now that

4.Purpose

Inasmuch as/ in view of the fact that/ on account of the fact that/ as a result of the fact that/ on the grounds that/ due to the fact that For the So that purpose of

So that is always followed by a modal : will, could, can, would, may, might. That is sometimes deleted with no change in meaning.
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Sentence structure

In order that

Ruth studied architecture in order that she could design the house of her dream. In the way or manner that/like This room looks as if a tornado hit it. My boss treated me as though I were a secretary, which I definitely am not! You look as if you are very tired

In order that has the same meaning and use as so that, but it is not commonly used. As if and as though are used to answer the question ³how?´ When the as though/ as if clause is untrue- as in the The second examplethe speaker is not a secretary- use were, not was. If the statement is possibly true, as in the third example- you could be tired- then the verb be takes its usual form. Like is a preposition, so it is followed by a noun, not a clause. It may be followed by a clause in formal conversation as in this example, but it is not considered standard English.

5.Manner

As if/ as though

like

This room looks likes a tornado hit it

as

It happened just as we imagined it would Comparison Pat jogs as far as she can. (distance) She jogs on the beach as often as she can. (frequency)

6.Distance As + adverb+ frequency as

7.Contrast

While whereas

Direct opposition

While private schools are very expensive, publics schools are free in the US.

Use while and whereas to show that 2 things or situations are in direct opposition or contrast.

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Sentence structure

Private schools provide a lot of individual attention whereas public schools don¶t have the means to cater to individual students. Private schools are very expensive while public schools are free in the US.

While and whereas have same meaning, but whereas is more formal. Unlike other subordinators, while and whereas may occur before either the main or adverb clause with no change in meaning A comma is sometimes placed after the main clause, but it is not necessary. A concession clause shows contrast by placing limits on the ideas in the main clause. The main clause shows surprising or unexpected results, as in the first example. Although, even though, and though have basically the same meaning. A comma is sometimes placed after the main idea as it is in the second example, but it is not obligatory. These phrases have the same meaning as although.

8.Concess -ion

Although Even though Though

Unexpected result

Al though private schools provide careful supervision, many students still use drugs and alcohol. Private school students often got accepted in to good colleges, though some choose to go to work instead.

In spite of the fact that/ Despite the fact that

In spite of the fact that public schools have bad reputations, there are many qualified and caring teachers who work there.

9. result

So+adj+that So+ adv+ that Such a(n)+ noun phrase+ that So much/ many/little/ few + noun phrase+ that

With the result that

The city is so polluted that I often think of moving to the country. My job pays so well that I can¶t afford to give up it.

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Sentence structure

Reduction of adverb clause
Adverb clauses of time, reason and opposite can be reduced to adverb phrases without any change in meaning.

Reduction of time clause Clause
Before Before she had her heart attack, Mrs. Rose was happy in the nursing home

Reduction
Before having her heart attack, Mrs. Rose was happy in the nursing home. (1a) Before her heart attack, Mrs. Rose was happy in the nursing home.(1b)

Notes
With before, after, and since: Delete the subject. Change the verb to a participial phrase v-ing form Keep the subordinator Sometimes the clause can be reduced to a prepositional phrase as in 1b and 2b

After After she had worn it for 2 years, she began to have problems with the pacemaker.

After wearing it for 2 years, she began to have problems with the pacemaker. (2a) After 2 years, she began to have problems with the pacemaker.(2b) Mrs. Rose¶s children have visited her twice since arriving in town.(3)

Since Mrs. Rose¶s children have visited her twice since they arrived in town. While Mrs. Rose had a heart attack while she was visiting with her daughter.

While visiting with her daughter, Mrs. Rose had a heart attack Visiting with her daughter, Mrs. Rose had a heart attack.

With while: Delete the subject Change the verb to an ±ing form While may be deleted when it means ³at the same time´

As Mrs. Rose had a heart attack as she was visiting with her daughter.

Visiting with her daughter, Mrs. Rose had a heart attack.

With as: As must be deleted The phrase must come at the beginning of the sentence.
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Sentence structure

As soon as As soon as the children heard about her mother¶s heart attack, they rushed to the hospital.

Upon hearing about their mother¶s heart attack, the children rushed to the hospital. On hearing about their mother heart attack, the children rushed to the hospital.

With As soon as: Replace as soon as with upon or on. Change the verb to an ±ing form.

Reduction of reason clause
Clause
Because/Since/As Because (since/as) she lived all alone, Mrs. Rose was happy to move to a nursing home. Be Verbs Because she was all alone, Mrs. Rose was happy to move to a nursing home. Negative Verb Because she didn¶t want to prolong her life any longer, Mrs. Rose refused a new pacemaker. Because of Because she was lonely, Mrs. Rose was happy to move to nursing home

Reduction
Living all alone, Mrs. Rose was happy to move a nursing home.

Notes
To reduce clause of reason: Delete the subject and the subordinator. Change the verb to an ±ing form If the verb is be, change it io being.

Being all alone, Mrs. Rose was happy to move to a nursing home.

Not wanting to prolong her life any longer, Mrs. Rose refused a new pacemaker.

If the verb are negative, place Not in front of the ±ing verb.

Because of her loneliness, Mrs. Rose was happy to move a nursing home.

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Sentence structure

Reduction of opposite clause
Clause
Although/ Though/ While Although (Though/ While) she was lonely, Mrs. Rose tried to have a positive attitude. Although (though/while) she is an old person, Mrs. Rose still feels young. Although (though/while) she missed her house, she was glad for the company at the nursing home. Although (though/while) Adv clauses with although, lonely, Mrs. Rose tried to have though, and while (of a positive attitude. opposition) can reduced to phrases in the same way. Although (though/while) an old person, Mrs. Rose still feels young. Although (though/while) missing her house, she was glad for the company at the nursing home. Note that the adv clause reduces to subordinator + adj in the first sentence, subordinator+ noun in the second sentence, or subordinator +v-ing

Reduction

Notes

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Sentence structure

5. Compound-complex sentence
Subordinator S + V + O, IC; conjunctive adverb, IC ,coordinator ;

I want to travel after I graduated from college; however, I had to go to work immediately. After I graduated from college, I wanted to travel, but I had to go to work immediately. I couldn¶t decide where I should work or what I should do, so I do nothing.

Subordinator S + V + O, IC; conjunctive adverb, Subordinator S + V + O, IC ,coordinator ; I wanted to travel after a graduated college, but I have to go to work immediately because I had to support my family. She studied as much as she can; however, she failed the exam, which was very important to her.

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