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3.0 Introduction The reviewed literature not only built a conceptual frame work for this study but also identified the practical value of information to organizations. As a result it has created an important pathway to the perception of the importance of information, justifying the significance of this research. The literature review is divided into six categories and each category deals with its theme in general and ultimately emphasizes on how each theme specifically relates to financial services sector and managerial functions. The six categories are indicated below: 1. An identification of various aspects of information was relevant. Different scholars have perceived information differently to identify it as a fundamental component for managerial and organizational activities. 2. Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the managers and organizations were appropriate. This established the core features necessary for this research. 3. The role information sources and their use by organizations conveyed how managers are information dependant. 4. The literature related to the information services to fulfill the information needs of managers and organizations was important as it steered the literature review to another stage that would be dealt in the study. 5. It was needed to review, the studies exploring obstacles to meet information needs because it is an evident fact that the problems affecting beneficial access to information are common among managers.
6. It was necessary to review the studies concerning the managers’ satisfaction in the fulfillment of their information needs. 3.1 Information as a Fundamental Component Concerning Managerial and Organizational Activities The reviewed literature establishes a context for the affirmation that information is one of the principle aspects for the standards of managerial and organizational performance. Concepts for the term information are many. In the study related to the link between environmental scanning and organizational information behavior, an interesting description suggested a critical and an innovative view of information. Information in organizations is compared to images of machines, organisms, political systems and culture. The machine is compared to information as a resource that “keeps the wheel ticking over” (Kirk, 1999, cited in Karim, 2004 p.357) Organism is the information from internal and external information sources which keeps organizations’ equilibrium. Information is considered as a political system because different groups in organizations have divers interests, they use information diversely with regard to power, influence and when supporting and negotiating is necessary. Culture was considered as powerful with shared beliefs, values, norms and meanings and its weight upon ritual myth, language and symbol (Kirk, 1999, cited in Karim, 2004,). This description indicates a close liaison among the key feature of an organization which are organizational functions, environment, human resources, and how these features relate to information for their existence. This view could be supported by the description of Kirk as cited by Karim (2004) which shows how organizations are information dependant.
The role played by information is multifaceted and complex. The managerial activities and organizational culture which are rich in information have to efficiently make use of information if they are to meet their goals. Achieving organizational goals can be a result of the use of information in a trend which upholds the organizational and managerial capabilities. A ground braking study was conducted recognizing six types of information behaviors and values that can detect an organizations’ ability to use information efficiently. These values and behaviors are fundamental for nurturing organizational and managerial capabilities. These are: Integrity (using information with reliance and principles); Transparency (frankness and giving details of errors); Control (obtainable information about performance); Sharing; Proactiveness (usage of updated information to react promptly to change); Formality (use and trust of informal sources and formality) (Marchand et al. 2001, cited in Choo , 2007). Information helps to gain knowledge. A study explored that organizations possess three kinds of knowledge: tacit knowledge, explicit knowledge and cultural knowledge. Tacit knowledge is the personal knowledge that is learned during lengthy periods of experiences of doing a task. During this phase the individual develops a feel for and ability to make instinctive views about the successful implementation of the activity. Explicit knowledge is put across formally using a system symbols and may be object based or rule-based e.g. document, software code, rules, routines or operating procedures. Cultural knowledge is the beliefs an organization considers true, based on attributes about itself and its environment. (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995, cited in Choo 2001). According to the proposed model by Mintzberg, managers use external and internal information sources. Using information and managerial positions they perform four decisional roles. They are first, entrepreneurs, second, resource allocators, third,
The author comments that these librarians are an important knowledge base for the organization which calls for librarians as active participants where information management is concerned. 1994).disturbance handlers. but should not be altered unwisely as information could be used for future course of action. 1973. . assess. An important feature in Opoola’s study is that. who are bank managers. regulator. Researcher identified the relationship patterns of information gained through environment scanning and how they effect the banking sector. and interpret information acquired from the business environment by creating a path way to the profit maximization of the bank. The researcher focused mainly on investment analysis. competition. according to the researcher. The study by Weerasinghe (2007) on knowledge management emphasizes the relationship among special Liberians. improved services. conflict resolution. The environmental sectors they scan are customer. and business strategy and their relationship with information. market research. while information which being managed is not static indefinitely due to various reasons of the environment. Information. process. Opoola (2000) studied on scanning the environment for competitive advantage: A study of corporate banking managers in Nigeria. technological. It was concluded that core of information handling job of the managers in the banking industry is to gather. This would bring about interesting factor. cited in Auster and Choo. knowledge management and information users of the organization. and finally negotiators (Mintzberge. economic and socio-cultural sector. it is based on environmental scanning by a particular user group. could be used for banks future actions and for decision making. which is.
shows that the importance of knowledge management although a new concept is needed to the financial services sector in Sri Lanka if it is to achieve competitive advantage. This lays the basis for the reviewing literature on information needs of the managers in organizations.Weerasinghe further more indicates that importance of knowledge management is increasing and her study related to the financial services sector in Sri lanka. The study to determine the usage of information by financiers of micro enterprises of Sri Lanka by Weerasinghe ( 2002) reveals as to how the Sri Lankan financial services sector renders its services to the development of micro entrepreneurs and as to how the information is used for this purpose. According to the conclusions of the authors this situation is due to the ineffective methodology and the lack of research which can be developed (Wilson 2006). It shows that the sample of development banks. According to Wilson (2000) the . commercial banks. Anyway.2 Information Needs and the Information Seeking Behavior of the Managers When reviewing literature on information needs and information seeking behavior of managers in organizations. after the survey of users’ information seeking behavior by Royal Society Scientific Information Conference (Royal Society 1948) has been slow. apart from their financial services 3. it was necessary to identify the subject area of user studies which deals with information needs and information seeking behavior in general. NGOs. the field of information needs of the users could be noted even before 1948. Exploring information needs of the users is an issue which is not easily dealt with. The development of theoretical concepts of information needs. They are portrayed as seekers of information and disseminators of information as well. Samurdi Banking Societies and Coorporative societies as active participants in this area.
J. cited by Nicholas 1996). the difference between information demand and information needs could be identified as follows. Wilson (2006) too supports the above idea. Information needs can be discussed with manifold definitions but identifying information needs serves only one purpose. An information demand is a vocal or written demand. that is to fill the knowledge gap.Information needs occur due to recognition of a gap in one’s knowledge and when that individual decides to fill that knowledge gap (Belkim. Brittain and Maurice Line are two of the initiators to define the terminology of information needs. Furthermore. The reason for this is to fulfill the basic needs. M. According to Brittain. This is apparent in the definition of information needs given by Elayan and Younis (2004). While indicating that defining information need is difficult. information “need” could be synonymous to information demand where the user understands the information which is appropriate to his work and makes a demand of an information source. for a example a request made to a an information system or library. Nicholas (1996) Accordingly. A need can be identified as“emptiness” more specifically a gap which can occur at any time in an individual’s life. it could be indicated that information needs are also equally important. he adds that Information needs is a secondary need which occurs in order to fulfill one or more of the three basic needs namely physiological need (food. shelter etc) psychological need (need for domination. as cited by Elayan and Younis ( 2004). Compared to the basic human needs.need for user studies is fundamental as it can boost the quality of information services. in some situations. it is necessary to fulfill the information needs although it is not considered as a primary . security etc) and cognitive need ( need to plan and learn a skill etc).
source or intermediary. Moreover. This brings out that information needs of the users are not easily always fulfilled. Identifying information needs of the user is considered important by information professionals due to another factor which is to safeguard their jobs. also depend on the fulfillment of information needs. When they identify the information they identify its worth. for example. the knowledge of the user on information retrieval. An individual may need or want information which they do not demand. This is called dormant need. Nicholas (1996) claimed that the importance of identifying information needs of the users have good and pressing reasons to believe that the neglect of user needs cannot continue. such as the capacity to browse an information system. Individuals are not always aware of their needs and information gaps.need. assessing the system in keeping with the user needs is required. The user is first encountered by the information professional. Users could demand information they do not need. Wilson (2000) describes certain features related to human information behavior . Nicholas added that information demand being a request for information believed to be needed or wanted is the starting point of the information seeking behavior. As a result it is a need that they pay attention to work and requirement of their users. The social impacts. To face the high cost of computerizations. a user may be disappointed by reading a book prescribed by another person as it did not fulfill the information needs of that particular individual. communicates with an information system. Dormant needs could be fulfilled with the help of the information professional due to the fact that information professional knows the information available. Due to the questions on the expenses of information and the strict inspections of information has given rise to the need to identify information needs of users. they do not know that there is relevant information available to help them.
When information seeking is taking place the user would interact with manual information systems such as news papers or computer based information systems (such as the World Wide Web). information channels. chance. for example physical acts like highlighting a part of a text to identify its significance or mental acts like comparing new information with the existing information. 4) Information use behavior is identified by using physical and mental capabilities to include the gathered information to person’s knowledge. Human information behavior is diverse and it has a close relationship with an individual’s interest. social impact. Due to this factor. Face to face communication is considered to be an active information seeking and use.V. for example the use of the mouse and click on links or intellectual level such as Boolean search strategy . active and passive information seeking. 3) Information searching behavior is the micro-level of behavior used by the searcher using information systems. information seeking may not take place or there could be a time gap between the information need identification and the information seeking act. These descriptions lead us to figure out that human information behavior is a result of the main motivational factor the information need. while watching T. 2) Information seeking behavior means seeking for information deliberately resulting from a need to satisfy an objective. This act involves situations such as the levels of humans using computer. The motivational . information needs do not always bring about human information behavior. and also his choice. According to the argument by Wilson.1) Information behavior is all the facets of human behavior concerned with information sources. Wilson (2006) argued that numerous decisions are made using incomplete information or on the basis of belief. knowledge. without taking a step on the information is the passive side of information seeking and use.
1996). Job satisfaction plays a significant role in the fulfillment of the information needs by the user because if an individual is satisfied about his job he is prone to improve it and keep up to date. Their information needs are mostly fulfilled through informal information sources. IT. The managers are chosen from several industries such as banking industry. etc. job satisfaction is a motivational factor leading to human information behavior. the researchers has taken various variables into consideration. Therefore. it could be indicated that knowledge and information . Some always communicated with the same nature in information content and form and need significantly customized needs. In order to fulfill information needs of the managers user profiling is necessary. knowledge. Thus. The findings of this study have paved the way for the user profiling which helps to develop information and knowledge management strategies. oil and gas company As. More specifically he would take a keen interest in meeting his information needs (Nicholas. information. Managers greatly depend on informal social communication patterns to fulfill their information needs.factors. Executives are not homogeneous concerning their information needs. to the conclusion of the study which is of descriptive and of exploratory nature the Malaysian managers’ information needs are not highly divers. persuasive factors come into the scene again for the fulfillment of the information needs through information seeking behavior. telecommunication services. For example managers. at the same time other executives need highly multipurpose systems to communicate with different information (Adam and Murphy 1997) In the study carried out by Karim and Husssein (2007) with regard to mangers’ perception of information management and the role of the information and knowledge managers: the Malaysian perspective.
media. But it could be stated that conclusion are not a critical evaluation of the findings but only self evident. It reveals how Sri Lankan banks are using libraries for their work. financial regulations. This view functions as a generalization applicable to banking context as well. competition. This feature is justified in the study by Weerasinghe (2007) in the limelight of the Sri Lankan banking context. If above aspects are of importance to banks it is beyond debate that Sri Lankan banks give prominence to the information on above aspects. The author further pinpoints in the discussion related banking context of Sri Lanka specially in the banking industry. The findings of this study can be considered to be a frame work for implementing KM and IM specifically in the Malaysian organization. It could be indicated that the conclusions are mainly drawn from the findings as it should be. It could be argued that if a library is constantly disseminating information to banks to achieve their goals. the banks are usage of libraries will be high in order to seek information is through their organizational library. customer. trade and globalization as foremost important aspects. Malaysian managers are mostly in agreement with the fact that effective information management is needed for good performances and productive decision making. The study by Weerasinghe (2007) of a number of domestic banks in Sri Lanka further adds to the body of literature concerning information management and financial services sector of Sri Lanka.management should have strong relations with good social information environment. other libraries and own library as the means by which micro entrepreneurs accessed information. Quality of information is an important element of Information management. As for information seeking Weerasinghe (2002) in the study related to the information usage by financiers of micro entrepreneurs states that personal contacts. The financiers mostly used personal contacts in order to seek information .
Apart from that Kaye (1995) have included certain information systems also as internal organizational information for example: office automation systems. and training. investments and savings. conditioned viewing. The researcher has studied the types of information sources used by organizations relative to these four modes. The term undirected viewing was first used by Aguilar (1967).Weerasinghe further found through the study the information types ranked as high in importance with regard to the whole sample. market location. Lastly. and market opportunities. Choo (2001) in a study related to environmental scanning as information seeking and organizational learning. enacting and searching. economic information. and documents from which data are obtained. groups. economic information (43%) and investment and savings information (43%) 3. Information types that ranked medium importance were legal. identified information seeking as source usage and preference. Reviewed literature revealed that the information sources which are of diverse types play a fundamental role in managerial and organizational activities. Undirected viewing takes place when the organization is unable to analyze the environment and therefore when it does not intrude the environment. He added that according to the organization’s level of ability to analyze and intrude into the environment four modes of scanning can be identified. Management information systems. expert systems and executive information systems etc. raw material and supply. When this takes place the . the information types of the lowest importance were weather and standards. They were financial schemes.3Role of Information Sources in Managerial and Organizational Activities Information sources in its simplest sense can be defined as the persons. They are undirected viewing. Mostly disseminated information types were financial schemes (74%) market information (44%).
The sources used are formal. databases. international division executives and computer data banks within the company (Preble et al . It could be stated that this study focused on the information usage by bankers and how this usage pattern changes overtime Information sources at hand to the borrower were ranked as very . External sources include customer. 2004). products. Enacting takes place when the organization is unable to analyze the environment. During this situation information sources used are routine sources such as standard procedures. A feature that can be drawn by Choo’s study is that four modes of environmental scanning depends on organizational choice according to its needs and the variation of information sources used depends on these four modes.1988 and Ginter and Duncan. Searching (considered as Discovery in the original Daft and Weick paper) takes place when the organization is able to analyze the environment and when it can intrude the environment actively. often quantitative data specifically from surveys and market research activities. Conditioned viewing once again a term first used by Aguilar (1967) takes place when organization is able to analyze the environment but is passive about intruding the environment. Information sources of multinational corporations are identified as external and internal. Internal sources are executives based abroad. The information sources used are external sources that organization has built up through its influence for example a feedback about its actions that the organization is responsible. conferences and seminars and publications. internal non-personal sources and also external reports. supplier. Berry and Robertson (2004) studied the overseas bankers in the UK and their use of information for making lending decision: Changes from 1985. competitors. newspapers. sources highly accepted in the industry.organization is contented with informal information sources such as irregular contacts. bankers. 1990. but when it intrudes the environment actively. cited in Karim.
The results based on the order in which they are included in the questionnaire are discussed. The results also indicted a decreasing value of the extent of reading with regard to auditors report and statement of accounting policies. As for the ratios and financial indicators used by bankers the results indicated that liquidity is ranked 1st in 2001 and 3rd in 1985. their extent with regard to these 2 situations were high in1985 than in 2001. Another change which is not statistically important is the increased importance of ratings of director’s report which now includes operating and financial review. They are the sources of information available to the bank use without assistance to the borrower. As for the researchers’ conclusions of the study. With regard to annual reports. banks internal records from previous experience of loans to the company. As for the sources of information available to the bankers without use of assistance to the borrower. desired improvements in the information provision. interim reports. there is a very little change in the importance of personal interviews between the years 2001 and 1985 and there is an important change with regard to the importance and frequency of use of valuation reports. the sources information which the banker may have access to. the increase of the importance of cash flow statement was very high in 2001and not very important in1985. the major conclusion is the most important source of information is published accounts. The sources of information considered in this study were audit accounts.fairly important and not very important and also according to year (2001 to 1985) and frequency of use.When observing the results of the sources of information to which bankers may have access. the Ratios and financial indicators used by bankers. company memorandums and articles and published government statistics. the audit accounts continued to be the most important sources of information for lending decision and the ranking of the first three items of importance has not changed with time.important . Clear understanding . The importance of management accounts and project financial statement were more or less the same but the frequency of use has increased. that is.
Customer was the most reliable and relevant source. To identify the perceived quality of information the perceived relevance and reliability of sources were found out. Coefficient was used to find the relationship between frequency of use. Least importance of environment scanning was for recreation. The mean score was 3. Least accessible source was company directories. Lastly were the board members. the most important sources were books.92. This showed that respondents used more heavily the informal sources. As for the sources of information used Weerasinghe (2002) has divided the information sources in to two categories namely Non institutional information sources . Second important information source was internet. The study by Berry and Robertson (2004) has dealt with the lending decision making in the banking sector. A study has been carried out by Karim and Husssein (2007) with regard to mangers’ perception of information management and the role of the information and knowledge managers: the Malaysian perspective. With regard to data analysis related to information sources. reports. As for the information sources used by managers colleagues were most frequently used source. perceived source accessibility and perceived source quality. One of the most unhealthy factor which discovered through the results was that government official. Their information was less reliable and less relevant. Main purpose of environmental scanning was for investment analysis and for improved services. bulletins and newsletters. newspapers magazines. and radio/television provided information of low quality. Opoola (2000) has dealt with the study on scanning the environment for competitive advantage: A study of corporate banking managers in Nigeria.that one can reach with regard to this research is the theme of the research deals with a specific area more than a general area in comparison to the study by Opoola (2000) which is dealt below. journal.
3 forces impacts on these services namely economic pressures. periodicals. feasibility studies. categorizes information resources as internal and external and once again brings out another division in internal and external information resources internal tangible (books. The paper by Koh (2000) suggests that providing a new understanding and a new definition to the term library technical services is fundamental due to the speedy changes taking place in the world. He.and institutional information sources.4Library and Information Services as a Fundamental Component for Access to Information With the evidence of reviewed literature it could be accepted that library and information service rendered to any target audience functions as a core factor which facilitate access to specific type of information when concerning that particular user group. etc) and internal intangible (data bases. furthermore. Government Ministries and Provincial Councils. Divisional Secretariat. The institutional information sources used by the financiers according to the study were IDB. Mostly used non institutional information sources by the financiers as a whole were seminars and workshops. electronic resources on CD-ROM . user expectations and technology. Non institutional information sources that were used by financiers were seminars and workshops. video cassettes. He elaborates certain plus points of the knowledge access manager who is fundamental to provide a better information services to a particular user group. Mostly used institutional source according to the findings was IDB. Not only facilitating effective intellectual access to collections but also organizes information according to the need of the user and delivers them by individualized and customized packaging. in comparison with the present global situation adds that. The author. 3. government publications. newspaper articles. newsletters and books.
). According to Hseih the demanding expectations are increasing and due to this it is necessary to improve the quality of services. . The ISO 9000 standards implementation and 5s movement have been initiated in order improve the library image and service quality. In comparison with the view and facts pointed out by the scholars Koch (2000) and Hsieh et al (2000). Another factor with regard to library and information services which could be compared to the details highlighted above by Koch is brought out by Hsieh et al (2000). the initiatives such as ISO 9000 (Johannsen. The paper by Deventer and Snymann (2004) suggests the vitality of library and information services as below. in order to provide a better information service the interrelation of two fundamental components which are the collections and the knowledge access managers is a necessity. by evaluating the details brought out by the Koch it is evident that. user expectations and also technology. 1996 cited in Hsieh) standards and 5s movement (Taipei Municipal library) have been implemented to improve the services quality. In addition the knowledge access manager should carry out his service in accordance with the situation of the economic situation.etc. External tangible sources are available through interlibrary lending or other resource sharing. it could be perceived that while Koch claims that knowledge access managers and collections provide a service to fulfill the needs of the customer. Thus. the library managers are facing a dilemma when attempting to exploit resources. Thus. Consequently. Hsieh et al (2000) reinforce and extends the Koch’s findings with the what has taken place in order to provide a better service. But financial constraints are an important feature which pressurizes the library managers.
(p. due to the view point of Deventer and Snyman (2004) it is justifiable to say that the library and information services has a role that has a decisive impact upon an organization. customer.Knowledge economy literature indicates that proof of an organization’s sustainable future and growth lies in multi-dimensional evaluation rather in traditional one-dimensional monetary or financial capital perspective.1) . be required to ensure that customer could trust that they are receiving the services and products that maximize their own productivity and asset utilization. Secondly L&IS stakeholders would need to be assured that they are receiving the best value for their investment. L & IS staff would have to be assured that they have the necessary skills and resources to provide for a motivating environment and that the infrastructure created will ensure continuous improvement for all. and stakeholder capitals are vital. Lastly. for implementation of the stated framework . but also its responsibility is formidable and the known factor which is the mission and the vision of the mother organization should be reflected by it information centre or the library is a evident and a salient feature. (p. in the first instance. the L&IS management (and Staff) needed to understand that: ( •Measuring should be done for local development and progress using the L& IS mission and a strategy for a sustainable future as a focal area.1) Consequently. and • Adding value for the customer in isolation also does not ensure sustainability. The L&IS sector would therefore . Deventer and Snyman (2004) adds that In order to be sustainable in the knowledge economy it is necessary to understand that the relationship between the human. Not only the impact. •Sustainability requires more than providing proof of spending the stakeholder’s money wisely. As a pre requisite. but perhaps most importantly. structure. This article attempts to provide a multi-dimensional framework within which a library and information service (L &IS) could measure its performance.
He is also considered as someone who can help achieve organization performance through decision making because they are able professionals. references and guidance and other various informatory services. The quality service. Information managers timeliness is also appreciated. Hsieh (2000). photocopying. Hence the reason for importance of effective and an efficient information manger is identified in the study by Karim and Hussein and the importance of the information manager is focused according to view points by the managers in their study. As highlighted by Koh (2000). They can manage information . the importance of a knowledge manager for the fulfillment of information needs of a customer is once again reinforced by Karim and Hussein (2008) in their case study. An information manager is considered as a source of information who helps to collect and high quality information. a productive library and information services is a necessity. It focuses on bank managers as well.Thus. Deventer and Snyman (2004). internet. The particular information services dealt in this research are the loan of library materials. disseminating mission critical information in an organization is an absolute need for present organizations. in-library reading. The study conducted by industrialists’ information needs and interests in Jordan: A case study of Zarca Governate by Elayan and Younis ( 2005) deals specifically with the types of information services needed by a selected sample of industrialists. Majority of respondents considered internet and photocopying as the main information services needed. This way these studies bridge the two components the information manger and the collection in order show the requirements for quality information service to bring about optimum customer satisfaction and also achieve competitive advantage. for the overall stability of an organization which achieves competitive advantage.
Another factor brought out by Weerasinghe is the selective dissemination of information which plays a fundamental role in the identification of information needs and facilitating access to information through user profiling and selecting appropriate information needed by a specific user. and library software and their contribution to the important positive information needed by an organization.systems and databases. This too is a contributing factor to knowledge management in organizations. Review of literature provides insight to this situation. 3. This view is brought out by Weerasinghe (2007) as the study refers to the services of internet. email. . The special libraries duties could be fulfilled productively and efficiently if their potentiality is reinforced with ICT. They also assist in research. Weerasinghe (2007) in the study related to knowledge management states that special librarians have a responsibility to cater its services in accordance with the mission of their mother organization. But at the same time the complexity of the problems too develop due to the information explosion and various other reasons. They assist in public relation and develop information policy. intranet.5 Problems related to the Fulfillment of Information Needs of the Managers and Organizational Activities Obstacles to meet the information needs of the managerial and organizational activities are common and strategies to combat these obstacles are daily improving. The author also is of the view that extending these services indicates that the librarian should avoid a passive role and actively perform in the fulfillment of the organizational information needs.
Area of interest being one requirement to assess the information needs can cause several problems when it comes to its specification. for example too much of simplification or generalization of the area of interest. it is evident that an information centre is an important information system to the user for the retrieval of information. Nicholas put forward that. In this context it refers to the lack of determination to continue looking for information over . lack of resources and information overload. although some information systems are not suitable to the users information needs. it could be said that. The high cost of resources needed to acquire the information needs data is a problem in comparison with the budget allocations by the mother organization of the information centre. these obstacles hinder the managers’ fulfillment of information needs in organizational activities. The difficulty faced by both user and the intermediary in translating users key words into key words employed in the information system. In keeping with the information needs of the managers. problems such as reluctance of some information professionals to consult the users concerning their duties which they consider as their own professional matters. There is no commonly accepted basis assessing information needs and it is a difficult task to obtain data related to the information needs. poor access to information sources and systems. Poor communication skills of the information professional are also an obstacle to the information needs fulfillment. With the explanation of Nicholas (1996). The other obstacles indicated by Nicholas are lack of time. The personality of the important professionals is also important.Nicholas (1995) in his work which deals on tools and techniques for assessing information needs discusses numerous obstacles which hinder the fulfillment of information needs of the users. Information professionals pay more attention to the information systems. The inefficient information centres including inefficient staff are vital reasons where the information needs of the users are unmet.
Karim also commented on the time constrain as on of the main reasons that CEOs are unable to be good environmental scanners though they are .a reasonable period of time and attempting a new strategy when first f attempts are unsuccessful. When providing an overall comment on the obstacles to meet information needs brought out by Nicholas. Other barriers to meeting information needs are age. Another aspect of the personality is lack of thoroughness or lack of in depth search which is appropriate to the information need. Due to the hindrances to the rapid accessibility to information sources or systems. Karim( 2004) in his study on the link between environment scanning (ES) and organizational information behavior : implication for research and the role of information professional. And the author has added that information overload. Being disorganized in both retrieval and storage of information and Lack of motivation leading to poor commitment to the job. working situation such as working alone or with a team. as inaccuracies such as incorrect information or lack of validity in information can result in crucially negative results. Lack of time is brought about by increased number of information queries and the increased amount of work expected of the information professional in the same amount of time. educational qualification and training. present information overload seriously calls for evaluation of quality of information. the task or the customer are also problems related to the personality of some information professionals. it is doubtful that a users carryout information seeking. he has described these problems in the limelight of social economical. The last feature related to the personality is the interest to accept information from others. cultural.. gender. and also personal factors. lack of experience in the work. claimed that unlike the past. . mainly due to vast technological developments is also a hindrance to the meeting of information needs.
This is considered to be a result of lack of financial support and time. which is a fundamental component of information seeking reveals that environmental scanning could even be considered as a basis for fulfillment of information needs. The problem that was nearly commonly accepted is not assessing the information systems after it is developed. One could arrive at the conclusion that information overload can be a result of disorganized working patterns and disorganized communication patterns leading to the difficulty of information filtering . If environmental scanning is hindered it would necessarily be an obstacle to the fulfillment of information needs. cognitive and affective needs of a person. economical. The studies dealing with environmental scanning. Owens et al (1996) in their study on information. This assertion further supports how social. as cited by Wilson (2000) suggested that his information seeking model which he developed was a result of physiological. personal. The paper on information flows amongst executives their implications for systems development by Adam and Murphy (1995) discussed the lack of communication and an increased number of mechanistic reporting. issues impact the fulfillment of information needs which were discussed hither to. The researchers further found that in the companies where library staff was .considered as key users of information. business and performance discusses the information systems and services in high performing companies. Wilson. He further indicated that these primary needs of an individual can occur in his personal life or working environment and the obstacles to information search could be a result of the same situation. justifying the assertions of past research that senior executives face the problem of information overload because of receiving regular reports due to upward organizational communication and the executives inability asses these reports for relevancy and further improvement. cultural.
This case study is justified and it fills the research gap by focusing on bringing out a framework made to fulfill the banking and financial needs through knowledge management services. processing of organizational knowledge. the lack of knowledge. (1996) are connected to the situation where information professionals are in a transition between obsolete and modern situations. The insufficient organizational process and lack of skills. It was found through this study that some respondents were not clear about the idea of knowledge management and they had a difficulty in differentiating clearly the fields knowledge management. One also indicated that KM should be developed at the beginning of a bank. Library staff took part in information systems provision only when these systems were being developed for the library operations. HR management and organizational learning. Some even said . the problems with regard to the field of KM.surveyed there was a low interest to get use to new technology. According to some respondents certain banks were not prepared to change to KM based institutions. Lack of finance and lack of trained library staff was the foremost reason that the libraries were slow in getting use to technologies. Usage of computer based catalogues was mainly limited to the library staff as majority of were standalone machines. information technology. knowledge lost. the respondents indicated that most banks were not aware of KMS. The results showed that sending messages around the globe electronically will have negative aspects as their can be unlawful access to the information virtually for malicious reasons. A case study on knowledge management implementation in the banking sector was carried out by Kidan and Gouling (2006). As for the lack of KMS (knowledge management systems). error duplication were some of the salient problems the respondents faced. Organizational impact of information technology (IT) on banking and insurance sector in Nigeria was examined by Ugwu et al (2000). The issues highlighted by Owens et al. intellectual capital.
timeliness and transparency. Hence the importance of information sharing. lack of sources . Weerasinghe (2002) has found in her study. In the conclusion the researchers indicated an important factor that is KMS is to a greater extent new to Libyan banking sector so to gain the full benefit of KMS. . This is owing to reasons such as investments of funds in projects by the financial services institutions. customers. 3. A common feature that is brought out by Weerasinghe (2007) is the difficulty of convincing the management of an organization to increase the budgetary allocations for the requirements of the library. as problems encountered by financiers with regard to their information needs fulfillment . alliances. can have an impact on the organization itself as it will not have a well equipped and appropriately resourced information centre to fulfill the organizational information needs.6 Satisfaction of Managers in Their Fulfillment of Information Needs for Organizational Activities Identification of the extent of satisfaction of the information needs fulfillment is an integral part of a study if remedies to the information related problems are to be recommended for a particular user group. Reviewed literature in the section concerns mainly the satisfaction of the fulfillment of information in managerial and organizational activities. One could comment that this problem. although has fair grounds for its existence. But as a remedial measure to this Weerasinghe ( 2007) proposes maintaining a membership with an information network. Libyan banks are not ready.information is not interpreted well and also there were problems with competitors. and internal and external environment. accuracy. Mostly experienced problems were lack of sources and accuracy.
These respondent described that the library environment had a friendly atmosphere. for example the reluctance and unwillingness of the information centre staff to provide material which were not client specific nature. In all 3 organizations the satisfaction of the fulfillment of their information needs far outweighed the complaints. Customer satisfaction not .Smith et al ( 1998) in their study which determined the impact of information on corporate decision making within the context of the insurance sector selected 410 middle and senior staff from managerial positions or above from 3 organizations as his sample. This research also indicated a few critical comments by the managers and one or two respondent indicated negative experiences with their library services. The description of Smith et al. According to the general comments of the 241 respondents who returned the questionnaires. (1998) paves the path way for the common understanding that any information or a library cannot fulfill all the information needs of the customers as several constraints limits them from being perfect without any flaws. information delivery was prompt and the staff were very helpful. it was identified that several were satisfied with the information services and some admired services that they received. The respondents also commented on information officer’s lack of knowledge. need for adequately equipped library staff. Other comments were library took quick actions to the information requests and the library staff delivered an excellent customer service. Some of the constructively critical comments were the need of assistance to find ideas and answers in addition to data. need for developed enthusiasm to be helpful by the librarian. the responses for the queries were of high standard. One respondent commented contradictorily to one of the positive comment of a user saying that the requests were not answered quickly. But libraries and information centres can improve the quality of their services by so many means.
Vlahos et al ( 2003) in their study to identify the use of computer based information systems (CBIS) by German managers to support decision making. information systems. The German managers were selected from the functional areas marketing and sales. Findings revealed that 62% of respondents were very confident that the CBIS they used were not compromised due to lack of sufficient security. Organizations are ready to accept IT even it effects the normal patterns of handling information followed earlier. accounting and finance. The study by Ugwu et al (2000) revealed that there was a positive impact of IT with regard efficiency and productivity of the organizations when considering direct and induced local measures and direct and induced global measures. The researchers have considered reduced paper work. and network insecurity.only depends on the quality of information service but also due to the factors such as customers personality and their expectations as well. When reviewing this study in terms of the satisfaction of fulfillment of the information needs of the managers. savings in labour. and inability to use machines skillfully as induced local measures. According to the above finding it could be indicated that the respondent expressed their satisfaction with regard to the impact of IT as it helps to fulfill their information requirement. The managers who identify the usefulness of CBIS tend to alter . the computer based information systems boost the information retrieval process. human resources and other areas such as manufacturing. The induced global measures were new business positions. Hence IT makes certain patterns of information handling obsolete but organizations are satisfied with the contributions of IT to the fulfillment of information needs. increased market share. speedy access to data. These findings and the conclusions gives an opportunity to put forward the views that although IT has negative impacts the positive side of the usage of IT is increasingly felt by organizations.
these systems according to their managerial needs which would further improve the information retrieval process bringing about more satisfaction. . Contribution of the case study related to the DFCC bank would be mainly the identification of several specific issues concerning the information need of the DFCC Bank managers and make recommendations on improved usage of information which would be appropriate for managerial information needs in the banking industry of Sri Lanka in common.
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