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Problem 1. (35 points) A given aircraft has a constant-cross-section, rectangular, untwisted wing of planform area S = 16 m2 and an aspect ratio AR = 7. The airfoil has a 2D lift slope of

clα

= 2π rad−1 and

generates zero lift at α OL = −0.05 radians. (The zero lift angle of attack for an airfoil and a finite wing is identical.) The span efficiency factor is e = 0.9 and the profile drag coefficient is a) (20 points) Compute CL and CD when α = 5°. Answers: CL = 0.655, CD = 0.0257 b) (15 points) Compute L and D at α = 5° if the aircraft is traveling at a speed of V∞ = 80 m/s at standard sea level conditions. Answers: L = 41.1 kN, D = 1.61 kN Solution. A plot of the lift curve for an infinite wing (airfoil) vs. a finite wing is shown below:

C D0 = 0.004.

The lift coefficient of a finite wing can be found by:

where

C L0 is the y-intercept of the lift curve for the finite wing.

The lift curve slope for a finite wing can

be found by:

-1-

225 kg / m 3 )(80 m / s ) 2 (16 m 2 ) = 1.225 kg / m 3 )(80 m / s ) 2 (16 m 2 ) = 41.9)(7) Another expression for the lift curve slope for a finite wing is: CLα = C L2 − CL1 α 2 − α1 Evaluating this expression at α = 0 and α OL gives: C Lα = C L0 − 0 0 − ( −0.004 + 0.769 = = −1 rad 2π rad 1+ π (0.05 rad → C L0 = 0.1 kN 2 2 1 1 D = C D ρV∞2 S = (0.655 rad 180 ° The drag coefficient can then be found by: C D = 0.0257 π (0.0257 )(1.239 + 4.61 kN 2 2 -2- .9)(7) The lift and drag can then be found by: 1 1 L = C L ρV∞2 S = (0.05 rad ) = C L0 0.655)(1.769 5° × = 0.239 + π rad 4.6552 = 0.769α C L = 0.CL α 2π rad −1 4.239 Therefore: C L = 0.

2 m2 & exit mass flow rate ( m2 ) 50 kg/s Assuming that the engine is traveling in steady level flight.2 m )(498 m / s ) m -3- . and neglecting the momentum contribution from the fuel in-flow. the pressures at the inlet and exit are equal (P1 = P2).225 3 2 A1V1 (0.000 N inlet velocity (V1) 100 m/s inlet area (A1) 0. With these assumptions.4 m2 & inlet mass flow rate ( m1 ) 49 kg/s exit area (A2) 0.4 m )(100 m / s ) m & m2 50 kg / s kg = = 0. (35 points) The following information pertains to the flow of air and fuel through the jet engine shown in Figure 1: trust (T) 20. calculate the following: a) (20 points) The exit velocity (V2): V2 = 498 m/s & & b) (5 points) The fuel mass flow rate ( m fuel ): m fuel = 1 kg/s c) (5 points) The inlet density (ρ1): ρ1 = 1.502 kg/m3 Figure 1: Jet engine Solution.Problem 2.225 kg/m3 d) (5 points) The exit density (ρ2): ρ2 = 0.502 3 2 A2V2 (0. the thrust equation can be written as: & & T = ρ 2V22 A2 − ρ1V12 A1 = ( ρ 2 A2V2 )V2 − ( ρ1 A1V1 )V1 = m2V2 − m1V1 Solving for the exit velocity (V2) gives: V2 = & T + m1V1 ( 20000 N ) + ( 49 kg / s )(100 m / s ) = = 498 m / s & m2 50 kg / s The mass flow rate of fuel can be found from the continuity equation: & & & m2 = m1 + m fuel & & 50 kg / s = 49 kg / s + m fuel → m fuel = 1 kg / s The inlet and exit densities can then be found by: & m = ρAV ρ1 = ρ2 = & m1 49 kg / s kg = = 1.

is valid for the following range of Mach numbers: 4.0 2 1− M ∞ . The lift coefficient for a normal wing or airfoil with no flaps is typically in the range of: a. d. dynamic pressure 7. less thickness c. A Pitot probe measures: a. 1 P0 = P + ρV 2 : 2 a. true airspeed c. c. For an incompressible flow. less wing sweep d. To increase the critical Mach number for a given wing.005 < CL < 0. b. Ma << 1 9.3 < M∞ < 0. equivalent airspeed c. higher camber 6.Problem 3. C p = a. Steady flow Inviscid (frictionless) flow Density is constant All of the above 5. The Prandtl-Glauert rule. b.0 0. 0. constant density b. The drag coefficient for a normal wing or airfoil with no flaps is typically in the range of: a. All of the above a. True or False: The lift to drag ratio (L/D) of a wing is a measure of its aerodynamic efficiency. d. True or False: Turbojet engines are generally more efficient than turbofan engines. the ideal gas law c.025 b. one might select a wing with: b. calibrated airspeed b.4 d. True airspeed. 10 < CL < 20 2. indicated airspeed 8. 0.3 < M∞ < 1. c. (30 points) Circle the BEST choice for each of the following questions (3 points each). The following assumptions were made in deriving Bernoulli’s equation for incompressible flow.025 b. Which condition or assumption does not hold through the lowest 20 km of Earth’s atmosphere? a. while _________ uses the density at sea level. -2 < CD < 2 d.1 < CD < 0 c. -2 < CL < 2 d. γ = 1. Indicated airspeed.1 < CL < 0 c. indicated airspeed d. 1. -4- . -0.005 < CD < 0.7 None of the above C p. total pressure b. Calibrated airspeed. 0. 10. static pressure d. 10 < CD < 20 3. -0. True airspeed.8 < M∞ < 1. a. ________ is calculated using the local density.2 0.

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