FIRST AID General Principles of First Aid Think about scene safety first; don’t get yourself injured

* Responsiveness (Tap and shout “Are you okay?”) *Victim has the right to refuse treatment/help. *Call 911 and get first aid kit, stay with the victim until help arrives… Protect yourself from others fluids * Practice taking off gloves & Handwashing *Things that are contaminated go in a biohazard bag HIPPA confidentiality you can’t talk to others about the event but you can talk to *people involved, doctors, nurses, and counselors; it is important to talk if it bothers you. Airway -Head tilt, chin lift. (Jaw thrust if trauma suspected for HCP only) Breathing (Look, listen, and feel.) If breathing look for bleeding or medical ID. Circulation: Check for and treat fractures, burns, bleeding etc. Be ready to perform CPR if no breathing. Continue monitor breathing, body movements. *If breathing returns, then place in recovery position. Medical Emergencies • Choking signs- universal chocking sign, unable to speak Are you choking? Can you speak? *I’m going to help? *Perform abdominal thrusts. *If pregnant chest thrust *Black slaps & Chest thrusts <l yr. • Asthma is caused by inflamed hyperactive and narrowing airways Signs- wheezing, trouble exhaling Victims need bronchodilator-inhaler *Get their medicine and assist them. • Bad allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) Signs- *swollen tongue and face, trouble breathing, flushing, light heaaded, increased heart rate. Victim needs Epipen. *You can assist them giving Epipen (hold in place 10 sec before removing, then rub site). • Heart Attack (MI) Signs- *uncomfortable feeling of pain and pressure in the chest, upper body, arms, back, neck, jaw, and stomach; nausea, weak, lightheaded. *Victim needs to sit quietly while you call 911 and get the AED and first aid kit; prepare to do CPR. • Fainting Signs- lightheaded, dizzy feeling *Victim needs to lie flat on the floor, and you need to raise their feet up 12” (if no pain in doing so) • Diabetes (Hypoglycemia, Hyperglycemia) Hypoglycemia-Low Blood Sugar- person hasn’t eaten, used too much insulin, been more active-> change in behavior, hunger, thirst, pale, sleepy. You need to give them something containing sugar (if they can swallow) like orange juice or regular coke. Hyperglycemia-High Blood Sugar-person smells like alcohol/fruity Victim needs to sit quietly or lie down. Call 911 if unresponsive or if they don’t improve for either condition. • Stroke Signs- * sudden facial droop, weakness in one side of the body, trouble speaking. Victim needs the area safe, call 911, do CPR if needed • Seizure Warning AURA (or sensation) before the onset. Victim often knows & will move from danger before begins. Summon professional help. Prevent the person from injury by moving furniture or equipment, pad under head. Injury Emergencies • Bleeding External *Victim needs to apply direct pressure to the wound while you don protective equipment. With a gloved hand *use a dressing to apply pressure, and elevate the extremity. Remember to apply pressure ASAP to aid clotting. Call 911 if necessary. Look for shock. *If there is a puncture wound and the object is still in the victim leave it. • Eye Injuries Victim needs ice without pressure on eye. Bruising, swelling, pain, visual disturbance should go to doctor. • Tooth Injuries

Victim needs to get to dentist ASAP with tooth in milk, saliva, wet towel if lost or broken permanent tooth. • Nosebleeds *Using gauze apply pressure to the nostrils while having the victim sit and lean their head forward. • Amputations Call 911, put on gloves, and apply direct pressure to the stump to stop bleeding, watch for shock. If you find the part rinse it in water rap it in a dressing and place it in an airtight bag, and label it with the persons name. Place that bag in another bag with ice. • Shock Signs-* Weak, dizzy, shivering, restless, confused, vomit, are thirsty, pale cool clammy skin they’ve lost a lot of blood, had a heart attack etc. *Victim needs to lie down. *You need to elevate their feet, make them comfortable (blanket), and reinsure them. Call 911. • Internal Bleeding Signs- suspect if they have been in a car crash, fell, been stabbed, shot, has bruises, and shows signs of shock. Victim needs to lie down and stay still. *Check and suspect shock, call 911, and do CPR and AED if needed. • Head and Spine Injury Signs- Unresponsive, sleepy, confused, vomit, headache, difficulty seeing, and moving. Suspect if there is an injury to upper body (*head or chest), a fall from a height, motor vehicle crash, forceful blows to the head, chest. Victim needs someone to call 911. Don’t allow the victims head to move (C-Spine immobilization). • Injuries to Bones, Joints, and Muscles Signs- deformity, pain, bruising. Victim needs ice, compress, elevate. Cover open wound with dressings, stop bleeding. Don’t apply ice directly to the skin *cover with a towel then ice don’t let victim move injured site. Don’t try to straighten injury. Splint/sling-support joints above and below. Call 911 if needed or transport to ER. • Burns from Heat Signs- contact with fire, hot surface, liquid, or steam. Victim needs to “stop, drop and roll” if still on fire. Remove burned clothing if they aren’t stuck to skin. Start CPR if unresponsive. If 1st or 2nd degree *run cold water over it for 15 to 30 minutes. • Burns from Electricity Signs- marks or wounds where electricity entered and exited. Victim needs someone to call 911 if needed. Don’t touch victim if they are still in contact with power source. If unresponsive do CPR. Check for signs of shock. Environmental Emergencies • Snake bites Signs- *one or two dots or teeth marks means poisonous. “U” shaped bites are probably not poisonous. Victim needs to have someone call 911. Tell victim not to move, be still and calm. Wash the wound with soap and water. No ice & No pressure bandage unless bite is from a coral snake. • Human and Animal Bites Call 911. *Wash the area with soap and water, then stop the bleeding. *Report all wild animal bite to police. • Bee Stings Call 911 if an allergic reaction is occurring. *Bad allergic reaction signs include tongue and face swelling and trouble breathing. Help victim with Epipen if reaction occurs. Remove stinger with a card. Clean area with soap and water. Put ice on the sting area. Watch the victim for signs of a bad allergic reaction. • Spider and Scorpion Signs- muscle cramps, headache, fever, vomiting, breathing problems, seizures, unresponsive. Victim needs someone to call 911. If unresponsive call 911. Clean the bite area with soap and water. Put ice on the area. • Ticks *Remove the tick with fingers or tweezers applying light constant pulling pressure. Don’t use matches, lotion etc. Wash the bite with soap and water. Put ice on the area. Get medical attention if you are in a Lyme Disease region.

Frostbite

Signs- in cold with part exposed. Usually fingers, nose, ears, and toes. Area is waxy, white, or gray-yellow. Area is cold and numb. Area is hard. Victim needs to get to a warm place. Call 911. Remove tight clothing, and jewelry. Remove wet clothing. *Don’t thaw area if you are near a medical facility (let them do it) or if it could refreeze. Don’t rub area, use heating pad or fire, give alcohol, let victim smoke cigarettes. • Hypothermia Signs- shivering in mild hypothermia. *In more serious cases (severe hypothermia) shivering has stopped- confused, change in behavior often not cognizant of being cold. Muscles stiff and rigid, skin ice cold and blue. Victim becomes unresponsive and appears dead. Victim needs to get to warmth ASAP. Take off wet clothing, put on dry, handle victim carefully. Call 911. Put blankets and any other clothing on and around the victim. If unresponsive start CPR. • Heat Related Emergencies Signs- muscle cramps, sweating, headache, nausea, weakness, dizziness. Heatstroke (most serious)- confusion, inability to drink and vomit, red, hot, dry skin, shallow breathing, seizures, unresponsiveness. *Victim needs to get to a cool, or shady area. *Loosen or remove tight clothing. *Encourage victim to drink water if responsive. Spray victim with cool water, fan the victim. Call 911 and do CPR as needed. • Poison Emergencies Call 911 and poison control 800-222-1222. Remove victim from area if you can safely. If victim is unresponsive start CPR. Wash or remove poison from victims skin, *run water over area for at least 20 minutes or until EMS arrives, remove contaminated clothing. Wash area with water, wash eye being sure to not contaminate other eye. Get MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) and follow procedures. AED (Automated External Defibrillator) Call 911 and get AED Start CPR *Use the AED as soon as possible. Turn on AED & attach electrodes to the victims chest while CPR continues (if 2 trained people). Follow prompts from the AED machine Clear the victim (analyzing rhythm) *If advised, clear the victim (make sure no one is touching them), push shock button *If there is a medicine patch, remove it/wipe the area dry before attaching pads.

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