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areas to programs for the homeless was $15 greater than the amount contributed by residents of rural areas. The survey’s creators, an urban-promotion group known as Live in the City, concluded that city dwellers are on average more generous than residents of rural areas. EACH of the following, if true, casts doubt on the conclusion of the survey’s creators EXCEPT
• • • •
An unrelated survey of annual charitable giving finds that residents of rural areas give 3% less to charity than residents of urban areas. There are more homeless people in urban areas than rural areas, making it more likely that urban residents would contribute to those charities. There are more charities in general operating in urban areas than in rural areas. The survey is calculated based on dollar amount rather than percentage of income, and does not account for the fact that incomes in urban areas are often higher. The group Live in the City has been known to alter survey results for marketing purposes.
D Unfortunately for the commuters who lost their lives when the bridge collapsed, the engineer was not honest at the preliminary public safety commission hearing, when he was questioned about the structure’s weight-bearing abilities.
• • • • •
was not honest was not was honest had not been honest had not been being honest
D The artist’s most recent work, a series of canvasses splashed liberally with acrylic paint in primary colors, is extraordinarily popular with interior designers specializing in hotels.
primary colors, is
• • • •
primary colors is primary colors, are primary colors are colors, are primarily
A Static electricity results when negatively-charged electrons are discharged, in the absence of a conductor, toward a positively-charged substance or material. Lightning is a powerful kind of static electricity created when electrons build up on the bottom of a rain cloud. Since like charges repel, electrons below are driven away, leaving the ground with a positive charge. When the charges in the cloud and the ground have gained sufficient strength, a bolt of lightning is generated. If the statements above are all true, which of the following can properly be inferred on the basis of them?
• • • • •
The positive charge in the cloud and the negative charge on the ground must be equal in order for lightning to be generated. Since scientists understand the movement of positive and negative charges, they can use lightning technology to generate electricity for consumer use. A lightning bolt is generated when electrons from the cloud are discharged toward the positively-charged ground. Lightning bolts are more likely to occur when it is raining, since water can act as a conductor. Trees are more likely to be struck by lightning than open ground, since they naturally tend toward a greater positive charge.
C The reason the factory did not meet its deadline is because a snowstorm in the northeast delayed delivery of the necessary components by more than a week.
• • • •
The reason the factory did not meet its deadline is The factory was not able to be meeting the deadline The factory did not meet its deadline The deadline of the factory was not met
The author chose for inclusion only those artists whom he considered to have surpassed their teachers. The author does not give sufficient attention to the historical context of each masterpiece produced. in student-teacher pairs. however. if true. of the factory. To support this theory. Which of the following. The author does not consider the fact that. is most damaging to the conclusion reached by the author of the art history book? • • • • The book does not include any side-by-side illustrations comparing the work of students to the work of their teachers. • D . in each case demonstrating that the teacher’s work is superseded by the student’s. The author concentrates almost exclusively on the techniques developed by the teachers.• The deadline. both artists can produce either masterpieces or low-quality works. and then examined the relationship of their respective paintings. and does not give sufficient attention to the execution of technique by the students. is not nearly as efficient but she is nearly not as efficient even though she is not nearly as efficient despite being not as efficient D The author of a new art history book argues that students whose paintings come to be received as masterpieces achieve greatness by perfecting the technique and vision of their teachers. the author provides a detailed comparison of the works of 15 student-teacher pairs. was not met C The new mayor is certainly more progressive than her predecessor. but she is not nearly as efficient. • • • • • but she is not nearly as efficient but she.
and gives too few details about the manufacture of the wiring. Focuses too much attention on the process that strengthens the glass. traffic is very tightly controlled by traffic lights placed every half mile to cut down on speeding. however. • • • • • the police were not able to capture the suspect. the police were not able to capture the suspect. Because of this process. Does not address the consumer safety advocate’s concern about the dangers posed by thin wiring. who are not able to capture him at the house the suspect arrived before the police were fleeing the house the suspect fled the house before the police arrived E Consumer Safety Advocate:The most recent series of holiday string lights is dangerous because the plastic coating over the wires is thin.Apparently tipped off. Manufacturer:Our company has taken extensive precautions with the manufacturing process of the glass for the bulbs to assure that each one can withstand high temperatures without cracking. Does not give specific information on the process by which the glass is strengthened. Motor vehicle accidents. B Along Highway 1. who was fleeing the house before they arrived. are more common along . Focuses too much attention on the manufacturer’s precautions and not enough on the consumer safety advocate’s concerns. making it more likely that the wires will be exposed and cause a fire. The manufacturer’s response is flawed as a refutation of the consumer safety advocate’s argument because it • • • • • Does not offer to issue a recall order on a product that is clearly dangerous. have not been able to capture the suspect. who was fleeing the house before they arrived the police. the danger of fire is extremely low. who fled as they arrived the suspect fled the police.
There are more traffic-light controlled intersections on Highway 1 than there are on. casts the most doubt on the effectiveness of the solution proposed above? • • • • • The average speed on Highway 1 is already 35 miles per hour. making motor vehicle accidents statistically more likely. if true. fewer than ten of the earthquake was severe. Highway 1 is the longest road in the city. Most motor vehicle accidents along Highway 1 are rear-end collisions that occur when one of the parties is unable to stop safely at a traffic light. less than ten from the earthquake was severe. making more traffic lights unnecessary. less than ten A Even though the foreign exchange student was from a completely different culture. less than ten people were injured.and off-ramps. this problem can only be solved by adding more traffic lights to the highway. D Although structural damage from the earthquake was severe. The city council does not have sufficient funds budgeted for improvements along Highway 1. reducing speeding even more. Clearly. fewer than ten was severe. less than ten from the earthquake was severe. • • • between us between most of us around us .Highway 1 than on any other road in the city. • • • • • from the earthquake was severe. it was not long before she felt comfortable between us. Which of the following.
he asked not only for the balance on his account. but also if he could get information about a savings account. Wood-burning grills are more popular than gas-grills. • • • • • if he could get if they would give him to be given about for E Which of the following best completes the passage? . once the sale was B When Sven went to the bank last week. The further discounts offered by sale prices account for a larger dollar amount than the increase in sales. prompting an increase in sales. surprising managers with a loss in profits. leading to a loss in profits. Hank’s Hardware responded to the popularity of gas grills with large displays and deeply-discounted sale prices. leading to a loss of profits. is the best explanation for why Hank’s Hardware’s profits on gas grills are suffering? • • • • Sales volume has been miscalculated. which is why many people who purchased gas grills are returning them. Which of the following. if true. since Hank’s carries mostly gas grills. Sales of gas grills at Hank’s Hardware went up by a third.• • among us in this culture where the rest of us are comfortable C The cost of gas-burning grills has dropped nearly 40% in the last year. The reduction in cost is caused by shoddy construction. their profits are suffering Customers only bought gas grills when they were on sale. but at the end of the quarter managers were shocked to find they had lost money on gas grills.
that sign language was a physical method of expressing the words and syntax of spoken language. ASL had its beginnings in 1817 when Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet. Within only a few years. The language Clerc developed for the school was based heavily on the French Sign Language with which he. they can expect not only to please a wider variety of customers. Face the expense of renovating existing spaces to accommodate the combination of prepared and raw foods. Receive more attention from media who publish restaurant reviews. Connecticut. an island off Massachusetts where there were an unusually large number of deaf children. that forms of signing constituted valid. Clerc had been an instructor at the premiere educational institution for the deaf in France. • • • • • Increase their profit margins by consolidating the costs of food products they order from wholesalers. At the school. E Before the early eighteenth century. American Sign Language was one of the first standardized sets of signs to develop in response to this new understanding of communication among the deaf. the mixture of French Sign Language with Home Sign had reached equilibrium and was taught in other institutions for the deaf as American Sign Language. some of which are then used in preparing food for the café. As more café and supermarket owners follow this pattern of blended options. Once it was recognized.Other supermarkets may contain delis or coffee bars. Gain more customers who are interested in dining as well as shopping. though non-oral. recruited Frenchman Laurent Clerc to co-found what is now the American School for the Deaf in Hartford. where a standardized system of signs had been in use in for nearly a century. however. though it continues to be spontaneously adjusted to suit local needs. French Sign Language mingled with various and idiosyncratic “home signs” brought into the classroom by students from Martha’s Vineyard. ASL is the third most common language in the . routinely communicated. Accepted wisdom held either that the deaf were making simple gestures to communicate basic needs and ideas. sign systems were standardized and disseminated in educational programs for the deaf. forms of communication among the deaf were often not regarded as authentic language.Customers dining in the café sample expensive specialty foods in expertly prepared entrees and appetizers before purchasing raw materials in the market. systems of language. being deaf. See the value of their stocks rise as more investors participate in a fashionable marketing concept. an American minister. Owners consolidate costs by ordering larger quantities of spices. in a more generous view. but also to . produce. meat. and cheeses. or. Today. but the powerful blend of specialty food market with café that has made Duetto Market so popular sets the standard for what is sure to be a national trend.
The founders of the school believed French Sign Language to be superior to British Sign Language. and a popular form of interdialect communication in parts of Africa.United States. French Sign Language was held by educators of the deaf in France to be almost flawless. The author likely relates the history of American Sign Language in order to • • • • • Entertain the reader with historical facts. Explore cooperation among nations in the development of languages for the deaf. Compare two perspectives on types of communication used by the deaf. D It can be inferred from the passage that American Sign Language borrowed liberally from French Sign Language for which of the following reasons? • • • • • Many students at the school could read and write French. . making the transition to French Sign Language simple. Advocate greater flexibility in the development of sign languages. French Sign Language was equally as expressive as the “home sign” languages that students from Martha’s Vineyard brought to the school. C In the highlighted lines the author most likely says that the second traditional understanding of sign language as a physical method of expressing the words and syntax of spoken language was a more generous view because • It considers deaf people incapable of using words and syntax in ways that imitate spoken language. the dominant sign language of North America. Provide a historical example of a sign language that was first standardized then disseminated. French Sign Language was a standardized system of signs already familiar to one of the founders of the school.
security forces have arrested The BBC reporter. killing one of them. was nearer the understanding that sign language is a valid system of language. since taking control of the capital. the BBC reporter says security forces have arrested The BBC reporter says that.• • • • It was the more commonly held view among people who gave the most money to the deaf. says security forces . This position. This viewpoint is the same as that eventually espoused by Gallaudet and Clerc. Centuries of misunderstood methods of communication among the deaf made the development of standardized sign languages inevitable. the BBC reporter says security forces have arrested about 40 insurgents of the majority political group. is a paraphrase of the point the author is making in the rest of the passage. French Sign Language and Home Sign were equally important contributions to the development of American Sign Language. • • • Since taking control of the capital. since taking control of the capital. American Sign Language eventually surpassed the usefulness and flexibility of French Sign Language. though not completely accurate. E Based on information in the passage. B Since taking control of the capital. The deaf living on Martha’s Vineyard would not have formed their own standardized system of signs if they had not been introduced to French Sign Language. though not indisputable. the author of the passage would most likely agree with which of the following? • • • • • Gallaudet would have been unable to found a school for the deaf without Clerc’s assistance. This perspective.
• • • • D Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images in their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala. causing their adversaries’ reaction times to seem slow by comparison. Which of the following. arrested Security forces have arrested the BBC reporter since taking control of the capital B Although it would be unexpected for an attacking dragonfly to gain advantage by presenting himself openly. Scientists theorize that by remaining on a straight line with some landmark point. the BBC reporter says. Scientists record a lower success rate for dragonflies who attack using a zigzag pattern. and the attackers were victorious in each case. The reaction times of their adversaries. if true. have. making previously-undiscovered ruins visible. scientists observed that in 8 out of 15 inter-species battles between male dragonflies. like scientists. Instead. forms the best basis for at least a partial explanation of the success of motion camouflage in dragonfly battles? • The dragonflies attacking in a straight line moved more quickly than other dragonflies observed in battle. since taking control of the capital. who did not seem to realize they were approaching. the attackers did not prevent detection of their presence as they would from predators. rather than a straight line attack. The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions? . Scientists discover inaccuracies in the devices used to measure reaction times of adversaries. the attacking dragonfly remains stationary from the point of view of his adversary. The adversaries of the dragonflies. were slowed significantly.• • Security forces. Though satellite photographs have proven unhelpful because of their inability to penetrate the dense tree canopy. infrared imaging translates heat signatures into distinct colors. do not expect to be attacked openly. but in a straight line from a fixed object. the dragonflies employed a technique called “motion camouflage” by which they attacked openly.
• • • • • Being that If Because When Notwithstanding the fact that C The developers of Overlook Ridge built 200 luxury homes for the subdivision last year. Infrared imaging is helpful because the heat signature of ruin sites is different from the heat signature of the surrounding jungle. however. family life. many people are willing to balance full time professional work. Satellite photography has not produced images of sufficient detail to locate ruins in the jungle. Archaeologists use both satellite technology and local folklore to theorize the location of ruins. and graduate classes to gain access to a higher-paying career track. if true. . making new home purchases unlikely. developers should scrap plans to add another 100 homes to the subdivision this year. at least two-thirds of the homes remain unsold. would provide the greatest support for the author’s conclusion? • • The most recent census indicates that mean income in the area has been steadily declining over the last five years. Which of the following.• • • • • Archeologists in the field have not been able to discover many ruins because the jungle is impenetrable. An opinion poll in the local newspaper found that most home-buyers prioritize easy access to parks over beautiful views. For their own sake. E Being that completing a master’s degree opens many lucrative job options. Despite beautiful views and modern amenities. Archaeologists require special training in order to read maps produced by infrared imaging.
raise heartbeat and blood pressure. since most business is conducted in a relatively restrained environment. If all of the above statements are true. The architectural style of the proposed additional homes will be slightly more adventurous. priming the body for physical activity. Powerful hormones such as cortisol and epinephrine. Hormones such as cortisol and epinephrine stimulate critical thinking as well as raising blood pressure. • • • is unable. The majority of patrons of the local library. it can be most directly inferred from the passage that • • • • • Most productivity loss in small business is due to unprocessed stress hormones. However. to volunteer time to staff it. in order to lure potential buyers to the subdivision. The restraint of business environments contributes to the stress experienced by workers. A The author of a book tracing the relationship of work-related stress to productivity loss in small business argues that most workers underestimate the harmful physical effects of unprocessed anxiety. or either unwilling . Increased physical activity would be helpful in processing stressful situations and increasing productivity. or either unwilling . which are released in stressful situations. is unable. or either unwilling is either unable or unwilling are unable.• • • Homeowners currently residing in the subdivision have registered several complaints about the noise of ongoing construction. though enthusiastic about a new book mobile service. workers find few opportunities to respond to stressful situations as their hormones seem to demand. Workers in more physically demanding jobs have fewer problems with workrelated stress. The eventual sale of another 100 homes will add greatly to the community’s tax base.
. the most effective is checking on his employees every few minutes. but also because • • • • • One hydraulic rescue tool can perform the functions of both a crowbar and a circular saw. Hydraulic tools have often completely replaced traditional tools. Hydraulic tools are unlikely to complicate an already dangerous situation in the way that more traditional tools often did. Hydraulic tools are able to quickly and efficiently repair structural damage to vehicles involved in collisions. Hydraulic tools are quieter and do not cause crash victims to panic. not only because they are less frightening to crash victims. of all the possible methods for monitoring progress.• are either unable or unwilling The section’s new manager is limited in his effectiveness because he is convinced that. Emergency response workers have greater leverage when using hydraulic tools than when using traditional tools. such as crowbars and circular saws. are used by emergency response personnel to remove crash victims from damaged vehicles. such as crowbars and circular saws. Emergency response workers prefer hydraulic tools. which could cause additional structural damage or create sparks. • • • • • is checking on is checking in on are checking in on are checking upon are checking on Which of the following best completes the passage? Hydraulic rescue tools. colloquially known as Jaws of Life.
first in the United States and eventually in many Western countries. in the absence of state interference. The chief cause of inefficiency for Chicago School thinkers is government regulation. with its sandy beaches and multiple opportunities for sports. individual participants in the market will make rational economic decisions that maximize their satisfaction.” For Chicago School thinkers. The Chicago School accepts the principles of utility and laissez-faire regulation. into a more sophisticated awareness of the balance between individual decisions and production. which prevents the free interplay of market forces. • • • • • had been has been had been being was being was The Chicago School of economics gained ascendancy in the 1950s and became the prevailing way of thinking about capitalist economics. according to Neoclassical economists. or the assertion that a correct economic decision is one that yields “the greatest good for the greatest number. The interplay of free market forces. but production itself is likely to become more efficient by producing the highest quality goods at the lowest possible price. .” approach to government regulation. it means making decisions that will maximize profits. “efficiency” subsumes Neoclassical thought on the mechanisms of utility.” the Chicago School fine-tuned many of the fundamentals of the larger movement and articulated tenets now generally taken for granted in economic thought. not only are individuals and companies free to maximize their satisfaction.Before the storm destroyed much of the harbor. this town. for companies. the principle of utility translates into buying quality goods at the lowest possible price. A dominant subset of “Neoclassical economics. For individuals. but tailors its understanding of these terms to focus on the related principle of “efficiency. which concentrates on individuals making individual rational decisions. will result in greater good – in the form of high quality products and services – for a greater number of people.” Neoclassical economics vociferously defends a laissez-faire. or “hands off. A basic principle of Neoclassical economics is the concept of utility. In an economy unencumbered by state interference. According to Neoclassical theory. had been one of the most popular resort destinations on the East Coast.
According to the passage. To demonstrate the fundamental disagreement between the Chicago School and Neoclassical economic theory. though opposite in meaning. To argue for the application of the principle of utility in the United States economy. To outline a plan for producing the highest quality goods at the lowest possible price. To trace the development of the concept of efficiency in American economic theory. The author of the passage most likely states that greater good comes in the form of high quality products and services for which of the following reasons? • To underscore the fact that Neoclassical economists are more concerned with the greater good than other types of economists. as a principle. whereas efficiency is a more refined version of the basic principle. whereas efficiency is concerned with greater production. which of the following best articulates the relationship of utility to efficiency? • • • • • Utility is concerned with maximizing satisfaction. Neither utility nor efficiency. . are both useful in describing the statistical behavior of free markets. Which of the following best describes the primary purpose of this passage? • • • • • To discuss the relationship of the Chicago School to Neoclassical economic theory. Utility and efficiency are equally important concepts in Neoclassical economic theory. is able to completely predict the behavior of a free market. Utility is the basic principle. Utility and efficiency.
all of the following are benefits of a laissez-faire economy EXCEPT • • • • • Individual participants will make decisions that maximize their satisfaction. New authors have not had the experience necessary to refine their writing styles. Quality goods will be produced at the lowest possible price. To distinguish between economic good (quality products and services) and economic evil (lack of quality products and services). but high quality products and services are better. Which of the following. Companies will make decisions that maximize their profits. Publisher Big Books’ proposal to encourage new authors by founding an imprint. . not with posters.• • • • To remind readers that. Government agencies will be available to correct inflation. if true. exclusively for first novels is doomed to artistic failure. To make clear an implied distinction between moral good (virtue) and economic good (quality products and services). All books published under the new imprint are held to rigorous. and a wistful desire to publish hoards of new authors will only lower quality standards and flood the market with mediocre prose. goods and services must be put to appropriate use. predetermined standards of quality. First novels will be marketed only by in-store displays. would most weaken the argument against the publisher’s proposed imprint? • • • Authors hoping to be published will share the cost of publication. Production of goods will become more efficient. To emphasize the fact that products and services are good. or brand name. which are more expensive. According to the passage. for the principle of utility to truly apply.
morality – is a late and mostly intellectual addition to the evolutionary process. Orangutans. more generally. but rather holds a sense of fairness to be as much a part of human “nature” as violence and competition. does not set nature and morality in direct opposition. To illustrate the ways in which primates demonstrate an inherent sense of fairness. When scientists discuss the point in the evolutionary process at which a sense of fairness arose in human beings. The first theory holds that a sense of fairness – or. The second theory.• • Many novels that are now considered classics were the first novels published by their authors. To criticize the assertion that human morality is intended to rise above the violence and competition found in nature. .” because it posits human morality as a thin crust on a violently churning interior. Manuscripts will be solicited from authors who have already proven successful at writing short stories. Advocates of this theory most often appeal to the behavior of other primates to argue that humans possess an innate sense of fairness common to other species of a shared evolutionary past. permitting human beings to “rise above” the raw violence and competition found in “nature. Experiments with monkeys offering them two kinds of rewards for performing simple tasks have shown that they will refuse the less-preferred reward if they see their companions receiving the preferred reward for performing the same task. To refute the idea that human nature is inherently violent. by contrast.” In certain circles this idea is known as “veneer theory. have been observed to throw temper tantrums when teased by being shown an apple they are not allowed to have. one of two theories general prevails. for example. In this view morality is defined as a set of rules agreed upon by a society. Which of the following best describes the primary purpose of this passage? • • • • • To speculate about the origins of violence in humans and other primates. To compare and contrast two theories about the development of a sense of fairness in human evolution.
or the result of a series of social interactions and agreements. Whether a sense of fairness can rightly be called morality. • • • • The passage suggests which of the following about the condition of “nature. Despite the suggestion that primates such as monkeys and orangutans possess an innate sense of fairness. would make the best conclusion to the discussion of the second theory? • For advocates of this theory. Which of the following. most scientists continue to accept veneer theory. at least in these examples. if added to the end of the passage.According to the passage. In contrast to veneer theory. making morality just as “natural” to humans as violence and competition. the behavior of primates offers evidence that a sense of fairness evolved before primate species differentiated. Because orangutans and monkeys. both orangutans and monkeys were observed to raise strenuous objections when they felt that a received standard of fairness had somehow been violated.” according to veneer theory? . it can reasonably be concluded that morality comes more naturally to them than it does to humans. Whether morality is the basis of human social patterns. Whether a sense of fairness should be considered an earlier or more recent development in the evolution of human beings. the second theory’s use of observation and experiment lends it a credibility that can not be denied. the common concern of the two theories presented in the passage is • • • • • Whether orangutans and other primates possess an innate sense of fairness. however. Whether morality is innate. demonstrated a clear sense of fairness. or is a surface concern. then. In conclusion.
• • • • places when they vote to curb potential fraud places when they vote. when they vote to curb potential fraud places. Morality is as much a part of nature as violence and competition. Observation demonstrates that this sense is shared by other primates such as orangutans and monkeys. The violence and competition found in nature must be transformed by morality in order for humans to live peacefully. when they vote. and to protect members from violence. to curb potential fraud places. Experiments involving monkeys prove that primates feel entitled to rewards when they have successfully completed simple tasks. Human beings constitute a thin crust living on the outside of a chaotic core of nature. but can not be changed. to curb potential fraud . Nature is inherently violent and competitive and may be contained.• • • • • Societies agree to rules of morality in order to recondition themselves to resist the violence and competition of nature. According to the passage. A proposed law would require people to bring photo ID to polling places when they vote to curb potential fraud. Orangutans became visibly upset when they were unfairly denied something they wanted. Societies establish laws designed to enforce agreed-upon ideals of fairness. which of the following is evidence that the development of a sense of fairness occurred early in the evolution of human beings? • • • • • History shows that violence and competition have not been a significant part of human behavior.
.• places. In the letter to the city council requesting a building permit. the developer argues that the permit should be granted because the shopping mall. The developer has already obtained verbal agreements from several retailers who plan to open stores in the future shopping mall. The city code requires that proposals for all new structures be voted upon and approved by the city council. if true. will ultimately benefit the city by creating jobs in a place where the unemployment rate is slightly higher than the national average. The city will benefit financially from the new shopping mall. to curb potential fraud by voting A developer wants to build a shopping mall in a mostly rural area of a mid-sized city. Which of the following. will be most helpful in strengthening the developer’s petition before the city council? • • • • • A citizens’ group has circulated a petition collecting signatures in support of the developer’s plan. if successful. because all sales tax revenues will go to the city. The city’s largest percentage of unemployed people lives in the rural area where the proposed shopping mall would be built.
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