WHAT THE BIBLE SAYS ON CORRECT WORSHIP OR RELIGION

Isagani Datu-Aca Tabilog

Only True Levites
Only True Levites are responsible in True and Correct Worship as instructed by to Levite-Dath-Moses. The book of Moses was in the Ark of The Covenant and only Levites has access on it otherwise the same fate will happened like in Uzza when he touched the Ark of The Covenant
1Chronicles 13:7 And they carried the ark of Elohim in a new cart out of the house of Abinadab: and Uzza and Ahio drave the cart. 1Chronicles 13:8 And David and all Israel played before Elohim with all their might, and with singing, and with harps, and with psalteries, and with timbrels, and with cymbals, and with trumpets. 1Chronicles 13:9 And when they came unto the threshingfloor of Chidon, Uzza put forth his hand to hold the ark; for the oxen stumbled. 1Chronicles 13:10 And the anger of there he died before Elohim. was kindled against Uzza, and he smote him, because he put his hand to the ark: and

2Samuel 6:6 And when they came to Nachon's threshingfloor, Uzzah put forth his hand to the ark of Elohim, and took hold of it; for the oxen shook it. 2Samuel 6:7 And the anger of by the ark of Elohim. Deuteronomy 10:8 At that time before was kindled against Uzzah; and Elohim smote him there for his error; and there he died

separated the tribe of Levi, to bear the ark of the covenant of

, to stand

to minister unto him, and to bless in his name, unto this day. your Elohim, that it

Deuteronomy 31:26 Take this book of the law, and put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of may be there for a witness against thee.

1Kings 12:31-32 and 1Kings 13:33-34 The Illegitimate Priests who were Not Levite replaced the True-Levite Priests called Yahshear-Dath (Sacerdote) has No access on the Books of Moses placed on the Ark of the Covenant. The Illegitimate Priests found in Nehemiah 7:62-64 (Nehemiah 7:64 These sought their register among those that were reckoned by genealogy, but it was not found: therefore were they, as polluted, put from the priesthood.) They have No Correct Teachings and their teaching and doctrines was translated, copied and being taught to our generation now.
YahYah (John) 5:39 Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me. YahYah (John) 5:40 And ye will not come to me, that ye might have life. The Father will send the Holy Spirit in the name Yahshu’a and that Holy Spirit will teach and remind us of all things, but they come to different name Jesus in whom the Holy Spirit will not be send. If No Holy Spirit there is No Correct Teaching Acts 4:12 Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved. YahYah (John) 14:26 But the Comforter, which is the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.

WHAT THE BIBLE SAYS ON CORRECT WORSHIP OR RELIGION
Luke 24:47 And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in HIS NAME among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.

First we have to know what is HIS NAME at the beginning at (Yahrushalam) Jerusalem on that time 2,000 years ago.

Isagani Datu-Aca Tabilog

WHAT THE BIBLE SAYS ON CORRECT WORSHIP OR RELIGION

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Catholic Digest January 1992 vol.32,no.6 Published in Catholic Digest January 1992 vol.32,no.6 page 17 The Mystery of the Magi
We usually don„t think about it, but our Lord„s name was not always Jesus. It was in fact originally the popular Aramaic name Yeshu„a. In first century Judea and Galilee, the name Yeshu„a was very common and shared fifth place with Eleazar (Lazarus) in popularity as a name for Jewish men. The most popular male names at that time were Shime„on (Simon), Yosef (Joseph), Yehuda (Judah or Judas) and Yochanan (John). In the Holy Land at the time of Christ, Aramaic had replaced Hebrew in everyday conversation, but Hebrew remained the holy language and was used in worship and daily prayers. The rabbis also used Hebrew when instructing their disciples. The two languages were closely related, however, as close as Italian is to Spanish, and both used the same alphabet. Yeshu„a was the Aramaic version of the Hebrew name Yehoshu„a (Joshua), and means ―‟Yahweh saves‟. Throughout Christ„s lifetime in Galilee, Samaria and Judea of course the name Yeshu„a presented no problem for those who spoke Aramaic and read the Bible and prayed in Hebrew. But outside the Holy Land it become a different story as Good News spread. The Gentiles of the Roman Empire spoke Greek and Latin and simply could not pronounce Yeshu„a. It contained sounds that did not exist in their language. When the Gospels were written in Greek, therefore, the Evangelists had a real problem regarding how they might render our Lord„s name into acceptable Greek. The initially “Y” (Hebrew and Aramaic letter “yod”) was easy. The Evangelists could use the Greek letter “iota”, written “I”, since it was pronounced like the “y” in yet. The next sound was a vowel, and that was a little more difficult. Unlike Greek, all the letters of the AramaicHebrew alphabet are consonants. The marks for the vowels were not invented until some centuries after Christ and were simple dots and dashes, placed above or beneath the letters. At the time of Christ apparently, the first vowel in our Lord„s name was pronounced like the “a” in gate. And the Evangelists believed they could approximate that sound by using the Greek letter “eta”. (The capital Greek letter looks just like our English letter H). Then followed the first of two almost insurmountable problems with Hebrew and Aramaic pronunciation. There was no letter for the “sh” sound in the Greek alphabet. Such a familiar name as Solomon was actually Sh„lomo in Hebrew, Samson was Shimson and Samuel was Sh„mu-El. Like the Greek translators of these Old Testament Hebrew names, the Evangelists used the Greek sigma (s) for the Hebrew shin (sh) when rendering Christ„s name. The first three Greek letters “iota”, “eta”, and “sigma”, moreover came to be used in early Byzantine religious art as an abbreviation of Jesus name. As they look very much like the Latin letters IHS, the letters were adapted in Western European religious paintings and church architecture as a symbol for Christ„s name. The next letter in the Aramaic name Yeshu„a was the Hebrew letter “waw”, which here represents the sound “oo”, as in too. It was easy for the Evangelists to duplicate this sound in Greek. It takes two letters, however, the omicron (o) and upsilon (u). But that easy substitution was followed by the biggest problem of all: the final “a” sound. In Greek, there was no substitute for the Hebrew letter “aiyin”. Though the “aiyin” has no sound of its own, it causes the vowel that it controls to be pronounced deep in the throat. The Greek couldn„t do that, and neither could the Romans when speaking in Latin. Usually, a Greek or Roman would pronounce an “aiyin”-controlled “a ” like the “a” in father. A final “a” on a name however was most commonly feminine in both Greek and Latin. Thus it was decided to drop the Hebrew “aiyin” completely and replace it with the final Greek sigma (s) which most often indicates the masculine gender in nouns. Throughout the Roman Empire then our Lord„s Aramaic name Yeshu„a, had become the Greek name Iesous, pronounced yeh-SOOS. And this remained Christ„s name throughout the Roman Empire as long as Greek remained the dominant language.

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But after some centuries Greek lost its favored position and Latin took its place. In the last quarter of the fourth century, the Bible was translated from Greek into Latin by *St. Jerome who had no trouble rendering the Greek Iesous into Latin, it became Iesus. The accent, however, was moved to the first syllable and the name pronounced YAY-soos, since the Romans liked to accent the second from the last syllable. In about 14th century, in the scriptoria of the monasteries where Bibles were copied by hand, Monks began to elongate the initial “I” of the words into a “J”. (The pronounciation remained the same-like the “y” in yet but the Monks thought a “J” looked better). Probably the first Monks to do this were Germans because the letter “j” in that language sounds the same as the “y” in English. The name Iesus, consequently, evolved into the familiar written form of Jesus by the 17th century. Everyone still pronounced it YAY-soos, however, as it was in the official liturgical Latin. Way back in the fifth and sixth centuries, some pagan Germanic tribes called the Angles and Saxons invaded England. St Augustine of Canterbury came to convert them to Christianity in A.D.396. Of course St. Augustine established Jerome„s Latin translation as England„s official Bible. The Anglo-Saxon learned that our Lord„s official Latin name was Iesus. Naturally the Germanic Anglo-Saxon converted the initial Latin “I” into the German “J”. They pronounced the name, however, as YAY-zoos, since a single “s” between two vowels is sounded like our “z” in Germanic languages. When the Normans invaded England in A.D.1066 they brought with them the French language. Since neither the Anglo-Saxons nor the Normans would surrender their language to the other, the two become wedded and eventually evolved into Modern English. The Normans did influence the pronunciation of the first letter of Our Lord„s name, though, they brought the French pronunciation of “j” (jh), which evolved into our English sound of “j”. When King James commissioned the first official translation of the Bibles into English in the early 17 th century, the Latin Iesus was carried over unchanged into the new English Bible. The average English citizen of the day probably pronounced the name JAY-zus which ultimately evolved into our modern English JEEzus. The long process was now complete. A name that began as the Aramaic **Yeshu’a would remain written in English as it was in Medieval Latin, but now would be pronounced in English speaking countries as the familiar and loving name of the One who is our Savior, JESUS. *St. Jerome name is Eusebius Hieronymus A.D.347 – A.D.419 **Aramaic Name “Yeshu‟a” is pronounced “Yahshu‟a” in Aramaic and “Yahshu‟a” in Hebrew

none other name
Acts 4:12 Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.

Remission of sins should be preached in HIS NAME YAHSHU’A among all nations
Luke 24:47 And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in HIS NAME among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. His name is Yahshu’a when this event happened 2,000 years ago, therefore repentance and remission of sins should be preached in HIS NAME YAHSHU’A among all nations, beginning at Yahrushalam (Jerusalem).

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Walking in All the Commandments and Ordinances of Blameless
Luke 1:5 There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judaea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the course of Abia: and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth. Luke 1:6 And they were both righteous before ordinances of blameless. , walking in all the commandments and

pronounced Yahweh the name in the ancient Hebrew script

If they break my statutes, and keep not my commandments
Psalm 89:31 If they break my statutes, and keep not my commandments; Psalm 89:32 Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, and their iniquity with stripes. Psalm 89:33 Nevertheless my loving kindness will I not utterly take from him, nor suffer my faithfulness to fail. Psalm 89:34 My covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that is gone out of my lips.

WORD MEANING:
1. commandment [kə ənt] (plural commandments) n 2. divine proscription: a command from God, especially one of the Ten Commandments statute [státtyoot] n 1. law enacted by legislature: a law established by a legislative body, for example an Act of Parliament 2. established rule: a permanent established rule or law,

ordinance [áwrdinənss] (plural ordinances)n
1. law: a law or rule made by an authority, for example a local council 2. something prescribed: something regularly done because it is formally prescribed, especially a religious ceremony, such as Holy Communion (formal)

perpetual [pər péchoo əl] adj 1. lasting for ever: lasting for all time
2. lasting indefinitely: lasting for an indefinitely long time 3. occurring repeatedly: occurring over and over

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Commandments and Ordinances of Commandments of
Exodus 20:1 And Elohim spake all these words, saying, Exodus 20:2 I am house of bondage. thy Elohim, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the

Exodus 20:3 Thou shalt have no other elohim before me. Exodus 20:4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: Exodus 20:5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I thy Elohim am a jealous Elohim, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; Exodus 20:6 And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. Exodus 20:7 Thou shalt not take the name of not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. Exodus 20:8 Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Exodus 20:9 Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: Exodus 20:10 But the seventh day is the Sabbath of thy Elohim: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: Exodus 20:11 For in six days rested the seventh day: wherefore made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it. thy Elohim in vain; for will

Exodus 20:12 Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which thy Elohim giveth thee. Exodus 20:13 Thou shalt not murder. Exodus 20:14 Thou shalt not commit adultery. Exodus 20:15 Thou shalt not steal. Exodus 20:16 Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.

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Exodus 20:17 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.

Ordinances of
Leviticus 11:1 And

on Correct Food to Eat
spake unto Moses and to Aaron, saying unto them,

Leviticus 11:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These are the beasts which ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth. Leviticus 11:3 Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat. Leviticus 11:4 Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the hoof: as the camel, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you. Leviticus 11:5 And the coney, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you. Leviticus 11:6 And the hare, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you. Leviticus 11:7 And the swine, though he divide the hoof, and be clovenfooted, yet he cheweth not the cud; he is unclean to you. Leviticus 11:8 Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcase shall ye not touch; they are unclean to you. Leviticus 11:9 These shall ye eat of all that are in the waters: whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them shall ye eat. Leviticus 11:10 And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of any living thing which is in the waters, they shall be an abomination unto you: Leviticus 11:11 They shall be even an abomination unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, but ye shall have their carcases in abomination. Leviticus 11:12 Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that shall be an abomination unto you. Leviticus 11:13 And these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray, Leviticus 11:14 And the vulture, and the kite after his kind; Leviticus 11:15 Every raven after his kind; Leviticus 11:16 And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind, Leviticus 11:17 And the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl, Leviticus 11:18 And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier eagle,

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Leviticus 11:19 And the stork, the heron after her kind, and the lapwing, and the bat. Leviticus 11:20 All fowls that creep, going upon all four, shall be an abomination unto you. Leviticus 11:21 Yet these may ye eat of every flying creeping thing that goeth upon all four, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth; Leviticus 11:22 Even these of them ye may eat; the locust after his kind, and the bald locust after his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and the grasshopper after his kind. Leviticus 11:23 But all other flying creeping things, which have four feet, shall be an abomination unto you. Leviticus 11:24 And for these ye shall be unclean: whosoever toucheth the carcase of them shall be unclean until the even. Leviticus 11:25 And whosoever beareth ought of the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even. Leviticus 11:26 The carcases of every beast which divideth the hoof, and is not clovenfooted, nor cheweth the cud, are unclean unto you: every one that toucheth them shall be unclean. Leviticus 11:27 And whatsoever goeth upon his paws, among all manner of beasts that go on all four, those are unclean unto you: whoso toucheth their carcase shall be unclean until the even. Leviticus 11:28 And he that beareth the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: they are unclean unto you. Leviticus 11:29 These also shall be unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind, Leviticus 11:30 And the ferret, and the chameleon, and the lizard, and the snail, and the mole. Leviticus 11:31 These are unclean to you among all that creep: whosoever doth touch them, when they be dead, shall be unclean until the even. Leviticus 11:32 And upon whatsoever any of them, when they are dead, doth fall, it shall be unclean; whether it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel it be, wherein any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the even; so it shall be cleansed. Leviticus 11:33 And every earthen vessel, whereinto any of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be unclean; and ye shall break it. Leviticus 11:34 Of all meat which may be eaten, that on which such water cometh shall be unclean: and all drink that may be drunk in every such vessel shall be unclean. Leviticus 11:35 And every thing whereupon any part of their carcase falleth shall be unclean; whether it be oven, or ranges for pots, they shall be broken down: for they are unclean, and shall be unclean unto you. Leviticus 11:36 Nevertheless a fountain or pit, wherein there is plenty of water, shall be clean: but that which toucheth their carcase shall be unclean.

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Leviticus 11:37 And if any part of their carcase fall upon any sowing seed which is to be sown, it shall be clean. Leviticus 11:38 But if any water be put upon the seed, and any part of their carcase fall thereon, it shall be unclean unto you. Leviticus 11:39 And if any beast, of which ye may eat, die; he that toucheth the carcase thereof shall be unclean until the even. Leviticus 11:40 And he that eateth of the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: he also that beareth the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even. Leviticus 11:41 And every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth shall be an abomination; it shall not be eaten. Leviticus 11:42 Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon all four, or whatsoever hath more feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for they are an abomination. Leviticus 11:43 Ye shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping thing that creepeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with them, that ye should be defiled thereby. Leviticus 11:44 For I am your Elohim: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy; for I am holy: neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. Leviticus 11:45 For I am that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your Elohim: ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy. Leviticus 11:46 This is the law of the beasts, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that creepeth upon the earth: Leviticus 11:47 To make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the beast that may be eaten and the beast that may not be eaten.

Ordinances of
Leviticus 23:1 And

on the Feasts of
spake unto Moses, saying,

Leviticus 23:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts of , which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts. Leviticus 23:3 Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of rest, an holy convocation; ye shall do no work therein: it is the Sabbath of in all your dwellings.

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Leviticus 23:4 These are the feasts of their seasons.

, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in

Leviticus 23:5 In the fourteenth day of the first month at even is

passover.

Leviticus 23:6 And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto : seven days ye must eat unleavened bread. Leviticus 23:7 In the first day ye shall have an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein. Leviticus 23:8 But ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto day is an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein. Leviticus 23:9 And spake unto Moses, saying, seven days: in the seventh

Leviticus 23:10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest: Leviticus 23:11 And he shall wave the sheaf before after the Sabbath the priest shall wave it. , to be accepted for you: on the morrow

Leviticus 23:12 And ye shall offer that day when ye wave the sheaf an he lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt offering unto .

Leviticus 23:13 And the meat offering thereof shall be two tenth deals of fine flour mingled with oil, an offering made by fire unto wine, the fourth part of an hin. for a sweet savour: and the drink offering thereof shall be of

Leviticus 23:14 And ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears, until the selfsame day that ye have brought an offering unto your Elohim: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings. Leviticus 23:15 And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the Sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven Sabbaths shall be complete: Leviticus 23:16 Even unto the morrow after the seventh Sabbath shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto .

Leviticus 23:17 Ye shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two tenth deals: they shall be of fine flour; they shall be baken with leaven; they are the firstfruits unto .

Leviticus 23:18 And ye shall offer with the bread seven lambs without blemish of the first year, and one young bullock, and two rams: they shall be for a burnt offering unto offering, and their drink offerings, even an offering made by fire, of sweet savour unto
WHAT THE BIBLE SAYS ON CORRECT WORSHIP OR RELIGION

, with their meat .

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Leviticus 23:19 Then ye shall sacrifice one kid of the goats for a sin offering, and two lambs of the first year for a sacrifice of peace offerings. Leviticus 23:20 And the priest shall wave them with the bread of the firstfruits for a wave offering before , with the two lambs: they shall be holy to for the priest.

Leviticus 23:21 And ye shall proclaim on the selfsame day, that it may be an holy convocation unto you: ye shall do no servile work therein: it shall be a statute for ever in all your dwellings throughout your generations. Leviticus 23:22 And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not make clean riddance of the corners of thy field when thou reapest, neither shalt thou gather any gleaning of thy harvest: thou shalt leave them unto the poor, and to the stranger: I am Leviticus 23:23 And spake unto Moses, saying, your Elohim.

Leviticus 23:24 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a Sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation. Leviticus 23:25 Ye shall do no servile work therein: but ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto . Leviticus 23:26 And spake unto Moses, saying,

Leviticus 23:27 Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement: it shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire unto . Leviticus 23:28 And ye shall do no work in that same day: for it is a day of atonement, to make an atonement for you before your Elohim.

Leviticus 23:29 For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from among his people. Leviticus 23:30 And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any work in that same day, the same soul will I destroy from among his people. Leviticus 23:31 Ye shall do no manner of work: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings. Leviticus 23:32 It shall be unto you a Sabbath of rest, and ye shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye celebrate your Sabbath. Leviticus 23:33 And spake unto Moses, saying,

Leviticus 23:34 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, The fifteenth day of this seventh month shall be the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto
WHAT THE BIBLE SAYS ON CORRECT WORSHIP OR RELIGION

.

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Leviticus 23:35 On the first day shall be an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein. Leviticus 23:36 Seven days ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto is a solemn assembly; and ye shall do no servile work therein. Leviticus 23:37 These are the feasts of offer an offering made by fire unto drink offerings, every thing upon his day: Leviticus 23:38 Beside the Sabbaths of and beside all your freewill offerings, which ye give unto : on the eighth day : it

, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to , a burnt offering, and a meat offering, a sacrifice, and

, and beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, .

Leviticus 23:39 Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast unto eighth day shall be a Sabbath. seven days: on the first day shall be a Sabbath, and on the

Leviticus 23:40 And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook; and ye shall rejoice before Elohim seven days. your

Leviticus 23:41 And ye shall keep it a feast unto seven days in the year. It shall be a statute for ever in your generations: ye shall celebrate it in the seventh month. Leviticus 23:42 Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths: Leviticus 23:43 That your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am your Elohim. .

Leviticus 23:44 And Moses declared unto the children of Israel the feasts of

Ordinances of
Leviticus 25:1 And

on Sabbathical Year & Jubilee Year
spake unto Moses in mount Sinai, saying,

Leviticus 25:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye come into the land which I give you, then shall the land keep a Sabbath unto .

Leviticus 25:3 Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof;
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Leviticus 25:4 But in the seventh year shall be a Sabbath of rest unto the land, a Sabbath for : thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard. Leviticus 25:5 That which groweth of its own accord of thy harvest thou shalt not reap, neither gather the grapes of thy vine undressed: for it is a year of rest unto the land. Leviticus 25:6 And the Sabbath of the land shall be meat for you; for thee, and for thy servant, and for thy maid, and for thy hired servant, and for thy stranger that sojourneth with thee, Leviticus 25:7 And for thy cattle, and for the beast that are in thy land, shall all the increase thereof be meat. Leviticus 25:8 And thou shalt number seven Sabbaths of years unto thee, seven times seven years; and the space of the seven Sabbaths of years shall be unto thee forty and nine years. Leviticus 25:9 Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the jubile to sound on the tenth day of the seventh month, in the day of atonement shall ye make the trumpet sound throughout all your land. Leviticus 25:10 And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubile unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family. Leviticus 25:11 A jubile shall that fiftieth year be unto you: ye shall not sow, neither reap that which groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in it of thy vine undressed. Leviticus 25:12 For it is the jubile; it shall be holy unto you: ye shall eat the increase thereof out of the field. Leviticus 25:13 In the year of this jubile ye shall return every man unto his possession. Leviticus 25:14 And if thou sell ought unto thy neighbour, or buyest ought of thy neighbour's hand, ye shall not oppress one another: Leviticus 25:15 According to the number of years after the jubile thou shalt buy of thy neighbour, and according unto the number of years of the fruits he shall sell unto thee: Leviticus 25:16 According to the multitude of years thou shalt increase the price thereof, and according to the fewness of years thou shalt diminish the price of it: for according to the number of the years of the fruits doth he sell unto thee. Leviticus 25:17 Ye shall not therefore oppress one another; but thou shalt fear thy Elohim: for I am your Elohim. Leviticus 25:18 Wherefore ye shall do my statutes, and keep my judgments, and do them; and ye shall dwell in the land in safety. Leviticus 25:19 And the land shall yield her fruit, and he shall eat your fill, and dwell therein in safety. Leviticus 25:20 And if ye shall say, What shall we eat the seventh year? behold, we shall not sow, nor gather in our increase:

WHAT THE BIBLE SAYS ON CORRECT WORSHIP OR RELIGION

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Leviticus 25:21 Then I will command my blessing upon you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth fruit for three years. Leviticus 25:22 And ye shall sow the eighth year, and eat yet of old fruit until the ninth year; until her fruits come in ye shall eat of the old store. Leviticus 25:23 The land shall not be sold for ever: for the land is mine; for ye are strangers and sojourners with me. Leviticus 25:24 And in all the land of your possession ye shall grant a redemption for the land. Leviticus 25:25 If thy brother be waxen poor, and hath sold away some of his possession, and if any of his kin come to redeem it, then shall he redeem that which his brother sold. Leviticus 25:26 And if the man have none to redeem it, and himself be able to redeem it; Leviticus 25:27 Then let him count the years of the sale thereof, and restore the overplus unto the man to whom he sold it; that he may return unto his possession. Leviticus 25:28 But if he be not able to restore it to him, then that which is sold shall remain in the hand of him that hath bought it until the year of jubile: and in the jubile it shall go out, and he shall return unto his possession. Leviticus 25:29 And if a man sell a dwelling house in a walled city, then he may redeem it within a whole year after it is sold; within a full year may he redeem it. Leviticus 25:30 And if it be not redeemed within the space of a full year, then the house that is in the walled city shall be established for ever to him that bought it throughout his generations: it shall not go out in the jubile. Leviticus 25:31 But the houses of the villages which have no wall round about them shall be counted as the fields of the country: they may be redeemed, and they shall go out in the jubile. Leviticus 25:32 Notwithstanding the cities of the Levites, and the houses of the cities of their possession, may the Levites redeem at any time. Leviticus 25:33 And if a man purchase of the Levites, then the house that was sold, and the city of his possession, shall go out in the year of jubile: for the houses of the cities of the Levites are their possession among the children of Israel. Leviticus 25:34 But the field of the suburbs of their cities may not be sold; for it is their perpetual possession. Leviticus 25:35 And if thy brother be waxen poor, and fallen in decay with thee; then thou shalt relieve him: yea, though he be a stranger, or a sojourner; that he may live with thee. Leviticus 25:36 Take thou no usury of him, or increase: but fear thy Elohim; that thy brother may live with thee. Leviticus 25:37 Thou shalt not give him thy money upon usury, nor lend him thy victuals for increase.

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Leviticus 25:38 I am your Elohim, which brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, to give you the land of Canaan, and to be your Elohim. Leviticus 25:39 And if thy brother that dwelleth by thee be waxen poor, and be sold unto thee; thou shalt not compel him to serve as a bondservant: Leviticus 25:40 But as an hired servant, and as a sojourner, he shall be with thee, and shall serve thee unto the year of jubile: Leviticus 25:41 And then shall he depart from thee, both he and his children with him, and shall return unto his own family, and unto the possession of his fathers shall he return. Leviticus 25:42 For they are my servants, which I brought forth out of the land of Egypt: they shall not be sold as bondmen. Leviticus 25:43 Thou shalt not rule over him with rigour; but shalt fear thy Elohim. Leviticus 25:44 Both thy bondmen, and thy bondmaids, which thou shalt have, shall be of the heathen that are round about you; of them shall ye buy bondmen and bondmaids. Leviticus 25:45 Moreover of the children of the strangers that do sojourn among you, of them shall ye buy, and of their families that are with you, which they begat in your land: and they shall be your possession. Leviticus 25:46 And ye shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to inherit them for a possession; they shall be your bondmen for ever: but over your brethren the children of Israel, ye shall not rule one over another with rigour.
Leviticus 25:47 And if a sojourner or stranger wax rich by thee, and thy brother that dwelleth by him wax poor, and sell himself unto the stranger or sojourner by thee, or to the stock of the stranger's family: Leviticus 25:48 After that he is sold he may be redeemed again; one of his brethren may redeem him: Leviticus 25:49 Either his uncle, or his uncle's son, may redeem him, or any that is nigh of kin unto him of his family may redeem him; or if he be able, he may redeem himself. Leviticus 25:50 And he shall reckon with him that bought him from the year that he was sold to him unto the year of jubile: and the price of his sale shall be according unto the number of years, according to the time of an hired servant shall it be with him. Leviticus 25:51 If there be yet many years behind, according unto them he shall give again the price of his redemption out of the money that he was bought for. Leviticus 25:52 And if there remain but few years unto the year of jubile, then he shall count with him, and according unto his years shall he give him again the price of his redemption. Leviticus 25:53 And as a yearly hired servant shall he be with him: and the other shall not rule with rigour over him in thy sight. Leviticus 25:54 And if he be not redeemed in these years, then he shall go out in the year of jubile, both he, and his children with him. Leviticus 25:55 For unto me the children of Israel are servants; they are my servants whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt: I am your Elohim.

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Ordinances of

on the Priesthood Forever

Exodus 29:1 And this is the thing that thou shalt do unto them to hallow them, to minister unto me in the priest's office: Take one young bullock, and two rams without blemish, Exodus 29:2 And unleavened bread, and cakes unleavened tempered with oil, and wafers unleavened anointed with oil: of wheaten flour shalt thou make them. Exodus 29:3 And thou shalt put them into one basket, and bring them in the basket, with the bullock and the two rams. Exodus 29:4 And Aaron and his sons thou shalt bring unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and shalt wash them with water. Exodus 29:5 And thou shalt take the garments, and put upon Aaron the coat, and the robe of the ephod, and the ephod, and the breastplate, and gird him with the curious girdle of the ephod: Exodus 29:6 And thou shalt put the mitre upon his head, and put the holy crown upon the mitre. Exodus 29:7 Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his head, and anoint him. Exodus 29:8 And thou shalt bring his sons, and put coats upon them. Exodus 29:9 And thou shalt gird them with girdles, Aaron and his sons, and put the bonnets on them: and the priest's office shall be theirs for a perpetual statute: and thou shalt consecrate Aaron and his sons.

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APPOINTED DAYS OF WORSHIP TO HAVE A HOLY CONVOCATION

ALL THE SABBATH DAYS AND THE FIRST DAY AND SEVENTH DAY OF FEAST OF UNLEAVENED BREAD

Leviticus 23:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts of , which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts. Leviticus 23:3 Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of rest, an holy convocation; ye shall do no work therein: it is the Sabbath of Leviticus 23:4 These are the feasts of their seasons. in all your dwellings.

, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in

Leviticus 23:6 And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto : seven days ye must eat unleavened bread. Leviticus 23:7 In the first day ye shall have an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein. Leviticus 23:8 But ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto day is an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein. seven days: in the seventh

WAVE-SHEAF OFFERING (After Sabbath Day inside the Week of Feast of Unleavened Bread)
Leviticus 23:10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest: Leviticus 23:11 And he shall wave the sheaf before after the Sabbath the priest shall wave it. , to be accepted for you: on the morrow

WHAT THE BIBLE SAYS ON CORRECT WORSHIP OR RELIGION

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Leviticus 23:12 And ye shall offer that day when ye wave the sheaf an he lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt offering unto .

Leviticus 23:13 And the meat offering thereof shall be two tenth deals of fine flour mingled with oil, an offering made by fire unto wine, the fourth part of an hin. for a sweet savour: and the drink offering thereof shall be of

Leviticus 23:14 And ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears, until the selfsame day that ye have brought an offering unto your Elohim: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings. Leviticus 23:15 And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the Sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven Sabbaths shall be complete: Leviticus 23:16 Even unto the morrow after the seventh Sabbath shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto .

PENTECOST DAY (Fifty days)
Leviticus 23:15 And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the Sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven Sabbaths shall be complete: Leviticus 23:16 Even unto the morrow after the seventh Sabbath shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto .

Leviticus 23:21 And ye shall proclaim on the selfsame day, that it may be an holy convocation unto you: ye shall do no servile work therein: it shall be a statute for ever in all your dwellings throughout your generations.

FEAST OF TRUMPETS
Leviticus 23:24 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a Sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation.

ATONEMENT DAY
Leviticus 23:27 Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement: it shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire unto .

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FIRST DAY OF FEAST OF TABERNACLES
Leviticus 23:34 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, The fifteenth day of this seventh month shall be the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto .

Leviticus 23:35 On the first day shall be an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein.

EIGHT DAY THE FEAST OF LAST GREAT DAY
Leviticus 23:39 Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast unto eighth day shall be a Sabbath. seven days: on the first day shall be a Sabbath, and on the

SUMMARY OF DAYS OF WORSHIP
A HOLY CONVOCATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ALL THE SABBATH DAYS (Start from Sunset of Friday to Sunset of Saturday). FIRST DAY OF FEAST OF UNLEAVENED BREAD(Start on 15th -21st o o of the 1st month) A WAVE-SHEAF OFFERING (After Sabbath day on Feast of Unleavened Bread) SEVENTH DAY OF FEAST OF UNLEAVENED BREAD A DAY OF PENTECOST (50th day after Sabbath day of Feast of Unleavened Bread A DAY OF FEAST OF TRUMPETS (1st day of 7th month) ATONEMENT DAY (Fasting from Sunset of 9th day to Sunset of 10th day of the 7th month) FIRST DAY OF FEAST OF TABERNACLES (15th- 21st of the 7th month) EIGHT DAY THE LAST GREAT DAY (22nd of the 7th month)

SUMMARY OF DAYS OF RITUALS FOREVER IN ALL YOUR PLACE OF DWELLINGS AND IN ALL GENERATIONS
PASSOVER DAY (Start on sunset of 13th day at evening of 14th day the goat will be slaughtered and the blood of the goat is to wipe on the door post of the house) WAVE - SHEAF OFFERING (To Wave the offering to Yahweh to be used on the 50 th day the Pentecost Day)

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THE FORGOTTENED OBSERVANCE OF JUBILEE YEAR
Leviticus 25:1 And spake unto Moses in mount Sinai, saying,

Leviticus 25:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye come into the land which I give you, then shall the land keep a Sabbath unto .

Leviticus 25:3 Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof; Leviticus 25:4 But in the seventh year shall be a Sabbath of rest unto the land, a Sabbath for : thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard. Leviticus 25:5 That which groweth of its own accord of thy harvest thou shalt not reap, neither gather the grapes of thy vine undressed: for it is a year of rest unto the land. Leviticus 25:6 And the Sabbath of the land shall be meat for you; for thee, and for thy servant, and for thy maid, and for thy hired servant, and for thy stranger that sojourneth with thee, Leviticus 25:7 And for thy cattle, and for the beast that are in thy land, shall all the increase thereof be meat. Leviticus 25:8 And thou shalt number seven Sabbaths of years unto thee, seven times seven years; and the space of the seven Sabbaths of years shall be unto thee forty and nine years. Leviticus 25:9 Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the jubile to sound on the tenth day of the seventh month, in the day of atonement shall ye make the trumpet sound throughout all your land. Leviticus 25:10 And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubile unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family. Leviticus 25:11 A jubile shall that fiftieth year be unto you: ye shall not sow, neither reap that which groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in it of thy vine undressed. Leviticus 25:12 For it is the jubile; it shall be holy unto you: ye shall eat the increase thereof out of the field. Leviticus 25:13 In the year of this jubile ye shall return every man unto his possession. Leviticus 25:14 And if thou sell ought unto thy neighbour, or buyest ought of thy neighbour's hand, ye shall not oppress one another: Leviticus 25:15 According to the number of years after the jubile thou shalt buy of thy neighbour, and according unto the number of years of the fruits he shall sell unto thee: Leviticus 25:16 According to the multitude of years thou shalt increase the price thereof, and according to the fewness of years thou shalt diminish the price of it: for according to the number of the years of the fruits doth he sell unto thee.

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Leviticus 25:17 Ye shall not therefore oppress one another; but thou shalt fear thy Elohim: for I am your Elohim. Leviticus 25:18 Wherefore ye shall do my statutes, and keep my judgments, and do them; and ye shall dwell in the land in safety. Leviticus 25:19 And the land shall yield her fruit, and he shall eat your fill, and dwell therein in safety. Leviticus 25:20 And if ye shall say, What shall we eat the seventh year? behold, we shall not sow, nor gather in our increase: Leviticus 25:21 Then I will command my blessing upon you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth fruit for three years. Leviticus 25:22 And ye shall sow the eighth year, and eat yet of old fruit until the ninth year; until her fruits come in ye shall eat of the old store. Leviticus 25:23 The land shall not be sold for ever: for the land is mine; for ye are strangers and sojourners with me. Leviticus 25:24 And in all the land of your possession ye shall grant a redemption for the land. Leviticus 25:25 If thy brother be waxen poor, and hath sold away some of his possession, and if any of his kin come to redeem it, then shall he redeem that which his brother sold. Leviticus 25:26 And if the man have none to redeem it, and himself be able to redeem it; Leviticus 25:27 Then let him count the years of the sale thereof, and restore the overplus unto the man to whom he sold it; that he may return unto his possession. Leviticus 25:28 But if he be not able to restore it to him, then that which is sold shall remain in the hand of him that hath bought it until the year of jubile: and in the jubile it shall go out, and he shall return unto his possession. Leviticus 25:29 And if a man sell a dwelling house in a walled city, then he may redeem it within a whole year after it is sold; within a full year may he redeem it. Leviticus 25:30 And if it be not redeemed within the space of a full year, then the house that is in the walled city shall be established for ever to him that bought it throughout his generations: it shall not go out in the jubile. Leviticus 25:31 But the houses of the villages which have no wall round about them shall be counted as the fields of the country: they may be redeemed, and they shall go out in the jubile. Leviticus 25:32 Notwithstanding the cities of the Levites, and the houses of the cities of their possession, may the Levites redeem at any time. Leviticus 25:33 And if a man purchase of the Levites, then the house that was sold, and the city of his possession, shall go out in the year of jubile: for the houses of the cities of the Levites are their possession among the children of Israel.

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Leviticus 25:34 But the field of the suburbs of their cities may not be sold; for it is their perpetual possession. Leviticus 25:35 And if thy brother be waxen poor, and fallen in decay with thee; then thou shalt relieve him: yea, though he be a stranger, or a sojourner; that he may live with thee. Leviticus 25:36 Take thou no usury of him, or increase: but fear thy Elohim; that thy brother may live with thee. Leviticus 25:37 Thou shalt not give him thy money upon usury, nor lend him thy victuals for increase. Leviticus 25:38 I am your Elohim, which brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, to give you the land of Canaan, and to be your Elohim. Leviticus 25:39 And if thy brother that dwelleth by thee be waxen poor, and be sold unto thee; thou shalt not compel him to serve as a bondservant: Leviticus 25:40 But as an hired servant, and as a sojourner, he shall be with thee, and shall serve thee unto the year of jubile: Leviticus 25:41 And then shall he depart from thee, both he and his children with him, and shall return unto his own family, and unto the possession of his fathers shall he return. Leviticus 25:42 For they are my servants, which I brought forth out of the land of Egypt: they shall not be sold as bondmen. Leviticus 25:43 Thou shalt not rule over him with rigour; but shalt fear thy Elohim. Leviticus 25:44 Both thy bondmen, and thy bondmaids, which thou shalt have, shall be of the heathen that are round about you; of them shall ye buy bondmen and bondmaids. Leviticus 25:45 Moreover of the children of the strangers that do sojourn among you, of them shall ye buy, and of their families that are with you, which they begat in your land: and they shall be your possession. Leviticus 25:46 And ye shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to inherit them for a possession; they shall be your bondmen for ever: but over your brethren the children of Israel, ye shall not rule one over another with rigour. Leviticus 25:47 And if a sojourner or stranger wax rich by thee, and thy brother that dwelleth by him wax poor, and sell himself unto the stranger or sojourner by thee, or to the stock of the stranger's family: Leviticus 25:48 After that he is sold he may be redeemed again; one of his brethren may redeem him: Leviticus 25:49 Either his uncle, or his uncle's son, may redeem him, or any that is nigh of kin unto him of his family may redeem him; or if he be able, he may redeem himself. Leviticus 25:50 And he shall reckon with him that bought him from the year that he was sold to him unto the year of jubile: and the price of his sale shall be according unto the number of years, according to the time of an hired servant shall it be with him. Leviticus 25:51 If there be yet many years behind, according unto them he shall give again the price of his redemption out of the money that he was bought for.
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Leviticus 25:52 And if there remain but few years unto the year of jubile, then he shall count with him, and according unto his years shall he give him again the price of his redemption. Leviticus 25:53 And as a yearly hired servant shall he be with him: and the other shall not rule with rigour over him in thy sight. Leviticus 25:54 And if he be not redeemed in these years, then he shall go out in the year of jubile, both he, and his children with him. Leviticus 25:55 For unto me the children of Israel are servants; they are my servants whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt: I am your Elohim.

THE CORRECT PRIEST FOREVER

Exodus 29:9 And thou shalt gird them with girdles, Aaron and his sons, and put the bonnets on them: and the priest's office shall be theirs for a perpetual statute: and thou shalt consecrate Aaron and his sons. Numbers 1:50 But thou shalt appoint the Levites over the tabernacle of testimony, and over all the vessels thereof, and over all things that belong to it: they shall bear the tabernacle, and all the vessels thereof; and they shall minister unto it, and shall encamp round about the tabernacle.

King Solomon Made a Navy of Ships 1Kings 9:26 And king Solomon made a navy of ships in Ezion-geber, which is beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red sea, in the land of Edom. 1Kings 9:27 And Hiram sent in the navy his servants, shipmen that had knowledge of the sea, with the servants of Solomon. 1Kings 9:28 And they came to Ophir, and fetched from thence gold, four hundred and twenty talents, and brought it to king Solomon.

LEVITE PRIESTS REPLACED BY LOWEST PEOPLE WERE NOT SONS OF LEVI

1Kings 12:31 And he made an house of high places, and made priests of the lowest of the people, which were not of the sons of Levi.

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1Kings 12:32 And Jeroboam ordained a feast in the eighth month, on the fifteenth day of the month, like unto the feast that is in Judah, and he offered upon the altar. So did he in Bethel, sacrificing unto the calves that he had made: and he placed in Bethel the priests of the high places which he had made. 1Kings 13:33 After this thing Jeroboam returned not from his evil way, but made again of the lowest of the people priests of the high places: whosoever would, he consecrated him, and he became one of the priests of the high places. 1Kings 13:34 And this thing became sin unto the house of Jeroboam, even to cut it off, and to destroy it from off the face of the earth.

LEVITE PRIESTS KOHAT, GERSHON AND MERARI CALLED YAHSHEARDATH (SACERDATU) FROM KINGDOM OF ISRAEL, JEROBOAM AND HIS SONS HAD CAST THEM OFF FROM EXECUTING PRIEST’S OFFICE AND CAME TO YAHRUSHALAM AND STAY FOR THREE (3) YEARS 2Chronicles 11:13 And the priests and the Levites that were in all Israel resorted to him out of all their coasts. 2Chronicles 11:14 For the Levites left their suburbs and their possession, and came to Judah and Jerusalem: for Jeroboam and his sons had cast them off from executing the priest's office unto :

2Chronicles 11:15 And he ordained him priests for the high places, and for the devils, and for the calves which he had made. 2Chronicles 11:16 And after them out of all the tribes of Israel such as set their hearts to seek Elohim of Israel came to Jerusalem, to sacrifice unto Elohim of their fathers. 2Chronicles 11:17 So they strengthened the kingdom of Judah, and made Rehoboam the son of Solomon strong, three years: for three years they walked in the way of David and Solomon.

EVERY THREE (3) YEARS ONCE CAME TO THE SON OF SOLOMON IN YAHRUSHALAM THE SHIPS COMING FROM TARSHISH AND OPHIR 2Chronicles 9:21 For the king's ships went to Tarshish with the servants of Huram: every three years once came the ships of Tarshish bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.
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WHAT THE BIBLE SAYS ON CORRECT WORSHIP OR RELIGION

AFTER THAT THE SACER-DATU (YAHSHEAR-DATH) KOHAT, GERSHON AND MERARI FROM KINGDOM OF ISRAEL WAS NO LONGER FOUND IN YAHRUSHALAM 2Chronicles 20:18 And Jehoshaphat bowed his head with his face to the ground: and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem fell before . 2Chronicles 20:19 And the Levites, of the children of the Kohathites, and of the children of the Korhites, stood up to praise high. Elohim of Israel with a loud voice on , worshipping

THE ONLY HYPOTHESIS THAT EVERY THREE (3) YEARS ONCE CAME THE SHIPS GOING TO TARSHISH AND OPHIR FOR GOLD AND THAT TEN (10) YAHSHEAR-DATH (SACER-DATU) OF ISRAEL STAYED FOR THREE (3) YEARS IN YAHRUSHALAM AND WAS NO LONGER FOUND. IF THEY JOIN THE SHIPS GOING TO OPHIR, WHERE IS OPHIR?

WHERE IS OPHIR?

FIRST WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF LOST SACER-DATU (YAHSHEAR-DATH) FROM TEN (10) TRIBES OF ISRAEL THAT WE CAN FOUND IN THE LAND OF OPHIR

THE COLOR OF SKIN IS TAN (KAYUMANGGI) Song 1:6 Look not upon me, because I am tan, because the sun hath looked upon me: my mother's children were angry with me; they made me the keeper of the vineyards; but mine own vineyard have I not kept.

THEY WERE ALL CIRCUMCISED FULLFILLING THE COVENANT OF ABRAHAM IN GENESIS 17:9-14 Genesis 17:9 And Elohim said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee in their generations.

WHAT THE BIBLE SAYS ON CORRECT WORSHIP OR RELIGION

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Genesis 17:10 This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised. Genesis 17:11 And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt me and you. Genesis 17:12 And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed. Genesis 17:13 He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised: and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant. Genesis 17:14 And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant.

THEY SPEAK ANCIENT HEBREW NOT ARAMAIC (After they left the Israelites were ordered to speak in Syrian Aramaic Language) 2Kings 18:26 Then said Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, and Shebna, and Joah, unto Rabshakeh, Speak, I pray thee, to thy servants in the Syrian language; for we understand it: and talk not with us in the Jews' language in the ears of the people that are on the wall.

THEY WERE WORSHIPPING YAH (PSALM 68:4) Psalm 68:4 Sing unto Elohim, sing praises to his name: extol him that rideth upon the heavens by his name YAH, and rejoice before him.

THEY KEEP THE NAME YAHWEH AS “KEY” Luke 11:52 Woe unto you, lawyers! for ye have taken away the key of knowledge: ye entered not in yourselves, and them that were entering in ye hindered. Proverbs 1:7 The fear of wisdom and instruction. is the beginning of knowledge: but fools despise

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After the Yahshear-Dath (Sacerdatu) of Ten (10) Tribes left Israelites, Israelites were ordered not to utter the name Yahweh instead replaced by the word ADONAI (After they left the Israelites were ordered to speak in Syrian Aramaic Language) 2Kings 18:26 Then said Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, and Shebna, and Joah, unto Rabshakeh, Speak, I pray thee, to thy servants in the Syrian language; for we understand it: and talk not with us in the Jews' language in the ears of the people that are on the wall.
P52 is a fragment of papyrus that records part of John 18 and 19, while P66 contains most of the Gospel of John. P52 is considered the oldest New Testament text known presently, but both manuscripts have been reliably dated to the early part of the 2nd century. The Gospel of John was not written until late in the first century, so P52 and P66 are very early copies--within 50 years of the original. They show that the Greek name ‘Jesus' was being used and treated with reverence.

John 1 in P66
Beginning in the period of the second temple, Jews did not utter the name of Yahweh, substituting the term Adonai in Hebrew or Kyrios in Greek. The name was apparently only used by the High Priest on the Day of Atonement. Greek texts of the Old Testament discovered as part of the Dead Sea Scrolls show how this sensitivity to the name was handled. The translators of the Scripture into the Greek language made a practice of writing the name YHWH, known as the Tetragrammaton, either by using Paleo-Hebrew characters or by abbreviating the title in Greek as IA- (Ja- or Ya-). The intention was to highlight to the reader that the name should not be pronounced. A third letter was added to provide the grammatical case--whether the Name was used as a subject or object in the sentence--thus maintaining the grammatical rules of construction. That the likes of P52 and P66 are valid texts to consider is made clear by the way in which they continue to abbreviate the names of the Father, God and Jesus Christ. They are normally reduced to two or three letters in which the last letter changes according to the grammatical use--see above--and the name is highlighted with a line over the abbreviation. Jesus is abbreviated as Ιη-, (transliterated into English as Je- or Ye-). Christ is abbreviated as Χρ- (literally Chr-). The word God is recorded as Θ- while Father is shown as Πρ- and Lord as Κ-. These abbreviations clearly derive from the Greek terms and not the Hebrew. All early manuscripts of the New Testament were written solely in upper case letters (uncials), so the abbreviations used above would have been capitalized. I have used upper and lower case for clarity as some Greek letters are easier to recognize in the lower case. Hence we can depend on the fact that the names of the divine Beings were recorded in Greek and not Hebrew. A reader of the text would read the Greek title and not the Hebrew. Conversely, the Aquila translation of the Scriptures in Greek, created and used by the Jews in the second century after Christ, continued to use the Tetragrammaton in Paleo-Hebrew characters.

The question should rightly be asked as to why the scribes abbreviated these names. Clearly the Jewish practice began to avoid the usage of the Tetragrammaton. But we should note that they did not appear to handle the term Elohim in the same consistent manner. With the New Testament being recorded in the Greek language a problem arose that did not exist in Hebrew. Scribes writing in Hebrew differentiated between words as we do today by the use of spaces. Greek was not written with spaces between words. Spaces appeared only at the end of a sentence. By abbreviating, there was less chance of misspelling the name and with over marking the names respect was shown as it would not be read as part of another word by mistake. As a result the reader would not take the name of God in vain.

This is clear documentary indication that the early followers of Jesus Christ did not place any importance on the Hebrew names as the Sacred Name Movement would claim, but translated the names into the language that was being used for the proclamation of the Gospel and the instruction of the Church.

We can therefore conclude that the earliest available texts of New Testament writings deny the validity of the sacred name concept.

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THEY WERE CALLED YAHSHEAR-SACER, DATH-DAWTHU (YAHSHEAR-DATH) SACERDATU
Genesis 32:28 And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: for as a prince hast thou power with Elohim and with men, and hast prevailed. Gen 32:28 And he said 559 , Thy name 8034 shall be called 559 no more Jacob 3290, but Israel for as a prince hast thou power 8280 with God 430 and with men 582, and hast prevailed 3201 .
3478

:

Yahshear = Sacer
THE NAME ‘ISRAEL’ ORIGINATED FROM THE NAME (YASHAR) ‘YAHSHEAR’ yaw-shar' a primitive root; to be straight ‘yesh-oo-roon' Jeshurun, a symbol. name for Israel yis-raw-ale' a symbolical name of Jacob Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance Hebrew-Greek Dictionary ‘search’ for "Israel"–₃₄₇₄
Genesis 32:28 And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel –₃₄₇₄ for as a prince hast thou power with Elohim and with men, and hast prevailed. 3474 yashar yaw-shar' a primitive root; to be straight or even; figuratively, to be (causatively, to make) right, pleasant, prosperous:--direct, fit, seem good (meet), + please (will), be (esteem, go) right (on), bring (look, make, take the) straight (way), be upright(-ly). 3475 Yesher yay'-sher from 3474; the right; Jesher, an Israelite: -Jesher. 3476 yosher yo'-sher from 3474; the right:--equity, meet, right, upright(-ness). 3477 yashar yaw-shawr' from 3474; straight (literally or figuratively):--convenient, equity, Jasher, just, meet(-est), + pleased well right(-eous), straight, (most) upright(-ly, -ness). 3484 Yshuruwn yesh-oo-roon' from 3474; upright; Jeshurun, a symbol. name for Israel:--Jeshurun. 3478 Yisra'el yis-raw-ale' from 8280 and 410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity: --Israel. 3479 Yisra'el yis-raw-ale' (Aramaic) corresponding to 3478:--Israel. 3481 Yisr'eliy yis-reh-ay-lee' patronymically from 3478; a Jisreelite or descendant of Jisrael:--of Israel, Israelite. 3484 Yshuruwn yesh-oo-roon' from 3474; upright; Jeshurun, a symbol. name for Israel:--Jeshurun.

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Dath= Datu
sa·cer·do·te

m. priest, clergyman

sacerdote, masculine noun 1. priest, masculine noun 2. priest (cristiano) dath <1881> Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance Hebrew Dictionary
Pronunciation: Dawth (dawthu) Definition: 1) decree, law, edict, regulation, usage 1a) decree, edict, commission 1b) law, rule of uncertain (perhaps foreign) derivation: a royal edict or statute:-commandment, commission, decree, law, manner.

DaTH
I used to think of DaTH (dawth-ho) as meaning void, since that's the way the fluffy bunny new age kabbalah books present it. I was curious one day and decided to see if the word was in the Bible (in Hebrew version) and found that it means something like the Law written in our hearts, a kosmic consciousness that lets us know if we are in sync with the Tao That Be (or however you want to describe it). Here are a few of my notes on my research into DaTH. Go on a spiritual quest to find values you can hold up as being what you stand for. You have found your inner DaTH. You have found the law written in your heart. What is law? A king gives a decree or edict that is the expression of the king’s will. *Esther 3:14, 8:13, 9:14] There was the concept that once a king issued this DaTH, it cannot be altered or revoked. [Daniel 2:15, 6:16] DaTH is entrusted to people. In the case of civil law, this DaTH is in the hands of judges, enforced by police, argued by lawyers, voted upon and recorded by politicians. The Israelites had the concept of the ToWRaH being the DaTH of Yahweh. Ezra was given the title of Secretary of the irrevocable DaTH of the Almighty of heaven. [Ezra 7:2, 1 Esdras 8:9] The irrevocability of the DaTH from Yahweh was not questioned by Yahshua. Yahshua was not out to destroy the ToWRaH representing the DaTH from Yahweh, but to bring it to life in the hearts of people. [Matthew 5:17] He was not getting out a giant cosmic eraser. What he challenged was that DaTH of Yahweh was complete and contained in scriptures and traditions. He offered that DaTH of Yahweh can be known in the heart, directly experienced, with continued insights into this DaTH, renewed revelation, and ongoing prophecy. This was not anti-Jewish at all. The idea was found in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Jews continued to redefine DaTH with the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Kabbalah, and to this day with books being published, web sites being built, deeper insights explored and lived out. Here is something you can count on to be true for your entire life—CHoKMaH/Sophia and DaTH are treasures that will be your salvation. The greatest treasure comes from uniting with Yahweh. [Isaiah33:6] A treasure is a reward after following a treasure hunt. A gift is never really valued as a treasure. YAHWEH with a multitude approaches, from his right hand comes a shining DaTH. [Deuteronomy 33:2] DaTH is the invisible SHiPHRaH, the Law in the heart of Yahweh. DaTH is Law, but DaTH is also having an active conscious, a living Law written in the heart. DaTH is being conscious of the will of Yahweh, which we can concentrate upon, which we can be mindful of, which can direct our view of what Yahweh wants in each given situation. DaTH is beyond memorizing a collection of ancient rules. DaTH is a living part of each of us. I would dare say that people who have never heard one word of religion still know that it would be wrong to go on a murdering spree or steal from the neighbors when they are not at home. The commandments part of ToWRaH are not the DaTH, but are examples of using the DaTH in specific situations. The DaTH extends far beyond the few ancient case-by-case examples of what would not be acceptable behavior.Thus the Jewish/Kabbalist quest for the invisible DaTH is much like the Gnostic

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quest for direct connect, for gnosis. Maybe it is invisible because it is from another dimension, that light trapped in the darkness, our core Messiah’s Consciousness, our native our Nature. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - Dath Mosha Middle Eastern and North African Jewish community headdress may also resemble that of the ancient Israelites. In Yemen, the ‫ַצ‬ ‫ג‬ wrap around the cap was called ‫ מ ַר‬massar; the head covering worn by all women according to Dath Mosha was a ‫ַרגּוש‬ "Gargush"

Dead Sea Scrolls
This is a photo of Psalms 119:59-64 in the Dead Sea Scrolls which are a collection of Hebrew Scriptures that date back 2000 years. Note Yahweh's name in the ancient Hebrew script while the rest of the text is in a more modern Hebrew that was used at the time. Also note that each line begins with the Hebrew letter "Heth" which corresponds with it's part in the acrostical 119th psalm.

Compare this to the Masoretic Hebrew Text:

Now in English Psalms 119:56-64 (NKJV) 59 I thought about my ways, And turned my feet to Your testimonies. 60 I made haste, and did not delay To keep Your commandments. 61 The cords of the wicked have bound me, [But] I have not forgotten Your law. 62 At midnight I will rise to give thanks to You, Because of Your righteous judgments. 63 I [am] a companion of all who fear You, And of those who keep Your precepts. 64 The earth, O , is full of Your mercy; Teach me Your statutes.

WHERE IS OPHIR?
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TAGALOG at BISAYA
PILIPINAS ANG OPHIR 2004

Boxer Codex
A Tagalog couple of the Maharlika nobility caste depicted in the Boxer Codex of the 16th Century

ni

Yahshua A. Tabilog

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page Number

LUZON EMPIRE The Philippines Was indeed The Biblical Ophir Ophir Ay Nasa Biblia Where is Tarshish and Ophir Spice Routes Sanfotsi Verified by UNESCO Laguna Copperplate Inscription Forgotten Philippines: Gold Of Ancestors Boxer Codex Sri-Vijaya Kingdom Chinese Ming Dynasty & Islamic Influences Wikang Tagalog Sina-Unang Wikang Hebreo John 14:26 How Yeshu’a Become Jesus Levitang Pari Nasa Ophir Tamang Pagbasa ng Biblia Pundasyon Magpakailanman iniutos ni Yahweh Sabwatan sa Golgotha BAKIT NAGKAIBA-IBA ANG PAGKAKA-UNAWA SA BIBLIA DALAWANG KAHARIAN – DALAWANG ARAL – DALAWANG KLASENG PARI ANG NAKOPYA AT UMIRAL ANG ARAL MULA SA MGA PEKENG PARI Manual of Mankind is the Bible

1 3 4 8 11 16 21 22 30 33 35 41 41 44 65 72 84 98 100 101 102

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(KOLEKSYON NG MGA EBIDENSYA NA NAGPAPATUNAY SA PINAGMULAN NG MGA NINUNO NG MGA PILIPINO)
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: MARAMING SALAMAT SA MGA NAGSULAT NG MGA IBEDENSYA NA INYONG MABABASA NA NAGDAGDAG AT NAGPAPATUNAY SA PINAGMULAN NG LAHING PILIPINO

Luzon Empire According to Chinese Historians
Luzon Empire (1279-1571 AD) was an ancient empire once located around Manila bay region of the Philippines. Its capital was Tondo, its territories covered most of what is now Central Luzon, extending from delta region that surrounds Manila Bay, all the way into the interior along head waters of the surrounding rivers in the province of Pampanga, Bulakan (covered part now Rizal). The history of Song Dynasty was compiled under Mongol Prime Minister Toktoghan in 1345 AD. In it the Mongols recount tha final and complete destruction of Nan song (southern song Empire) (1127-1279 AD), where in 1279 AD the Mongol Fleet crushed the Nan Song Navy at the Naval battle of Yamen. The loyal Minister of the Left Liu Xiufu committed suicide with last Na Song Emperor, the children Songdi Bing rather than be captured by the Mongols. The Grand Admiral Zhang Shijie escaped with his grand armada but were later annihilated by a typhoon while crossing the seas. Alternative source refute the accounts of the destruction of Zhang Shijie‟s grand armada as nothing more than Mongol propaganda since there were no eyewitness accounts of its destruction nor were there traces left of its remains. For most historians, the fate of Zhang shijie and his grand armada remains a mystery. Contemporary Chinese historians in Guangdong are now even questioning the Mongolian accounts regarding Emperor Bing‟s death. Even though Mongol sources claimed that the corpse of the last emperor has been found washed ashore along the coast of Shenzen, his actual grave is yet to be found. Cantonese folklore expressed in the ttraditional Cantonese opera narrates an alternative account where the loyal Minister Liu Xiufu tricked the Mongols by committing suicide with his own son disguised as the young emperor. The real emperor was said to have been smuggled out of the scene of battle by Grand Admiral Zhang Shijie, who will eventually return to redeem the empire from the invaders. The Travel of Marco Polo also recounts the escape of the last song emperor across the ocean. Zhang Shijie‟s fleet and the last song emperor may have escaped to pre-colonial Philippines and established the Luzon Empire or the „Lesser Song Empire”. Despite the conjectures regarding its origins, the Ming Annals are clear on the actual existence of the Luzon Empire. It records that in 1373 AD, the Luzon Empire sent its first among the many succeeding diplomat mission to the Great Ming Empire (1368-1644 AD), accompanied by the embassies of India‟s Chola Empire. The Ming chroniclers added the character for “kingdom”of “empire” (pinyin: GuU) after Luzon (Lusong), indicating that it was once an independent and sovereign kingdom. Her rulers were acknowledged as king and not mere chieftains. The Ming empire treated the Luzon Empire more favorably than Japan by allowing it to trade with china once verey two years, while Japan was only allowed to trade once every 11 years. Luzon empire flourished during the latter half of the Ming Dynasty when China closed its doors to foreign trade. Foreigners were forbidden to send trade missions to China. Chinese merchants were likewise forbidden to trade beyond the borders of the Ming Empire. Yet clandestinely, merchants from Guangzhou and Quanzhou regularly delivered trade goods to Tondo. Luzon merchants then traded them all across Southeast Asia and were considered “Chinese” by the people they encountered. The Portuguese who came to Asia much earlier than the Spaniards recorded their encounter with the inhabitants of the Luzon empire and called them „Lucoes‟. The Portuguese records that the Luzon Empire played an active role in the politics and economy of the 16th century Southeast Asia, especially in controlling the trade traffic at the Straits of Malacca. The Luzon Empire‟s powerful presence in the trade of Chinese goods in 16th century East asia was felt strongly by Japan, whose merchants had to resort to piracy in order to obtain much sought after Chinese products such as silk and porcelain. Famous 16th century Japanese merchants and tea connoisseurs like Shimai Soushitsu and Kamiya Soutan established their branches here. One famous Japanese merchant, Luzon Sukezaemon, went as far as to change his name from Naya to Luzon.

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Tondo (Tungdu in Cantonese) or the „Eastern Capital‟ has always been the traditional capital of the Luzon Empire. Its traditional rulers were the lakandula (Kapampangan: „Lord of the Palace‟). During the reign of Paduka Sri Baginda Rajah dan yang di Pertuan Bulkiah (1485-1521) the Kingdom of Brunai decided to break the Luzon Empire‟s monolpoly in the China trade by attacking Tondo and establishing the city state of Mainl‟l, as a Burneian satellite. Anew dynasty under tha Salalila was established in Manila to challenge the House of Lakand‟l, in Tondo. When the Spaniards arrived in 1571 AD, the unity of the Luzon Empire was already threatened by the uneasy alliance of the Three Kings of Luzon: the Rajah matanda of Sapa, the Lakandula of Tondo and Rajah Suliman III, the „rajah muda‟ or “crown prince” of Mainl‟l and „laxamana‟ or “grand admiral” of the Macabebe Armada. Powerful states like Lubao, Betis and Macabebe become bold enough to challenge the traditional leadership of Tondo and Mainl‟l. the Spaniards took advantage of the chaos, played favourites with one ruler and pitted them against the other. Rumor has it that the Spaniards had poisoned the Rajah Matanda of Mainl‟l, so as to win the support of Lakandula of Tondo. Disregarding the legitimacy of Rajah Suliman III as „rajah muda‟, the Spaniards installed the child Rajah Bago as the new king of Mainl‟l. In 1571, Rajah Suliman III, the „rajah muda‟ of mainl‟l and laxamana of the Macabebe armada, challenged the Spaniards to a naval battle at the estuary of bangkusay. The Spaniards were able to crush Rajah Suliman III and his Macabebe armada due to the lack of support from the other rulers of the empire. The Luzon Empire was quickly overtaken by the Spaniards. Its territories were carved out and distributed as spoils among themselves. The province of Pampanga was the first Spanish colonial province carved out of the Luzon Empire and the people who spoke one language from Tondo to the rest of Pampanga are now called Kapampangan. After the collapse of the Luzon empire, the Spaniards were finally able to create their first colony in Asia, the Philippines, named in honor of Spanish King Philip II of Spain. The name Luzon was given to the entire northern Philippine island, in memory of the former Luzon empire. The Luzon Empire was said to have finally ended in 1571 AD according to Spanish records.Yet the fortified cities of Lubao and Betis continued to thrive as independent principalities of the Luzon Empire till 1572 AD. In 1575 AD,the Spaniards executed the child king Rajah Bago and his cousin Lumanlan. The Lakandula of Tondo also died in the same year. In 1586 AD, the Spaniards crushed the revolt of former nobles of the Luzon Empire, in the province of Pampanga. The revolt was based in Candaba under the leadership of Don Nicolas Mananquete and Don Juan de Manila. In 1588 AD, the Spaniards crushed the revolt of the nobles of the Luzon Empire in Tondo. It was led by the descendants of the Lakandula and their kinsmen with the assistance of Japanese merchants. Many of them executed or exiled and their properties confiscated. In 1590 AD, the King Sattha of Cambodia sent two elephants to the “King of Luzon” through his Portuguese ambassador and requested the Luzon Empire‟s assistance in their battle against Siam. In the same year the “lords” of the Luzon Empire were said to have been corresponding with theTaikou-sama of Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, begging for assistance to help liberate the Luzon Empire from Spaniards. Hideyoshi responded by sending a letter to the Spanish Governor of Manila, demanding that the Spaniards leave Luzon quietly or else face a full scale invasion that would force them out. I‟ll prepared for a Japanese invasion, the Spanish Governor of Manila decided to appease Hideyoshi by sending gift from the Americas, including the two elephants sent by the King of Cambodia. The rulers of the old Luzon Empire who cooperated with the Spanish overlords became the principalia of the new Spanish colony. To this day, their descendants still play an influential role in Philippine society. The study of Philippine history has for many years been Eurocentric, most Philippine historians have gone as far back at the earliest Spanish records but have failed to look into the archives of neighboring countries, such as Brunei, Indonesia, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Japan and China. Their dependence on the English language limits the majority of Philippine historians from accessing volumes of materials written in Chinese and other Asian languages. As a result, the history of the Luzon empire remains mythical in their scholastic psyche and still virtually non-existent in mainstream Philippine History.

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Ancient People of Ophir

People of Ophir Now

In the book entitled Collecion General de Documentos Relativos a las Islas Filipinas, the author has described how to locate Ophir. According to the book, particularly in Documento No. 98, Ophir can be found by travelling from the Cape of Good Hope in Africa, to India, to Burma, to Sumatra, to Moluccas, to Borneo, to Sulu, to China, then finally Ophir. Ophir was said to be "[...] in front of China towards the sea, of many islands where the Moluccans, Chinese, and Lequios met to trade..." This group of islands could not be Japan because the Moluccans did not get there. It could also not be Taiwan since it is not composed of "many islands." Only the present-day Philippines could fit the description. Spanish records also did mention of the presence of Lequious (big, bearded white men, probably descendants of the Phoenicians, whose ships were always laden with gold and silver) in the Islands to gather gold and silver. Other evidences have also pointed out that the Philippines was indeed the biblical Ophir.

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Nagsimula ang mga Anak ni Yahweh nang likhain ni Yahweh si Adan, si Enoch ang ika-pito, si Noah ang ika-sampu nang panahong tumaas ang tubig sa mundo. Si Heber ang ika-labinglima ay nagkaroon ng mga anak sina Peleg at Yoktam sa panahong iyon ay nagkaiba-iba ang mga wika ng mga tao. Tinawag ang wika ni Heber na Hebrew hango sa kanyang pangalang Heber. Ang apo ni Heber kay Yoktam si OPHIR ay tumungo sa Silangan sa Genesis 10:30. Ang apo ni Heber kay Peleg ang naging ninuno ni Abram. Si Abram ay tinawag ni Yahweh na Abraham. Si Abraham ay tinawag na “Hebrew” sa Genesis 14:13 ay nagkaroon ng anak si Ismael sa kanyang katulong na si Hagar at si Yahshaak sa kanyang asawang si Sarah. Si Yahshaak ay nagkaroon ng dalawang anak si Enoch at si Yahcoob. Si Yahcoob ay tinawag ni Yahweh na Yahshear sa Genesis 32:28. Si Yahshear ay nagkaroon ng 12 anak na lalaki at isang babae si Dinah sa kanyang apat na asawa. Ang isa sa anak ni Yahshear si Yohseph ay ipinagbili ng kanyang mga kapatid sa dumaraang Ismaelita at dinala sa Misrayim (Egypt) at ipinagbili sa isang Egyptian. Si Yohseph ay nakulong hanggang sa makapanghula siya sa kulungan. Ipinatawag si Yohseph ng Paraon ng Egypt upang hulaan niya ang napanaginipan ng Paraon. Nahulaan ni Yohseph ang panaginip at ginawa si Yohseph na prinsipe ng Egypt. Si Yohseph ay binigyan ng asawa si Azenath na lahi ni Ismael dahil ang Alipin ay ibabalik sa kanyang pinagkunang magulang kapag natapos na ang pagkaalipin, si Yohseph ay galing sa Ismaelita na nagbenta sa kanya sa Egyptian. Dumating sa Egypt ang kanyang mga kapatid at magulang na si Yahshear. Nang makita ni Yahshear ang dalawang anak ni Yohseph sina Manase at Efraim ay ibinilang na sa mga anak ni Yahshear ang dalawang anak ni Yohseph at kung magkaanak pang muli si Yohseph ay ibibilang nalang sa lahi nila Manase at Efraim sa Genesis 48:5-6. Ang 12 anak ni Yahshear ay naging 13 dahil nadagdag si Efraim at Manase at nabawas si Yohseph sa bilang. Nanirahan sila sa Egypt hanggang ipinanganak si Moses na apo ni Levi na naglabas sa kanila sa Egypto. Inihiwalay ni Yahweh ang lahi ng anak ni Yahshear na si Levi upang magsilbi bilang pari ni Yahweh Magpakailanman sa Exodus 29:1-9. Ang Tribo ni Yahshear ay tinawag na Yahshurun na binibigkas na Tribo ng Yisrawale (Israel) o “prinsipe ni Sarah”. Sa pagkamatay ni Moses ay pinalitan siya ni Yahshua na anak ni Nun ay inihalo ang lahat ng mga Levita sa bawat Tribo ng Israel sa Joshua 21:1-8. Ang 13 Tribo ay naging 12 Tribong muli dahil ang Tribo ni Levi ay inihalo sa 12 Tribo. Sa bawat Tribo ay may Levita na mababasa sa Judges 17:7. Naghangad ng Hari ang mga Yisrawale na ikinagalit ni Yahweh at ang unang naging Hari si Saul mula sa Tribo ng BenYahmin. Sumunod si Haring David mula sa Tribo ng Yahuwdah at ang sumunod si Haring Solomon na anak ni Haring David. Si Haring Solomon ay nagpagawa ng maraming Barko upang lumayag at kumuha ng mga Ginto sa OPHIR at bawat ikatlong (3) taon ay dumarating na may dalang mga ginto galing sa OPHIR sa 1 Kings 9:26, 1 Kings 10:22, 2 Chronicles 9:21. Pagkamatay ni Haring Solomon ay nahati ang kaharian, naging Dalawang (2) Kaharian ang Kaharian ng Tribo ni Yahuwdah at BenYahmin ay pinamunuan ni Haring Rehoboam na anak ni Haring Solomon at ang Sampung (10) Tribo ay pinamunuan ni Haring Yeroboam na nagmula sa tribo ng Efraim at dating katiwala ni Haring Solomon sa 1 Kings 11:26. Sa Bawat tribo ay may nagsisilbibing Levita at namamahalang Levitang Pari sa pagsamba kay Yahweh. Ang mga Levitang Pari ay tinatawag na Yahshear-Dath o “Sacerdote” o “Pari ni Yahshear”, ang “Dath” ay “Pari”, ang “Yahshear” ay naisalin na “Sacer” na naging “SacerDote”. Si Haring Yeroboam ng Sampung (10) Tribo ng Kaharian ng Yisrawale (Israel) ay PINALITAN ang mga Levitang-Pari ng ORDINARYONG Israelita o “Pekeng-Pari” sa 1 Kings 12:31-33, 1 Kings 13:33-34 at ang Sampung (10) Yahshear Dath (Sacerdote) o mga Levitang-Pari ng Kaharian ng Yisrawale (Israel) ay PINALAYAS ni Haring Yeroboam ay tumungo naman sa Kaharian ng Yahuwdah sa Lungsod ng Yahrusalem (Jerusalem) at nanirahan sila ng tatlong (3) taon doon sa 2 Chronicles 11:13-17. Sa Bawat ika-tatlong (3) taon naman ay dumarating sa Yahrusalem ang dala ng mga Barko na ipinagawa ni Haring Solomon na nanggaling sa OPHIR sa 2 Chronicles 9:21. Ang mga Levitang-Pari ng Kaharian ng Yisrawale (Israel) na tinatawag na Yahshear Dath o ‟Sacerdote‟ ay SUMAMA sa mga Barko ni Haring Solomon na Lumalayag patungong OPHIR. Ang tanging naiwan lamang sa Yahrusalem na mga nagsisilbi sa Kaharian ng Tribo ng Yahuwdah at BenYahmin ay ang mga nakatalagang Sacerdote ng Yahuwdah at BenYahmin na lahi ni Kohat.

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Ang Sampung Tribo naman ng Israel na pinagsisilbihan ng mga “Pekeng-Pari” na Israelitang-Hindi Levita sa Kaharian ng Israel ay ipinatapon sa bansang Assyria ay “PINALITAN” sila ng mga taga-Limang Bansa (1.Abba, 2.Cutha, 3.Hammath, 4.Separvaim at 5.Babylonians) sa kanilang lupain sa 2 Kings 17:23-28. Nakasama sa naipatapon ang mga “Pekeng-Pari” na Israelitang-Hindi Levita. Pinabalik ng hari ng Assyria sa Lungsod ng Samaria ang Isa sa “Pekeng-Pari” na Israelitang-Hindi Levita upang turuan ng pamamaraan ng pagsamba ang mamayan ng Limang (5) bansa na siyang ipinalit sa mga Israelita doon sa kanilang lupain. Sila ay pinilit na magsalita ng Aramaic at pinagbawalang magsalita ng Hebrew sa 2 Kings 18:26. Ang tawag sa mga Sacerdote ay pinalitan ng tawag na “Kohan” na salitang Aramaic na wika. Nang panahong iyon bago masakop ang mga Israelita at bago tumakas sa barko patungong Ophir ang mga Yahshear Dath o Lehitimong Sacerdote ng Israel, ang kulay ng kanilang balat ay “Kayumanggi” sa Songs of Solomon 1:5-6. Dala nila ang Susi (Luke 11:52) na tinatawag na “Yawe”. Ang salitang “wa” ang ibig sabihin ay „wala‟, kaya ang “Yawa” ay “wala si Ya” kapag wala si “Ya” ay „dimonyo‟ ang ibig sabihin sa wika ng taga-Ophir na lugar na pinuntahan ng mga Levitang Yahshear Dath o Lehitimong Sacerdote ng Israel. Ang “Yah” ay ang pinaikling pangalan ni Yahweh sa Psalms 68:4. Ayon naman sa Chinese at Islamic Historians ay ang Sampung (10) Datu na Pinamunuan ni Datu Puti ay nanirahan sa isla ng Panay, si Datu Puti kasama ang dalawa pang Datu ay tumungo sa Mindoro at Taal (Batangas). Ang Natirang pitong (7) Datu ay tumungo sa Sugbu (Cebu), Samar at Ybalon (Bicol). Ang mga Datu ang pinaniniwalaang pinagmulan ng wikang Tagalog at wikang Bisaya (Hiligaynon sa Hebreo ang “Higaynon” ang ibig sabihin ay “solemn sound”) at wikang Bicol na malaking porsyento ay magkakatulad. Nang dumating ang mga Kastila ay pinatunayan naman ni Padre Pedro Chirino isang Kastilang Jesuit Historian na ang wikang Tagalog ay may misteryo at pagkakahawig sa wikang Hebreo na wika ng mga Sacerdote (Yahshear dath) ng Israel na dumating sa tawag na Datu.

Ang Sampung Datu:
1. Datu 2. Datu 3. Datu 4. Datu 5. Datu 6. Datu 7. Datu 8. Datu 9. Datu 10. Datu Puti Sumakwel Bangkaya Paiborong Paduhinogan Dumangsol Libay Dumangsil Domalogdog Balensuela

Dath
Dath ‫תד‬ dath <1881> Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance Hebrew Dictionary Pronunciation: Definition: Dawth (dawthu) 1) decree, law, edict, regulation, usage 1a) decree, edict, commission 1b) law, rule

‫תד‬

1) decree, law, edict, regulation, usage ,a) decree, edict, commission, b) law, rule

of uncertain (perhaps foreign) derivation: a royal edict or statute:-commandment, commission, decree, law, manner.

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DaTH
I used to think of DaTH (dawth) as meaning void, since that's the way the fluffy bunny new age kabbalah books present it. I was curious one day and decided to see if the word was in the Bible (in Hebrew version) and found that it means something like the Law written in our hearts, a kosmic consciousness that lets us know if we are in sync with the Tao That Be (or however you want to describe it). Here are a few of my notes on my research into DaTH.

Go on a spiritual quest to find values you can hold up as being what you stand for. You have found your inner DaTH. You have found the law written in your heart. What is law? A king gives a decree or edict that is the expression of the king’s will. *Esther 3:14, 8:13, 9:14] There was the concept that once a king issued this DaTH, it cannot be altered or revoked. [Daniel 2:15, 6:16] DaTH is entrusted to people. In the case of civil law, this DaTH is in the hands of judges, enforced by police, argued by lawyers, voted upon and recorded by politicians. The Israelites had the concept of the ToWRaH being the DaTH of Yahweh. Ezra was given the title of Secretary of the

irrevocable DaTH of the Almighty of heaven. [Ezra 7:2, 1 Esdras 8:9] The irrevocability of the DaTH from Yahweh was not questioned by Yahshua. Yahshua was not out to destroy the ToWRaH representing the DaTH from Yahweh, but to bring it to life in the hearts of people. [Matthew 5:17] He was not getting out a giant cosmic eraser. What he challenged was that DaTH of Yahweh was complete and contained in scriptures and traditions. He offered that DaTH of Yahweh can be known in the heart, directly experienced, with continued insights into this DaTH, renewed revelation, and ongoing prophecy. This was not anti-Jewish at all. The idea was found in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Jews continued to redefine DaTH with the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Kabbalah, and to this day with books being published, web sites being built, deeper insights explored and lived out. Here is something you can count on to be true for your entire life — CHoKMaH/Sophia and

DaTH are treasures that will be your salvation. The greatest treasure comes from uniting with Yahweh. [Isaiah33:6]. A treasure is a reward after following a treasure hunt. A gift is never really valued as a treasure. YAHWEH with a multitude approaches, from his right hand comes a shining DaTH. [Deuteronomy 33:2] DaTH is the invisible

SHiPHRaH, the Law in the heart of Yahweh. DaTH is Law, but DaTH is also having an active conscious, a living Law written in the heart. DaTH is being conscious of the will of Yahweh, which we can concentrate upon, which we can be mindful of, which can

direct our view of what Yahweh wants in each given situation. DaTH is beyond memorizing a collection of ancient rules. DaTH is a living part of each of us. I would dare say that people who have never heard one word of religion still know that it would be wrong to go on a murdering spree or steal from the neighbors when they are not at home. The commandments part of ToWRaH are not the DaTH, but are examples of using the DaTH in specific situations. The DaTH extends far beyond the few ancient

case-by-case examples of what would not be acceptable behavior. Thus the Jewish/Kabbalist quest for the invisible DaTH is much like the Gnostic quest for direct connect, for gnosis. Maybe it is invisible because it is from another dimension, that light trapped in the darkness, our core Messiah’s Consciousness, our native our Nature. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - Dath Mosha Middle Eastern and North African Jewish community headdress may also resemble that of the ancient Israelites. In Yemen, the wrap around the cap was called ‫ מ ַר‬massar; the head covering worn by all women according to Dath Mosha was a ‫" ַרגּוש‬Gargush" ‫ַצ‬ ַ ‫ג‬

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Dumating sa isla ng Panay ang Sampung (10) Datu Sakay ng “Balangay” na Pinamunuan ni Datu Puti

Balangay boat dated 320 A.D. The wooden boats measured an average of 15 meters in length which said to carry the first settlers of Butuan. To date, 9 Balangays have already been discovered in Ambangan, Libertad sites. Aside from the remains of the Balangay boats also found the remains of the early settlers. The Balangay is a cultural heritage that establishes the maritime activities of Butuan long before the Chinese came to the shores of the Philippines.

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Ang mga pulu-pulong isla sa Malayu na tinatawag ng mga Nabigador na OPHIR ay tinawag na LUCOES o LEQUIOS ng mga Portuguese, tinawag naman na FELIPINAS ng mga Kastila.

"Where is Tarshish and Ophir"
The truth is that the search for “Tarsis and Ofir” was directly related to the "discovery" of these islands by Magellan!

During the early period of European colonization, the Biblical lands of Tarshish and Ophir, or Tarsis and Ofir, as they were called, held the imagination of European explorers. Not only was it believed that the "lost tribes" of Israel were to be found in these lands, but also untold wealth. To these kingdoms King Solomon and King Hiram of Tyre sent ships for trade that "brought from Ophir great plenty of almug trees, and precious stones," (I Kings 10:11). Concerning Tarshish it is written: "Fro the king's ships went to Tarshish with the servants of Hiram: every three years once came the shop sof Tarshish bringing gold and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacock." (II Chronicles 9:21) In Samuel Purchas's well-known travel compendium Purchas His Pilgrim, he devotes the entire first chapter to a discussion of Tarshish and Ophir. In particular, he argues strenously that it is beloved Britain and not Spain that deserved the title as the modern Tarshish and Ophir. Curiously, in Careri's journal of his visit to the Philippines, he mentions that he would not go into the argument raging in Europe at that time over whether the Philippines was originally populated by the descendants of Biblical Tarshish. In modern times, scholars have attempted to relate Tarshish and Ophir with a number of areas, none of which include the Philippines. However, things were different in Europe prior to the discovery of the Philippines. There, they believed that Tarsis and Ofir were some lands far to the east of biblical Israel. Their reasoning was actually quite logical. King Solomon built the port from which ships departed for Tarsis and Ofir at Ezion-Geber on the coast of the Red Sea. The return journey took about three years, so obviously the location must be somewhere far to the East. In modern times, some scholars have tried to suggest that Solomon's navy circumnavigated Africa to reach the Mediterranean, but the seafaring Europeans of those times would not consider such nonsense. Tarsis and Ofir were unknown lands beyond the Golden Chersonese of Ptolemy. Their discovery would undoubtedly bring untold wealth and great fame in the minds of the people of those times. But what, one may ask, has this to do with the Philippines? The truth is that the search for Tarsis and Ofir was directly related to the "discovery" of these islands by Magellan!

Magellan and the Search for Ophir

Magellan's contemporary, Duarte Barbosa, wrote that the people of Malacca (in modern Malaysia) had described to him an island group known as the Lequios whose people were as "rich and more eminent than the Chins (Chinese)," and that traded "much gold, and sliver in bars, silk, rich cloth, and much very good wheat, beautiful porcelains and many other merchandises." However, Barbosa was not the only one to mention the Lequios during Magellan's time. About a decade after Magellan's voyage, Ferdinand Pinto had wrote in his journal of the experience of his crew and himself after being shipwrecked on the Lequios! Pinto was traveling through the Malay Archipelago at the time and he describes the Lequios islands (see Luzon Empire) as belonging to large group of islands many of which were rich in gold and silver. He mentions that at that time the Portugese were familiar with Japan and China, and also with the island of "Mindanaus" or Mindanao, so the Lequois islands must have been somewhere between these two areas. Furthermore, Pinto even goes as far as to give the exact latitude of the main Lequios island. He states that is was situated at 9N20 latitude and that the island was on a merdian similar to that of Japan.

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Now, in Magellan's time all exploration was done by latitude sailing and dead reckoning, as no navigational clocks were in use. Latitude sailing required fixing one's latitude precisely by means of an astrolabe. Longitude could only be approximated roughly by using a patent log to track the distance the ship has travelled in any particular direction. When Magellan began to suspect he was nearing the region of the Moluccas he deliberately steered on a north course and then turned westward at a latitude of 13 degrees North according to both Pigafetta and Albo. Pigafetta states that the reason was to get near the port of "Gaticara" which was the Cattigara mentioned by Ptolemy. In the book, Magellan's Voyage around the World, the author, Charles E. Nowell, offers another possible reason for Magellan steering so far to the north of the Moluccas. He notes that Magellan himself had rewrote part of Barbosa's book referring to the Lequios, and in his version Magellan substituted "Tarsis" and "Ofir" for the world "Lequios." Although these lands are not mentioned in Magellan's contract, less than six years after his voyage, Sebastian Cabot signed a contract with Spain which did have as one of its objectives the "lands of Tarshish and Ophir." Magellan had been to Malacca himself, and probably many have heard of the community of Filipino workers and merchants that lived there under the protection of the king of Malacca. Probably many of you already know of the theory that Black Henry, the slave Magellan purchased at Malacca, may have belonged to the Filipino community of Malacca as he was able to speak with the natives at Limasawa. Whatever the case, we know from his own pen that Magellan thought the Lequios islands might be the same as the Biblical Tarsis and Ofir, and it may be that his idea of the position of the Lequios was partly shaped by Barbosa's book, and partly by information he may have received from Filipinos in Malacca. Was the fact that Black Henry was able to converse with the people living at the latitude given by Pinto (but not with the people of Samar or Leyte) a coincidence, or something planned in advance from information gleaned in Malacca? Even after their discovery, many still regarded the Philippines, rich in gold and silver, to be the same as ancient Tarsis and Ofir. Father Colin, referred to them as such in the early 1600's and even at the turn of the century, the Philippine historian Pedro Paterno, still claimed that the Philippines were really Tarshish and Ophir! Whatever one thinks of these claims though, the search for the Biblical El Dorado appears to have played an important role in the European discovery of the Philippines.

Ferdinand Magellan

While in the service of Spain, the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) led the first European voyage of discovery to circumnavigate the globe. Ferdinand Magellan was born in Oporto of noble parentage. Having served as a page to the Queen, Magellan entered the Portuguese service in the East in 1505. He went to East Africa and later was at the battle of Diu, in which the Portuguese destroyed Egyptian naval hegemony in the Arabian Sea. He went twice to Malacca, the Malayan spice port, participating in its conquest by the Portuguese. He may also have gone on an exploratory mission to the Molucca Islands (Spice Islands), the original source of some of the most valuable spices. In 1513 Magellan was wounded in one of the many frustrating battles against the Moors in North Africa. But all of his services brought him little favor from the Crown, and in 1517, accompanied by his friend the cosmographer Ruy Faleiro, he went to Seville, where he offered his services to the Spanish court. The famous Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) had divided the overseas world of the "discoveries" between the two powers. Portugal acquired everything from Brazil eastward to the East Indies; the Spanish hemisphere of discovery and conquest ran westward from Brazil to 134°E meridian. This eastern area had not yet been explored by the Spaniards, and they assumed that some of the Spice Islands might lie within their half of the globe. They were wrong, but Magellan's scheme was to test that assumption. In addition it must be recalled that Columbus had made a terrible mistake, brought home by his "discovery" of America. Accepting the academic errors of learned geographers, ancient and modern, he had grossly underestimated the distance between Europe and the East (sailing westward from the former). Balboa's march across the Panamanian Isthmus had subsequently revealed the existence of a "South Sea" (the Pacific) on the other side of Columbus's "mainlands in the Ocean Sea." Thereafter, explorers eagerly sought northern and southern all-water passages across the stumbling block of the Americas; Magellan, too, sought such a passage.

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Major Voyage King Charles V of Spain (the emperor Charles V) endorsed the design of Magellan and Faleiro, and on Sept. 20, 1519, after a year's preparation, Magellan led a fleet of five ships out into the Atlantic. Unfortunately the ships - the San Antonio, Trinidad, Concepción, Victoria, and Santiago - were barely seaworthy, and the crews, including some officers, were of international composition and of dubious loyalty to their leader. With Magellan went his brother-in-law, Duarte Barbosa, and the loyal and able commander of the Santiago, João Serrão. Arriving at Brazil, the fleet sailed down the South American coast to the Patagonian bay of San Julián, where it wintered from March to August 1520. There an attempted mutiny was squelched, with only the top leaders being punished. Thereafter, however, the Santiago was wrecked, and its crew had to be taken aboard the other vessels. Leaving San Julián, the fleet sailed southward; on Oct. 21, 1520, it entered the Strait of Magellan. It proceeded cautiously, taking over a month to pass through the strait. During this time the master of the San Antonio deserted and sailed back to Spain, and so only three of the original five ships entered the Pacific on November 28. There followed a long, monotonous voyage northward through the Pacific, and it was only on March 6, 1521, that the fleet finally anchored at Guam. Magellan then passed eastward to Cebu in the Philippines, where, in an effort to gain the favor of a local ruler, he became embroiled in a local war and was slain in battle on April 27, 1521; Barbosa and Serrão were killed shortly thereafter. With the crew wasted from sickness, the survivors were forced to destroy the Concepción, and the great circumnavigation was completed by a courageous former mutineer, the Basque Juan Sebastián del Cano. Commanding the Victoria, he picked up a small cargo of spices in the Moluccas, crossed the Indian Ocean, and traveled around the Cape of Good Hope from the east. With a greatly reduced crew he finally reached Seville on Sept. 8, 1522. In the meantime the Trinidad, considered unfit to make the long voyage home, had tried to beat its way against contrary winds back across the Pacific to Panama. The voyage revealed the vast extent of the northern Pacific, but the attempt failed, and the Trinidad was forced back to the Moluccas. There its crew was jailed by the Portuguese, and only four men returned after 3 years to Spain. Magellan's project brought little in the way of material benefit to Spain. The Portuguese were well entrenched in the East, their trans-African route at that time proving to be the only feasible maritime connection to India and the Spice Islands. Charles V acknowledged the political and economic facts by selling his vague East Indian rights to Portugal, rights that were later in part resumed with the Spanish colonization of the Philippines. Yet though nearly destroying itself in the process, the Magellan fleet for the first time revealed in a practical fashion the full extent of humanity's inheritance upon this globe. And in this, its scientific aspect, it proved to be the greatest of all the "conquests" undertaken by the gold-, slave-, and spice-seeking overseas adventurers of early modern Europe. Further Reading A primary source is the narrative of Antonio Pigafetta, principal chronicler of the expedition, Magellan's Voyage around the World by Antonio Pigafetta, translated by James A. Robertson (2 vols., 1906). The Pigafetta translation and other source narratives are included in Charles E. Nowell, ed., Magellan's Voyage around the World: Three Contemporary Accounts (1962). The best works on Magellan, by Jean Denuce and Jose Toribio Medina, are in Spanish. In English, Francis H. H. Guillemard, The Life of Ferdinand Magellan (1890), is still good. Another study is Charles M. Parr, So Noble a Captain: The Life and Times of Ferdinand Magellan (1953; 2d ed. entitled Ferdinand Magellan, Circumnavigator, 1964). George E. Nunn, in The Columbus and Magellan Concepts of South American Geography (1932), shows the Magellan voyage to have been a logical consequence of the final views of the Columbus brothers.

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Gold of Ancestors &Pre-Colonial Philippines It's time we know our Lost Core Identity
These might change most people's point of view that the Pre-colonial Philippines is like a No Man's Land in the middle of the ocean with no trade contacts with its neighbors and that we owe to our colonizers our culture and civilization: Map of Spice Routes or Maritime Silk route as verified by UNESCO:

He who controls the spice, controls the universe.” Such were the words uttered by the main character of the movie Dune based on the Frank Herbert science fiction epic of the same name. In the story, the spice was the lifeblood of a vast empire. For the leaders of this empire, it was essential that at all times „the spice must flow.‟ The spice trade of the Dune movie was no doubt inspired by the historical trade in aromatics from ancient times to the present. At various periods in history, spices have been as valuable as gold and silver. According to a 15th century saying: “No man should die who can afford cinnamon.” The aromatic substances were even more mysterious as they were connected in many cultures with the idea of a faraway paradise -- Eden. The Muslim writer al-Bukhari wrote that Sumatran aloeswood known as `Ud in Arabic filled the censers of Paradise. Ginger was the other major aromatic of Paradise in Muslim tradition. In the Travels of Sir John Mandeville it is said that the aloeswood of the Great Khan came from Paradise.

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We will show that the famed spices which traveled from Africa to the Arabian traders and from thence to the markets of the classical Mediterranean world had their ultimate origin in Southeast Asia. The aromatic trail known as the “Cinnamon Route” began somewhere in the Malay Archipelago, romantically known as the “East Indies,” and crossed the Indian Ocean to the southeastern coast of Africa. The spices may have landed initially at Madagascar and they eventually were transported to the East African trading ports in and around the city known in Greco-Roman literature as Rhapta. Merchants then moved the commodities northward along the coast. In Roman times, they traveled to Adulis in Ethiopia and then to Muza in Yemen and finally to Berenike in Egypt. From Egypt they made their way to all the markets of Europe and West Asia.1 The beginning of the trade is hinted at in Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions during the New Kingdom period about 3,600 years ago. The Pharoahs of Egypt opened up special relationships with the kingdom of Punt to the south. Although the Egyptians knew of Punt long before this period, it was during the New Kingdom that we really start hearing of important trade missions to that country that included large cargoes of spices. Particularly noteworthy are the marvelous reliefs depicting the trade mission of Queen Hatshepsut of the 18th Dynasty The idea of an ancient trade route to the east for spices and also precious metals like gold and silver is not new. The Jewish historian Josephus, writing in the first century AD, offered his explanation of the Biblical story of Solomon and Hiram‟s joint trade mission to the distant land of Ophir. In his Antiquities of the Jews, he said the voyages which began from the Red Sea port of Ezion-geber were destined for the island of Chryse far to the east in the Indian Ocean. Ezion-geber was near the modern city of Eilat in Israel and the trade voyages took three years to complete according to the Old Testament account2. Where then was the island of Chryse mentioned by Josephus? Greek geographers usually placed it east of the Ganges river mouth. Medieval writings placed it near where the Indian Ocean met the Pacific Ocean. In modern times, Chryse has been equated by scholars with the land known in Indian literature as Suvarnadvipa. Both Chryse and Suvarnadvipa mean “Gold Island.” The latter was also located in Indian writings well to the east of India in the “Southern Ocean” and is identified by most scholars with the Malay Archipelago (“the East Indies”). Josephus‟ theory of voyages to Southeast Asia was supported indirectly about a half-century later by Philo of Byblos who translated the History of Phoenicia by Sanchuniathon. This translation was originally considered a fraud by modern scholars, but discoveries from Ras Shamra in the Levant indicate Philo‟s work was authentic. They are important because they come from a different historical source than the Old Testament account. Philo records the Phoenician version of Solomon and Hiram‟s trade mission to Ophir. What is interesting is how Philo‟s account allows us to interpret some arcane Hebrew passages. He outlines journeys into the Erythraean Sea (Indian Ocean) that took three years to complete. The items brought back from the journey were apes, peacocks and ivory all products of tropical Asia and all included along with other goods in the Biblical account. Philo‟s interpretation of Sanchuniathon‟s history uses words for the products of the voyages which clearly point to tropical Asia unlike the strange terms used a thousand years earlier in Solomon‟s time. The romantic idea of distant Ophir may have inspired the explorer Magellan on his circumnavigation voyage around the world in the 16th century. The explorer replaced geographical locations in his reference books with the names “Tarsis and Ofir,” the equivalent in his time of Biblical “Tarshish and Ophir.” 3 He actually set a course on the latitude of one of these locations before reaching the islands of the Visayas from the East. In the medieval and early colonial period, commentators on classical Greco-Roman literature first began hinting that the Cinnamon Route might trace eventually from Africa to the east in Asia. Many of the terms used for spices in early works are obscure and can be difficult to identify. The commentators interpreted these terms into the contemporary language at a time when the knowledge of the world had greatly increased. In most cases, we can confidently associate these latter spice names with species that we know today. Thus, when the ancient writer Pliny mentions tarum as a product of East Africa we understand it as aloeswood because later commentators translate tarum with a word that is no longer obscure: lignum aloe “aloeswood.” By the time of the commentators, the source of the aloeswood was already well-known. Pliny mentions tarum as coming from the land that produced cinnamon and cassia in Africa. But the commentators give it an identity which clearly indicates a tropical Asian origin in their time.

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So why were these Asian products turning up in African markets? Pliny is the only writer who attempts an explanation and the related passages have been the source of much scholarly controversy. The details will be discussed later in this book, but the historian James Innes Miller was possibly the first modern scholar to put on his glasses and use Pliny and other evidence to suggest that Austronesian traders had brought spices to African markets via a southern maritime route. Miller connected the spice route with the prehistoric settlement of Madagascar by Austronesian seafarers. spices from southern China and both mainland and insular Southeast Asia were brought by Austronesian merchants whom he associates with the people known to the Chinese by the names Kunlun and Po-sse. Miller‟s book was the defining work of his time and it still has a profound influence on historians of trade and seafaring. However, classical historians, philologists and other scholars had mixed views on Miller‟s thesis. A number of alternative theories sprung up and Miller was criticized, sometimes rightfully so, with using too many loosely-established ideas to support his argument. One of our main goals will be to use newer evidence along with some apparently missed by Miller to show that, for the most part, his idea of a southern transoceanic route was correct. In addition to Miller‟s Cinnamon Route, there also existed a “Clove Route” to China and India. The evidence for these early spice routes comes from every available field including history, archaeology, linguistics, genetics and anthropology. For example, we can show by a process of elimination that a southern route for tropical Asian spices into Africa is historical. The exact details of this route are not known to us from history but the route itself is the only reasonable conclusion given the historical sources at our disposal. We can then bolster the testimony of history by bringing in supporting evidence from other fields. One way we do this is to show that certain cultural items that came from Southeast Asia, or at least tropical Asia, were diffused first to the southeastern coast of Africa before moving northward at dates that are supportive of our thesis. One example is the diffusion of the domestic chicken (Galllus gallus) to Africa. The oldest archaeological remains of this species may date back to 2,800 BCE from Tanzania.4 The earliest similar evidence in Egypt is not earlier than the New Kingdom period about 1,000 years later. To support this finding, there is additional evidence provided by the presence of the double outrigger5, barkcloth, various types of musical instruments6 and other cultural items present on the southeastern African coast. Possibly also the distribution of the coconut crab7, the world‟s largest land-based invertebrate also provides evidence for this early southern contact. An important factor in ascertaining the old spice routes from Southeast Asia is the trail of cloves from Maluku and the southern Philippines north to South China and Indochina and then south again along the coast to the Strait of Malacca. From there the cloves went to India spice markets and points further west. This north-south direction of commerce through the Philippines has recently been recognized by UNESCO as part of the ancient maritime spice route. The Philippine-Maluku hub persisted into Muslim times and is chronicled in Arabic historical and geographic writings. While the clove route started in the south, cinnamon trade began in the north. The cinnamon route started in the cinnamon and cassia-producing regions of northern Indochina and southern China and then likely proceeded from South China spice ports southward during the winter monsoon down the Philippine corridor. The route likely turned southeast at that point to Sumatra and/or Java to pick up different varieties of cinnamon and cassia along with aloeswood and benzoin. From southwestern Indonesia the voyage then took the Austronesian merchants across the great expanse of the Indian Ocean to Africa. Linguistically the clove route is supported by the distribution of names for ginger in the Malay Archipelago. These appear to have followed the clove route from China through the Philippines to the rest of insular Southeast Asia. In the medieval Chinese and Muslim texts we first get specific details about these routes although they probably were unchanged from the ones used centuries or thousands of years earlier. The Chinese records in particular give detailed itineraries including directions and voyage length for each stop along the way to the southern spice markets. Of particular importance are the entrepots known to the Chinese as Sanfotsi and Toupo. The same marketplaces were likely known to the Muslim geographers likely by the names of Zabag and Waqwaq respectively. Like Chryse of the Greeks and Suvarnadvipa of the Indians, these entrepots were a source of wonder and literary romance. In the One Thousand and One Nights, Sinbad travels to Zabag on one of his voyages

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and the islands of Waqwaq are the setting for the adventure of Hassan of Basra. Indian literature also abounds in tales of voyages to the islands of gold by those in search of treasure, either material or spiritual. From the Arabic literature, we start to learn of first-hand accounts of trade and other voyages by mariners from Southeast Asia to Africa. Previously, we had only the vague accounts of Solomon‟s journey and Pliny‟s brief descriptions of long sea voyages from or to the cinnamon country. The Muslim works tell us of ships and people from Zabag and Waqwaq coming to African ports for trade and even on occasion to conduct military raids. The records give the impression of well-established trade relationships, but just how long did these long-distance ties exist before the Muslim writings? We believe is a strong case for this trade opening up by at least the New Kingdom period in Egypt. At that time, voyages to the divine land of Punt became more frequent with large fleets bringing back impressive hauls of tribute for the Pharaoh. While the hard evidence is still fragmentary, the quantity and quality of this evidence is still comparable to those of other established theories. We simply come to the most logical conclusions based on the historical records, and how these records should be interpreted based on the evidence. Rome‟s discovery of the monsoon trade winds did not have any significant impact as the Roman ships mainly plied the waters between the Ptolemaic port of Berenike and the ports along the coast of eastern Africa and western India. The Romans apparently did not interfere much at these ports and only established minor trading colonies if any in these areas. The wave of Islam into East Africa was probably the strongest factor in closing the southern spice route. Muslim traders managed to convert the local populations, and in the process, must have greatly complicated preexisting trade relationships. The Muslim merchants in their dhows moving eastward would have eventually discovered the sources of cinnamon and cassia. Then it was only a matter of time before the caliphate would be able to eliminate the African ports in favor of direct import to Arab entrepots. This was not an immediate process though. The Muslim geographers and historians still record trade activity between Africa and Southeast Asia in aloeswood, tortoise-shell, iron and other products centuries after the Arabs had established themselves on the Tanzanian coast. By the time the Portuguese reached this area though it appears this trade had disappeared. All that was left were traces of the Austronesian contact including the local boats with their outriggers and lateen sails made of coconut fiber. With the end of the cinnamon route and the advent of the European control of the spice trade, the Austronesian component of this commerce almost completely faded away. However, some three thousand years of spice trade from the New Kingdom to the late Muslim period left a lasting legacy that reshaped the world. The vision of an El Dorado of gold and spices tempted romantics and kings alike. For centuries, the Arabs had controlled the Mediterranean part of the spice trade by keeping secret the monsoon sources of the precious commodities. Eventually the Roman empire discovered the monsoon routes as opposed to earlier costly voyages that involved closely following the shoreline. However, it took some time before they could discover the real sources of the spices they treasured so much. When the Alexandrian merchant Cosmas Indicopleustes ventured to find these sources in the sixth century ACE, many of these secrets were just coming to light. However, it was a little too late. The meteoric rise of Islam closed off any further European exploration or exploitation of the spice routes. Conversely, a whole new world was opened up for the merchants of the Muslim world. Their newly found power allowed them to venture deep into Asia as never before. The Islamic texts give the first detailed descriptions of the emporiums of the East. By at least the ninth century, a massive trade ensued between the two regions greatly enriching the the Islamic caliphate. Magnificent cities and buildings were constructed throughout the Muslim lands at the same time that Europe sunk into the dark ages. The Arabic writers also tell of great kingdoms and empires of the East including the fabled cities of the Khmers and the island domains of the Mihraj (Maharaja) of Zabag. Europe would get another chance centuries later when a charismatic leader arose out of a hitherto unknown nomadic tribe of the steppe. Chingiss Khan, also known as Genghis Khan, rode out of the wastelands of Central Asia with his Mongol armies on epic conquests. Among the empires destroyed in the Great Khan‟s path was the Islamic Caliphate. The fall of Baghdad again opened the Silk Road and the maritime spice route to the merchants and adventurers of Europe. One of the first to take up the challenge of the East was Marco Polo. The records of his travels along with those of other Europeans who ventured east rekindled the urge to link with the long-lost spice Eden of the east. The Portuguese were the

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first to take up the gauntlet establishing bases at Goa in India and Malacca on the Malay Peninsula. Others followed including the powerful Dutch East Indian Company. The quest for spices and precious metals ushered in what is known as the Age of Exploration. Magellan‟s personal documents indicated his desire to find the golden islands of Tarshish and Ophir. The explorer Sebastian Cabot was appointed as commander of an expedition “to discover the Moluccas, Tarsis, Ophir, Cipango and Cathay.” The fight to control the flow of cloves, nutmeg, black pepper, gold, silver and other commodities led to the circumnavigation of Africa and the world, and the exploration of the Western hemisphere and the Pacific Ocean. The coming of the Europeans nearly completely excluded the native Austronesian merchants from the trade. The same people who in the Muslim annals were sailing to East Africa to engage in commerce now where often prevented even from participating in merchant activity from city to city or island to island in their own region. Only after Southeast Asia freed itself from Western colonialism has this ancient wonderland of entrepots regained direct control its own trade again. Today, the nations of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have formed a unique organization designed to enhance commerce in the region. Indeed, ASEAN is really the model for the entire Asian region. Even developed Asian nations like Japan and South Korea have looked to ASEAN as the model for regional trade cooperation. Today, manufactured goods from sneakers to computers are more important exports that spices or precious metals, although these latter items continue to hold their own. The region has also come to be a leader in a completely different type of trade – the human trade. Southeast Asia is the world‟s largest exporter of human labor. Seafarers , nurses, doctors, domestics, constructions workers, computer programmers and almost every other kind worker including those in illegal trades come from the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Cambodia or other nations in the area and can be found in almost every country of the world. Many analysts believe the geopolitics of the area will again bring Southeast Asia to the center of the world‟s stage. Most of the goods shipped around the globe still travel by sea, and Southeast Asia is the main hub for trade between Asia and the rest of the world. The volume of trade activity has been growing faster here than any other area of the world and most expect this trend to continue. The region‟s great natural diversity may again come into play as the ageing populations of the developed world look for new medicines and natural cures from Southeast Asia‟s biological resources. According to one theory, the great Austronesian migrations of prehistory began with the flooding of the Sundaland continent, which also created the islands of the Malay Archipelago. The region‟s natural treasures provided the wayfaring Austronesians with items of the trade that became valued in distant lands. Then, as now, a combination of natural forces thrust the people of Southeast Asia into a crucial role in the course of world history.

An important factor in ascertaining the old spice routes from Southeast Asia is the trail of cloves from Maluku and the southern Philippines north to South China and Indochina and then south again along the coast to the Strait of Malacca. From there the cloves went to India spice markets and points further west. This north-south direction of commerce through the Philippines has recently been recognized by UNESCO as part of the ancient maritime spice route. The PhilippineMaluku hub persisted into Muslim times and is chronicled in Arabic historical and geographic writings.

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Laguna Copperplate Inscription

Document written in year 900 A.D.

This was found on 1989 at the shore of Laguna de Ba'y in Laguna, Philippines is a written document before the arrival of Spaniards in the Philippine. The size is 8 x 12 inches and now at the National Museum of the Philippines.

Line 1: swasti shaka warshatita 822 waisakha masa ding jyotisha. chaturthi krishnapaksha soLine 2: mawara sana tatkala dayang angkatan lawan dengannya sanak barngaran si bukah Line 3: anakda dang hwan namwaran di bari waradana wi shuddhapat(t)ra ulih sang pamegat senapati di tunduLine 4: n barja(di) dang hwan nayaka tuhan pailah jayadewa. di krama dang hwan namwaran dengan dang kayaLine 5: stha shuddha nu di parlappas hutangda wale(da)nda kati 1 suwarna 8 di hadapan dang hwan nayaka tuhan puLine 6: liran ka sumuran. dang hwan nayaka tuhan pailah barjadi ganashakti. dang hwan nayaka tuLine 7: han binwangan barjadi bishruta tathapi sadanda sanak kaparawis ulih sang pamegat deLine 8: wata [ba]rjadi sang pamegat medang dari bhaktinda di parhulun sang pamegat. ya makanya sadanya anak Line 9: chuchu dang hwan namwaran shuddha ya kaparawis di hutangda dang hwan namwaran di sang pamegat dewata. ini gerang Line 10: syat syapanta ha pashchat ding ari kamudyan ada gerang urang barujara welung lappas hutangda dang hwa ...

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Translation by Antoon Postma an expert from Indonesia Line 1: Hail! In the Saka-year 822; the month of March-April; according to the astronomer: the 4th day of the dark half of the moon; on Line 2: Monday. At that time, Lady Angkatan together with her relative, Bukah by name, Line 3: the child of His Honor Namwran, was given, as a special favor, a document of full acquittal, by the Chief and Commander of Tundun, Line 4: the former Leader of Pailah, Jayadewah. To the effect that His Honor Namwran, through the Honorable Scribe Line 5: was totally cleared of a debt to the amount of 1 kati and 8 suwarna (weight of gold), in the presence of His Honor the Leader of Puliran, Line 6: Kasumuran; His Honor the Leader of Pailah, namely: Ganasakti; (and) His Honor the Leader Line 7: of Binwangan, namely: Bisruta. And (His Honor Namwran) with his whole family, on orders by the Chief of Dewata, Line 8: representing the Chief of Mdang, because of his loyalty as a subject (slave?) of the Chief, therefore all the descendants Line 9: of His Honor Namwran have been cleared of the whole debt that His Honor owed the Chief of Dewata. This (document) is (issued) in case Line 10: there is someone, whosoever, some time in the future, who will state that the debt is not yet acquitted of His Honor...

Translation by Hector Santos of the Philippines Since I first started studying this document in 1994, I have developed some ideas that are different from those first reported by Antoon Postma. Of course, my conclusions were only made possible by his pioneering work, the initial breakthrough in our understanding of the LCI. Unlike traditional scholars, I divided the text into phrases, not lines, as indicated by the stop marks, large dots used by the ancients like our comma and period of today. (See LCI graphic.) I tried to make each phrase a logical division of the structure, able to stand apart from the others. The three major differences from Postma's translation derive from my following conclusions: 1. I believe that anakda dang hwan namwaran refers to both Angkatan and Bukah, i.e. they are children of Namwaran. The phrase lawan denganña sanak barngaran si bukah can be literally translated as "together with her counterpart relative named Bukah." If Angkatan were Namwaran's wife, the important relationship would certainly have been made clear in the document as is customary. In the absence of such a mention, anak should be taken as a plural (same form as singular) and therefore applies to both Angkatan and Bukah. I am convinced that ganashakti and bishruta are not proper names as Postma believes. If they were, they would either be directly preceded by personal markers such as si or pu, or by titles. Instead, they are preceded by a verb which indicates that their literal meanings should be used in the translation. I think barjadi simply represents the verb "to be." Postma struggled with this word in his early translations, switching from "representing" to "represented by" and back again. There are problems with "representing" that has something to do with correct hierarchies of the officials. Since we are not showing his early translations here, we will not discuss it further. In his latest December 1992 translation, he gives inconsistent meanings to barjadi.

2.

3.

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Literal Translation We begin with a literal translation which attempts to maintain the same word order while trying to make the English text still readable. Phrase 1: Blessings, Shaka-related year 822, Waisakha month, by astronomy. Phrase 2: Fourth day of dark half of the moon, Monday, there at that time Lady Angkatan together with her relative named Bukah, children of the honorable Namwaran are given a wish, a gift of full clearance document by the chief, commander-in-chief at Tundun, who is the honorable minister lord Pailah, Jayadewa. Phrase 3: By order, the honorable Namwaran through the scribe is cleared and forgiven of his debt and his arrears of 1 kati and 8 suwarnas in front of the honorable minister lord Puliran, Ka Sumuran. Phrase 4: The honorable minister lord Pailah is source of authority. Phrase 5: The honorable minister lord Binwangan, who is famous, looked attentively at all his (Namwaran's) living relatives all gotten by chief Dewata, who is chief Medang, on account of his devotion as subject of the chief. Phrase 6: Yes, therefore all living descendants of the honorable Namwaran are cleared, yes, of all debts of the honorable Namwaran to the chief Dewata. Phrase 7: This, in case who will say in future day, sometime, there will perhaps be a man who says not yet cleared is debt of the honorable ... Free Translation This is easier to understand because it freely translates the original text, making it more readable in English. Phrase 1: Greetings! Shaka year 822, month of Waisakha, according to the stars. Phrase 2: On the fourth day of the waning moon, Monday, Lady Angkatan and her brother Bukah, children of the Honorable Namwaran, were given a gift of their wish, this document of full forgiveness by the Commander-in-Chief of Tundun, represented by the Honorable Lord Minister of Pailah, Jayadewa. Phrase 3: By this order through the scribe, the Honorable Namwaran is cleared and forgiven of his debt and his arrears of 1 kati and 8 suwarnas as witnessed by the Honorable Lord Minister of Puliran, Ka Sumuran. Phrase 4: The Honorable Lord Minister of Pailah was the source of authority. Phrase 5: On account of Namwaran's devotion as a subject of the chief, the Honorable Lord Minister of Binwangan, who is known in many places, identified all of Namwaran's living relatives who were taken by the Chief of Dewata, represented by the Chief of Medang. Phrase 6: As a consequence, all living descendants of the Honorable Namwaran are also cleared of all debts that the Honorable Namwaran owed the Chief of Dewata. Phrase 7: This document is issued in case there is someone in the future who will allege that the debt has not been cleared yet by the Honorable .

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Translation in Tagalog Mabuhay! Taóng Siyaka 822, buwán ng Waisaka, ayon sa aghámtalà. Ang ikaapat na araw ng pagliít ng buwán, Lunes. Sa pagkakátaóng itó, si Dayang Angkatán sampû ng kaniyáng kapatíd na nagngangalang Buka, na mga anák ng Kagalang-galang na si Namwarán, ay ginawaran ng isáng kasulatan ng lubós na kapatawarán mulâ sa Punong Pangkalahatan sa Tundún sa pagkatawán ng Punong Kagawad ng Pailáh na si Jayadewa. Sa atas na itó, sa pamamagitan ng Tagasulat, ang Kagalang-galang na si Namwarán ay pinatawad na sa lahát at inalpasán sa kaniyáng utang at kaniyáng mga náhulíng kabayarán na 1 katî at 8 suwarna sa harapán ng Kagalang-galang na Punong Kagawad ng Puliran na si Ka Sumurán, sa kapangyarihan ng Kagalang-galang na Punong Kagawad ng Pailáh. Dahil sa matapát na paglilingkód ni Namwarán bilang isáng sakop ng Punò, kinilala ng Kagalang-galang at batikáng Punong Kagawad ng Binwangan ang lahát ng nabubuhay pang kamag-anak ni Namwarán na inangkín ng Punò ng Dewatà, na kinatawán ng Punò ng Medáng. Samakatwíd, ang mga nabubuhay na inapó ng Kagalang-galang na si Namwarán ay pinatawad sa anumán at lahát ng utang ng Kagalang-galang na si Namwarán sa Punò ng Dewatà. Itó, kung sakalì, ay magpapahayag kaninumán na mulâ ngayón kung may taong magsasabing hindî pa alpás sa utang ang Kagalang-galang...

Significance Just how significant is this incomplete document that ends in midsentence and contains only ten lines?

It means, as we have discussed earlier, that the edge of history has been pushed back 621 years, giving the Philippines a documented existence among the ancient kingdoms of Southeast Asia like Shri-Vijaya (Sumatra), Angkor (Kampuchea), Champa (Vietnam), Madjapahit (Java), and others that existed before the 10th Century.

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    

Ancient Chinese records with placenames like P'u-li-lu, which was thought to have been Polilio (but didn't make sense), will have to be reevaluated. Placenames mentioned in the LCI will have to be given more importance when evaluating ancient records that contain similar sounding names. From porcelain finds, Manila was thought to have been settled as late as 1200. It now appears that an earlier date was more likely. Certainly, a search for other means of dating Manila's first settlements is needed. A search for artifacts in the places mentioned in the LCI might also prove fruitful. Earlier historians thought that the Philippines was part of Shri-Vijaya or even Madjapahit. Their theories have been largely discredited in recent times. It is now time to reexamine the possible connection. Historians believe that the Muslims who ruled Manila were the first to establish more sophisticated forms of government in the area. They also believe that the Muslims started the trade with Borneo and other points south. It is possible that the Hindus were in Manila before the Muslims. The Tagalog script is so rudimentary that it cannot even completely record the sounds of its own language. Three centuries before the Tagalog script's emergence, the Manila area used a script so rich and sophisticated that great empires were ruled through its use. How did this happen? How could a less sophisticated script have supplanted a better one?

Many interesting scenarios can be created to explain some of the above puzzles. During the era of the LCI it was not uncommon for settlements to disappear. They flourished for some time, even for centuries, but things like natural catastrophes, epidemics, emigration, pirate raids, war, etc. made them disappear. It is also known that Muslim culture pushed Hindu influence in Indonesia out of most areas, leaving Bali as the only place where Hindu culture has survived. Any one of these things could have caused the early settlements around Manila to disappear.

The disappearance of the earlier people who settled around Manila may explain why the Kavi script was lost and a lesser one introduced later. But how did the placenames remain? If a few people remained to maintain a continuity of their settlements and placenames, how did they lose their knowledge of the Malay language and the Kavi script? At this time, everything is conjecture. Many more questions will be asked, answered, and refuted; other questions will be asked again. Little by little, we will know more about the Philippines as it was before the Spaniards came, thanks to a little piece of metal dredged from the sand.

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Forgotten Philippines: Gold Of Ancestors : THE SACRED THREAD AND THE KINARI

An interesting ramification presented by above video link if one will reflect the status of the owner of the Sacred Thread...

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The Boxer Codex is a manuscript written circa 1595 which contains illustrations of Filipinos at the time of their initial contact with the Spanish. Aside from a description of and historical allusions to the Philippines and various other Far Eastern countries, it also contains seventy-five colored drawings of the inhabitants of these regions and their distinctive costumes. Fifteen illustrations deal with Filipinos. It is believed that the original owner of the manuscript was Luis Pérez das Mariñas, son of Governor General Gómez Pérez das Mariñas, who was killed in 1593 by Sangleys (Chinese living in the Philippines). Luis succeeded his father in office as Governor General of the Philippines. Since Spanish colonial governors were required to supply written reports on the territories they governed, it is likely that the manuscript was written under the orders of the governor. The manuscript's earliest known owner was Lord Ilchester. The codex was among what remained in his collection when his estate, Holland House in London, suffered a direct hit during an air raid 1942. The manuscript was auctioned in 1947 and came into the possession of Prof. Charles Ralph Boxer, an authority on the Far East. It is now owned by the Lilly Library at Indiana University. The Boxer Codex depicts the Tagalogs, Visayans, Zambals, Cagayanons and Negritos of the Philippines in vivid colors. The technique of the paintings suggests that artist may have been Chinese, as does the use of Chinese paper, ink and paints.
Considered by many anthropological experts as one of the earliest illustrations depicting the lives and rich culture of the early Filipinos is the manuscript known today as the Boxer Codex. This 16th century manuscript was named after Charles Ralph (C.R.) Boxer, a noted British Army officer and historian famous for his research of the Far East, particularly the Southeast Asian region. Professor Boxer got hold of this precious manuscript when it was auctioned off in 1947. Its previous owner was Giles Fox-Strangeways, the 6th Earl of Ilchester. Although it was not known how the Boxer Codex came into Lord Ilchester’s possession, the old manuscript miraculously survived a massive fire that broke out in his estate, the Holland House, during a German Military air raid in 1942. Professor Boxer later worked at Indiana University serving as an advisor at the university’s Lilly Library. The library now owns the manuscripts and researches of Professor Boxer related in the Far East including the renowned Boxer Codex. It is believed that that the Boxer Codex was created on the order of Luis Pérez Dasmariñas, the 9th Governor-General of the Philippines (1593-1596). Under his leadership, it was required for Spanish colonial governors serving on different colonized region of the Philippines to submit written reports on the conditions, the culture, and the way of life of the territories and the constituents they governed. It was most likely that the Boxer Codex was created to supplement this order. Drawn on the pages of the Boxer Codex are beautiful illustrations of the early Filipinos divided into different regions (Cagayanons, Negritos, Tagalogs, Visayas, Zambals). And based on the artistic style and painting materials used to create these drawings, it is believed that a Chinese artist, commissioned by one of the Spanish colonial governors, rendered these illustrative creations. The Boxer Codex also has other chapters dedicated to other regions in Southeast Asia, including parts of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Southern China.

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Boxer Codex
A Tagalog couple of the Maharlika nobility caste depicted in the Boxer Codex of the 16th Century Similar to the Boxer Codex ... is the owner a Sovereign of such a High Status, which will intimidate various rulers of other kingdoms in Southeast Asia if they would be standing side by side by each other. A ruler wearing a golden Sash or UPAVITA would intimidate or humiliate any Majapahit and Srivijayan royalties from neighboring kingdoms. Imagine a Golden Rajah with his Gold warriours would surely outclass any royals and warriors. Is the owner of that Golden Sacred thread a Srivijayan? Remember the other Golden rule: He who has the gold makes the rules. The maritime thalossocracy or alliance of rajanates called by the early Chinese as Sanfotsi and by the early Arabs as Zabag which Coedes collectively called Srivijayas stemming from a Kedukan bukit inscription found near Palembang was said to have a powerful competitor in the south called Wakwak by the early Arabs or Toupo by the early chinese. Is the Butuan-Toubok(Cotobato)area fits the bill for the powerful competitior of Sanfotsi-Zabag? The Tausugs of the Sulu Sultanate were said to be originally Bisayan migrants from Butuan. The Surigao Treasures billed as Gold of Ancestors is in the area of GOLD RICH BUTUAN.

A sword hilt from the Surigao Treasure

Philippine gold artifacts in general tend to be more elaborate and better crafted than most from West Borneo. Harrisson looked at the Dr Arturo de Santos collection (part of which was acquired by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas) as well, and observed that “…the range of Philippine gold jewelry…includes many pieces of a complexity and finesse that is beyond anything attempted in Borneo” in so far as what had been found at that time (Harrisson 1968: 56).

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Throughout Indonesia there was a relationship between gold artifacts and the ruling aristocracy, in the class-power centers which developed on the coastal plains around the middle of the 1st millenium AD (Harrisson 1968:44). Precious metals were worked „exclusively in those areas where the influence of Hinduism was strongest‟: he includes Java, Bali, southern Celebes and the coastal districts of Borneo. These areas developed as centers with established hierarchies, which necessitated the conspicuous display of wealth (Harrisson 1968: 47). There was a demand for gold, which the Philippines could have supplied. It would be reasonable to suggest that one of the main sources of Javanese and Bornean gold was the Philippines. That trade would have been important enough to have been direct, by-passing minor pass-on players say, in Sarawak or Sulawesi. Moreover, the early interest in gold from the Philippines would have been in the raw material rather than wrought artifacts. In turn, local interest would have been on goods not made of gold, which they had plenty of.

quotes Alcina, a Jesuit writing about a hundred years after Legaspi, the conquistadores of the Philippines in the 16th century: “I do remember that once when I was solemnizing a marriage of a Bisayan principala, she was so weighed down with jewelry that it caused her to stoop — to me it was close to an arroba or so (1 arroba = 25 lbs.), which was a lot of weight for a girl of twelve. Then again, I also heard it said that her grandfather had a jar full of gold which alone weighed five or six arrobas. Even this much is little in comparison to what they actually had in ancient times.”

pupuplatter, United States says: I doubt that the makers of what has been called the “Surigao Treasure” were Muslim. Islam came to the Philippine rather late, less than 200 years before the Spanish conquest. We should also avoid idealizing, even as we begin to appreciate, the precolonial past: some of the pre-colonial jewelry recovered in Mindanao and elsewhere may have been hastily buried to hide them from Cebuano, Tagalog, or Samal slave raiders and looters. And it is difficult to determine who the “original” inhabitants of Mindanao really are. For much of the Spanish colonial period, agents of the maritime state of Sulu conducted slave raids throughout much of the Philippines. (Bisayans in particular resented this since before Christian conversion they claimed that they were so mighty that they would have been the ones looting, pillaging, and slave raiding their way across the Philippine waters.) These slaves gathered pearls, bird‟s nest, wax and other products that were then sold to the agents of the British East India Company who, in turn, sold those products to China. It‟s a complicated, global history.

The crafters of Surigao treasures were most probably Hindu Bisayans, if not, their allies. The Rajanate of Butuan had alliance with the Rajanate of Cebu. Intermarriages of the royals between the two rajanates were common. And so the comment of pupuplatter that the Hindu-Animists Cebuanos would probably raid their allies, their Hindu-Animists brethren in Butuan, is most probably incorrect. While, the Tausug Muslims of Sulu were originally Hindu-animists Bisayans from Butuan having been proselytized by the Bruneians. And the Tausugs indeed raided their pacified Bisayan brothers only during the time of the Spanish colonial perod as they became Muslim while the latter became Christians. King Humabon of Cebu, King Siaiu of Mazaua, and King Colambu of Butuan were blood kins accdg to the history books.
If King Humabon of Cebu, King Siaiu of Mazaua, and King Colambu of Butuan were blood kins, we do not know if they‟re first cousins, who was their common ancestry. Was their ancestor from Butuan? Or, conversely, from Cebu?

Controlling the Straits of Malacca As evidenced by history, the country that succeeded in controlling the narrow strait between the Malay Peninsula and the island of Sumatra would gain complete control of China's maritime silk route and thus become a thalossocracy - a trading empire. The Srivijaya of South Sumatra did so in 670 AD, the Chola of Southeast India in 1026 AD, the Madjapahit of Java in 1343 AD, the Sultanate of Malacca in 1400 AD, and finally the Portuguese in 1512 AD.*17 When the Portuguese arrived in Southeast Asia in 1500 AD, they witnessed LUZON's active involvement in the political and economic affairs of those who sought to take control of this economically strategic highway. For instance, the former SULTAN OF MALACCA decided to retake his city from the Portuguese with a fleet of ships from LUZON in 1525 AD.*18 In 1529 AD, the Sultanate of Atjeh on the northern tip of Sumatra became powerful enough to consider controlling the Straits of Malacca. LUZON ships formed part of the Atjehnese fleet that attacked key settlements along the straits. At the same time, LUZON warriors formed part of the opposing BATAKMENANGKABAU army that besieged Atjeh or ACEH.*19 On the mainland, LUZON warriors aided the BURMESE KING in his invasion of SIAM in 1547 AD. At the same time, LUZON warriors fought alongside the KING OF THAILAND and faced the same elephant army of the Burmese king in the defence of the Siamese capital at Ayuthaya.*20

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The Portuguese were not only witnesses but also direct beneficiaries of LUZON's involvement. Many Lucoes, as the Portuguese called the people of LUZON, chose MALACCA as their base of operations because of its strategic importance. When the Portuguese finally took the MALACCA in 1512 AD, the resident Lucoes held important government posts in the former sultanate. They were also large-scale exporters and ship owners that regularly sent junks to China, Brunei, Sumatra, Siam and Sunda. One LUZON official by the name of SURYA DIRAJA annually sent 175 tons of pepper to China and had to pay the Portuguese 9000 cruzados in gold to retain his plantation. His ships became part of the first Portuguese fleet that paid an official visit to the Chinese empire in 1517 AD. In 1591 AD, the CAMBODIAN KING Phra Unkar Langara sent a gift of two royal elephants, gems and horses to the lords of LUZON to petition them to aid him in the war against SIAM.

Trade Missions to China:
The name Lusung(LUZON) first appeared in Chinese History in 1373 AD in the Ming Annals. In this document, Lusung was one of the first to answer the call for tribute missions to the new Ming Dynasty [1368 - 1644]. It was Brunei who first responded in 1371 AD, followed by Liuchiu in 1372, and then by Lusung in 1373 AD*11. Despite the fact that it made its first appearance on Chinese records as late as 1373 AD, evidences suggests that the Chinese had long known the existence of LUZON as far back as the Sung Dynasty[960 - 1278 AD]. The presence of thousands of recognisable pieces of Sung and Yuan Dynasty porcelains found in ancient burial sites in the Province of Pampanga and Manila suggests an active trade with China long before the Ming period. In the mid-1400s, the Ming Empire further limited the number of tribute missions from overseas when it did not compensate the cost of maintaining foreign embassies and entertaining foreign envoys. In 1550 AD, the Ming Empire finally put an end to overseas trade altogether. The Ming Empire's ban on overseas trade ironically became a blessing to LUZON. The port cities in Fujian and Canton that had been profiting from overseas trade since the Sung Dynasty cannot simply end its trade relations with Southeast Asia just because the central government in Beijing does not see profit from it. Chinese ships from Fujian and Canton continue to smuggle goods out of China. They chose the port cities of Tondo and Mainila in LUZON as a drop off point. Ships from other parts of Asia, mostly Brunei and Malacca would then sail to LUZON to pick up their percentage of the Chinese goods.

I looked into the BUTUAN archealogical site, recognized by UNESCO as a world heritage site. I was impressed to learn that they not only had advanced boat making and gold crafting skills, but also traded with countries as far away as Persia.
Satements of authenticity and/or integrity The finds were authenticated by the National Museum, and deeper studies by reputable archaeologists were subsequently done. The oldest Chinese ceramic ware found in Butuan were the Yueh and Yueh type ware which dated back to the Five Dynasties (A.D. 907- 960). In a quantitative survey of the ceramics discovered in Butuan, there were representative types from various Asian realms, ranked according to volume: Chinese (10th - 15th centuries A.D.); Khmer/ Cambodian (9th-10th centuries A.D.); Thai (14th - 15th centuries A.D.) pre-Thai Satingpra (900-1100 A.D.); Haripunjaya (800-900 A.D.); pre-trade Vietnamese (11th - 13th centuries A.D.), and PERSIAN (9th - 10th centuries A.D.)

I wouldn't be surprised if most of the evidence of an advanced civilized Philippine society was suppressed and destroyed while we were conquered by Spain. More about Prehispanic Philippines in this thread...

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About the Three Kings

The three kings were really kings from three kingdoms in the east of Jerusalem, namely, Persia, Arabia and Saba (maybe Sheba). Their names are Melchor, Gaspar at Balthazar.

Saba is a common place name in Southeast Asia. Saba or Sabang or Sapa means estuary is sometime synonymous to Java. The Ancient Indians would call people living in Saba as Savaka sometimes spelled as Javaka. Saba or Sheba or Java could mean a bigger polity encompassing the whole Southeast Asia not just the small island of today known by that name. In medieval period, Java Major would mean Borneo or Sabah while Java minor, the present Java island. In our prehispanic past, there was then a Kingdom called Sapa. The ancient Arabs during the medieval period called the empire located in Southeast Asia as Zabag similar sounding with Saba while the ancient Chinese called the same polity as Sanfotsi which a French historian termed as the Sri-Vijayan empire. Where King Solomon sourced his gold, spices, etc is the same place called Sheba which is none other than Zabag or Saba which is in Southeast Asia, which could be the true place of Tarshish and Ophir. So the King of Seba or Saba must probably be the one who offer gold to the baby Philosopher-PriestKing. Tarshish is most probably in the East, on the Erythrean sea or Indian ocean, seeing that "ships of Tarshish" sailed from Ezion-geber, on the Red Sea (1 Kings 9:26; 22:48; 2 Chr. 9:21).

Unlike Columbus, Magellan seemed less concerned with his own place in prophecy, but evidence points to a spiritual goal also for his journeys. Notes from this writings indicate he was interested in finding the Biblical lands of Tarshish and Ophir, nations which also figured in apocalyptic thought... Samuel Purchas writing in the early 17th century stressed the need for Britain to involve itself in the "Ophirian navigation" to secure its own self-vision as the chosen messianic nation but with a more mercantile twist: And this also we hope shall one day be the true Ophirian navigation, when Ophir shall come unto Jerusalem as Jerusalem then went unto Ophir. Meanwhile we see a harmony in this sea-trade, and as it were the consent of other creatures to this consent of the reasonable, united by navigation howsoever by rites, languages, customs, and countries separated. Magellan appears to have placed Tarshish and Ophir near Ptolemy's Cattigara, the great ancient trading city of the farthest East. When nearing the end of the world circuit, he deliberately set his sights for Cattigara sailing at 12 or 13 degrees North latitude, which he believed to be the proper course for that fabled city. In its riches the scriptural land of Ophir prefigures the Indies of which Luis de Haro is chancellor, and Solomon, associated in late sixteenth-century Spain with Philip II, is a type both of Christ and of the Spanish king. Allegories of Kingship

"....the principle settler of these archipelagoes was TARSHIS, son of Japheth together with his brothers, as were OPHIR and Hevilath of India..." Philippines in Labor Evangelica, 1663. In an interesting coincidence when Philip II, the "Second Solomon," dispatched Legazpi to occupy the Philippines, the latter encountered and entered into alliance with one Rajah Soliman, king of Manila, during his invasion of Luzon.

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The Bible says: Psalm 72:10 The kings of Tarshish and of distant shores will bring tribute to him; the kings of Sheba and Seba will present him gifts. Isaiah 60:6 And all from Sheba will come, bearing gold and incense and proclaiming the praise of the LORD Isa 23:6 Pass ye over to Tarshish; howl, ye inhabitants of the isle Isa 66:19 And I will set a sign among them, and I will send those that escape of them unto the nations, [to] Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, [to] Tubal, and Javan, [to] the isles afar off, that have not heard my fame, neither have seen my glory; and they shall declare my glory among the Gentiles Isa 23:1 The burden of Tyre. Howl, ye ships of Tarshish; for it is laid waste, so that there is no house, no entering in: from the land of Chittim it is revealed to them. Eze 27:25 The ships of Tarshish did sing of thee in thy market: and thou wast replenished, and made very glorious in the midst of the seas. 2Ch 9:21 For the king's ships went to Tarshish with the servants of Huram: every three years once came the ships of Tarshish bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks. Psa 48:7 Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish with an east wind. Isa 2:16 And upon all the ships of Tarshish, and upon all pleasant pictures. Isa 60:9 Surely the isles shall wait for me, and the ships of Tarshish first, to bring thy sons from far, their silver and their gold with them, unto the name of the LORD thy God, and to the Holy One of Israel, because he hath glorified thee. Eze 27:25 The ships of Tarshish did sing of thee in thy market: and thou wast replenished, and made very glorious in the midst of the seas. Eze 27:12 Tarshish [was] thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all [kind of] riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs Jer 10:9 Silver spread into plates is brought from Tarshish, and gold from Uphaz, the work of the workman, and of the hands of the founder: blue and purple [is] their clothing: they [are] all the work of cunning [men]. Eze 27:12 Tarshish [was] thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all [kind of] riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs.

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BO-OL (BOHOL) WAS A LAND OF OPHIR:

What the Spaniards believed

After the death of King Solomon, Ophir was abandoned and soon forgotten. After the passage of hundreds of years nobody would know where or what is Ophir. The other word associated with Ophir is the word "Tarshish." Nobody also knew what it meant. In old translations of the Bible it was supposed also to be a place. However, in new translations of the Bible, it is used to refer to the fleet that went to Ophir. What happened to the Hebrew or Jewish settlements that were established to process the gold before they were shipped back to King Solomon? Nobody also knew. However, we knew that because of their religious beliefs the Hebrews tend to survive as a separate enclave wherever they settled. What the Spaniards Believed In Spain there is a book called Coleccion General de Documentos Relativos a las Islas Filipinas. It is found in the Archivos de Indias de Sevilla. It was reprinted in 1920 in Barcelona, Spain by the Compania General de Tabaccos de Filipinas. Its Tomo III (1519-1522), pages 112-138, contains Document No. 98 describing how to locate the land of Ophir. This same volume also contains the official documents regarding the voyage of Ferdinand Magellan. It also contains the logbook of Francisco Albo, the chief pilot of the ship Victoria. This logbook is also one of the main references regarding the voyage of Ferdinand Magellan. Since this book contains important documents, we can discern that the Spaniards did not really believe that Ophir was in India. In fact the Cabot expedition that left Spain on April 3, 1526 had a secret mission, "to search for a route to Tarsis, OPHIR, Oriental Cathay (China), and Japan." Document No. 98 describes how to locate the land of Ophir. The travel guide started from the Cape of Good Hope in Africa to India, to Burma, to Sumatra, to Moluccas, to Borneo, to Sulu, to China, then finally Ophir. Ophir was "…in front of China towards the sea, of many islands where the Moluccans, Chinese, and Lequios met to trade…" This group of islands could not be Japan because the Moluccans did not get there. It could not be Taiwan because it is not "of many islands." Only the present day Philippines could satisfy the description. Jewish Settlements Along the route described by Document No. 98 are locations of old Jewish settlements. It would not be surprising for that was the procedure used by King Solomon's fleet. Settlements were established at selected places to trade and process the gold and silver. The ships will collect the gold and silver and bring it to King Solomon. To the credit of the Hebrew people, their settlement remained true to the Jewish faith even for thousands of years. Settlements were found in India, Burma, Sumatra, and Vietnam (Annam and Cochin China).

Who Were the Lequios?

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Spanish records mention of a mysterious people known as Lequios. Modern historians variously identified them as Okinawans, Koreans, or Vietnamese. They were favorite targets of Spanish ships during the time of General Miguel Lopez de Legazpi because the ships of the Lequios were always laden with gold and silver. According to Documents 98, the Lequios were big, bearded, and white men. They were only interested in gold and silver when trading at Ophir. Okinawans, Koreans, and Vietnamese people are not big nor are they white. Their beards are just small goatees and could not satisfy the word "bearded". Therefore they were not the Lequios. So who could the Lequios be but the remnants of Hebrews and Phoenicians who have made some enclaves along the Southeast Asian shores? The Hebrew word "LEQOT" or "LIQQET" means to gather, to glean. It resembles closely the word Lequios. It will fit the men of King Solomon's fleet who gathered gold and silver. (Note: The Hebrew alphabet has no small letters.) Where Was Ophir? There is no doubt that the group of islands in front of China towards the sea is the present day Philippines. The question is where was Ophir located in the Philippines? Ancient Chinese records say that the ancient trading places in the Philippines were Ma-yi and Pulilu. Dr. Otley Beyer identified Ma-yi as Mindoro. Dr. Jose Rizal, Blumentrit, Robertson, and Stangl say that it was Luzon in part or in whole. Dr. Jose Rizal identified "Pulilu" as . Nobody disputed Dr. Jose Rizal. So there are onlythree possible places in the Philippines that could be identified as Ophir, they are Luzon, Mindoro, and Bohol.

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Modern scholars of the 20th century re-discovered the Sri-Visjaya Kingdom and revealed traces of the ancient origins of the Filipinos especially the Visaya and Tagalog.

Colliers Encyclopedia 1991 Edition, vol.3, p.50 Srivijaya Kingdom. In the seventh century China was reunited under T’ang Dynasty, thus providing an enormous market. Several port-states tried to tap the China trade, but the kingdom of Srivijaya, located near the present city of Palembang on Sumatra, succeeded in crushing its rivals and imposing its authority on both Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, straddling the Straits of Malacca. Through a combination of bribery, political manipulation, and punitative expeditions the other ports were forced to submit or were destroyed, and Srivijaya became known to the Chinese as the sole state with which they could trade. Several extant inscriptions from the late seventh century-royal edicts carved on stones – attest to the absolute loyalty demanded by the king of Sri-Visjaya of his servants, subjects, and vassals. Passing traders were forced to stop at Srivijaya, where they have to pay tolls demanded by the king for passage through the straits. From these tolls derived the royal revenues, but the tolls were kept moderate so that traders would not consider using the more difficult land route across the Malay Peninsula. The key to Srivijaya’s power was its navy, which was needed to destroy its rivals, Srivijayan naval expedition may even have th th reached as far as Cambodia in the 8 century, and in the 11 century Srivijaya itself was raided from Ceylon. In dominating the Straits of Malacca, Srivijaya controlled one of the key points in the whole Asian trade system. Through its empire passed all the wondrous goods desired by Asian kings and aristocrats-gems, precious metals, scented woods, and even African lions to amuse the emperor of China-as well as the bulk trade in such goods as rice. In the practice, of course, the dominance of Srivijaya and its successors was often less than complete. Especially during periods when trade declined, vassals were likely to fall away as the money and prestige offered by the king to entice their loyalty also declined. But the tradition of central port on the straits dominating the trade routes and of a single supreme king survived for many centuries. By about the sixth century the economic role of Indonesia in the China trade was beginning to change. Indonesia traders began to sell the natural products of Indonesia, sometimes substituting them for the luxury goods the Chinese customarily imported from western Asia. In particular, Indonesia benzoin began to be substituted for the aromatic gum resins. Srivijaya and its successors continued to function as entrepot ports, where goods were transshipped, but the importance of Indonesia’s own products also increased. Srivijaya was a Buddhist kingdom. Indeed its religious scholarship was internationally so highly valued that Chinese Buddhist pilgrims making the long journey to India wouldspend several years in Srivijaya. There they studied the scriptures and rules for monks before going to India.

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Srivijaya’s wealth and power, waxed and waned with changing trade condition and with the rise and fall th of its rivals. It was finally destroyed by the Javanese in the 14 century and the royal family and the traders of Srivijaya moved across the straits to Malaya, where eventually they established the port of Malacca in about 1400. Srivijaya, one of the greatest trade empires of Asia, was then so completely forgotten that even its name was unknown until its history was rediscovered by modern scholars in the th 20 century. Mataram Kingdom. To the east of Sumatra lies Java, and there, too, a great kingdom emerged beginning in about the eighth century. The Kingdom of Mataram, near the present city of Yogyakarta (Jogjakarta) in central Java, reached its greatest power in the ninth century. The dynasty that founded Mataram took the Sanskrit name Sailendra – the king of the mountains – and the title Maharaja, they were Mahayana Buddhists. They left behind many famous temples, which their contemporaries, the kings of Srivijaya seem not to have done. Among the most famous Mataram temples is Burabudur, which was built about 800. It is an enormous artificial temple-mountain, which miles of bas-reliefs depicting the life story of Buddha. At the nearby temple of Merdut are large stone statues of the Buddha and two Bodhisattvas, which are the most exquisite in all of Asia. Sailendra power in Mataram was challenged by a rival royal line who were not Buddhists but followers of the Hindu god Shiva. In 856 there was a battle between the two rivals, which the Sailendra lost. The last surviving Sailendra prince fled from Java to Sumatra, where, for reasons that are not known, he become the king of Srivijaya. His successors in Mataram built the very beautiful and graceful temple complex Prambanan, just east of Yogyakarta. There, temples to the Hindu gods Brahma and Vishnu flank a high central tower where Shiva was worshipped in four aspects. The bas reliefs depict the story of the Hindu Ramayana epic. Mataram was located on the plain of Kedu in central Java, one of the richest rice-growing areas of Indonesia.

Original Sri-Visjaya Religion is Not Buddhist This Sri-Visjaya Kingdom is one of the greatest trade empires of Asia. The Sri-Visjaya on the 7th century when China was reunited under the T’ang Dynasty, the Sri-Visjaya become known to the Chinese as the sole state with which they could trade. Passing traders were forced to stop at Sri-Visjaya, where they have to pay tolls demanded by the king of Sri-Visjaya for passage through the straits of Malacca. Sri-Visjaya controlled one of the key points in the whole Asian trade system.

Sri-Visjaya Religion Sri-Visjaya’s religious scholarship was internationally so highly valued that Chinese Buddhist pilgrims making the long journey to India would spend several years in Sri-Visjaya, there they studied the scriptures and rules for monks before going to India. This may think that Sri-Visjaya’s religion is a th Buddhist religion. That happened when the original 7 century Sri-Visjaya king and royal families and th traders moved across the straits to Malaya on the 8 century where they established the port of Malacca in about 1400 and they have trade in Borneo and Sulu ISLES AFAR OFF. A great kingdom emerged

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beginning in about 8 century the Kingdom of Mataram in central Java. The dynasty that founded Mataram took the Sanskrit name Sailendra – the king of the mountains – and the title Maharaja, they were Mahayana Buddhists. They left behind many famous temples, which their contemporaries, the kings of Sri-Visjaya seem not to have done. Among the most famous Mataram temples is Burabudur, which was built about 800. At the nearby temple of Merdut are large stone statues of the Buddha and two Bodhisattvas, which are the most exquisite in all of Asia. A rival royal line that was not Buddhists but followers of the Hindu god Shiva challenged Sailendra power in Mataram. In 856 there was a battle between the two rivals, which the Sailendra lost and the last surviving Sailendra prince fled from Java to Sumatra, where, for reasons that are not known, he become the king of Sri-Visjaya in Sumatra. Therefore become the new king of Sri-Visjaya in Sumatra is Sailendra. This are the reasons that Sri-Visjaya’s religion was thought to be Buddhist. The original 7 century Sri-Visjaya king and royal families and traders moved across the straits to Malaya th on the 8 century where they established the port of Malacca made trade in Borneo and Sulu. The second th Sri-Visjaya of 8 century was ruled by Sailendra a Buddhist was finally destroyed by the Javanese in the th th 14 century and this people of Sri-Visjaya were different religion than the original first Sri-Visjaya of 7 century. In fact the kingdom of Sailendra who become king of Sri-Visjaya were Mahayana Buddhist that this Mahayana Buddhists left behind many famous temples, which their contemporaries the king of th original 7 century Sri-Visjaya seem not to have done. Therefore the Sri-Visjaya that was defeated by the th th Javanese in the 14 century was the second Sri-Visjaya of 8 century who become Buddhists and ruled by king Sailendra a Mahayana Buddhists. The first Sri-Visjaya of 7th century did not make any temples of worship and were not Buddhists and they fled to Malacca and trade with Borneo and Sulu. The historian th claiming that Sri-Visjaya is a Buddhists kingdom is referring to the second Sri-Visjaya of 8 century that th was ruled by Sailendra a Mahayana Buddhists but not the original Sri-Visjaya of the 7 century that th moved across the straits to Malaya on the 8 century where they established the port of Malacca made trade in Borneo and Sulu.
th

th

DATU from Yahshear-Dath (Sacerdote or Priest of Yahshear): Jacob named Yahshear Genesis 32:28 Bisaya and Tagalog At the same period the well-known Maragtas in Visaya’s history claimed that ten (10) Datu lead by Datu Puti arrived in Panay and bought the plain land of Panay island. This people were called “VISAYA” the th descendant of original Sri-Visjaya of 7 century from Borneo and Sulu. They carried the word “ya-we” in Visaya which means “key”, this was mentioned in Luke 11:52 “woe unto you, lawyers, for ye have taken away the “key of knowledge”, (the scribes took away the name Yahweh and replaced it with other name Adonai, the key is the name Yahweh). The other three (3) Datu, Datu Puti, Datu Dumangsil and Datu Balensusa reached Taal (Batangas) where the language of the three Datu believed to be the origin of Tagalog language. The remaining seven (7) Datu in Panay they reached Cebu, Samar and Bicol. Datu Puti last record is in Sulu before going to Borneo. The word Dawth in Hebrew language means royal edict or statute, commandment, decree, law, manner. The Dawth is pronounced Datuh is the one who ruled and make decree, law and a royal family in Filipino history. The title “DATU” from the word Yashear-Dath or Sacer-dote or Priests of Yahshurun (Israel).

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Chronology of the "Chinese Ming Dynasty and Islamic Influences" ni Guo Zhongli
Ang Sri-Visjaya ay makapangyarihan sa karagatan (mga barkong ipinagawa ni Haring YahdidiYah kay Haring Huram ng Tyre upang kumuha ng ginto sa Ophir, 1Kings 9:26, na pinamumunuan ng Sultan (Sholtan sa Hebreo ay Namumuno). Ang pamilya (Royal Family) ng namumuno at tigasunod ng Sri-Visjaya Kingdom noong ika-pitong siglo (7th century) ay lumisan mula sa Palembang sa Sumatra at tumungo sa Malaya na kabila ng “Straits of Malacca” at nagtatag sila ng daungan ng Malacca. Nanirahan sila sa Bornay (Borneo) at Sulu na mga isla ng Ophir. Sa pangunguna ni Datu Putih (sa wikang Hebreo Poothe=scatter into corner) ay ang sampung (10) Datu mula sa Bornay ay dumating sa Aninipay ng Panay na binili nila ng ginto kay Marikudo ang kapatagan ng Panay na tinawag nilang Madya-as o paraiso. Ang pitong Datu ay naiwan sa Panay na pinaniniwalaang pinanggalingan ng lahi ng Ilongo, Cebuano, Samareno at Bicolano at si Datu Putih naman kasama ang dalawa pang Datu ay pumunta sa Mindoro sa Luzon at Taal Batangas na pinaniniwalaan na pinagmulan ng wikang Tagalog. Ang wika ng mga Datu ng Sri-Visjaya ay pinaniniwalaang pinanggalingan ng wikang Binisaya o tinawag na Hiligaynon (sa wikang Hebreo ng Higaynon=solemn sound). Ang wikang Binisaya (hango sa Sri-Visjaya) ay ang wikang Ilonggo at nagkaroon ng Sugbuano (Cebuano) at Waray. Ang wikang Tagalog ay kahawig sa wikang Ilonggo at ang wikang Bicolano ay kahawig sa wikang Waray. Ayon sa talaan ng “Chronology of the Chinese Ming Dynasty” na ang sampung (10) Datu sa pangunguna ni Datu Putih ay dumating sa isla ng Panay at naiwan ang pitong (7) Datu sa Panay nang si Datu Putih at dalawa pang Datu ay tumungo sa Luzon (Khomer o mortar) sa Mindoro at Taal Batangas. Ang huling talaan kay Datu Putih ay nang bumalik siya sa Bornay na napadaan sa Sulu. Nang dumating ang mga Kastila sa pamumuno ni Ferdinand Magellan (Fernado Magallanes) noong 1521 A.D., ang mga isla ng Ophir ay tinawag sa pangalang FELIPE na hango sa pangalan ng prinsipe ng Espanya na naging Hari si Haring Felipe II ng Espanya. Ang Felipe ay naging Felipinas na naging Pilipinas. Naitala din ng mga Kastila ang napakaraming minahan ng ginto sa mga isla ng Pilipinas. Ang mga naninirahan doon ay „pinawalang-halaga na‟ ang maraming minahan ng ginto dahil ayon sa Kastilang si De Morga na 1,000 B.C na ang idad ng minahan na kanilang natagpuan sa mga isla na tinawag nilang Pilipinas (ka-idad sa kapanahunan ni Haring YahdidiYah (Solomon) na nagpagawa ng mga barko upang kumuha ng ginto sa Ophir). Sinulat ng Kastilang si Pigafetta na ang mga naninirahan daw ay kuntento na sa kanilang mga pag-aaring ginto na nagmula pa sa kanilang mga ninuno. Madaling makakuha ng ginto na kasing laki ng itlog at mani kapag inihiwalay mo sa lupa ("On the island [Butuan] where the king came to the ship, pieces of gold as large as walnuts or eggs are to be found, by sifting the earth”). Bago dumating ang mga Kastila ay walang tanging talaan o “archaeological findings” tungkol sa kasulatan ng sina-unang Asian Malay kundi ang naitala sa dokumento ng mga Chinese. Ang Sri-Visjaya Kingdom na naitala ng “Chronology of the Chinese Ming Dynasty and Islamic Influences” sinulat ni Guo Zhongli na nagpapatunay na ang Datu at Sultan ay may ginagampanang mahalang PILIPINAS ANG OPHIR 2004 Page 33

katungkulan sa Sri-Visjaya Kingdom. Ang “Sholtan” sa Lumang-Hebreo ay ang „namumuno‟, samantalang ang “Datu” ay ang Yahshear-Dath o Seser-Dote o DATU ng Kaharian ng Sri-Visjaya‟. Ayon sa Historian si O.W.Wolters noong 430-475 A.D. kilala sa Chinese ang Kan-t‟o-li na Estadong natatag sa malapit sa Palembang ng Sumatra noong ikalawang siglo (2nd century A.D.). Noong 500 A.D. sa Sumatra, isla ng Bangka, Java at Malay Peninsula ay may walong (8) Estado ang nangalakal sa China noong 608 A.D. hanggang 670 A.D at tanging ang Shihlifoshih ang nanatili. Ang mga natagpuang labi na nagkaka-idad na 775 A.D. mula sa Ligor isthmus sa Malay Peninsula ay sinaliksik ng Asian History Pioneer George Coedus na naniwala na ang Estado na kilala sa China na Shihlifoshih ay siyang Sri-Vishaya (Sri-Visjaya). Ang Sri ay titulong pang-galang mula sa India kaya ang pangalan ng Sri-Visjaya ay Visjaya na kilala ngayon bilang Bisaya. (Si Yahshu‟a Messiah ay inutusan niya ang kanyang 12 desipolo na hanapin ang mga nawawalang Sambahayan ng Yisrawale (Israel) na mababasa sa Mateo 10:5-6 at sa Gawa 13:47. Naitala na ang desipolo ni Yahshu‟a na si Tomas ay sinibat hanggang sa mamatay ni Haring Misdeus ng India. Ang huling Kahariang sumakop sa kanila ay ang mga Griego at naitala sa Ester 1:1 na ang India ay nasasakupan ng Kaharian ng Persia na sinakop ng Emperyo ng Griego kaya sa India huling natagpuan ang desipolo ni Yahshu‟a sa paghahanap sa mga Nawawalang Tribo ng Yisrawale). Ang Sri-Visjaya ay makapangyarihan sa karagatan mula Ceylon (Sri-Lanka), Sumatra, Java (Old Javan Kingdom of Mataram) hanggang sa Champa na pinamumunuan ng Sultan (Sholtan sa wikang Hebreo ay ang Namumuno). Ang pamilya ng Sholtan at mga tigasunod ng Sri-Visjaya Kingdom noong ika-pitong siglo (7th century) na may titulong Datu at Sultan ay lumisan mula sa Palembang sa Sumatra at tumungo sa Malaya na kabila ng “straits of Malacca” at nagtatag sila ng daungan ng Malacca. Ang naiwan namang Sri-Visjaya sa Palembang sa hindi alam na dahilan ay pinamunuan ni Sailendra na isang Mahayana Buddhist. Si Sailendra ay nagmula sa kanyang pagtakas sa Java na siyang nagtayo ng mga templo at istatwa ni Buddha ang Burabudur noong 800 A.D., ang templo ni Merdut at dalawang Bodhisattvas na Hindi Ginawa ng orihinal (7th Century) Sri-Visjaya Kingdom ng ikapitong siglo. Ang Buddhist (8th century) Sri-Visjaya na may titulo ng Raja ay ang nagapi ng mga Javanese noong ika-labing-apat na siglo (14th Century). Ang Sri-Visjaya Kingdom noong ika-pitong siglo (7th century) na may titulong Datu at Sultan ay Hindi Buddhist dahil hindi sila nagtayo ng mga istatwa ni Buddha.

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Ang Mga Nakatira sa mga Isla ng Ophir ay Nagsasalita ng Sina-Unang Wikang Hebreo (Ancient-Hebrew) nang Dumating ang mga Kastila

Ophir ang Dating Pangalan ng mga Isla ng Pilipinas
Sa aklat ni Gregorio F. Zaide “History of the Filipino People”sa pahina 2, ang mga manunulat na mga taga Kanluran ay tinawag ang ating lupain sa pangalang Maniolas, Ophir, Islas del Oriente, Islas del Poniente, Archipelago de San Lazaro, Islas de Luzones (Isla ng Mortars), Archipelago de Magallanes at Archipelago de Legaspi. Ang mga tawag na Maniolas, Islas del Oriente, Islas del Poniente, Archipelago de San Lazaro, Islas de Luzones, Archipelago de Magallanes at Archipelago de Legaspi ay ang itinawag ng mga Kastila (mapapansin na mga salita at wikang Kastila hanggang maging Pilipinas) sa mga isla ng Ophir. Tinatawag ng mga Nabigador ang mga isla na Ophir na nakasulat sa Biblia 1 Hari 22:48, 9:28 at 22:49, Awit 45:9, Isaiah 13:12, Job 22:24, 28:16, 1Chron. 24:4, 1:23, Genesis 10:25-26. Ang mga inapo ni Ophir ay ang mga Pilipino, at ang sinasalita ay ang Wikang Lumang-Hebreo hindi ang Makabagong-Hebreo dahil nakatakas sila bago pa masakop ng Assyria ang Yisrawale (Israel) na siyang nagbago sa wika at naging Modern-Hebreo 2 Kings 18:26. Ito ay pinatunayan ni Padre Chirino na naisulat ni Gregorio F. Zaide „History Of The Filipino People‟ pahina 24 “Of all our languages, the Tagalog has been adjudged the best by scholars. “I found in this language,” said Padre Chirino, eminent Jesuit-historian, “four qualities of the four greatest languages of the world – Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Spanish. It has “MYSTERY and OBSCURITIES of the HEBREW”, ang wikang Tagalog ay may misteryo at pagkakahawig sa wikang Hebreo. Si Ophir ay Apo ni Heber na pinanggalingan ng Wikang Lumang-Hebreo. Bago pa dumating sa Ophir ang mga Sri-Visjaya sa pamumuno ni Datu Putih, ang mga naninirahan sa mga isla ng Ophir ay nagsasalita na ng wika ni Adam dahil nang nawasak ang wika ng mga tao sa panahon ng Tore ni Babel tanging si Heber lamang ang nakapag-ingat ng wika ni Adam na tinawag sa pangalan ni Heber na Hebreo at si Ophir ay Apo ni Heber na nanirahan sa Silanganan. Karaniwan noon na tinatawag ang bawat lugar sa kanilang pangalan.

Wikang Tagalog ay Sina-Unang Wikang Hebreo
TAGALOG HEBREW WORD MEANING IN HEBREW

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

ABA AGAM AGAP AHA ALILA ALE ALAM

Abah Agam Aggaph Ahahh Alilah Ale Alam

be dense a marsh a cover exclamatory to overdo female master concealed Page 35

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8. ALIS 9. ANAK 10.ANTIK 11. ANIYA 12. ASA 13. ASAYA 14. ASAL 15. AYAW

Alees Anak Anthiyq Aniyah Awsaw Asayah Azal Ahyaw

jump for joy to be narrow antique sorrow to do or make Yah has made depart screamer

1. BAKA 2. BAKYA 3. BALAM 4. BALAK 5. BAROK 6. BASURA 7. BATA 8. BATAK 9. BATAK 10. BAWAT 11. BAWAL 12. BAWAT 13. BAWAS 14. BUKID 15. BWISIT

Bawkah Bekee-ah Balam Balaq Baruwk Besowrah Bata Bathaq Batach Baw-at Baw-al Bawat Baw-ash Bukki Bosheth

be ready to burst break forth in pieces to be held in to annihilate blessed reward for good news to babble in speech thrust through be bold to trample down to be master kick to smell bad to depopulate shame, confusion

1. CUBAO

Chobawb

to hide, hiding place

1. KAANAK 2. KABA 3. KABA 4. KABARET 5. KABAYAN 6. KABOD 7. KABILA 8. KAGAYA 9. KALAM 10. KALAS 11. KALUKAW 12. KAMAO 13. KAMOT 14. KANAN 15. KANAN 16. KANILA 17. KANYA 18. KAPA

Chanaq Chaba Kabah Chabareth Chabayah Kabod Khav-ee-law Khag-ghee-yaw Chalam Khaw-lash Khal-ook-kaw Khaw-mawn Khamoth Chanan Khanaw Khan-nee-ale (el) Khan-nee-ale (el) Kapa

to narrow to cherish, love to expire in heart female consort Yah has hidden weight circular festival of Yah to bind to overthrown division image wisdom to favor to in dine favor of Yah become favor of Yah become to cover Page 36

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19. KAPAS 20. KAPIT 21. KARIT 22. KARAS 23. KARAYOM 24. KASA 25. KATAS 26. KATAL 27. KILYA 28. KISAY 29. KUPE

Chaphas Chaphets Charits Charash Charayown Kasah Kathash Chathal Chelyah Kissay Khofe (kupe)

disguise self, hide to incline to incisure, sharf to scratch doves dung to grow fat to butt to swathe jewel overwhelm a cove

1. DAGAN 2. DALAG 3. DAMA 4. DAMA 5. DARAK 6. DATU 7. DAYA 8. DIBA 9. DODONG 10. DUWAG

Dagan Dalag Dama Damah Darak Dath Dayah Dib-bah Dowdow Du-weg

increase grain leap to weep to compare draw a royal edict or commandment fly rapidly evil report King David - love be afraid

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

GABAY GALA GERA GIBA GINAW GULAT

Gabbay Galah Gerah Gibah Ghinnaw Giylath

curve, rounded to exile, depart continuing, destroy house, cup, pot a garden joy, rejoicing

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

HAH HALA HALAK HALAL HALIKA HAPAK HILIGAYNON

Hahh Hala Halak Halal Haliykah Haphak Higaynon

express grief to remove to walk, be conversant celebrate, renowned company, going to change solemn sound

1. 2. 3. 4.

IBSAN ILAW INDAY ITAY

Ibtsan Illaw Dowdah Ittay

inflammatory to ascend female of Dowdow -love unadvisedly

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1. LABA 2. LABAN 3. LABAS 4. LAHAT 5. LAKAD 6. LAKAS 7. LAOAG 8. LAPAT 9. LAYAW 10. LEKAT 11. LUKOT 12. LUWA

Lavah Laban Labash Lahat Lakad Lachash Lawag Laphath La-yaw Leh-kakh Luchowth Luwa

to unite white wrap around tower to catch amulet to deride, speak take hold weary to take to glisten swallow down

1. MAGALAW 2. MAGALAW 3. MAGARA 4. MAGINAW 5. MAGDALO 6. MAHABA 7. MAHAL 8. MAHALAL 9. MAHALAY 10. MAKALAT 11. MAKIRI 12. MALAKI 13. MALAKI 14. MALAT 15. MALAYAW 16. MALAYU 17. MALE 18. MATA 19. MATSAKAW 20. MAYKAYA 21. MINDANAO 22. MOOG 23. MULA 24. MUOK 25. MURA

Mah-gaw-law Mah-gaw-law Maguwwrah Maginnaw Migdalah Mahavahee Mahal Mahalal Mahalay Machalat Makiyriy Mahlake Malakiy Malat Meleah(mel-ay-aw) Mala Male Mattah Mutsa-kaw Mayka-Yah Mig-daw-naw Moog Muhlah Mook Morah

a track to revolve permanent residence shield tower desire to adulterate fame steep sickness salesman walking mininstrative be smooth female of Mala, abundance to fulfilled filling rod something pound out who is like Yah be eminent, preciousness flow down circumcision to become thin fear

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

PALAG PALAYAW PANAW PARA PARAM PARA

Palag Pel-aw-yaw Pa-naw Parah Param Para

divide Yah has favored go away, cast out increase to tear to bear fruit Page 38

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7. PASA 8. PASAK 9. PASAY 10. PATAK 11. PATAW 12. PETSA 13. PILI 14. PILILLA 15. PILEGES 16. PINILI 17. PINYA 18. PISIL 19. PISTE 20. PITAK 21. PO (Po) 22. POOK 23. PUKAW 24. PUTA 25. PUTI

Pasa Pasaq Paw-say-akh Pathach Paw-thaw Petsa Pilee Peliyla Piylegesh Peneeale Peneeale Pehsel Pishteh Pethach Po or Hoo (1931) Pook Pookaw Pothah Poothe

to stride to disport exemption, skip over to open persuade wound secret judge,Yah has judge concubine face of Yah(el), Piniyah-face of Yah Piniyah-face of Yah carve images stupidity opening derive from Hoo,third person obtain stumbling block hinge or the female pudenda scatter into corner

1. SABA 2. SABAK 3. SABAD 4. SABAW 5. SAKA 6. SAKAB 7. SAKANYA 8. SAKAL 9. SAKA 10. SAKAY 11. SAKIT 12. SAGAD 13. SALAG 14. SALAMAT 15. SALAT 16. SALO 17. SAMA 18. SAMAR 19. SAMAT 20. SANAYIN 21. SAPAT 22. SAPAW 23. SARAT 24. SARA 25. SARAP 26. SAWA 27. SELOSA

Saba Sabak Zabad Saybaw Shakah Shakab Shekanyah Shaqal Shaqa Zakkay Sheqets Saw-gad Salga Shalom Shalat Sal-loo Shamma Shamar Shamat Shenayin Shaphat Shawfaw Sarat Sara Saraph Shawah Shelowshah

abundance to intwine to confer old age to roam to lie down Yah has dwell to suspend to subside pure abominable fall down be white peace to dominate weighed desolation save yourself fling down to transmute to judge to abrade cut in pieces to prolong thought please, amuse third wife Page 39

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28. SIBOL 29. SIBOL 30. SIKIP 31. SILAY 32. SILO 33. SITAHIN 34. SUMAKWEL 35. SUMAYAW 36. SULTAN

Zebool Shibbol Sheqeph Selay Shiyloh Shettayim Shemuwel Shemayaw Sholtan

dwelling, residence ear of grain loophole be in safety tranquil two fold hear intelligently, cast out Yah has heard ruler, dominion

1. TABAK 2. TAKA 3. TAKAS 4. TAKIP 5. TAGA 6. TALA 7. TANAW 8. TANIM 9. TAPAK 10.TAPAL 11.TAPAT 12.TATUWA 13.TAWA 14.TEKLA 15.TENA 16. TENGA 17. TERA 18. TIKOM 19. TIMPLA 20. TIRA 21. TORE 22. TUMIRA 23. TUNAW

Tabach Takah Tachash Taqqiyph Tagah Tala Tannaw Tsanim Taphach Taphal Taphath Tatua Tawah Tiklah Tenah Teqa Tera Tiykom Tiphlah Tiyrah Tore Tiymarah Toanaw

to slaughter sit down, to strew bottom strong slap hang, suspended female jackal thorn flatten down stick on as a patch a dropping error to cheat perfection, completeness fig tre sound adoor middle, central unsavoury a wall, fortress ring dove be erect purpose

1. URI

Uwriy

east the region of the light

1. YAKAL 2. YAMAN 3. YARE

Yachal Yaman Yare

be patient right hand side afraid, frighten

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Name of Almighty Father in Four Letters found written in Dead Sea Scrolls pronounced “YAHWEH

is the Name of Messiah pronounced “Yahshu‟a”

John 14:26 “But the Comforter, which is the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.”
The HOLY SPIRIT is the Comforter is to be send by the FATHER ( ) in the NAME “YAHSHU’A” and that HOLY SPIRIT shall TEACH us ALL THINGS, and that HOLY SPIRIT will bring to us ALL THINGS to our REMEMBRANCE to trace the history of the Lost Sheep of the house of Israel, Matthew 10:5 These twelve sent
forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.

That HOLY SPIRIT will be send in the name YAHSHU‟A, not in any other names. Acts 4:12 “Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.”

How Yeshu‟a Become Jesus
By:JOSEPH STALLINGS

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Catholic Digest January 1992 vol.32,no.6

Published in Catholic Digest January 1992 vol.32,no.6 page 17 The Mystery of the Magi
We usually don‟t think about it, but our Lord‟s name was not always Jesus. It was in fact originally the popular Aramaic name Yeshu‟a. In first century Judea and Galilee, the name Yeshu‟a was very common and shared fifth place with Eleazar (Lazarus) in popularity as a name for Jewish men. The most popular male names at that time were Shime‟on (Simon), Yosef (Joseph), Yehuda (Judah or Judas) and Yochanan (John). In the Holy Land at the time of Christ, Aramaic had replaced Hebrew in everyday conversation, but Hebrew remained the holy language and was used in worship and daily prayers. The rabbis also used Hebrew when instructing their disciples. The two languages were closely related, however, as close as Italian is to Spanish, and both used the same alphabet. Yeshu‟a was the Aramaic version of the Hebrew name Yehoshu‟a (Joshua), and means “Yahweh saves”. Throughout Christ‟s lifetime in Galilee, Samaria and Judea of course the name Yeshu‟a presented no problem for those who spoke Aramaic and read the Bible and prayed in Hebrew. But outside the Holy Land it become a different story as Good News spread. The Gentiles of the Roman Empire spoke Greek and Latin and simply could not pronounce Yeshu‟a. It contained sounds that did not exist in their language. When the Gospels were written in Greek, therefore, the Evangelists had a real problem regarding how they might render our Lord‟s name into acceptable Greek. The initially „Y‟ (Hebrew and Aramaic letter „yod‟) was easy. The Evangelists could use the Greek letter „iota‟, written „I,‟ since it was pronounced like the „y‟ in yet. The next sound was a vowel, and that was a little more difficult. Unlike Greek, all the letters of the AramaicHebrew alphabet are consonants. The marks for the vowels were not invented until some centuries after Christ and were simple dots and dashes, placed above or beneath the letters. At the time of Christ apparently, the first vowel in our Lord‟s name was pronounced like the „a‟ in gate. And the Evangelists believed they could approximate that sound by using the Greek letter „eta‟. (The capital Greek letter looks just like our English letter H). Then followed the first of two almost insurmountable problems with Hebrew and Aramaic pronunciation. There was no letter for the „sh‟ sound in the Greek alphabet. Such a familiar name as Solomon was actually Sh‟lomo in Hebrew, Samson was Shimson and Samuel was Sh‟mu-El. Like the Greek translators of these Old Testament Hebrew names, the Evangelists used the Greek sigma (s) for the Hebrew shin (sh) when rendering Christ‟s name. The first three Greek letters „iota‟, „eta‟, and „sigma‟, moreover came to be used in early Byzantine religious art as an abbreviation of Jesus name. As they look very much like the Latin letters IHS, the letters were adapted in Western European religious paintings and church architecture as a symbol for Christ‟s name. The next letter in the Aramaic name Yeshu‟a was the Hebrew letter „waw‟, which here represents the sound „oo‟, as in too. It was easy for the Evangelists to duplicate this sound in Greek. It takes two letters, however, the omicron (o) and upsilon (u). But that easy substitution was followed by the biggest problem of all: the final „a‟ sound. In Greek, there was no substitute for the Hebrew letter „aiyin‟. Though the „aiyin‟ has no sound of its own, it causes the vowel that it controls to be pronounced deep in the throat. The Greek couldn‟t do that, and neither could the Romans

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when speaking in Latin. Usually, a Greek or Roman would pronounce an „aiyin‟-controlled „a’ like the „a‟ in father. A final „a‟ on a name however was most commonly feminine in both Greek and Latin. Thus it was decided to drop the Hebrew „aiyin‟ completely and replace it with the final Greek sigma (s) which most often indicates the masculine gender in nouns. Throughout the Roman Empire then our Lord‟s Aramaic name Yeshu‟a, had become the Greek name Iesous, pronounced yeh-SOOS. And this remained Christ‟s name throughout the Roman Empire as long as Greek remained the dominant language. But after some centuries Greek lost its favored position and Latin took its place. In the last quarter of the fourth century, the Bible was translated from Greek into Latin by *St. Jerome who had no trouble rendering the Greek Iesous into Latin, it became Iesus. The accent, however, was moved to the first syllable and the name pronounced YAY-soos, since the Romans liked to accent the second from the last syllable. In about 14th century, in the scriptoria of the monasteries where Bibles were copied by hand, Monks began to elongate the initial „I‟ of the words into a „J‟. (The pronounciation remained the same-like the „y‟ in yet but the Monks thought a „J‟ looked better). Probably the first Monks to do this were Germans because the letter „j‟ in that language sounds the same as the „y‟ in English. The name Iesus, consequently, evolved into the familiar written form of Jesus by the 17th century. Everyone still pronounced it YAY-soos, however, as it was in the official liturgical Latin. Way back in the fifth and sixth centuries, some pagan Germanic tribes called the Angles and Saxons invaded England. St Augustine of Canterbury came to convert them to Christianity in A.D.396. Of course St. Augustine established Jerome‟s Latin translation as England‟s official Bible. The Anglo-Saxon learned that our Lord‟s official Latin name was Iesus. Naturally the Germanic Anglo-Saxon converted the initial Latin „I‟ into the German „J‟. They pronounced the name, however, as YAY-zoos, since a single „s‟ between two vowels is sounded like our „z‟ in Germanic languages. When the Normans invaded England in A.D.1066 they brought with them the French language. Since neither the Anglo-Saxons nor the Normans would surrender their language to the other, the two become wedded and eventually evolved into Modern English. The Normans did influence the pronunciation of the first letter of Our Lord‟s name, though, they brought the French pronunciation of „j‟ (jh), which evolved into our English sound of „j‟. When King James commissioned the first official translation of the Bibles into English in the early 17 th century, the Latin Iesus was carried over unchanged into the new English Bible. The average English citizen of the day probably pronounced the name JAY-zus which ultimately evolved into our modern English JEEzus. The long process was now complete. A name that began as the Aramaic **Yeshu‟a would remain written in English as it was in Medieval Latin, but now would be pronounced in English speaking countries as the familiar and loving name of the One who is our Savior, JESUS.

*St. Jerome name is Eusebius Hieronymus A.D.347 – A.D.419 **Aramaic Name “Yeshu‟a” is pronounced “Yahshu‟a” in Aramaic and “Yahshu‟a” in Hebrew

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Sino si Ophir ?
Ophir ay naisulat sa Lumang Tipan ng Biblia sa 1 Kings 22:48, 9:28 and 22:49, Psalms 45:9, Isaiah 13:12, Job 22:24, 28:16, 1Chron. 24:4, 1:23, Genesis 10:25-26. Sa Genesis 10:25-30 “At si Heber ay nagka-anak ng dalawang lalaki: ang pangalan ng isa ay Peleg, dahil nang araw na ipinanganak sila ang wika ng mga tao sa mundo ay nagkaiba-iba, at ang kanyang kapatid ay si Yoktan. At si Yoktan ay naging anak sina Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Yerah, Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, Obal, Abimael, Sheba, OPHIR, Havilah, Yobab; lahat ng ito ay mga anak ni Yoktan. At sila ay nanirahan mula sa Mesha at hanggang sa Sephar sa kabundukan sa Silangan.”

CHRONOLOGICAL EVENTS BASED ON HOLY BIBLE RECORDS

YEAR

REFERENCE

HEBREW NAME-MEANING-EVENTS

B.C.E. (Before Common Era) 3992 Dan.9:24-27 3862 Gen.5:3-6 Seth 3757 Gen.5:9 Enosh 3667 Gen.5:12 Cainan 3597 Gen.5:15 Mahalalel 3532 Gen.5:18 Yared 3370 Gen.5:21 Enoch 3305 Gen.5:25 Metuselah 3118 Gen.5:28-29 Lamech 3062 Gen.5:5 Death of Adam 3005 Gen.5:23 Enoch taken away 2950 Gen.5:8 Death of Seth 2936 Gen.5:28 (10)Noah 2852 Gen.5:11 Death of Enosh 2757 Gen.5:14 Death of Cainan 2702 Gen.5:17 Death of Mahalalel 2570 Gen.5:20 Death of Yared 2436 Gen.5:32 Shem 2341 Gen.5:31 Death of Lamech 2336 Gen.5:27 Death of Metuselah 2336 Gen.7:6 Ark of Noah Great flood PILIPINAS ANG OPHIR 2004 Creation of (1)Adam-Awdam-to show blood in face Sheeth-appoint Awnash-to be frail Kane-a nest Halal-praise Yah Yared-to descend to lower region Kawnek-discipline Methuselah Lehmek-uncertain

Nooakh-to rest

Seem-call a name.Ham Yahpet born

Noah and 3 children, wives survived Page 44

Archaeological Findings: Ancient Ebla

2334 Gen.11:10 Arphakshad 2299 Gen.11:12 Selah-Shawlakh 2269 Gen.11:14 Heber 2235 Gen.11:14 (15) Peleg 2235 Gen.10:25 Tower of Babel

In 1974 at site of ancient Ebla northern Syria, exemplify the plethora of pre-flood and post flood writings Rawpad-to refresh to send away Awba-crossover Pawleg-to divide ( Yoktam the father of Ophir ) Migdalah Bawlal - Confounded the language of Son of Man. Heber language was called Hebrew from name Heber. Ang Wika ni Ophir

Ang wika ni Heber ay kagaya ng wika ni Adam at nang magkaiba-iba ang wika ng mga tao sa mundo, tanging si Heber lamang ang nakapag-ingat ng orihinal na wika ni Adam na tinawag sa kanyang pangalan na Heber na naging Hebreo. Samakatwid ang naging wika ng dalawang anak ni Heber sina Peleg at Yoktan ay Hebreo din at ang naging wika ng kanilang mga anak ay Hebreo din. Samakatwid ang wika ni Ophir na anak ni Yoktam ay Hebreo din.

Ang Wika ni Abraham
Ang anak ni Peleg si Reu, ang anak ni Reu si Serug, ang anak ni Serug si Nachor, ang anak ni Nachor si Thare, ang anak ni Thare sina Abram na naging Abraham, Nahor at Haran ang ama ni Lot. Si Abraham ay tinawag na Hebreo sa Genesis 14:13, samakatwid ang wika ni Abraham ay Hebreo. 2205 Gen.11:18 Reu Rawaw-shepherd 2173 Gen.11:20 Serug Sawrag-to intwine 2143 Gen.11:22 Nachor Nakharaw-to snore 2114 Gen.11:24 Thare Tehrakh-trembling 2044 Gen.11:26 (20)Abram(Abraham) Father to be raise of people.Covenant Gen.17:9-10

Ang Datu ay Apo ni Abraham
Nang ang salita ni YAHWEH ay dumating kay Abraham sa Genesis 15:13-14 “At sinabi ni Yahweh kay Abraham, sinabi ko sa iyo na ang lahi ng iyong mga anak ay magsisilbi sa ibang lupain ng mga Hentil at sila ay pahihirapan sa loob ng 400 taon, at ang Nasyong iyon na kanilang pinagsilbihan ay aking hahatulan at pagkatapos at ilalabas ko sila na may dalang malaking yaman”. Sa Genesis 21:12-13 “ kay Yahshaak (Isaac) ang iyong lahi ay tatawagin at ang anak mo sa katulong ay aking gagawin din na isang Nasyon, DAHIL SIYA AY ANAK AT LAHI MO RIN”.

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Sina Yahshaak at Ismaale (Ismael) ay Anak at Lahi rin ni Abraham at si Ismaale ang naunang nanirahan sa Masry (Egypt) sa Genesis 21:21 at sumunod ang mga anak ni Yahshaak kay Yahkoob (Jacob) na tinawag ni Yahweh bilang Yahshear (Gen. 32:28) ay nanirahan din sa Masry sa Genesis 46:3 “Ako si YAHWEH, ang makapangyarihan ng iyong mga magulang, huwag kang matakot pumaroon sa Masry; dahil gagawin ko kayong malaking Nasyon”. Samakatwid ang lahi ni Abraham sa kanyang dalawang anak sina Ismaale at Yahshaak ay naging tigapagsilbi sa lupain na hindi kanila sa lupain ng Masry kagaya sa sinabi ni Yahweh sa Genesis 15:13-14. Ang sinabi ay paglipas ng 400 na taon ay lalabas sila sa Nasyong iyon na kanilang pinagsilbihan at sa Exodus 12:52 “si YAHWEH ay inilabas ang mga anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) (Tribo ng Yahshurun) Gen.32:28 mula sa lupain ng Masry”.

THE NAME ‘ISRAEL’ ORIGINATED FROM THE NAME (YASHAR) ‘YAHSHEAR’ yaw-shar' a primitive root; to be straight ‘yesh-oo-roon' Jeshurun, a symbol. name for Israel yis-raw-ale' a symbolical name of Jacob

Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance Hebrew-Greek Dictionary ‘search’ for "Israel"–₃₄₇₄
Genesis 32:28 And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel –₃₄₇₄ for as a prince hast thou power with Elohim and with men, and hast prevailed. 3474 yashar yaw-shar' a primitive root; to be straight or even; figuratively, to be (causatively, to make) right, pleasant, prosperous:--direct, fit, seem good (meet), + please (will), be (esteem, go) right (on), bring (look, make, take the) straight (way), be upright(-ly). 3475 Yesher yay'-sher from 3474; the right; Jesher, an Israelite: -Jesher. 3476 yosher yo'-sher from 3474; the right:--equity, meet, right, upright(-ness). 3477 yashar yaw-shawr' from 3474; straight (literally or figuratively):--convenient, equity, Jasher, just, meet(-est), + pleased well right(-eous), straight, (most) upright(-ly, -ness). 3484 Yshuruwn yesh-oo-roon' from 3474; upright; Jeshurun, a symbol. name for Israel:--Jeshurun. 3478 Yisra'el yis-raw-ale' from 8280 and 410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity: --Israel. 3479 Yisra'el yis-raw-ale' (Aramaic) corresponding to 3478:--Israel. 3481 Yisr'eliy yis-reh-ay-lee' patronymically from 3478; a Jisreelite or descendant of Jisrael:--of Israel, Israelite. 3484 Yshuruwn yesh-oo-roon' from 3474; upright; Jeshurun, a symbol. name for Israel:--Jeshurun.

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YAHSHURUN FROM THE NAME YAHSHEAR THE 12 TRIBES OF YAHSHURUN WAS CALLED YISRAWALE IN MASRY (NOW EGYPT)
3478 from no. 8280 Yisrawale (Israel) means “Prince of Sarah” to distinguished from Ismael means “In the name of my master Sarah” (“ale” means female master)

dath <1881> Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance Hebrew Dictionary

Pronunciation: Definition:

Dawth (dawthu) 1) decree, law, edict, regulation, usage 1a) decree, edict, commission 1b) law, rule of uncertain (perhaps foreign) derivation: a royal edict or statute:-commandment, commission, decree, law, manner.

DaTH

I used to think of DaTH (dawth-ho) as meaning void, since that's the way the fluffy bunny new age kabbalah books present it. I was curious one day and decided to see if the word was in the Bible (in Hebrew version) and found that it means something like the Law written in our hearts, a kosmic consciousness that lets us know if we are in sync with the Tao That Be (or however you want to describe it). Here are a few of my notes on my research into DaTH. Go on a spiritual quest to find values you can hold up as being what you stand for. You have found your inner DaTH. You have found the law written in your heart. What is law? A king gives a decree or edict that is the expression of the king’s will. *Esther 3:14, 8:13, 9:14] There was the concept that once a king issued this DaTH, it cannot be altered or revoked. [Daniel 2:15, 6:16] DaTH is entrusted to people. In the case of civil law, this DaTH is in the hands of judges, enforced by police, argued by lawyers, voted upon and recorded by politicians. The Israelites had the concept of the ToWRaH being the DaTH of Yahweh. Ezra was given the title of Secretary of the irrevocable DaTH of the Almighty of heaven. [Ezra 7:2, 1 Esdras 8:9] The irrevocability of the DaTH from Yahweh was not questioned by Yahshua. Yahshua was not out to destroy the ToWRaH representing the DaTH from Yahweh, but to bring it to life in the hearts of people. [Matthew 5:17] He was not getting out a giant cosmic eraser. What he challenged was that DaTH of Yahweh was complete and contained in scriptures and traditions. He offered that DaTH of Yahweh can be known in the heart, directly experienced, with continued insights into this DaTH, renewed revelation, and ongoing prophecy. This was not anti-Jewish at all. The idea was found in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Jews continued to redefine DaTH with the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Kabbalah, and to this day with books being published, web sites being built, deeper insights explored and lived out.

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Here is something you can count on to be true for your entire life—CHoKMaH/Sophia and DaTH are treasures that will be your salvation. The greatest treasure comes from uniting with Yahweh. [Isaiah33:6] A treasure is a reward after following a treasure hunt. A gift is never really valued as a treasure. YAHWEH with a multitude approaches, from his right hand comes a shining DaTH. [Deuteronomy 33:2] DaTH is the invisible SHiPHRaH, the Law in the heart of Yahweh. DaTH is Law, but DaTH is also having an active conscious, a living Law written in the heart. DaTH is being conscious of the will of Yahweh, which we can concentrate upon, which we can be mindful of, which can direct our view of what Yahweh wants in each given situation. DaTH is beyond memorizing a collection of ancient rules. DaTH is a living part of each of us. I would dare say that people who have never heard one word of religion still know that it would be wrong to go on a murdering spree or steal from the neighbors when they are not at home. The commandments part of ToWRaH are not the DaTH, but are examples of using the DaTH in specific situations. The DaTH extends far beyond the few ancient case-by-case examples of what would not be acceptable behavior.Thus the Jewish/Kabbalist quest for the invisible DaTH is much like the Gnostic quest for direct connect, for gnosis. Maybe it is invisible because it is from another dimension, that light trapped in the darkness, our core Messiah’s Consciousness, our native our Nature. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - Dath Mosha Middle Eastern and North African Jewish community headdress may also resemble that of the ancient Israelites. In Yemen, the wrap around the cap was called ‫ מ ַר‬massar; the head covering worn by all women according to Dath Mosha was a ‫" ַרגּוש‬Gargush" ‫ַצ‬ ‫ג‬

Sa lupain ng Masry ang Tribo ni Ismaale at Tribo ni Yahshurun (mula sa pangalang Yahshear) ay ang tanging “Tribong Tuli”, upang magkaroon ng pagkaka-kilanlan sa dalawang Tribong-Tuli ang Tribong Yahshurun ay tinawag na Yisraw-ale (Yisrawale naging Israel) ibig sabihin ay “Prinsipe ni Sarah” at ang Ismaale naman ay tinawag na Ishma-ale na ibig sabihin ay „sa Pangalan ni Sarah”. „Ale‟ ay tinutukoy ang amo ni Hagar na si Sarah. Ang 12 anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) na tinawag na 12 Tribo ni Yahshurun ay orihinal na 12, ngunit ng akuin ni Yahshear ang dalawang anak ni Yohseph sina Efraim at Manase na kanyang anak na rin sa Genesis 48:5-6. Ang nakatalaga para kay Yohseph ay pinalitan ng kanyang dalawang anak, samakatwid ang Tribo ni Yahshurun ay naging 13 Tribo na lumabas sa lupain ng Masry sa panahon ni Moshe (Moses). Ang anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) na Tribo ni Levi ay itinalaga sa Pagpapari (Priesthood o YahshearDath) sa Exodus 29, ang tatlong anak ni Levi si Yahshear-Dath Gerson, Yahshear-Dath Cohat at Yahshear-Dath Merari o mga Yahshear-Dath o mga Saserdote ay inihalo sa 12 Tribo ng Yisrawale upang pamahalaan ang trabaho ng Pagpapari at sa pagsisilbi sa pagsamba kay YAHWEH na mababasa sa Joshua 21:1-8 at 1Chronicles 6:63-81.

Tatlong Anak ni Levi Itinalagang Yahshear-Dath o Saserdote o Pari ay Inihalo sa 12 Tribo ng Yisrawale
Saserdote o Yahshear-Dath Gerson Saserdote o Yahshear-Dath Cohat Saserdote o Yahshear-Dath Merari

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Ang mga anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) kay Leah, Rachel, Bilha, Zilpa 1. Ruben ---------- 1. Ruben (Leah) - Yahshear Dath Merari ang Pari 2. Simeon ---------- 2. Simeon (Leah) – Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari 3. Levi ---------- Levi (Leah) mga anak sina Gerson, Cohat, Merari naging Saserdote 4. Yahuwdah ---------- 3. Yahuwdah (Leah) – Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari 5. Dan ---------- 4. Dan (Bilha-Rachel ) – Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari 6. Nepthali ---------- 5. Nepthali (Bilha-Rachel) – Yahshear Dath Gerson ang Pari 7. Gad ---------- 6. Gad (Zilpa-Leah) – Yahshear Dath Merari ang Pari 8. Asher ---------- 7. Asher (Zilpa-Leah) – Yahshear Dath Gerson ang Pari 9. Isachar ---------- 8. Isachar (Leah) –Yahshear Dath Gerson ang Pari 10.Zabulon ---------- 9. Zabulon (Leah) – Yahshear Dath Merari ang Pari Dinah (Leah) 11.Yohseph ---------Yohseph (Rachel) mga anak sina Manaseh at Efraim 12.BenYahmin ---------10. Manaseh-kalahating tribo - Yahshear Dath Gerson ang Pari Manaseh- kalahating tribo – Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari 11. Efraim – Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari 12. BenYahmin(Rachel) - Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari Si Yohseph ay ipinagbili ng kanyang mga kapatid sa mga Ismaalita at dinala sa Masry (Egypt) na pinagbili naman bilang alipin at dumating ang panahon na naging tagapamahala ng Pharaoh at naging Malaya at pinalitan ang pangalan na Zaphenath-paneah. Ang isang alipin ay ibabalik sa kanyang magulang ngunit si Yohseph ay binili sa lahi ng Ismaalita kaya ibinalik siya sa Ismaalita at binigyan ng asawa na pangalan ay Asenath na anak na babae ng Pari ng Ismaalita na si Potiphera sa lahi ni Ismaale na nagkaroon ng 12 prinsesa na kagaya ni Yahshurun na nagkaroon ng 12 anak at ang isa ay si Levi na naatasan sa pamamahala ng Pagpapari sa Exodus 29, Genesis 17:7, 17:23,16:12 “siya ay kahalubilo ng kanyang mga kapatid”. Nang si Abraham ay mamatay sina Ismaale at Yahshaak ang naglibing sa kanya sa kweba ng Machpelah katabi ng kanyang asawang si Sarah sa Genesis 25:9. Ang anak at lahi ni Ismaale ay nadala ng dalawang anak ni Yohseph sina Manase at Efraim, samantalang ang anak at lahi ni Yahshaak ay nadala ng 12 Tribo ng Yahshurun (Jacob tinawag ni Yahweh na Yahshear) sa lupain ng Masry at inilabas sila ni Yahweh sa Exodus 12:51, upang matupad ang sinalita ni Yahweh sa Genesis 15:13-14.

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Mga Apo ni Levi
1Chronicles 6:1 Mga Lahi ng mga Anak ni Levi: Gerson Libni Shimei Jahath Zimmah Joah Iddo Zerah Jeaterai Cohat Amran Ishar Hebron Uzziel Aaron Korah Eleazar Ebiasaph Phinehas Assir Abishua Tahath Bukki ZephaniYah Uzzi Azariah Zerahiah Joel Maraioth Elkanah Amariah Amasai Ahitub Mahath Zadok Elkanah Ahimaaz Zuph Azariah Toah Johanan Eliel Azariah- Jeroham (Priest of Elkanah Solomon Shumuel temple ) Joel Amariah Heman Ahitub Zadok Shallum Hilkiah Azariah Seraiah Jehozadak-captive in Babylon Merari Mahli Mushi Libni Shimea Uzza Shimea Haggiah Asaiah

Mapapansin na ang lahi ni Cohat kay Ishar ay nagsilbi sa Kaharian ni Haring Dowdow (David). Mapapansin na ang lahi ni Cohat kay Amran si Jehozadak ay umabot sa Pagkakasakop ng Babylonian. Mapapansin na ang lahi ni Gerson at Merari ay tumigil sa ika- 7th henerasyon na panahon ng pagtakas ng Natirang-Nakatakas mula sa Assyria, Isaiah 11:11. Ang nakatalagang Pari sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale ay sina Gerson,Merari at Cohat, samantalang sa Kaharian ng Yahuwdah ay si Cohat lamang.

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Kaharian ng Yisrawale: Ang 12 Tribo ng Yahshurun (tinawag na Yisrawale o Israel sa Egypt) ay nagkaroon ng kanilang Hari, naging Hari si Saul mula sa Tribo ng BenYahmin, sumunod si Dowdow (David) sa Tribo ni Yahuwdah at sumunod si Haring YahdidiYah (Solomon) anak ni David.

Si Haring YahdidiYah (Solomon) ay nagpagawa ng Mga Barko upang pumunta ng OPHIR para kumuha ng mga ginto, 1Kings 9:26 ang paglalakbay pabalik ay tumatagal ng tatlong (3) taon.

Dalawang Kaharian: Lumipas ang panahon pagkamatay ni Haring Solomon ay nahati sila sa dalawang kaharian, sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale at Kaharian ng Yahuwdah. Ang Katiwala ni Haring Solomon na mula sa Tribo ng Efraim (1Kings 11:26) si Yeroboam ang naging Hari ng Yisrawale na sumama ang 10 Tribo ay pinagsisilbihan naman ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Saserdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Cohat, Yahshear Dath Gerson at Yahshear Dath Merari. Ang anak ni Haring Solomon si Rehoboam ang naging Hari ng 2 Tribo ng Yahuwdah na pinagsisilbihan ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Saserdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Cohat.

KAHARIAN NG YISRAWALE: Sampung (10) Tribo ang sumama kay Haring Yeroboam ng Kaharian ng Yisrawale at ang lungsod ay ang Samaria na pinagsisilbihan ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Saserdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Cohat, Yahshear Dath Gerson at Yahshear Dath Merari na mababasa sa Joshua 21:1-8 at 1Chronicles 6:63-81.

KAHARIAN NG YAHUWDAH: Dalawang (2) Tribo ang sumama kay Haring Rehoboam ng Yahuwdah at ang lungsod ay ang Yahrusalem (Jerusalem) na pinagsisilbihan ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Saserdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Cohat.

Si Haring Yeroboam ng Yisrawale ay TINANGGAL ang Pagsisilbi ng mga Levitang YahshearDath o Saserdote sina YahshearDath-Cohat, YahshearDath-Gerson at YahshearDath-Merari at PINALITAN sila ng mga pangkaraniwang tao lamang na HINDI LEVITA. Si Haring Yeroboam ng Yisrawale ay nagtayo ng templo sa mataas na lugar at ginawang Tigapagsilbing Pari ay pangkaraniwang tao lamang na HINDI LEVITA at itinalaga ang Kapistahan sa ika-Walong Buwan na dapat ay ika-Pitong buwan na ginaganap ng Kaharian ng Yahuwdah sa pagdiriwang ng mga kapistahan sa 1 Kings 12:31-32, 1 Kings 13:33-34.

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Levitang YahshearDath o Saserdote mula kay Yahshear Dath Cohat, Gerson at Merari ay Tinanggal bilang Tigapagsilbing YahshearDath o Saserdote sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale at sila ay Lumayas sa lupain ng Yisrawale na dala ang kanilang mga ari-arian ay tumungo sa Kaharian ng YAHUWDAH sa lungsod ng Yahrusalem at nanatili sa loob ng tatlong (3) taon: 2Chronicles 11:13-17 „at ang lahat ng mga Saserdoteng Pari at Levita na nasa Yisrawale at sa lahat ng baybayin ay lumayas na dala ang kanilang ari-arian at tumungo sa Yahuwdah at sa lungsod ng Yahrusalem: dahil si Haring Yeroboam at kanyang mga anak ay Pinalayas sila bilang Tigapagsilbing Saserdote para kay Yahweh at si Haring Yeroboam ay nagtalaga ng mga Saserdoteng Paring Hindi Levita sa matataas na lugar at para sa Demonyo at sa Istatwang Guya na kanyang ginawa. Ang mga Levitang YahshearDath o Saserdoteng Pari mula sa tribo ng Yisrawale, ay itinalaga ang kanilang sarili at puso na hanapin si Yahweh na Makapangyarihan ng Yisrawale sa pagpunta nila sa Yahrusalem upang magsakripisyo para kay Yahweh na Makapangyarihan ng kanilang mga magulang. Naging matatag ang Kaharian ng Yahuwdah at maging si Haring Rehoboam na anak ni YahdidiYah (Solomon) ay naging matatag, sa loob ng tatlong taon; dahil tatlong taon silang sumunod sa palatuntunan kagaya sa pagsunod ni DowDow (David) at YahdidiYah”. Ang mga Levitang YahshearDath o Saserdoteng Pari na lahi ni Yahshear Dath Cohat, Gerson at Merari na pinalayas sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale ay hindi nagtagal sa Kaharian ng YAHUWDAH: 2 Chronicles 20:18-19 Ang mga Levitang YahshearDath o Saserdoteng Pari mula sa lahi ni Yahshear Dath Cohat, Gerson at Merari na pinalayas sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale na tumungo sa Kaharian ng YAHUWDAH sa Yahrusalem ay nawala sa kapanahunan ni Haring Yahoshaphat (776 B.C.E. 1Kings 22:51, 62 taon mula sa paghahari ni Haring Yeroboam) sa 2 Chronicles 20:1819 “at ang mga Levita mula sa mga anak ni (Cohat) Cohathites at mga anak ni Corhites at tumayo upang purihin si Yahweh ang nag-iisang Makapangyarihan ng Yisrawale sa napaka-lakas na boses na mataas.” Mga Barko Patungong OPHIR: Mga Barko na ipinagawa ni Haring YahdidiYah (Solomon) ay pumupunta parin sa OPHIR para kumuha ng mga ginto 1Kings 9:26, at nagpagawa pa ng mga panibagong Barko si Haring Yahoshaphat sa 1 Kings 22:48 ngunit hindi na ito natuloy. Ang mga Levitang Pari mula sa lahi ni Yahshear Dath Gerson, Yahshear Dath Cohat at Yahshear Dath Merari na pinalayas sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale na tumungo sa Kaharian ng Yahuwdah ay hindi nagtagal sa Kaharian ng Yahuwdah, sila ay sumama sa mga barkong ipinagawa ni Haring YahdidiYah na pumupunta sa OPHIR na naglalakbay ng pabalik sa loob ng tatlong (3) taon, dahil tatlong (3) taon silang lumagi sa kaharian ng Yisrawale 2Chronicles 11:13-17. Bago pa magpagawa ng panibagong Barko si Haring Yahoshaphat sa 1Kings 22:48. Naisulat sa 2Chronicles 20:18-19 sa paghahari ni Haring Yahoshaphat na 62 taon na ang lumipas mula sa paghahari ni Haring Yeroboan na katiwala ni Haring YahdidiYah(Solomon) sila ay hindi na natagpuan sa Yahrusalem sa 2 Chronicles 20:18-19 .

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DALAWANG HARI NG KAHARIAN NG ISRAEL AT YAHUWDAH NAGNAIS NA MAKARATING NG TARSHISH AT OPHIR
2Chronicles 20:35-37
” At pagkatapos si Haring Jehoshaphat ng Yahuwdah ay sumama kay Haring Ahaziah ng Israel na gumawa ng mga kasamaan, at sila ay gumawa ng mga barko upang tumungo sa tarshish, at sila ay nagpagawa ng mga barko sa Ezion-geber . Ngunit si Eliezer na anak ni Dodavah ng Mareshah ay nagpahayag laban kay Jehoshaphat na sinabing , Dahil ikaw ay nakipag-isa kay Ahaziah, sisirain ni Yahweh ang iyong ginawa. At ang mga barko ay nangasira kaya hindi sila nakapunta sa Tarshish.” ( And after this did Jehoshaphat king of Judah join himself with Ahaziah king of Israel, who did very wickedly: And he joined himself with him to make ships to go to Tarshish: and they made the ships in Ezion-geber. Then Eliezer the son of Dodavah of Mareshah prophesied against Jehoshaphat, saying, Because thou hast joined thyself with Ahaziah, Yahweh hath broken thy works. And the ships were broken, that they were not able to go to Tarshish).

Dinatnan ng Mga Levitang Yahshear Dath o Datuh sa Mga Isla ng OPHIR
Ang mga lahi ni OPHIR ay nagsasalita ng Wikang Hebreo na kagaya ng mga Levitang Yahshear Dath o Saserdote na sumakay sa mga Barko tumungong Ophir dahil si OPHIR ay apo rin ni Heber na pinagmulan ng tawag sa salitang Hebreo na nagmula sa pangalang Heber. Ang mga taga OPHIR ay masagana na sa napakaraming ginto at ang kanilang sinasamba ay mga anito na impluwensya ng malalapit na bansa sa kanila. Ang mga YahshearDath o Saserdoteng Paring Levita ay hindi kilala ng mga taga OPHIR na naitalaga na bilang Saserdoteng Pari (Dath) ni Yahshear (Yahcoob) o Yahshear-Dath o Saser-Dothe para sa pagsamba kay Yahweh, sa Hebreo ang Pari ay „Dath‟ o binigkas na „dawthu’.

Tanging sa Pilipinas Lamang Nanatili ang Tawag na Datu:
Recorded List of Datus in the Philippines. Cebu

Datu Daya - Ancient ruler of Daanbantayan, Cebu

Panay
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Datu Dinagandan — First ruler of Aklan, circa 1200 Kalantiao - Mythical ruler of Aklan in the late late 14th century Datu Paiburong — Ruler of Iloilo Datu Padojinog — Ruled in the Visayas Region with his wife Ribongsapaw. More than seven hundred forty six years ago, around 1240, ten brave and noble rulers were believed to have landed in our shores. They came from the kingdom of Bornay (now Borneo), escaping the wrath of a wicked ruler Rajah Makatunao. They boarded on big ships, called balanghays, and set out to sea to find a place where they can live in peace and harmony. One moonless night on April 15, 1240, together with their families, warriors, slaves and counselors, they faced the unknown in quest of the Promised Land. Datu Padojinog was one of the said Datus. Datus in the Maragtas epic o Irong-irong o Kalantiaw III /Rajah Bendahara Kalantiaw — Said to have formulated the mythical Code of Kalantiaw in 1433 (legendary, see related article). o Datu Puti — One of the 10 Bornean Datus to arrive in Iloilo before the Spanish colonial period. (legendary but may be based on facts, see related article) Page 53

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Datu sa Panahon ng Spanish colonization
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Rajah Colambu — Chief in 1521 of Limasawa, brother of Rajah Siagu of Butuan. He met Ferdinand Magellan and guided him to Cebu on April 7, 1521. Rajah Humabon — Ruler of Cebu who became an ally of Ferdinand Magellan. Enemy and relative of Lapu-Lapu. In 1521, he and his wife were baptized and renamed themselves Carlos and Juana after the Spanish royalty, King Carlos and Queen Juana. Sultan Kudarat - Sultan of Maguindanao. Rajah Lakandula - Ruler of Tondo, one of the last rulers of Manila. Lapu-Lapu - Ruler of Mactan Island. He defeated Ferdinand Magellan in April 27, 1521. He is the Philippines' first national hero. Datu Sikatuna {also Ka Tun-as} - Ruler of Bohol in 1565. He made a blood compact with the conquistador, Miguel López de Legazpi. His statue was erected in Bohol where the blood compact took place. Datu Pagbuaya - Overlord of Ka Tun-as and Gala of Bohol. He was join ruler with brother Datu Dalisdisan of a settlement along the shorelines between Mansasa, Tagbilaran and Dauis which was abandoned years before López de Legazpi's arrival due to Portuguese and Ternatean attacks. He founded Dapitan in the northern shore of Mindanao. Datu Dalisdisan - He was join ruler with brother Datu Pagbuaya of a settlement along the shorelines between Mansasa, Tagbilaran and Dauis. His death during one of the Portuguese and Ternatean raids caused the abandonment of the settlement. Mano-ok - Christian name Pedro Manuel Manooc; son of Datu Pagbuaya; subdued the Higaonon tribe in Iligan; established one of the first Christian settlement in the country. Rajah Sulayman - One of the last rulers of Maynila, was defeated by Martín de Goiti, a soldier commissioned by López de Legazpi to Manila. Rajah Tupas - Last Datu of Cebu, conquered by Miguel López de Legazpi.
Datu Lapu-lapu - Defiant chieftain who led forces that slew Ferdinand Magellan in 1521. Datu Dinagandan -First ruler of Aklan, circa 1200 Kalantiaw - Ruler of Aklan in 1399. Kalantiaw III /Rajah Bendahara Kalantiaw- Formulated the Code of Kalantiaw in 1433 (mythical, see related article). Datu Paiburong - Pre-hispanic ruler of Ilo-ilo Datu Sikatuna - Ruler of Bohol in 1565. Made a pact with Miguel López de Legaspi Datu Pax S. Mangudadato - Current (Not prehispanic but a Datu) Governor of Sultan Kudarat(2001-2004) Datu Puti- One of the 10 Bornean Datus to arrive in Ilo-ilo before the Spanish colonial period. (mythical, see related article) Rajah Calambu, chief in 1521 of Limasawa, brother of Rajah Siagu of Butuan. He met Ferdinand Magellan and guided him to Cebu on April 7, 1521. Rajah Siagu was chief of Manobo in 1521. Raja Humabon was ruler of Cebu and became an ally of Ferdinand Magellan and an enemy of Lapu-lapu. Rajah Suliman Rajah Lakandula Irong-irong Rajah Tupas Datu Makabulos(Macabulos) ruled with elders the town of Lubao, Pampanga around 1571.

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Mines Dating Back to at least 1,000 B.C. during theTime of Solomon Masagana sa mga Ginto ang OPHIR Bago Dumating ang mga Kastila
Pinabayaan Na Ang Minahan ng Ginto sa Ophir According to De Morga: Mines dating back to at least 1,000 B.C. have been found in the Philippines. When the Spanish arrived the Filipinos worked various mines of gold, silver, copper and iron. They also seemed to have worked in brass using tin that was likely imported from the Malay Peninsula. The iron work in particular was said to be of very high quality in some cases, and occasionally in some areas, even better than that found in Europe. When the Spanish arrived, the Philippines was so gilded with gold that most of the gold mines had been neglected. "... the natives proceed more slowly in this, and content themselves with what they already possess in jewels and gold ingots handed down from antiquity and inherited from their ancestors. This is considerable, for he must be poor and wrethced who has no gold chains, calombigas, and earrings."

Pambayad ay Ginto sa Ophir As the missionary Francisco Colín wrote in 1663: In the punishment of crimes of violence the social rank of the slayer and slain made a great deal of difference. If the slain was a chief, all his kinsfolk took the warpath against the slayer and his kinfolk, and this state of war continued until arbiters were able to determine the amount of gold which had to be paid for the killing… The death penalty was not imposed by public authority save in cases where both the slayer and slain were commoners, and the slayer could not pay the blood price.

Nabigador na Nagmula sa OPHIR: Blair and Robertson, Vol. II, p. 116. Legazpi describes one of the "Moro" pilots captured from Butuan: "...a most experienced man who had much knowledge, not only of matters concerning these Filipinas Islands, but those of Maluco, Borney, Malaca, Jaba, India, and China, where he had had much experience in navigation and trade."

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Ginto Ang Palamuti sa Loob at Labas ng Bahay sa Ophir ay Ipinagaya ni Haring Dowdow (David) sa Paggawa ng Bahay Para kay Yahweh

According to Pigafetta: However, things seem to already diminished from Pigafetta's time: "On the island [Butuan] where the king came to the ship, pieces of gold as large as walnuts or eggs are to be found, by sifting the earth. All the dishes of the king are of gold, and his whole house is very well set up." Pigafetta goes on to describe the huge gold ornaments, gold dagger handles, tooth plating and even gold that was used to decorate the outside of houses! On the gold work of the Filipinos is this description of the people of Mindoro: ( ginaya ng Yisrawale o Israel naitala sa 1Chronicles 29:4 Even three thousand talents of gold, of the gold of Ophir, and seven thousand talents of refined silver, to overlay the walls of the houses withal) "...they possess great skill in mixing it [gold] with other metals. They give it an outside appearance so natural and perfect, and so fine a ring, that unless it is melted they can deceive all men, even the best of silversmiths."

Arts of Asia, Jul-Aug 1988, p. 131 Arts of Asia 1981, no.4, p.54 Apparently, even foreigners desired Filipino gold products. Recent discoveries show that gold jewelry of Philippine origin was found in Egypt near the beginning of the era. These finds are mentioned in Laszlo Legeza's "Tantric elements in pre-Hispanic Philippines Gold Art," (Arts of Asia, Jul-Aug 1988, p. 131) along a discussion of Philippine Tantric art. Some outstanding examples of Philippine jewelry, which included necklaces, belts, armlets and rings placed around the waist, are showcased in J. T. Peralta's "Prehistoric gold ornaments from the Central Bank of the Philippines," Arts of Asia 1981, no.4, p.54.

Sinasabi ng Biblia Tungkol sa Ginto ng OPHIR 1Chronicles 29:4 Kahit tatlong libong talento ng Ginto, ng ginto ng Ophir at pitong libong talent na dinalisay na pilak, upang ilapat sa dingding ng mga bahay at sa iba pa: 2Chronicles 8:18 At si Huram ay pinadalhan siya sa pamamagitan ng kanyang tagasunod ng mga barko at ng may kaalaman sa karagatan; at sila ay sinamahan ng mga tigasunod ni YahdidiYah (Solomon) sa pagpunta sa Ophir, at sila ay nakakuha ng apat naraan at limampung talent ng ginto at dinala nila kay Haring YahdidiYah. PILIPINAS ANG OPHIR 2004 Page 56

2Chronicles 9:10 At ang tigasunod ni Huram, at ang tigasunod ni YahdidiYah (Solomon) na nagdala sa kanila ng mga ginto mula sa Ophir, nagdala rin ng puno ng algum at mga hiyas na bato. Job 22:24 iyong ilalatag ang ginto parang alabok at ang ginto ng Ophir bilang bato sa daluyan ng tubig. Job 28:16 hindi mahahalagahan ang ginto ng Ophir ng mamahaling onyx o ng sapphire. Psalm 45:9 mga anak na babae ng Hari ay ilan sa iyong kagalang-galang na babae: sa iyong kanan ay nakatayo ang reyna sa ginto ng Ophir. Isaiah 13:12 aking gagawin ang tao na mas mahalaga sa mamahaling dinalisay na ginto; ang tao kaysa ginintuang palakol ng Ophir.

Ang Titulong Datu Ang salitang „Datu‟ ay galing sa salitang Hebreo na „Dath‟ na ibig sabihin ay „royal edict or commandment‟ na naitalaga sa anak ni Levi na namamahala sa Pag-Papari sa pagsamba kay Yahweh ang Makapangyarihan ng Yisrawale na tinawag na Israel ngayon. Ito ay hango sa „Pari ng Yisrawale‟ na tinatawag na “SASERDOTE” o „Yahshear-Dath‟ (Saser-Datho o Pari ng Israel). Si Jacob o Yahshear na kilala sa ngayon sa tawag na Israel ay naitalaga ang anak niyang si Levi na maging Pari. Ang salitang Yahshurun ay hango sa pangalan ni Jacob na Yahshear. Ang Yisrawale naman ay ang itinawag sa lahi nila doon sa Egypto upang mapagka-iba sila sa Ismaale na parehong tuli. Ang Yisrawale ay nai-salin na Yisrael o Israel.

Ang Titulong Sultan Ang Sultan ay hango sa salitang Hebreo na Sholtan (ruler, dominion) na namumuno na naitalaga la lahi ni Yahuwdah.

Ang Titulong Raja Ang Raja ay titulo ng Hari ng Buddhist sa Ikalawang Sri-Visjaya Kingdom na pinamunuan ni Sailendra na isang Mahayana Buddhist. ( “The second Sri-Visjaya of 8th century was ruled by Sailendra a Buddhist was finally destroyed by the Javanese in the 14th century and this people of Sri-Visjaya were different religion than the original first Sri-Visjaya of 7th century. In fact the kingdom of Sailendra who become king of SriVisjaya were Mahayana Buddhist that this Mahayana Buddhists left behind many famous temples, which their contemporaries the king of original 7th century Sri-Visjaya seem not to have done”). PILIPINAS ANG OPHIR 2004 Page 57

DATU SA MARAGTAS
Ang Titulo ng Aklat: “Maragtás kon (historia) sg pulô nga Panay kutub sg iya una nga pamuluyö, tubtub sg pag-abut sg mga taga Borneo nga amó ang ginhalinan sg mga bisayâ, kag sg pag-abut sg mga Katsila”. “Maragtas o istoryang naganap sa isla ng Panay sa mga naunang nanirahan doon hanggang sa pagdating ng mga Datu mula sa Borno na pinagmulan ng lahi ng mga Bisaya hangggang sa pagdating ng mga Kastila”.

Ang Maragtas ng Panay ay pinalabas na Alamat lamang ngunit nasulat sa Chronology of Chinese Ming Dynasty ang tungkol sa sampun (10) Datu na pinamunuan ni Datu Putih. Noong 1200 – 1250 A.D. ang sampung (10) Datu na pinamumunuan ni Datu Putih kasama ang kanilang mga pamilya at tigasunod ay tumakas sa masamang pamamahala ni Sultan Makatunaw ang Sri-Visjaya Sultan ng Bornay (Borneo). Sila ay sumapit sa isla ng Aninipay sa Panay at binili ang lupang kapatagan ng mga ginto at alahas sa namumunong si Marikudo at tinawag nila ang lupain na Madya-as o “paraiso” na pinagmulan ng mga Ilongo na tinawag na „Cradle of Ancient Filipino Civilization‟. Itinatag nila ang „Katiringban et Madia-as‟ o „Confederation of Madya-as‟ na may pinaiiral na batas ni Kalantiaw (Code of Kalantiaw). Naisulat sa Ming Chronicle noong 1372 A.D. sa Sabah Journal si Prinsepe Sahib ul-Kahar Ong Sum-ping na naglayag sa Sulu Archipelago hanggang Kinabatangan sa North Bornay (Borneo) na pinagmulan ng permanenteng base ng mga Chinese. Noong 1390 A.D. si Raja Baguinda ng Sri-Visjaya ay dumating sa Sulu nagmula sa Swama Dwipa at itinatag ang Bwansa sa isla ng Jolo. Noong 1433 A.D. Pitong (7) Datu ay itinatag ang Code of Kalantiaw at ang Maragtas Code ni Sumakwel para sa mga taga Panay. Tatlong (3) Datu mula sa orihinal na Sampung (10) Datu na dumating sa Panay ay lumayag sa Batangas at Mindoro at isa dito si Datu Putih. Sa huling tala si Datu Putih ay lumayag pabalik ng Bornay nadaan sa Sulu at wala ng tala sa nangyari sa kanya. Ang „Astana Putih‟ ang luklukan ng kapangyarihan ng Sultanate ng Sulu at Umbal Duwa sa Indanan na isla ng Jolo sa Region ng Tausug ng Sulu ay ipinangalan kay Datu Putih. Sa pagkakapartisyon ng „Aninipay‟ o ang isla ng Panay na tinawag na Madya-as o „paraiso‟ na tribong pinamumunuan ni Datu Bangkaya, Datu Paiburong at Datu Sumakwel, si Datu Putih ay lumayag patungong Luzon sumama ang ilan na nagmula sa tirahan sa tabing-ilog ng Araut (Dumangas) Iloilo. Ang apo na si Datu Ram-un ay umalis ng Dumangas kasama ang kanyang pamilya at tumira sa „Kaputalan‟ na ngayon ay „Pototan‟ sa Iloilo. Nang dumating ang mga Kastila naitala na sa tabi ng ilog ng Taal Batangas natagpuan ni Kapitan Juan de Salcedo noong 1570 A.D. ang naninirahang lahi ng Malay na pinaniniwalaang lahi ni Datu Putih.

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Wikang Bisaya at Tagalog Ang Bisaya (Visaya) ay ang tawag sa lahi ng Sampung (10) Datu na pinamunuan ni Datu Putih ay galing sa Kaharian ng Sri-Visjaya sa Bornay (Borneo). Ayon naman sa Collier Encyclopedia na ang mga „Royal Families‟ na orihinal na Sri-Visjaya Kingdom noong 7th century ay nilisan ang lungsod ng Palembang sa Sumatra at tumungo Malaya at sa Bornay (Borneo) at Sulu. Ang Sri-Visjaya ay makapangyarihan sa karagatan na pinamumunuan ng Sultan (Sholtan sa Hebreo ay Namumuno). Ang pamilya ng namumuno at tigasunod ng SriVisjaya Kingdom noong ika-pitong siglo (7th century) ay lumisan mula sa Palembang sa Sumatra at tumungo sa Malaya na kabila ng „straits of Malacca at nagtatag sila ng daungan ng Malacca. Nagkaroon sila ng relasyon sa Bornay (Borneo) at Sulu na mga isla ng Ophir Noong 1200 – 1250 A.D. ang sampung (10) Datu na pinamumunuan ni Datu Putih kasama ang kanilang mga pamilya at tigasunod ay tumakas sa masamang pamamahala ni Sultan Makatunaw ang Sri-Visjaya Sultan ng Bornay (Borneo). Sila ay sumapit sa isla ng Aninipay sa Panay at binili ang lupang kapatagan ng mga ginto at alahas kay Marikudo na tinawag nilang Madya-as o “paraiso” na pinagmulan ng mga Ilongo na tinawag na „Cradle of Ancient Filipino Civilization‟. Ang „Katiringban et Madia-as‟ o „Confederation of Madya-as‟ na may pina-iiral na batas ni Kalantiaw (Code of Kalantiaw). Ang tatlong (3) Datu mula sa orihinal na Sampung (10) Datu na dumating sa Panay ay lumayag patungong Luzon sa Batangas at Mindoro at isa dito si Datu Putih.

Merriam-Webster International Unabridged Dictionary

Ayon sa „Merriam-Webster International Unabridged Dictionary‟ na ang wikang TAGALOG at ang wikang VISAYA ay galing sa isang grupo ng wika na tinawag na TAGALA na kapatid ng sina-unang wikang Malay-Javanese na tinawag na KAWI na ngayon ay wala na. Ang TAGALOG ay may 30,000 root words, 700 affixes at ang root words na kilalang-kilala ay 5,000 salita mula sa Kastila; 3,200 salita mula sa MalayIndonesia, 1,500 salita mula sa Hebreo, 1,300 salita mula sa English, 300 salita mula sa Sanskrit, 250 salita mula sa Arabic at kaunting salita mula sa Persia, Japanese, Russian. Ang wikang Latin ay na-impluwensya ang Spanish at English. Ang wika ng Bisaya at ang wika ng Tagalog ay maraming salitang magkakaparehas mahigit 3,800 na kilalangkilalang salita at parehas ng paggamit. Ang “HILIGAYNON” ang tawag sa wika ng Bisaya ay kagaya sa wikang Hebreo na “HIGAYNON” na ibig sabihin ay „banal na tunog‟ (solemn sound). PILIPINAS ANG OPHIR 2004 Page 59

Salitang Lumang Hebreo Ang salitang “YA-WA” ay isang masamang salita sa Bisaya. Ang “WA” ang ibig sabihin ay “WALA” at ang “YA” ay ang pina-ikling pangalan ng Makapangyarihan ni Abraham na si YAH-WEH, Awit 68:4. Samakatwid ang ibig sabihin ng „YAWA” ay “WALA si YAHWEH” o ibig sabihin ay “Dimonyo”. Ang salitang „Piste‟ ang ibig sabihin sa wikang Hebreo ay „stupidity‟ o „mahina ang isip‟. Kaya ang masamang salita na binabanggit ng mga Bisaya na „Piste-Yawa-ka‟ ay ang ibig sabihin ay „mahinang isip wala sa iyo si Yahweh‟. Ang salitang “SUSI” sa salitang Bisaya ay YAWE o YAVE. Ang Levitang Nakatakas ay nadala ang pangalan ng Pinakamakapangyarihan ng Yisrawale na si YAHWEH na itinago sa tawag na “SUSI”. Ito ay nang ipinag-utos ng Sanhedrin (Highest or Supreme Court) ang pagbabawal sa pagbigkas ng Banal na Pangalang YAHWEH bago pa sila masakop ng mga Assyrian. Ang bumigkas ng Banal na Pangalan na YAHWEH sa publiko at sa Pagsamba ay papatawan ng „Blasphemy‟, ngunit tanging High Priest lamang ang bibigkas nito ng walong (8) beses sa isang araw lamang sa isang taon sa Araw ng Pagpapasting o „Day of Atonement‟. Ito ay nadala hanggang sa kapanahunan ni Yahshu‟a Messiah na mababasa sa Luke 11:52.

DINAANAN NG MGA NALABING NAKATAKAS

Hula Ni Propeta Isaiah sa mga Nalabing Nakatakas: Isaiah 11:11 “ At datarating ang panahon sa araw na iyon na si Yahweh ay igagalaw ang kamay sa pangalawang pagkakataon upang mabawi ang Natira sa kanyang mga Tao na naiwan nagmula sa Assyria, at nagmula sa Egypto, at nagmula sa Pathros, at nagmula sa Cush, at nagmula sa Elam, at nagmula sa Shinar, at nagmula sa Hammath, at nagmula sa mga Isla sa Karagatan”. Isaiah 66:19 “at ako ay maglalagay ng Senyales sa kanila at aking ipadadala silang Nakatakas sa mga nasyon sa Tarshish, Pul, at Lud na lumalaban gamit ang sibat,sa Tubal, at Javan, sa mga isla sa malayu, na hindi nakarinig ng aking katanyagan, at hindi nakita ang sa aking papuri, at ide-deklara nila ang sa aking papuri sa mga Hindi-Tuli”. Ngunit may Nalabing-Nakatakas (Escaped Remnant) mula sa Assyria at mula sa Babylonia (Isaiah 11:11 at Isaiah 66:19). Sa nabanggit na dalawang panahon na pagtakas ay parehas na ang kadulu-duluhang pinuntahan nila ay ang mga „pulu-pulong isla sa karagatan. Mas malinaw ang Isaiah 66:19 na bago makarating sa pulu-pulong isla sa karagatan sa Malayu ay nagmula muna sa JAVAN na inihula ni Propeta Isaiah. Ang JAVAN ay ang pinanggalingan ng ating mga Kababayan ayon sa Colliers Encyclopedia ang Sri-Vijaya Kingdom at ang wika ng JAVAN na „Kawi‟ ang pinanggalingan ng ating wikang Tagalog at Bisaya na pinatutunayan ni Padre Chirino na wikang Hebreo. PILIPINAS ANG OPHIR 2004 Page 60

Ang aklat ni Propeta Isaiah ay binasa ni Yahshu‟a Messsiah sa Lukas 4:17-19, samakatwid, isa sa mapagkakatiwalaang aklat ang mga sulat ni Propeta Isaiah. Sa mga binanggit ni Yahshu‟a ang tunay na pangalan ng Messiah, ay inaasahan ng mga nagbabasa ng Biblia at nagbabasa ng Koran na „Muling Babalik‟ ay nabanggit sa Biblia sa Juan (YahYah) 21:21-23 na kung naisin niya na manatili si Juan hanggang datnan niya sa muling pagbabalik, ay samakatwid daratnan si Juan sa pagbabalik ni Yahshu‟a Messiah. Ang pangalang Juan ay hango sa English na pangalang John na hango sa Semetic at Aramaic na pangalang Yahya na hango sa orihinal na salitang Hebreo na „YAHYAH‟. Ang pangalang Yahya ay madaling mapagkakakilanlan sa ngayon na pangalan ng Muslim, ngunit bago pa makarating ang paniniwala ni Ahmud (Mohammad) (Peace be upon Him) sa mga Arabo noong 622 C.E. ay pangalan na ito noon pa ng mga Israelita o mga Hudyo. Katunayan si ZechariYah na asawa ni Elizabeth sa Lukas 1:5 ay pinangalanan niya ang kanyang anak na YAHYAH. Sa kasalukuyan sa Israel ang tawag nila kay YahYah ay Yochanan, ito ay isang pamamaraan sa pag-iwas sa pagbanggit ng Banal na pangalan ni Yahweh. Katunayan maging ang pangalan ni Yahshu‟a ay ginawang Yeshu‟a (Ezra 2:1-2). Kung Yochanan ay taliwas na sa nakasulat sa Lukas 1:61 na wala pang ganoong pangalan sa kanilang lahi dahil noon pa man ay mayroon ng Yochanan sa kapanahunan ni Propeta JeremiYah (JeremiYah 43:4). Samakatwid ay YAHYAH ang tama at tunay na pangalan ni Juan. Ang „Sri‟ sa Sri-Visjaya ay isang titulo na ibig sabihin ay „Prinsipe‟, „Kagalang-galang‟ at „Kabanalan‟ na hanggang sa ngayon ay ginagamit pa sa India. Ito ay isang patunay na napadaan sa India ang mga Sri-Visjaya. Ayon sa Bible Dictionary ng Holy Bible 1864 ay binanggit na sinibat ni Haring Misdeus ng India hanggang sa mamatay ang Disipolo ni Yahshu‟a na si Tomas. Ang India ay nabanggit sa Ester 1:1 na dulung nasasakupan ng Kaharian ng Persia na lugar na pinuntahan ng mga Disipolo ni Yahshu‟a sa paghahanap sa mga Nawawalang Tupa ng Sambahayan ng Israel sa pagsunod sa iniutos sa Mateo 10:5-6 „ hanapin ninyo ang nawawalang Tupa ng Sambahayan ng Israel „. Ang „Vi‟ o „Vis‟ sa Sri-Visjaya ayon naman sa Samsi English Dictionary ay „Spirit‟. Ang letrang „J‟ ay ang orihinal na tunog nito ay letrang „Y‟, samakatwid ang Sri-Visjaya ay ang tama ay SRI-VIS-YAHYAH na ibig sabihin ay “Prinsipe-Kabanalan-Spiritu ni YAHYAH”. Ang pagbabalik ni Yahshu‟a Messiah ay inaasahan ng mga nagbabasa ng Biblia at nagbabasa ng Koran ay daratnan ni Yahshu‟a Messiah si YAHYAH na nasa ngayong panahong ito ay nasa Sri-Visjaya na lahi ng mga Kababayan natin. Ang „ChabaYah‟ (Kabayan) ang ibig sabihin sa Hebreo ay „itinago ni Yahweh‟. Katangian ng Nakatakas Mula Yisrawale Ang katangian ng Natirang-Nakatakas ay sila‟y nagsasalita ng Lumang Wikang Hebreo dahil sila ay nakatakas bago maimpluwensiya ng wika ng mga Assyrian na wikang Aramaic at wika ng mga Babylonian na Chaldean. Mapapansin na ang mga naiwan sa Yahrusalem ay nagsasalita ng Chaldean-Hebrew o Modern-Hebrew na wika nila hanggang sa kasalukuyan. Ang pangalan na sinasamba ng Natirang-Nakatakas ay kapangalan ng sinasamba ni Abraham. Ngunit dahil sa sila ay tumatakas ay itinago ang kanilang pagkakakilanlan na pangalan na sinasamba ni Abraham na si YAHWEH ay itinago nila ito bilang „SUSI” na mababasa sa Lukas 11:52. Ang „Susi‟ ay si Yahweh sa Binisaya ang YAWE ay SUSI.

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Ang katangian ng Natirang-Nakatakas ay ang lahi ay mga „Tuli‟ kagaya ng Magpakailanmang-Tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh. Ang katangian ng Natirang-Nakatakas ay ang lahi ay mga „Kayumanggi‟ na naitala sa Awit ni Solomon 1:5. Daratnan ni Yahshu‟a ang pangalan ng desipolo niyang si Juan na nakatala sa Juan 21:22-23. Si Juan na desipolo ni Yahshu‟a ay ang pangalan ay YahYah (Yahya) na makikita sa Holy Koran. Ang karakteristik ng Nawawalang Natirang Nakatakas sa Sambahayan ng Yisrawale ay sila ay sampung tribo at mayroon silang mga Yahshear-Dath o mga Datu na Saserdoteng Banal na nagtuturo at ang Sholtan o Sultan na namamahala. Sila ay taimtim na naghihintay sa inihula ng mga Propeta sa pagdating ng Messiah na tutubos sa kanila dahil ng sila ay nakatakas ay inihula na sa kanila ng mga Propeta ang pagdating ng Messiah. Mayroon silang katangiang-galing sa mga bagay na kanilang ginagawa at pinagpapala sila ni Yahweh sa kanilang gawaing kamay. Ang lahi ng Ophir at Natirang Nakatakas na ating Kababayan ay mga Tuli, mga makabayan, mga likas na hospitable, likas na magalang, likas na masunurin, likas na mapayapa, likas na may takot sa Lumikha, kumidlat lang “Dyos ko kaagad ang banggit ng bibig. Ang ating Kababayan ay ang Nalabing-Nakatakas (Escaped Remnant) na binabanggit ni Propeta Isaiah sa 11:11 at Isaiah 66:19. Baka rin ang ating Kababayan ang ipinahahanap ni Yahshu‟a Messiah sa Mateo 10:5-6 „Ang labing-dalawa ay isinugo ni Yahshu‟a (Jesus) at pinagbilinan na „Huwag kayong gagaya sa gawi ng mga Hentil (di-tuli - Epeso 2:11) o pumasok man sa alinmang bayan ng mga Samaritano (nagkukunwaring Israelita 2Hari17:24). Sa halip ay puntahan ninyo ang mga Nawawalang Tupa sa Sambahayan ng Israel. Ganoon din sa ibinilin kay Apostol Saul at Apostol Bar-abba (Pablo at Barnabas) sa Gawa 13:47 „Inilagay kita na maging ilaw sa mga Hentil (di-tuli), upang maibalita ang Kaligtasan hanggang sa dulo ng daigdig‟. Mayroon bang dulo ang daigdig ? hindi kaya ang tinutukoy ay ang dulo na pinuntahan ng mga Nalabing-Nakatakas na binanggit ni Propeta Isaiah sa Mga Pulo-pulong Isla sa Karagatan na nanggaling sa JAVAN na pinapupuntahan ni Yahshu‟a Messiah sa labing-dalawang Disipolo ? Ang ibig sabihin pala ng Bahala Na ay „Bathala Na‟, ayon sa aklat ni Ed Lapiz pahina 64 „Paano Maging Pilipinong Kristiano‟. Talagang maka Dyos nga ang mga naninirahan sa Ophir na tinawag ng mga Kastila na Filipino. Sa Visaya kapag sinabi mong „Yawa‟ ay dimonyo ito, kasi wala si „Yah‟, kasi ang „wa‟ ang ibig sabihin ay „wala‟, at ang „Ya‟ (Yah) ay ang pina-ikling pangalan na sinasamba ni Abrahan na si YAHWEH, Awit 68:4 Jah o „Yah‟. Hallelu-Yah ibig sabihin ay „Purihin-ka-Yah‟. Ang kabuuang pangalan na Yah ay YAHWEH ayon sa mga Hebrew Scholars sa Encyclopedia Judaica ay ang pinaka-banal na nag-iisang pangalan na sinasamba ni Abraham at ng mga orihinal na Israelita ay ang pangalang YAHWEH. Ang YA-WE naman sa Kabisayaan ay „Susi‟. Lukas 11:52 “tinanggal ninyo ang „Susi‟ ng karunungan”, sa Kawikaan 1:7 „ang pagkatakot kay YAHWEH ay pasimula ng karunungan‟. Ang tinutukoy na „Susi‟ ay si Yahweh. Bakit sa buong mundo tanging ang mga Kababayan lang natin ang pinagkalooban na tumawag sa tanging banal na pangalan ng Lumikha na YAHWEH na sinasamba ni Abraham at ng mga orihinal na mga Yisrawale o Israelita.

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Ang tawag ng mga Israelita sa ngayon na nandoon sa Middle East sa Jerusalem sa kanilang sinasamba at tinatawag na Dyos ay „Adonai‟, ngunit sabi ng kanilang mga eskolars ang YAHWEH ang orihinal at nag-iisang pangalan na sinasamba ni Abraham at ng mga naunang mga Israelita. Sa pelikulang „Passion of Christ‟ ni Mel Gibson - ang tawag ni Mirriam (Maria) kay Jesus ay “YAHSHU‟A”. Sa Gawa 4:12 - „walang tanging pangalan na ibinigay sa silong ng langit na sukat nating ikaligtas kundi sa pangalang Yahshu‟a pala. GENESIS 17:11 „PAGPAPATULI AY TANDA NG KASUNDUAN SA PAGITAN NI ABRAHAM AT SA DARATING PA NIYANG LAHI AT KAY YAHWEH‟ Ang turo ng mga hindi-tuli ay tinanggal naraw ang pagtutuli na “Walang-Hanggang Tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh. Ang ibig sabihin ng „walang-hanggang tipan‟ ay „Forever Contract‟ na hindi pwedeng palitan kahit-kailan at hindi pwedeng palitan ng kahit na sino pang Apostol o si Pablo man. Dahil sa hindi naraw umiiral ang „walang-hanggang tipan‟ na pagtutuli ay pwede na ngayon ang mga hindi-tuli (supot). Sa ganitong aral ay binale-wala na nila ang Walang-Hanggang Tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh (Genesis 17:710). Kasi nalito sila sa nabasa nila sa Gawa 15:1-2 na tinutulan ni Apostol Saul (Pablo) at Apostol Barabba ang mga Hudyo na nagsasabi na „kailangang magpatuli sa pamamaraan ni Moses kung hindi ay hindi kayo maliligtas‟. Ang pamamaraan ni Abraham ang dapat ipatupad kaya tinutulan ni Apostol Saul (Pablo) at Apostol Barabba ang mga Hudyong nagtuturo sa pagtutuli sa pamamaraan ni Moses. Katunayan hindi tutol si Apostol Saul (Pablo) sa Pagtutuli sa pamamaraan ni Abraham. Pagkagaling ni Apostol Saul sa pakikipag-usap sa mga Matatanda sa Jerusalem tungkol sa suliranin ng pagtutuli ay tinuli ni Apostol Saul (Pablo) si Timoteo sa Gawa 16:3-4 at ibinalita pa sa lahat ng lugar na pinuntahan nila ang naging desisyon ng mga Matatanda sa Jerusalem tungkol sa pagtutuli. Ang naging dahilan ng kalituhan ay ang pagtutol ni Apostol Saul (Pablo) at Apostol Barabba sa pagtutuli sa pamamaraan ni Moses at hindi sa pamamaraan ni Abraham na orihinal na pamamaraan ng pagtutuli. Pagkatapos na makunsulta ang mga Matatanda sa Jerusalem na huwag ng gambalain ang mga Hentil (di-tuli) na mananampalataya dahil binabasa naman tuwing Sabbath ang mga batas sa aklat ni Moses, samakatwid ay matututuhan din nila iyon, ay tumuloy na ng lakad si Apostol Saul (Pablo) kasama si Silas tumungo sa Syria at Cilicia at tumuloy sa Derbe at Lystra na nadatnan nila si Timoteo na mananampalataya kaya tinuli ni Apostol Saul si Timoteo. Isa pang kalituhan ay ang pagkakalagay ng chapter sa Gawa 15 ay inihiwalay ang chapter 16 ni Padre Hugo noong ika-12 Siglo ng pairalin at lagyan na ng Chapter at Verses ang Biblia. Paanong masasabi ng mga Hindi-Tuli (supot) na pwede na sila na makasama sa Tamang Pananampalataya na may Walang–hanggang Tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh kung hindi sila magpapatuli ? Sa Genesis 17:14 ay sinabi ni Yahweh na „hindi kasama‟ ang mga di-tuli (supot) dahil sinira nila ang kontrata o tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh. Ngunit sa I Corinto 7:18-19 at sa Galatia 5:2 at sa Galatia 6:13 ang konklusyon ni Apostol Saul ay “dahil ang mga taong „tuli‟ (masasamang Hudyo) na hindi naman sumusunod sa mga utos ni Yahweh ay hinihimuk pa silang mga (Hintil) hindi tuli na magpatuli upang magaya sa kanilang mga tuli (masasamang Hudyo) na hindi sumusunod sa mga utos ni Yahweh”. Ang sinabi ni YAHWEH ang Pinakamakapangyarihan sa lahat at sinasamba ni Abraham na „hindi kasama‟ ang mga di-tuli (supot) dahil sinira nila ang kontrata o tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh.

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2 Corinthians 4:1-4 “samakatwid nakita natin ang pagpapatutuo na ating natanggap ang pagkahabag, hindi dapat tayo ay manlumo bagkus ating tanggalin na ang mga bagay na hindi-katotohanan na huwag manatili sa ating mahusay na kaalaman o sundin ang mga salita ni Yahweh na may pandaraya, ngunit sa paglalaganap ng katotohanan na itinatalaga natin ang ating sarili sa bawat konsyensya ng tao na nakikita ni Amang Yahweh. Ngunit ang Katotohanan ay itinago, itinago ito sa mga nalito, na sa kanila ay ang kanilang sinasambang-Makapangyarihan ng Mundo ay Binulag ang kanilang isipan na hindi naniniwala, maliban na ang kaningningan ng mga aral ni Yahshu‟a Messiah na siyang simbolo ni Amang Yahweh ay sumilay sa kanila”.

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Dahil ang Banal na Pangalan ng Makapangyarihan ng Israel ay mahalaga at ganoon din ang

pangalan ng Messiah ng Nazareth ay mahalaga upang ipadala ang Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh ay dapat na ibinabalik ang pangalan ni Yahweh at pangalan ni Yahshu‟a (Yeshua ay sa Aramaic ang bigkas sa Hebreo ay Yahshu‟a) sa bawat pagbasa ng Biblia upang ang Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh ay sumaatin at siyang Banal na Ispiritung iyan ni Yahweh ang magtuturo sa atin at magpapaunawa sa atin ng mga nilalaman ng Banal na Kasulatan na tinawag na Biblia. Ang Biblia ay isinulat ng mga tao na puspos ng Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh kaya ang makaka-unawa lamang nito ay ang may Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh, 2 Pedro 1:20-21. Sa bawat nakasulat na Diyos o Lord o God sa Lumang Tipan ay ibalik na natin ang pangalan ni Yahweh, ganoon din sa pagbasa ng nakasulat sa Bagong Tipan na pangalang Jesus ay ibalik na natin ang tamang pangalan na Yahshu‟a ang tunay na Messiah ng Nazareth. Sa ganoon ay makaka-iwas tayo sa mga Sumpa na nakasaad sa Revelation 22:18-19 na ang sinuman na mag-alis ay aalisan ng karapatan sa parte ng Aklat ng Buhay, Awit 69:28-29, at ang sinuman na magdagdag ay daragdagan ng salot na nakasaad sa Banal na Kasulatan na tinawag na Biblia. Sa ganoon ay tiwasay tayo na malayo tayo sa mga aksidente at sa mga salot na sakit at manatili sa parte ng Aklat ng Buhay upang magkaroon ng Buhay na Walang hanggan.

Dahilan sa orihinal na pagkakasulat ang mga pangalan ay pinalitan ng mga „translators‟ ay
kailangan na ating ibalik ang mga orihinal na pangalan lalong-lalo na ang mahahalagang pangalan na kasama ang pina-ikling pangalan ni Yahweh na „Yah‟ at ang pangalan ni Yahshu‟a ang tunay na Messiah ng Nazareth. Ang salitang „Elohim‟ ay plural ng singular na „Eloah‟ na ibig sabihin ay „Mighty-One‟ na nasalin bilang „Adonai‟ at sa Tagalog ay „Panginoon‟. Sa Genesis 6:4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of Yahweh came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown. Noon nagsimula ang tawag na Elohim sa mga „mighty men‟. Ang English na „Mighty-One‟ ay mas tamang isalin sa salitang Tagalog na „Makapangyarihan‟, dahil ang salitang „Panginoon‟ ay nagmula sa salitang „Adonai‟ sa Judges 1:7 na Hari ng Canaan na naging Palestino sa ngayon ay siyang si Baal mababasa sa footnotes ng Hosea 2:16. Lumang Tipan:

Exodus 3:15 And Elohim said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, Yahweh the Elohim of your fathers, the Elohim of Abraham, the Elohim of Isaac, and the Elohim of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.
Tamang pagbasa:

Exodus 3:15 And Yahweh said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, Yahweh Mighty-One of your fathers, the Mighty-One of Abraham, the Mighty-One of Isaac, and the Mighty-One of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.

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Lumang Tipan: Genesis 2:3 “Pinagpala ng Diyos ang ikapitong araw at itinalaga, sapagkat sa araw na ito ay nagpahinga ang Diyos ng likhain ang lahat. Tamang pagbasa: Genesis 2:3 “Pinagpala ni Yahweh ang ikapitong araw at itinalaga, sapagkat sa araw na ito ay nagpahinga si Yahweh ng likhain ang lahat.

Bago tayo magpatuloy alam natin na bagong imbento lamang ang Letrang “J” kaya imposibleng Jesus ang pangalan ng Messiah, ganoon din ang pangalan ni Juan o “John” ay ang dapat ay “YahYah”. Sa Israel ngayon ang tawag kay John ay “Yochanan” na isang kontradiksyon sa nakasulat sa YeremiYah (Jeremiah) 43:4 at sa Luke 1:61. Tangi ang Banal na Pangalan ni Yahweh na “Yah” sa Awit 68:4 ang may kapangyarihan na pagsalitaing-muli si ZechariYah sa Luke 1:22, Luke 1:59-64. Ang Semetic na kapatid na wika ng Hebreo at sa Arabic ang pangalan ni John ay “Yahya”.
Bagong Tipan: Mateo 3:14-15 “sinansala siya ni Juan na ang wika “Ako po ang kailangang bautismuhan ninyo, at kayo pa ang lumapit sa akin? Ngunit tinugon siya ni Jesus „Hayaan mo itong mangyari ngayon sapagkat ito ang nararapat nating gawin upang matupad ang kalooban ng Diyos. At pumayag si Juan. Tamang pagbasa: Mateo 3:14-15 “sinansala siya ni YahYah na ang wika “Ako po ang kailangang bautismuhan ninyo, at kayo pa ang lumapit sa akin? Ngunit tinugon siya ni Yahshu‟a „Hayaan mo itong mangyari ngayon sapagkat ito ang nararapat nating gawin upang matupad ang kalooban ni Yahweh. At pumayag si YahYah. Bagong Tipan:

Revelation 1:1 The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John:
Tamang pagbasa:

Revelation 1:1 The Revelation of Yahshu‟a Messiah, which Yahweh gave unto him, to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant YahYah:

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Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh sa YahYah (John) 14:26
“Ang Mang-aaliw na siyang Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh na ipadadala ng Ama sa aking pangalan,
siyang magtuturo sa inyo ng lahat ng mga bagay at ipa-aalala sa inyo ang bawat nasabi ko sa inyo”. Tanging sa nag-iisang pangalan ni Yahshu‟a (Gawa 4:12) ipadadala ang Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh at iyang Banal na Ispiritung iyan ang magtuturo sa atin ng mga katotohanan at magpapaalala sa atin ng mga iniaral ni Yahshu‟a Messiah.

2 Peter 1:20-21
“Ating unang alamin na walang nakasulat sa Banal na Kasulatan sa kanyang sariling interpretasyon. Dahil isinulat ito ng mga tao noong panahong iyon hindi sa kagustuhan ng tao kundi mga taong pinabanal ni Yahweh na nagsalita at pinakilos ng Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh”.

Ang Banal na Kasulatan ay isinulat ng mga tao na kinasihan ng Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh,
samakatwid ay tanging ang may Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh lamang ang makakaunawa ng Banal na Kasulatan at ito ay sa pamamagitan ng pangalan ni Yahshu‟a ay ipadadala ang Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh.

Ang Salitang Christo ay Wala sa Orihinal na Biblia
YahYah(John)1:41“Una niyang natagpuan ang kanyang kapatid na si Simon at sinabi niya „Natagpuan namin ang „Messiah‟ (sa interpretasyon ay Christo).

2 Peter 1:20-21
“Ating unang alamin na walang nakasulat sa Banal na Kasulatan sa kanyang sariling interpretasyon. Dahil isinulat ito ng mga tao noong panahong iyon hindi sa kagustuhan ng tao kundi mga taong pinabanal ni Yahweh na nagsalita at pinakilos ng Banal na Ispiritu ni Yahweh”.

Christo ay interpretasyon lamang ng mga translators na mga Griyego, ngunit ang „Christo‟ ay
wala sa wikang Griyego. Maari nang masakop ng Griyego ang mga sakop ng Persia sa Ester 1:1 ay nasakop nila ang bansang India na pinanggalingan ng istatwang si Chrishna ay dinudurog ang ulo ng ahas na kagaya ng naihula sa darating na Messiah sa Genesis 3:15.

Father Emmanuel: Christ comes from the Greek word Christos, meaning “the anointed one”. Srila Prabhupada: Christos is the Greek version of the word Krishna.

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Krishna ng India

Exodus 23:13
“Huwag babanggitin ni mamutawi sa ating mga labi ang mga pangalan ng mga sinasamba ng taga ibang bansa”. Ang bansang Israel ay ang sinasamba ay si Yahweh lamang, ang ibang bansa kagaya ng Canaan (Palestino) ang sinasamba ay si Adonai o Baal (Hukom 1:7, Adonai ay si Baal at nasalin bilang Lord, Hosea 2:16), ang Lord ay naisalin na Panginoon. Sa katabing bansa ng Israel ang Masry o Egypt ay maraming istatwang sinasamba at isa na dito si „El‟ at bawat bansa ay may kanya-kanyang „El‟ o plural ay Elohim (nasalin na God). Ang bansang Griyego ang sinasamba ay si Theos (nasalin na Diyos), ang bansang India ay maraming istatwa at isa na dito si Krishna (nasalin na Christos). Ang Syria naman ang sinasamba ay si Gowd (nasalin na God) at sinasamba naman ng mga teutonic–Germans. Si Zeus (pagbasa ay „sus‟ ay isa sa Greek Mythology God) ay idinugtong sa pangalan ng Messiah kaya naging Yehsoos (Yeh-sus) sa Griyego at Latin. Huwag Babanggitin ni Mamutawi sa Inyong Labi ang Pangalan ng Sinasamba ng mga taga ibang Bansa

Amun

Anubis

Aten

Atum

Geb

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Bastet

Bes

Hapy

Hathor

Horus

Isis

Khepri

Khnum

Ma'at

Nephthys

Nun

Nut

Osiris

Ptah

Ra

Ra-Horakhty

Sekhmet

Seshat

Seth

Shu

Sobek

Tawaret

Tefnut

Assyrian Gods at Goddesses at Babylonian Gods at Goddesses    Apsu underworld ocean; begetter of the skies and earth Tiamat primeval chaos; bearer of the skies and earth Lahmu & Lahamu

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                                                   

Anshar Kishar Anu sky god, father & king of the gods Antu(m) 1st consort of Anu Aruru (Ninmah, Mami) mother goddess; midwife of the gods Mammetum maker or mother of fate Nammu associated with water. Ellil (Enlil) initially, leader of the pantheon Ea (Enki, Nudimmud) god of the waters Mummu craftsman Qingu battle leader Sin (Nannar) moon god Ningal the consort of Sin Ishtar (Ishhara, Irnini, Inanna) goddess of love, procreation, and war Siduri barmaid Shamash (Babbar, Utu) sun god Aia Shamash's consort Kakka Anshar and Anu's vizier Ninlil Elil's consort Nusku god of fire and Ellil's vizier Gerra (Gibil) god of fire Ishum god of fire Kalkal Ellil's doorkeeper Nash a pure goddess Zaltu strife Ninurta chamberlain of the war god Ninsun great queen Marduk supplants other Babylonian deities to become central figure Bel (Canaanite Baal cleverest; sage of the gods Ashur god of Assyria and war Shullat Shamash's servant Papsukkal vizier of the great gods Hanish weather god's servant Adad a storm god Shara Nin-ildu carpenter Gushkin-banda creator of god and man, goldsmith god Nin-agal patron of smiths. Ereshkigal (Allatu) supreme goddess of underworld Belit-tseri tablet-scribe of the underworld Namtar(a) the fate-cutter, herald of death Sumuqan cattle god Nergal (Erragal, Erra, Engidudu) underworld; hunter; god of war and plague Irra plague god Enmesharra underworld god Lamashtu dread female demon also known as 'she who erases' Nabu god of writing and wisdom Ningizzia guardian of the gate of heaven; a god of the underworld Tammuz (Dumuzi, Adonis)**** vegetation Belili (Geshtinanna) Gizzida (Gishzida) consort of Belili, doorkeeper of Anu Nissaba (Nisaba) cereal grain harvest

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Roman at Greek Gods
Roman God Kapantay sa Greek God

Roman

Greek

Apollo

Apollo

Bacchus

Dionysus

Ceres

Demeter

Cupid

Eros

Diana

Artemis

Fortuna

Janus

Juno

Hera

Jupiter

Zeus

Maia

Mars

Ares

Mercury

Hermes

Minerva

Athena

Neptune

Poseidon

Pluto

Hades

Proserpina

Persephone

Saturn

Cronus

Uranus

Ouranos

Venus

Aphrodite

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Four Perpetual Foundations said by to keep by very small Escaped Remnant Forever
APAT NA PUNDASYON NA SINABI NI NA SUSUNDIN NG MGA KAKAUNTING NATIRANG NAKATAKAS MAGPAKAILANMAN
Isaiah 1:9 “Except of hosts had left unto us a very small remnant, we should have been as Sodom, and we should have been like unto Gomorrah”

GENESIS 17:7-14 CIRCUMCISION

LEV. 23:1-41 APPOINTED FEAST OF YAHWEH

EXODUS 29:1-9 AARON SON AND LEVITES PRIEST EXODUS 20:1-17 MATTHEW 5:17-18

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APAT NA PUNDASYON NA WALANG-HANGGAN (FOREVER) APAT NA PUNDASYON MAGPAKAILANMAN 1. 2. 3. 4. Unang Pundasyon Ang Circumcision Ikalawang Pundasyon Ang Lahi ni Aaron at Levita Ikatlong Pundasyon Ang Ten Commandments ni Yahweh Ika-apat na Pundasyon Ang mga Appointed Feasts ni Yahweh

ANO ANG SINA-UNANG PANANAMPALATAYA NI ABRAHAM, NI DATH MOSES, NI YAHSHU’A MESSIAH?
Jeremiah 6:16 Thus saith , Stand ye in the ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls. But they said, We will not walk therein.

APAT NA PUNDASYON NG PANANAMPALATAYA KAY YAHWEH NA WALANG-HANGGAN MGA BATAS NA MAGPAKAILANMAN NI YAHWEH (FOREVER LAWS OF YAHWEH)

GENESIS 17:7-14 CIRCUMCISION

LEV. 23:1-41 APPOINTED FEAST OF YAHWEH

EXODUS 20:1-17 MATTHEW 5:17-18

TEN COMMANDMENTS
EXODUS 29:1-9 AARON SON AND LEVITES PRIEST

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APAT NA PUNDASYON HINDI DAPAT TANGGALIN MAGPAKAILANMAN (FOREVER)
1. 2. 3. 4. Unang Pundasyon Ang Circumcision Ikalawang Pundasyon Ang Lahi ni Aaron at Levita Ikatlong Pundasyon Ang Ten Commandments ni Yahweh Ika-apat na Pundasyon Ang mga Appointed Feast ni Yahweh

FALSE MESSIAH AND FALSE PROPHETS SHALL RISE
Mark 13:22-23'For false Messiahs and false prophets shall rise, and shall shew signs and wonders, to seduce, if it were possible, even the elect, But take ye heed: behold, I have foretold you all things'.

HINDI NATIN MASISISI ANG MGA KASALUKUYANG TIGAPAGTURO NG BIBLIA DAHIL HINDI NILA PINAGTUUNAN NG MALALIM NA PANSIN NA PAGKATAPOS NG MINISTERIAL NI YAHSHU’A MESSIAH AY LALABAS ANG MGA BULAANG MESSIAH AT MGA BULAANG PROPETA NA MAGTUTURO NG MGA KASINUNGALINGAN AT BABAGUHIN ANG NAITATAG NA MAGPAKAILANMANG PUNDASYON (FOREVER LAW).

1.

Unang Pundasyon Ang Circumcision
(CIRCUMCISION) WALANG-HANGGANG TIPAN KAY YAHWEH:

Genesis 17:7

And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an EVERLASTING COVENANT, to be the MIGHTY-ONE unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their MIGHTY-ONE . And YAHWEH said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee in their generations.

Genesis 17:8 Genesis 17:9

Genesis 17:10 This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised. Genesis 17:11 And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt me and you. Genesis 17:12 And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed. Genesis 17:13 He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised: and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an EVERLASTING COVENANT. Genesis 17:14 And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant.

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MGA INA-ARAL NG MGA BULAANG PROPETA

Ang itinuturo ng mga BULAANG PROPETA ay tinanggal na raw ang pagtutuli na “Walang-Hanggang Tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh. Ang ibig sabihin ng „walang-hanggang tipan‟ ay „Forever Contract‟ na hindi pwedeng palitan kahit-kailan at hindi pwedeng palitan ng kahit na sino pang Apostol o si Pablo man. Dahil sa hindi naraw umiiral ang „walang-hanggang tipan‟ na pagtutuli ay pwede na ngayon ang mga hindi-tuli (supot). Sa ganitong aral ay binale-wala na nila ang Walang-Hanggang Tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh (Genesis 17:7-10). Kasi nalito sila sa nabasa nila sa Gawa 15:1-2 na tinutulan ni Apostol Saul (Pablo) at Apostol Barabba ang mga Hudyo na nagsasabi na „kailangang magpatuli sa pamamaraan ni Moses kung hindi ay hindi kayo maliligtas‟. Ang pamamaraan ni Abraham ang dapat ipatupad kaya tinutulan ni Apostol Saul (Pablo) at Apostol Barabba ang mga Hudyong nagtuturo sa pagtutuli sa pamamaraan ni Moses. Ito ang resulta ng ang mga Pare na Hindi-Levita at Pare na Hindi Israelita (1Kings 12:31-32, 1Kings 13:3334, 2Chronicles 11:13-17,2 Kings 17:24-41,Nehemiah 7:61-64)ay hindi naunawaan ang Genesis 17:9-14. Katunayan hindi tutol si Apostol Saul (Pablo) sa Pagtutuli sa pamamaraan ni Abraham. Pagkagaling ni Apostol Saul sa pakikipag-usap sa mga Matatanda sa Jerusalem tungkol sa suliranin ng pagtutuli ay tinuli ni Apostol Saul (Pablo) si Timoteo sa Gawa 16:3-4 at ibinalita pa sa lahat ng lugar na pinuntahan nila ang naging desisyon ng mga Matatanda sa Jerusalem tungkol sa pagtutuli. Ang naging dahilan ng kalituhan ay ang pagtutol ni Apostol Saul (Pablo) at Apostol Barabba sa pagtutuli sa pamamaraan ni Moses at hindi sa pamamaraan ni Abraham na orihinal na pamamaraan ng pagtutuli. Pagkatapos na makunsulta ang mga Matatanda sa Jerusalem na huwag ng gambalain ang mga Hentil (di-tuli) na mananampalataya dahil binabasa naman tuwing Sabbath ang mga batas sa aklat ni Moses, samakatwid ay matututuhan din nila iyon, ay tumuloy na ng lakad si Apostol Saul (Pablo) kasama si Silas tumungo sa Syria at Cilicia at tumuloy sa Derbe at Lystra na nadatnan nila si Timoteo na mananampalataya kaya tinuli ni Apostol Saul si Timoteo. Isa pang kalituhan ay ang pagkakalagay ng chapter sa Gawa 15 ay inihiwalay ang chapter 16 ni Padre Hugo noong ika-12 Siglo ng pairalin at lagyan na ng Chapter at Verses ang Biblia. Paanong masasabi ng mga Hindi-Tuli (supot) na pwede na sila na makasama sa Tamang Pananampalataya na may Walang–hanggang Tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh kung hindi sila magpapatuli ? Sa Genesis 17:14 ay sinabi ni Yahweh na „hindi kasama’ ang mga di-tuli (supot) dahil sinira nila ang kontrata o tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh. Ngunit sa I Corinto 7:18-19 at sa Galatia 5:2 at sa Galatia 6:13 ang konklusyon ni Apostol Saul ay “dahil ang mga taong „tuli‟ (masasamang Hudyo) na hindi naman sumusunod sa mga utos ni Yahweh ay hinihimuk pa silang mga (Hintil) hindi tuli na magpatuli upang magaya sa kanilang mga tuli (masasamang Hudyo) na hindi sumusunod sa mga utos ni Yahweh”, kaya bale-wala ang kahalagahan ng kanilang pagka-tuli dahil sila ay hindi naman sumusunod sa mga utos ni Yahweh. Nasasainyo na iyan kung gusto ninyong sumunod kay Apostol Saul ay Pauline belief kayo o gusto ninyong sumunod kay Yahweh na sinasamba ni Abraham ay Abrahamic belief kayo. Ngunit ang sinulat ni Apostol Saul ay malalalim kaya nagbilin ang Disipolo ni Yahshu‟a na si Pedro sa 2 Pedro 3:15-16 at si Apostol Saul ay hindi Levita kundi mula sa lahi ni BenYahmin Phillipians 3:1-5 at galing sa paniniwala ng mga Pariseo. Basta ang sabi ni YAHWEH ang Pinakamakapangyarihan sa lahat at sinasamba ni Abraham na „hindi kasama’ ang mga di-tuli (supot) dahil sinira nila ang kontrata o tipan ni Abraham kay Yahweh.

TINANGAL NILA ANG ISA SA PUNDASYON

GENESIS 17:7-14 FOUNDATION REMOVED LEV. 23:1-41 APPOINTED FEAST OF YAHWEH

EXODUS 20:1-17 MATTHEW 5:17-18

TEN COMMANDMENTS

EXODUS 29:1-9 AARON SON AND
LEVITES PRIEST

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Those Circumcised who Do Not Keep the Law of Yahweh, even they are circumcised, the Messiah shall have no profit on them
Galatians 6:13 For neither they themselves who are circumcised keep the law; but desire to have you circumcised, that they may glory in your flesh. Galatians 5:2 Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, the Messiah shall profit you nothing.

Being Uncircumcised shall be cut- off and put away from the Covenant of Yahweh to Abraham Gen. 17:14
1Corinthians 7:18 Is any man called being circumcised? let him not become uncircumcised. Is any called in uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised. 1Corinthians 7:19 Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing, but the keeping of the commandments of YAHWEH. Uncircumcised man can Keep the Commandment of YAHWEH but he is out of the Covenant of Abraham to YAHWEH.

DECISION OF JAMES
Acts 15:19 Wherefore my sentence is, that we trouble not them, which from among the Gentiles are turned to YAHWEH: Acts 15:20 But that we write unto them, that they abstain from pollutions of idols, and from fornication, and from things strangled, and from blood. Acts 15:21 For Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath day.

The Teaching is Introductory to the Gentiles for the book of Moses being preached and read in the synagogues every Sabbath day, they will Increased their knowledges soon and the Gentiles can follow and keep the Laws and Statutes of YAHWEH in Genesis 17:12-14.

Genesis 17:12 And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed. Genesis 17:13 He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised: and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant. Genesis 17:14 And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant.

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2.

Ikalawang Pundasyon Ang Lahi ni Aaron lamang ang magsisilbing Pari at Levita lamang sa Templo ni Yahweh Magpakailanman (Forever) TINANGAL NILA ANG DALAWANG PUNDASYON

GENESIS 17:7-14 FOUNDATION REMOVED
LEV. 23:1-41 APPOINTED FEAST OF YAHWEH

EXODUS 20:1-17 MATTHEW 5:17-18

TEN COMMANDMENTS

EXODUS 29:1-9 FOUNDATION REMOVED

AARON SON AND LEVITES FOREVER (WALANG-HANGGAN): Exodus 29:1 And this is the thing that thou shalt do unto them to hallow them, to minister unto me in the priest's office: Take one young bullock, and two rams without blemish, Exodus 29:2 And unleavened bread, and cakes unleavened tempered with oil, and wafers unleavened anointed with oil: of wheaten flour shalt thou make them. Exodus 29:3 And thou shalt put them into one basket, and bring them in the basket, with the bullock and the two rams. Exodus 29:4 And Aaron and his sons thou shalt bring unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and shalt wash them with water. Exodus 29:5 And thou shalt take the garments, and put upon Aaron the coat, and the robe of the ephod, and the ephod, and the breastplate, and gird him with the curious girdle of the ephod: Exodus 29:6 And thou shalt put the mitre upon his head, and put the holy crown upon the mitre. Exodus 29:7 Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his head, and anoint him. Exodus 29:8 And thou shalt bring his sons, and put coats upon them. Exodus 29:9 And thou shalt gird them with girdles, Aaron and his sons, and put the bonnets on them: and the priest's office shall be theirs for a PERPETUAL STATUTE: and thou shalt consecrate Aaron and his sons.

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PERPETUAL STATUTE (WALANG-HANGGANG BATAS NI YAHWEH) perpetual [pər péchoo əl] adj 1. lasting for ever: lasting for all time 2. lasting indefinitely: lasting for an indefinitely long time 3. occurring repeatedly: occurring over and over statute [státtyoot] n 1. LAW law enacted by legislature: a law established by a legislative body, for example an Act of Parliament 2.BUSINESS established rule: a permanent established rule or law, especially one involved in the running of a company or other organization

MGA PEKENG-PARI ( Illegitimate Priests)

1Kings 12:31 And he made an house of high places, and made priests of the lowest of the people, which were not of the sons of Levi. 1Kings 12:32 And Jeroboam ordained a feast in the eighth month, on the fifteenth day of the month, like unto the feast that is in Judah, and he offered upon the altar. So did he in Bethel, sacrificing unto the calves that he had made: and he placed in Bethel the priests of the high places which he had made. 1Kings 13:33 After this thing Jeroboam returned not from his evil way, but made again of the lowest of the people priests of the high places: whosoever would, he consecrated him, and he became one of the priests of the high places. 1Kings 13:34 And this thing became sin unto the house of Jeroboam, even to cut it off, and to destroy it from off the face of the earth. Pinalitan ni Haring Jeroboam ng Israel ang mga Levitang Pari na Sacerdote (Yahshear-Dath) ng mga Hindi-Levita na walang alam sa mga batas at palatuntunan ni Yahweh.

PINALAYAS NI HARING JEROBOAM NG KAHARIAN NG ISRAEL ANG MGA YAHSHEAR-DATH (SACERDOTE) NA MGA LEVITANG PARI AT NANIRAHAN SA KAHARIAN NG YAHUWDAH SA LUNGSOD NG YAHRUSALEM NG TATLONG TAON 2Chronicles 11:13 And the priests and the Levites that were in all Israel resorted to him out of all their coasts. 2Chronicles 11:14 For the Levites left their suburbs and their possession, and came to Judah and Jerusalem: for Jeroboam and his sons had cast them off from executing the priest's office unto . 2Chronicles 11:15 And he ordained him priests for the high places, and for the devils, and for the calves which he had made. 2Chronicles 11:16 And after them out of all the tribes of Israel such as set their hearts to seek Mighty One of Israel came to Jerusalem, to sacrifice unto the Mighty One of their fathers. 2Chronicles 11:17 So they strengthened the kingdom of Judah, and made Rehoboam the son of Solomon strong, three years: for three years they walked in the way of David and Solomon.

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Moses was Called Dath Mosha Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - Dath Mosha Middle Eastern and North African Jewish community headdress may also resemble that of the ancient Israelites. In Yemen, the wrap around the cap was called ‫ מ ַר‬massar; the head covering worn by all ‫ַצ‬ women according to Dath Mosha was a ‫" ַרגּוש‬Gargush". ‫ג‬

Pinalayas ang mga Levitang Pari na Sacerdote (Yahshear-Dath) at tumira sa Lungsod ng Yahrusalem ng Tatlong Taon

Bawat Tatlong Taon Dumarating Naman Ang Mga Barko Galing ng Ophir
2Chronicles 9:21 For the king's ships went to Tarshish with the servants of Huram: every three years once came the ships of Tarshish bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

PAGLIPAS NOON AY HINDI NA MATAGPUAN ANG MGA YAHSHEAR-DATH o SASERDOTE NG SAMPUNG (10) TRIBO NG ISRAEL SINA YAHSHEAR DATH KOHAT, YAHSHEAR DATH MERARI AT YAHSHEAR DATH GERSHON 2Chronicles 20:18 And Jehoshaphat bowed his head with his face to the ground: and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem fell before , worshipping . 2Chronicles 20:19 And the Levites, of the children of the Kohathites, and of the children of the Korhites, stood up to praise Elohim of Israel with a loud voice on high. ANG DALAWANG HARI NG ISRAEL AT NG YAHUWDAH AY NAIS DIN PUMUNTA NG OPHIR 2Chronicles 20:35-37 ”And after this did Jehoshaphat king of Judah join himself with Ahaziah king of Israel, who did very wickedly: And he joined himself with him to make ships to go to Tarshish: and they made the ships in Ezion-geber.Then Eliezer the son of Dodavah of Mareshah prophesied against Jehoshaphat, saying, Because thou hast joined thyself with Ahaziah, Yahweh hath broken thy works. And the ships were broken, that they were not able to go to Tarshish”. In a book found in Spain entitled Collecion General de Documentos Relativos a las Islas Filipinas, the author has described how to locate Ophir. According to the section "Document No. 98", dated 1519-1522, Ophir can be found by travelling from the Cape of Good Hope in Africa, to India, to Burma, to Sumatra, to Moluccas, to Borneo, to Sulu, to China, then finally Ophir. Ophir was said to be "[...] in front of China towards the sea, of many islands where the Moluccans, Chinese, and Lequios met to trade..." Jes Tirol asserts that this group of islands could not be Japan because the Moluccans did not get there, nor Taiwan, since it is not composed of "many islands." Only the present-day Philippines, he says, could fit the description. Spanish records also mention the presence of Lequious (big, bearded white men, probably descendants of the Phoenicians, whose ships were always laden with gold and silver) in the Islands to gather gold and silver. Other evidence has also been pointed out suggesting that the Philippines was the biblical Ophir.

DAHIL SA KASALANAN NI HARING JEROBOAM NA PINALITAN ANG MGA LEVITANG PARI NG MGA ( Illegitimate Priests) HINDI LEVITA AY IPINATAPON ANG MGA ISRAELITA SA ASSYRIA AT PINALITAN SA LUPAIN NG MGA TAGA-LIMANG BANSA Itinapon ang mga Israelita kasama ang mga Paring ( Illegitimate Priests) Hindi-Levita at ang isa lang na illegitimate Priest ang pinabalik sa Samaria para magturo, samakatwid nag-ordain siya ng mga Pari

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na nagmula sa Abba, Cutha, Separvaim, Hammath at Babylonia na tinawag na Paring Israelita na hindi naman Israelita. 2Kings 17:23 Until removed Israel out of his sight, as he had said by all his servants the prophets. So was Israel carried away out of their own land to Assyria unto this day. 2Kings 17:24 And the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon, and from Cuthah, and from Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharvaim, and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel: and they possessed Samaria, and dwelt in the cities thereof. And so it was at the beginning of their dwelling there, that they feared not therefore sent lions among them, which slew some of them. :

2Kings 17:25 2Kings 17:26

Wherefore they spake to the king of Assyria, saying, The nations which thou hast removed, and placed in the cities of Samaria, know not the manner of the Elohim of the land: therefore he hath sent lions among them, and, behold, they slay them, because they know not the manner of the Elohim of the land. Then the king of Assyria commanded, saying, Carry thither one of the priests whom ye brought from thence; and let them go and dwell there, and let him teach them the manner of the Elohim of the land. Then one of the priests whom they had carried away from Samaria came and dwelt in Bethel, and taught them how they should fear .

2Kings 17:27

2Kings 17:28

Isang Pari na Hindi LEVITA (Illegitimate Priest) ang pinabalik sa Lungsod ng Samaria upang turuan ang mga taga-ibang bansa na nanirahan sa lupain ng Israel ng pananamplataya ng Israel. Ang nag-iisang Pari na ito ay hindi Levita kaya walang maituturong tama. At nangailangan siya ng makakatulong kaya nagordain siya ng maraming Pari na hindi Israelita o mga Pekeng Pari. 2Kings 17:29 Howbeit every nation made elohim of their own, and put them in the houses of the high places which the Samaritans had made, every nation in their cities wherein they dwelt.

Lahat ng limang bansa na nanirahan sa lupain ng Israel ay gumawa ng kani-kanilang sambahan para sa kanilang mga sinasambang istatwa, at lahat ng bansa ay may-kanya-kanyang elohim. Dito nagsimulang tawagin si na sinasamba ng Israel sa tawag na “elohim” dahil napabilang lamang sa isa sa mga „elohim‟ ng bawat bansa.

LAHI NG MGA PEKENG-PARI NA HINDI LEVITA (ILLEGITIMATE PRIESTS)

Nehemiah 7:63 And of the priests: the children of Habaiah, the children of Koz, the children of Barzillai, which took one of the daughters of Barzillai the Gileadite to wife, and was called after their name. Nehemiah 7:64 These sought their register among those that were reckoned by genealogy, but it was not found: therefore were they, as polluted, put from the priesthood.

ANG TUNAY NA MGA PARI (LEGITIMATE PRIESTS) AY LAHI NI AARON NA LEVITA MAGPAKAILANMAN (PERPETUAL STATUTE) Exodus 29:9 And thou shalt gird them with girdles, Aaron and his sons, and put the bonnets on them: and the priest's office shall be theirs for a perpetual statute: and thou shalt consecrate Aaron and his sons. Si Ezra ay ang Tunay na Pari (Legitimate Priest) ay isang Levita na lahi ni Aaron. Lumitaw ang mga pekeng-pari (Illegitimate Priests) na walang pinanggalingang lahi na maipakita na sila ay lahing Levita.

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Yahrusalem ay Probinsya ng Kaharian ng Persia
Ang mga nakabalik sa Yahrusalem ay pinamunuan ni Sheshbazzar at Zerubbabel na kapwa galing sa lahi ng Yahuwdah. Ang gumanap na Pari ay si Ezra na galing sa lahi ni Aaron na may dalang mga aklat ni Moses at Karapatan na ibinigay ni Artaxerxes na Emperador noon ng Persia. Si NehemiYah naman ang naatasan ng Emperador na maging Governador at ipinatupad ang pagganap ng mga Sabbath at Kapistahan ni Yahweh, ipinagbawal ang pag-aasawa ng mga Yahuwdah sa ibang lahi at pinahiwalay ang mga Yahuwdah na nakapag-asawa ng ibang lahi. Ang Yahrusalem ay naging isang probinsya ng Kaharian ng Persia, samakatwid ang umiiral na batas ay ang batas ng Persia. Ipinatawag ni Ezra ang lahat sa Kapistahan ng Trumpeta hanggang sa Kapistahan ng Tabernakulo sa ikapitung buwan at binasa ang Torah ni Moses na napakinggan ng lahat at ang lahat ay sumumpang susundin muli ang kontrata at kasunduan ni Yahweh at ng mga Yahuwdah.

TANGING LEVITA LAMANG ANG MAY KARAPATANG HUMAWAK NG MGA AKLAT NI MOSES
Ang Torah ni Moses o ang aklat ni Moses ay nadala ni Ezra na lahi ni Aaron na Levita dahil tanging ang lahi lamang ng Levita ang may karapatang humawak at mag-ingat noon. Mamamatay ang hindi Levita na humawak noon dahil iyon ay nakalagak sa Ark of the Covenant. 2Samuel 6:6-7 And when they came to Nachon's threshingfloor, Uzzah put forth his hand to the ark of Yahweh, and took hold of it; for the oxen shook it. And the anger of Yahweh was kindled Against Uzzah; and Yahweh smote him there for his error; and there he died by the ark of Yahweh. According to the Tanakh, Uzzah (fl. 1010 BC) was from the tribe of Yahuwdah whose death is associated with touching the Ark of the Covenant. He was the son of Abinadab the second of the eight sons of Jesse (1 Samuel 16:8). Jesse is the father of king David. Deuteronomy 10:8 At that time Yahweh separated the tribe of Levi, to bear the Ark of the Covenant of Yahweh, to stand before Yahweh to minister unto him, and to bless in his name, unto this day. Deuteronomy 31:26 Take this book of the law, and put it in the side of the Ark of the Covenant of Yahweh your Mighty One, that it may be there for a witness against thee.

Ang Israelitang-Pari na HINDI LEVITA na ipinalit sa mga Tunay na Levitang Pari ay nagsasalita ng Aramaic
2Kings 18:26 Then said Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, and Shebna, and Joah, unto Rab-shakeh, Speak, I pray thee, to thy servants in the Aramaic Syrian language; for we understand it: and talk not with us in the Jews' language in the ears of the people that are on the wall.

Teksto ng LEVITANG-PARI na lahi ni Aaron, Teksto ng Israelitang-Pari na HINDI LEVITA at Teksto ng Pari na HINDI ISRAELITA
Paglipas ng panahon ay naisulat ang mga teksto at komentaryo ng Israelitang-Pari na HINDI nagmula sa lahi ng Levitang si Aaron, 1 Kings 12:31-32, 1 Kings 13:33-34, at ang teksto at komentaryo ng mga Paring Hindi-Israelita, 2Kings 17:24 - 2Kings 17:27. Sila ay walang maipakitang katunayan na lahi silang Levita na mababasa sa Nehemiah 7:64. Ang Yahweh (J) Text at ang Elohim (E) Text at ang Sacerdotal (P) Text at ang Deuteronomy (D) Text ay magkakasama sa nabuong mga aklat na tinawag ngayon na Limang Aklat ni Moses. Mapapansin ang nakasulat sa mga Aklat ni Moses ay inuulit-ulit ng J, E,

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P at D text. Ang J-Text o Yahweh Text ay mula sa pag-iingat ng mga Levitang lahi ni Aaron, na tanging mga Levitang lahi sa anak ni Aaron lamang ang inatasan ni Yahweh na hahawak at mag-iingat ng mga banal na kasulatan o mga aklat ni Moses (2Samuel 6:6-7, Deuteronomy 10:8, 31:26). Ang E-text o Elohim Text ay mula sa mga Israelitang Hindi-Levita na itinalagang Pari ni Haring Yeroboam (Jeroboam) (1 Kings 12:31-32, 1 Kings 13:33-34), sila ay hindi naatasan na mag-ingat ng mga kasulatan na tanging Levita na lahi ni Aaron lamang ang may karapatang humawak. Ang P-Text at D-Text ay mula sa mga Pari na nagmula sa limang bansa ng Babylonia, Cuthah, Hamath, Ava, Separvaim (Neh 7:64) na walang talaan na lahi sila ng Levita at naturuan lamang ng isang Paring-Israelita na Hindi Naman Levita na pinabalik ng Hari ng Assyria sa lupain ng Israel (2Kings 17:27-28).

BATAS NI MOSES NOON
Exodus 32:9 And said unto Moses, I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiffnecked people: Exodus 32:10 Now therefore let me alone, that my wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them: and I will make of thee a great nation. Exodus 32:11 And Moses besought his Elohim, and said, , why doth thy wrath wax hot against thy people, which thou hast brought forth out of the land of Egypt with great power, and with a mighty hand? Exodus 32:12 Wherefore should the Egyptians speak, and say, For mischief did he bring them out, to slay them in the mountains, and to consume them from the face of the earth? Turn from thy fierce wrath, and repent of this evil against thy people. Exodus 32:13 Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, thy servants, to whom thou swarest by thine own self, and saidst unto them, I will multiply your seed as the stars of heaven, and all this land that I have spoken of will I give unto your seed, and they shall inherit it for ever. Exodus 32:14 And repented of the evil which he thought to do unto his people.

Exodus 32:19 And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf, and the dancing: and Moses' anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hands, and brake them beneath the mount. Exodus 32:20 And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it in the fire, and ground it to powder, and strawed it upon the water, and made the children of Israel drink of it. Exodus 32:21 And Moses said unto Aaron, What did this people unto thee, that thou hast brought so great a sin upon them? Exodus 32:27 And he said unto them, Thus saith Elohim of Israel, Put every man his sword by his side, and go in and out from gate to gate throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbour. Exodus 32:28 And the children of Levi did according to the word of Moses: and there fell of the people that day about three thousand men. Hindi maipatupad ang mga batas na nakasulat sa aklat ni Moses lalo na laban sa mga pandarayang aklat na gawa ng mga Hindi-Levitang Pari sa dahilang sila ay naitalang Probisya ng Kaharian ng Persia na nasasakupan ng kapangyarihan ng Hari ng Persia kaya ang mga kasulatang gawa ng mga Hindi-Levita ay hindi nila maipagbawal hanggang sa dumating ang panahon ng mga Grego.

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Greek Alexander The Great ay Nasakop ang Kaharian ng Persia, Itinayo ang Alexandria Library Museum sa Egypt ni Ptolemy Soter II at Pina-salin sa wikang Grego ang Hebreong aklat ni Moses na Tinawag na Pentateuch na nasaling muli na Tinawag na Septuagint o LXX

Inulit-ulit ang Nakasulat sa Aklat ni Moses
Genesis 1 ay Elohim (E) Text ay inulit sa Genesis 2 na Yahweh (J) Text, nadagdag ang Sacerdotal (P) Text at Deuteronomy (D) Text Ang istorya nila Adam at Eve at Cain at Abel ay Yahweh (J) Text ay tinutukoy ang pagiging malapit sa anghel (tunay na anghel hindi istatwa), sa mga halaman at pakikipag usap sa ahas. Ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay walang kwento tungkol dito. At binangit ang henerasyon mula kay Adam hanggang kay Noah. Ang istorya sa naganap na malaking baha sa Yahweh (J) Text ay 40 araw na umulan. Ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay halos isang taong delubyo. Ang Yahweh (J) Text ay may 14 na malilinis na mga hayop at 2 dimalinis na hayop. Ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay 2 malinis at 2 di-malinis na hayop. Yahweh (J) Text ay nagpadala si Noah ng 3 kalapati o tatlong beses na nagpalipad ng kalapati, ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay isang uwak ang pinalipad ni Noah. Ang J-Text at E-Text sa Kontrata ni Abraham sa Genesis 15 ay siningitan ng ibang istorya at sa Genesis 17 naman ang P-Text, lumalabas na dalawang beses nagkita sila Abraham at Yahweh. Mas dramatiko ang J-Text at E-Text sa Exodus 17 nang si Moses ay kumuha ng tubig sa bato, samantalang ang P-Text sa dalawang aklat sa Numbers 20 ay lumalabas na dalawang insidente sa dalawang magkaibang pankakataon o panahon samantalang naganap iyon sa isang lugar sa Meriba at sa isang pagkakataon. Ang Ten Commandment ay inulit- muli sa Deuteronomy 5 kahit ito ay magkaiba sa Exodus 20. Sa Exodus 20:8-11 Remember the sabbath day to sanctify i t . . . because in six days Yahweh made the heavens and the earth, the sea and ail that is in them, and he rested on the seventh day Therefore Yahweh blessed the sabbath day and sanctified it.

Sa Deuteronomy 5:12-15 Ngunit sa Deuteronomy, nang inulit ni Moses : Keep the sabbath day to sanctify i t . . . and you shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and Yahweh your God brought you out from there with a strong hand and an outstretched arm. There' fore Yahweh your God commanded you to observe the sabbath day. Ang unang bersyon galing sa P-text, ang dahilan sa pag-iingat sa Sabbath: „because God rested on the seventh day‟. Ang ikalawang bersyon mula sa D-Text, ang dahilan sa pag-iingat sa Sabbath: „because God freed you from slavery‟.

Sa Natagpuang Dead Sea Scroll Sa Dead Sea Scroll na natagpuan noong 1947 A.D. ay parehas na hindi itong dalawang bersyon ang dahilan sa pag iingat sa Sabbath: „ Sa lahat ng ito ay walang pamamaraan na nag-uutos na pamahalaan ang pag iingat ng Sabbath‟. (In all of this, no one method governs the process). Itong naisulat at iniaral ng P at D Text ay itinuwid ng Messiah na mababasa sa Matthew 12:1-12.

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Kilala mo ba si YAHSHU‟A ang pangalan ng Messiah na nagturo sa Israel 2,000 taon na ang nakakalipas ? Ang pangalang itinawag sa kanya ng kaniyang Hebreong magulang ay pangalang Hebreo na Yahshu‟a na isinusulat sa wikang Aramaic na YESHU‟A. Ang Aramaic na pangalang Yeshu‟a ay isinalin sa pangalang Greek na Iesous na binibigkas na Yeh-sous, at isinalin sa Latin na Iesus na binibigkas na Yay-sus at ng maimbento ang letrang „J‟ noong 1633 A.D. ay naisalin sa English na Jesus, mababasa sa „How Yeshu‟a Become Jesus‟ sa pahina “o”.

Mas Mahalaga ba ang pangalang Yahshu‟a kaysa Jesus ? Sa YahYah (Juan) 14:26 “ang Mang-aaliw na siyang Banal Na Ispiritu ay ipadadala ng Ama sa pamamagitan ng Aking Pangalan, at iyang Banal Na Ispiritung iyan ang siyang Magtuturo sa iyo ng lahat ng bagay at Magpapa-alala ng lahat ng sinabi ko sa iyo”. Ang pangalan niya nang binangit sa YahYah (Juan) 14:26 ay Yahshu‟a, hindi pa na-iisalin ang pangalan niya sa Iesous o Jesus, samakatwid ipadadala ng Amang Yahweh ang Banal Na Ispiritu sa pamamagitan ng Pangalang YAHSHU‟A. Bago tayo magpatuloy alam natin na bagong imbento lamang ang Letrang „J‟ kaya imposibleng Jesus ang pangalan ng Messiah, ganoon din ang pangalan ni Juan o „John‟ ay ang dapat ay „YahYah‟. Sa Israel ngayon ang tawag kay John ay „Yochanan‟ na isang kontradiksyon sa nakasulat sa YeremiYah (Jeremiah) 43:4 at sa Luke 1:61. Tangi ang Banal na Pangalan ni Yahweh na „Yah‟ sa Awit 68:4 ang may kapangyarihan na pagsalitaing-muli si ZechariYah sa Luke 1:22, Luke 1:59-64. Ang Semetic na kapatid na wika ng Hebreo at sa Arabic ang pangalan ni John ay „Yahya‟.

Si Yahshu‟a ang Messiah ay ANAK NI YAHWEH o ANAK NG TAO ? Noong kapanahunan pa ni Emperor Constantine na nagtatag ng Romano Katoliko ay pinagtatalunan na kung ang Messiah (na naisalin na sa pangalang Latin na „Iesus‟) ay „Anak ng Kataas-taasan‟ o „Anak ng Tao‟. Nang ipatawag ni Emperor Constantine noong 325 A.D. ang 1.800 na Bishop na ang dumalo ay 318 Bishop lamang sa Council of Nicea, ang pinagkatiwalaan ni Bishop Alexander na si Athanasius ay ipinipilit na si Iesus ay „Anak ng Kataas-taasan‟ at ang Banal na Ispiriti at ang Ama ay iisa o ang „Paniniwala sa Trinity‟. Si Arius naman ay ipinagpilitan na si Iesus ay „Anak ng Tao‟.

Si Yahshu‟a ay Anak Ni Yahweh: Sa geneology sa Luke 3:23-38 “Si Yahshu‟a ay magtatatlumpong taon na ay anak ni Yohseph na anak ni……. si Seth na anak ni Adam na Anak ni Yahweh”. Si Yahshu‟a raw ay anak ni Yohseph na ang ninuno ay si Adam na Anak ni Yahweh. Sa Genesis 6:2-4 sa kapanahunan ni Adam “At nakita ng mga „Anak ni Yahweh‟ na magaganda ang mga babaeng „Anak ng Tao‟ at pumili sila ng kani-kanilang mapapangasawa”. May mga higante sa mundo ng kapanahunang iyon, at ang naging supling ng Anak ni Yahweh sa mga babaeng Anak ng Tao ay naging Magigiting (Mighty men) o tinawag na Elohim.

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Nalito ang mga Translators kung Sino ang Anak ni Yahweh at Sino ang Anak ng Tao: YahYah (Juan) 12:32-34 “at Ako, kung Ako at maitaas na, ilalapit ang lahat ng tao sa akin (and I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me)”. YahYah (Juan) 12:33 ay komentaryo ng Translators. YahYah (Juan) 12:34 “Ang mga tao ay sumagot, „narinig namin sa batas na ang Messiah ay lalagi magpakailanman, bakit sinasabi mo na ang Anak ng Tao ay kailang maitaas, sino ba itong Anak ng Tao ? (“The people answered him, We have heard out of the law that Messiah abideth forever, and how sayest thou, The Son of Man must be lifted up ? who is this Son of Man ?). Wala naman binanggit sa YahYah 12:32 ang Translators na Anak ng Tao ay kailang maitaas, bakit sa isinagot ng mga tao at nagtatanong sino ba itong Anak ng Tao ? Samakatwid sa YahYah 12:32 ay ang binanggit ni Yahshu‟a ay HINDI „Ako‟ KUNDI „Anak ng Tao‟ ay maitaas na. Bakit nalito ang mga Translators ?

Si Yahshu‟a Messiah ay Anak Ni Yahweh na Buhay: Mateo 16:13-17 “Nang dumating si Yahshu‟a sa lupain ng Caesaria ng Filipos, tinanong niya ang kanyang mga Alagad. Sino raw ang Anak ng Tao ayon sa mga tao? At sumagot sila na sabi po ng ilan ay si YahYah (Juan Bautista), sabi naman ng iba ay si EliYah, at may nagsabi pang si YeremiYah o isa sa mga Propeta”. Kayo naman ano ang sabi ninyo ? sino ako ? tanong niya sa kanila. Sumagot si Simon Pedro, “Kayo po ang Messiah, ang Anak Ni Yahweh na Buhay”. Sinabi sa kanya ni Yahshu‟a “mapalad ka Simon na Anak ni Yonas sapagkat ang KATOTOHANANG ITO‟Y HINDI INIHAYAG sa iyo ng laman at ng dugo (ng sinumang tao) kundi nang aking Ama (Amang Yahweh) na nasa langit”.

Tanging si Simon Pedro na anak ni Yonas ang pinahayagan ni Amang Yahweh ng KATOTOHANAN na si Yahshu‟a ay ANAK NI YAHWEH NA BUHAY. Ang mga Translators ay nalito dahil hindi sila pinahayagan ni Amang Yahweh ng katotohanang ito kaya inakala nila na si Yahshu‟a ay Anak ng Tao kagaya ng ayon sa mga Tao.

Ano ang Inihayag ni Amang Yahweh kay Simon Pedro na Anak ni Yonas na Hindi inihayag sa sinumang tao ? Marcos 4:11 ‘sa inyo’y ipinagkaloob na malaman ang lihim tungkol sa paghahari ni Yahweh, ngunit sa iba ay ang lahat ng bagay ay itinuturo sa pamamagitan ng talinghaga’. Kung inihayag din sa inyo ito ay matatanggap ninyo ang mga SUSI sa Kaharian ni Amang Yahweh na nasa Mateo 16:19 at maiintindihan ninyo ang nangyaring sabwatan sa Golgotha.

SABWATAN SA GOLGOTHA ANG BULAANG PROPETA NA SI CAIPAS: YahYah 11:51 ‘sinabi niya ito hindi sa ganang kanyang sarili lamang, bilang punong Seserdote ng panahong iyon, hinulaan niyang mamamatay si Yahshu’a dahil sa bayan’. YeremiYah 23:31-32 ‘ako’y laban sa mga propetang kumakatha ng sariling pangitain saka sasabihing iyon ay ang sabi ni Yahweh. Ako’y laban sa propetang nagsasalaysay ng kasinungalingan upang dayain ang aking bayan, hindi ko sila sinugo at wala silang kabuluhang idudulot sa bayang ito’.

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Deuteronomo 18:21-22 ‘upang matiyak ninyo kung ano ang sinasabi ng propeta ay kung galing kay Yahweh o hindi, ito ang palatandaan: kapag hindi nagyari o hindi nagkatutoo ang sinabi niya, yaon ay hindi mula kay Yahweh, sariling katha niya iyon, huwag ninyo siyang paniwalaan’. Si Caipas ay isang bulaang Propeta at hindi karapat-dapat na maging punong Seserdote dahil hindi siya nanggaling sa lahi ni Aaron na Levita. Samakatwid hindi mula kay Yahweh ang kanyang inihula. Bakit ang mga tigapagturo ng Jesús ay naniniwala sa hula ng bulaang propetang si Caipas, at pati na ang mga naniniwala sa tunay na pangalan ni Amang Yahweh at Yahshu’a Messiah ay pinaniwalaan din ang hula ng bulaang propetang si Caipas at naniniwala sa Hindi Seserdote ni Amang Yahweh.

PINANGGALINGAN NG BULAANG SESERDOTE NA KAGAYA NI CAIPAS 1 Hari 12:31 ‘nagtayo pa sila ng mga sambahan sa burol at naglagay ng mga Seserdote na hindi mula sa lipi ng Levita, kundi pangkaraniwang tao lamang (NehemiYah 7:63-65)’. 1 Hari 13:33 ‘sa ginawang kasamaang ito ni Yeroboam, hindi siya tumigil sa paggawa ng kasamaan, patuloy parin siyang nagtatalaga ng mga Seserdote na hindi lahing Levita kundi pangkaraniwang tao lamang’. Si Caipas ay hindi nanggaling sa lahi ni Aaron na Levita, samakatwid si Caipas ay hindi tamang Seserdote.

ANG TAMANG SESERDOTE Lukas 1:5 ‘Nang si Herodes ang hari ng Judea, may isang Seserdote na ang pangalan ay ZechariYah sa pangkat ni Abias, at mula rin sa lipi ni Aaron ang kanyang asawa na si Elizabeth’. NehemiYah 12:4 ‘mga Seserdote’ na Levita, ‘Iddo, Ginetoi, Abias’. Exodus 29:1 ‘Ganito ang gagawin mo sa pagtatalaga kay Aaron at sa kanyang mga anak na lalaki bilang Seserdote’.

SINO ANG NAGPLANO NA IPAPATAY ANG MESSIAH? YahYah 11:45-54 ‘marami sa mga Hudyong dumalaw kay Maria ang nakakita sa ginawa ni Yahshu’a at nanalig sa kanya. Ngunit ang ilan sa kanila’y pumunta sa mga Pariseo at ibinalita ang ginawa ni Yahshu’a, kaya’t tinipon ng mga punong Seserdote at ng mga Pariseo ang mga Kagawad ng Sanhedrin. ‘Ano ang gagawin natin’? Wika nila, gumagawa ng maraming kababalaghan ang taong iyon, kung siya’y pababayaan natin mananampalataya sa kanya ang lahat, paparito ang mga Romano at wawasakin ang Templo at ang ating bansa. Ngunit ang isa sa kanila si Caipas ang pinaka-punong Seserdote noon ay nagsabi ng ganito, ‘Ano ba kayo, hindi ba ninyo naiisip na mas mabuti para sa atin na isang tao lamang ang mamatay alang-alang sa bayan, sa halip na mapahamak ang buong bansa. (sinabi niya ito hindi sa ganang kanyang sarili lamang bilang punongSeserdote sa panahong iyon – hinulaan niya na mamamatay si Yahshu’a dahil sa bansa – at hindi lamang sa bansang iyon lamang kundi upang tipunin ang nagkawatak-watak na mga Anak ng Maykapal). Mula noon ay binalangkas na nila kung paano ipapapatay si Yahshu’a. Kaya’t siya’y hindi na hayagang naglakad sa Hudea. Sa halip, siya’y nagpunta sa Efraim, isang bayang malapit sa ilang at doon siya nanirahan kasama ng kanyang mga alagad’.

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BINALAK NA IPAPATAY NA RIN SI LAZARO YahYah 12:10-11 ‘Binalak ng mga punong Seserdote na ipapatay din si Lazaro, sapagkat dahilan sa kanya’y maraming Hudyong humihiwalay na sa kanila at nananalig na kay Yahshu’a’. IBIG IPAPATAY NI HERODES SI YAHSHU’A Lukas 13:31 ‘Dumating noon ang ilang Pariseo, sinabi nila kay Yahshu’a, ‘umalis ka rito, sapagkat ibig kang ipapatay ni Herodes’. Lukas 3:6 ‘umalis ang mga Pariseo at nakipagsabwatan sa mga kampon ni Herodes upang ipapatay si Yahshu’a’.

ANAK NI YAHWEH AY IBA SA ANAK NG TAO Genesis 6:2 ‘ang mga Anak ni Yahweh ay nakita ang mga babaeng ‘Anak ng Tao’ na magaganda, kaya pumili sila ng kani-kanilang mapapangasawa’

ANAK NG TAO Genesis 11:5 ‘bumaba si Yahweh upang tingnan ang lungsod at ang toreng itinatayo ng mga Anak ng Tao’.

SI YAHSHU’A HANGGANG SA NINUNO NIYANG SI ADAN AY MGA ANAK NI YAHWEH Lukas 3: 23 – 38 ‘ si Yahshu’a ay mag-tatatlumpung taon na ng magsimulang magturo, na anak ni Yahseph, na anak ni Heli,………38..na anak ni Enos, na anak ni Seth, na anak ni Adan na Anak ni Yahweh’.

SINO ANG ANAK NG TAO, SINO AKO? SI YAHSHU’A AY ANAK NI YAHWEH NA BUHAY Mateo 16:13-17 ‘Nang dumating si Yahshu’a sa lupain ng Caesaria ng Filipos, tinanong niya ang kanyang mga alagad, ‘sino raw ang ‘Anak ng Tao’, ayon sa mga tao? At sumagot sila, ang sabi po ng ilan ay si YahYah Bautista, sabi naman ng iba ay si EliYah, at may nagsabi pang si YeremiYah o isa sa mga propeta. Kayo naman, ano ang sabi ninyo sino ako? Tanong niya sa kanila. Sumagot si Simon Pedro, ‘kayo po ang Messiah ang Anak ni Yahweh na buhay’, sinabi sa kanya ni Yahshu’a, mapalad ka Simon na anak ni Yonas, sapagkat ang katotohanang ito’y hindi inihayag sa iyo ng sinumang tao kundi ng aking Ama na nasa langit’.

ANO ANG KATOTOHANAN NA HINDI INIHAYAG NG SINUMANG TAO KUNDI ANG AMANG YAHWEH LAMANG? Na makilala na BUHAY si Yahshu’a ang Messiah na ANAK NI YAHWEH

SINO BA ANG ANAK NG TAO? YahYah 12:32-34 ‘at kung ako’y maitaas na, ilalapit ko sa akin ang lahat ng tao’, sumagot ang mga tao, ‘sinasabi sa Kasulatan na ang Messiah ay mananatili Magpakailanman, sino ba itong Anak ng Tao?’

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Samakatwid, ang binanggit ni Yahshu’a ‘at kung ako’y maitaas na’ ay ang tamang pagkakasulat ay ‘at kung ang ‘Anak ng Tao’ ay maitaas na’. Ito’y mapapansin sa kasagutan ng mga tao sa pagtatanong ng ‘sino ba itong Anak ng Tao?’ Ang Translators ay hindi “Mapalad’ na kagaya ni Simon na anak ni Yonas na pinahayagan ni Amang Yahweh na si Yahshu’a ang Messiah ay BUHAY na ANAK NI YAHWEH

NAGPAKILALA SI YAHSHU’A NA ANAK NI YAHWEH YahYah 10:36 ‘ako’y hinirang at sinugo ng Ama, Yahweh sa sinabi ko na Ako ay Anak ni Yahweh’. paano ninyong masasabi ngayon na nilalapastangan ko si

KINILALA SI YAHSHU’A Mateo 3:17 ‘ito ang minamahal kong Anak na lubos kong kinalulugdan’.

SINO BA ANG BINANGGIT NI YAHSHU’A NA KAILANGANG MAMATAY? Markos 8:31 ‘Anak ng Tao’ ay dapat magbata ng maraming hirap, siya ay itatakwil ng Matatanda ng Bayan, ng mga punong Seserdote at ng mga Eskriba at ipapapatay. Ngunit sa ikatlong araw muli siyang mabubuhay’. Lukas 9:21-22 ‘Anak ng Tao’ ay dapat magbata ng maraming hirap at itatakwil ng Matatanda ng Bayan, ng mga punong Seserdote at ng mga Eskriba, ipapapatay nila siya, ngunit sa ikatlong araw siya ay muling mabubuhay’.

MULING IPINAHAYAG NI YAHSHU’A ANG KAMATAYAN NG ANAK NG TAO Lukas 9:44-45 ‘ipagkakanulo ang Anak ng Tao’, ngunit ito’y hindi nila maunawaan sapagkat inilihim ito sa kanila’. Markos 9:31 ‘Ang Anak ng Tao ay ipagkakanulo at papatayin, ngunit muling mabubuhay sa ikatlong araw’. Mateo 17:22-23 ‘sinabi sa kanila ni Yahshu’a na ang Anak ng Tao ay ipagkakanulo at papatayin, ngunit muling mabubuhay sa ikatlong araw’.

IKATLONG BESES NA INIHAYAG NI YAHSHU’A ANG KAMATAYAN NG ANAK NG TAO Markos 10:33-34 ‘ang Anak ng Tao ay ipagkakanulo sa mga punong Seserdote at sa mga Eskriba, siya’y kanilang hahatulan ng kamatayan at ibibigay sa mga Gentil, siya’y tutuyain nila, luluraan, hahagupitin at papatayin, ngunit muli siyang mabubuhay pagkaraan ng tatlong araw’. Mateo 20:18 ‘aakyat tayo sa Yahrusalem. Doo’y ipagkakanulo sa mga punong Seserdote at sa mga Eskriba ang Anak ng Tao, hahatulan siya ng kamatayan at ibibigay sa mga Gentil. Siya’y tutuyain, hahagupitin at ipapako sa krus, ngunit muli siyang bubuhayin sa ikatlong araw’. Lukas 18:31-34 ‘tandaan ninyo ito pupunta tayo sa Yahrusalem at doo’y matutupad ang lahat ng sinulat ng mga propeta tungkol sa ‘Anak ng Tao’. Ipagkakanulo siya sa mga Gentil, tutuyain, dudustain at luluraan siya ng

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mga ito. Siya’y hahagupitin at papatayin nila, ngunit sa ikatlong araw ay muling mabubuhay. Subalit wala silang maunawaan sa kanilang narinig, hindi nila nakuha ang kahulugan niyon, at hindi man lamang nalaman kung ano ang sinabi ni Yahshu’a’. Samakatwid ay tinutukoy ni Yahshu’a ay ang ‘Anak ng Tao’ ay dapat magbata ng maraming hirap, siya ay itatakwil ng Matatanda ng Bayan, ng mga punong Seserdote at ng mga Eskriba at ipapapatay. Ngunit sa ikatlong araw muling mabubuhay’. Si Yahshu’a ay ‘Anak ni Yahweh’ na inihayag kay Simon Pedro na anak ni Yonas, ito ay hindi inihayag ng tao kundi tanging si Amang Yahweh lamang ang naghayag nito.

UNANG ITINURO NI APOSTOL SAUL (PABLO) NA SI YAHSHU’A AY ANAK NI YAHWEH Gawa 9:20 ‘Una niyang itinuro sa mga sinagoga na si Messiah Yahshu’a ay siya’ng Anak ni Yahweh

BAGO MAGBAUTISMO SI FELIPE NA DISIPOLO NI YAHSHU’A Gawa 8:37 ‘at si Felipe ay nagsabi ‘kung ikaw ay naniniwala ng buong puso, maniwala ka’, at siya’y sumagot, ‘naniniwala ako na si Yahshu’a ay Anak ni Yahweh’.

PINANGGALINGAN NG ALAMAT NA ‘NABUHAY NA MULI’ ALAMAT NI MYTHRA BAGO LUMITAW SI YAHSHU’A MESSIAH (1200 B.C.E.) Si Mythra ng Persia ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at ‘Nabuhay Na Muli’ sa ikatlong araw.

ALAMAT NI ATTIS BAGO LUMITAW SI YAHSHU’A MESSIAH NG NAZARETH (1200 B.C.E.) Si Attis ng Gresya ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at ‘Nabuhay Na Muli’ sa ikatlong araw.

ALAMAT NI KRISHNA BAGO LUMITAW SI YAHSHU’A MESSIAH NG NAZARETH (900 B.C.E.) Si Krishna ng India ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at ‘Nabuhay Na Muli’ sa ikatlong araw.

ALAMAT NI TAMMUZ BAGO LUMITAW SI YAHSHU’A MESSIAH NG NAZARETH Ezekiel 8:14 (597 B.C.E) Si Nimrod II ay tinawag naTammuz ng mga Babylonia, Azur naman ang tawag ng mga Asyrian, at Osiris naman ang tawag ng mga Egyptian. Si Nimrod II ay napatay at ang kanyang asawa ay nagbuntis sa ibang lalaki at pinalabas na ang bata ay si Nimrod II na ‘NABUHAY NA MULI’.Mula noon ang Alamat na ito ay naging bantog sa mga Alamat ng Griyego at Romano kahanay nila Jupiter at Zeus.

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ALAMAT NI HORUS BAGO LUMITAW SI YAHSHU’A MESSIAH NG NAZARETH (300 B.C.E.) Si Horus ng Egypt ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at ‘Nabuhay Na Muli’ sa ikatlong araw.

ALAMAT NI DIONYSUS BAGO LUMITAW SI YAHSHU’A MESSIAH NG NAZARETH (200 B.C.E.) Si Dionysus ng Gresya ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at ‘Nabuhay Na Muli’ sa ikatlong araw. Mapapansin na ang mga unang nagsalin (translators) ng Biblia ay nanggaling sa bansang naimpluwensyahan ng mga Alamat na ‘NABUHAY NA MULI’. Mapapanood sa Google video clipping ‘Part 1 The Greatest Story Ever Told’.

NADALANG PANINIWALA NI HERODES Markos 6:14-16, Mateo 14:1-22 ‘nakarating kay Haring Herodes ang balita tungkol kay Yahshu’a, sapagkat bantog na ang pangalan nito. May nagsabi, siya’y si YahYah Bautista na muling nabuhay, kaya nakakagawa siya ng mga himala. May nagsabi naman na siya’y si EliYah, siya’y propeta, katulad ng mga propeta noong una anang iba. Sinabi naman ni Herodes nang mabalitaan niya ito, ‘NABUHAY NA MULI’ si YahYah Bautista na pinapugutan ko’. Mapapansin na dati nang pinaniniwalaan ang alamat na ‘NABUHAY NA MULI’ ay sikat na sikat na paniniwala ng halos lahat ng Paganong Bansa bago pa magturo si Yahshu’a Messiah.

ANO BA ANG TALINGHAGA SA NABUHAY NA MULI? Lukas 15:32 ‘ngunit dapat tayong magsaya at magalak, sapagkat ‘NAMATAY NA’ ang kapatid mo, ngunit – ‘MULING NABUHAY’, ‘NAWALA’ ngunit muling nasumpungan’ Epeso 2:5 ‘tayo’y ‘BINUHAY’ niya kay Messiah kahit noong tayo’y mga patay pa dahil sa ating mga pagsuway’.

Lukas 9:60 ‘ipaubaya mo sa mga patay ang paglilibing ng kanilang mga patay’. Marcos 4:11 ‘sa inyo’y ipinagkaloob na malaman ang lihim tungkol sa paghahari ni Yahweh, ngunit sa iba ay ang lahat ng bagay ay itinuturo sa pamamagitan ng talinghaga’.

PANALANGIN NI YAHSHU’A Lukas 22:42 ‘Ama’, wika niya, ‘kung maaari’y ilayo mo sa akin ang sarong ito, gayunma’y huwag ang kalooban ko ang masunod kundi ang KALOOBAN MO’.

DININIG ANG PANALANGIN NI YAHSHU’A

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Hebreo 5:7-8 ‘Noong si Yahshu’a ay namumuhay rito sa lupa, siya’y nanalangin at lumuluhang sumamo kay Amang Yahweh na makapagliligtas sa kanya sa kamatayan, at DININIG SIYA dahil sa lubusan siyang nagpakumbaba’.

KALOOBAN NG NAGMAMAY-ARI NA MAKAKUHA NG PRUTAS HINDI ANG MAPATAY ANG KANYANG ANAK Mateo 21:33-41 Pakinggan ninyo ang isang Talinghaga: May isang nagmamay-ari ng pataniman ng ubasan at tinayuan niya ng gawaan ng alak at tore at iniwan niya sa kanyang mga Magsasaka at siya ay pumunta sa ibang bansa. Nang dumating ang panahon na malapit ng magbunga ang mga pananim ay ipinadala niya ang ang kanyang mga Tagasunod sa Magsasaka upang makatanggap ng mga prutas. Ang Tagasunod ay binugbog at pinatay at ang iba ay pinagbabato. Muling nagpadala ng iba pang Tagasunod at ganoon din ang ginawa ng Magsasaka. Ngunit sa huli ay ipinadala ang kanyang anak sa paniwalang kanilang igagalang ang kanyang anak. Ngunit ng makita ng mga Magsasaka ang anak ay nagkaisa sila na sinabing “ito ang Tigapagmana, atin siyang Patayin at ating angkinin ang kanyang pagmamanahan” At ang Anak ay kanilang kinuha sa Pataniman ng ubas at kanilang Pinatay. Ngayon kung dumating na ang Nagmamay-ari ng pataniman ng ubas, ano ang kanyang gagawin sa mga Magsasaka? At sumagot sila na matinding sisirain ang mga masasamang tao at ibibigay ang kanyang pataniman ng ubas sa ibang Magsasaka na magsusukli sa kanya ng mga Prutas sa Tamang Panahon”. KALOOBAN ba ng Nagmamay-ari ng ubasan na mapatay ang kanyang Anak o ang KALOOBAN niya ay Makakuha ng Prutas?

INILAGAY SA KANILANG ISIP NA AKO’Y PATAY Awit 31:12 ‘ako ay kinalimutan nila at inilagay sa kanilang isip na ako ay patay’

Awit 118:17-22 ‘hindi ako mamamatay kundi mabubuhay, ihahayag ang kagila-gilalas na ginawa ni Yahweh. Kinastigo ako ni Yahweh, ngunit hindi ako ibinigay sa kamatayan’. 118:22 ‘ang batong inayawan ay siyang naging pinaka-saligang bato’ Ito ay naisalin sa Gawa 4:11-12 ‘ang batong inayawan ay naging pinaka-saligang bato, walang kaligtasan sa kaninuman, dahil walang tanging pangalan sa silong ng langit na ipinagkaloob sa mga tao kundi sa pangalan ni Yahshu’a Messiah’. Lukas 24:44 ‘ito ang tinutukoy ko ng sabihin ko sa inyo noong kasama-sama pa ninyo ako, ‘dapat matupad ang lahat ng nakasulat tungkol sa akin sa Kasulatan ni Moses, sa Aklat ng mga Propeta, at sa mga Aklat ng Awit ni David’.

ANG MGA NAKASULAT SA MGA KASULATAN NI MOSES, AKLAT NG MGA PROPETA AT SA AKLAT NG AWIT NI DAVID Deuteronomo 18:15 ‘si Yahweh ay magtatalaga ng Propeta sa kalagitnaan ninyo, na kalahi ninyo, na kagaya ko (si Moses ay Levita rin), sa kanya kayo dapat makinig’.

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Awit 118:17-22 ‘hindi ako mamamatay kundi mabubuhay, ihahayag ang kagila-gilalas na ginawa ni Yahweh. Kinastigo ako ni Yahweh, ngunit hindi ako ibinigay sa kamatayan’. 118:22 ‘ang batong inayawan ay siyang naging pinaka-saligang bato’ Daniel 9:26 ‘at paglipas ng animnapu at dalawang linggo ang Messiah ay mapuputol, ngunit hindi para sa kanyang sarili’: Mapuputol ngunit hindi sinabing mamamatay. Isaiah 53:8 ‘siya ay inilabas sa kulungan at sa paghatol: at sino ang makakapagsabi sa kasama niya sa kanyang henerasyon na siya ay pinutol sa lupain ng mga buhay? Dahil sa kasalanan ng kanyang bayan siya ay nagdalamhati’. Si Propeta Isaiah ay sumulat ng pangsubok na katanungan na sino sa kanyang kapanahunang ka-henerasyon na makakapagsabi na siya ay naputol sa lupain ng mga buhay. Dahil sa kasalanan ng kanyang bayan siya ay nagdalamhati (stricken).

WALANG NAKASULAT SA MGA KASULATAN NG MGA HUDYO NA ANG MESSIAH AY MAGBABATA NG HIRAP. ITO AY DAGDAG NG NAGSALIN NG SULAT NI MATEO NA ANG MESSIAH AY MAGBABATA NG HIRAP

Mateo 26:27-28 ‘NAGPASALAMAT’. Tingnan ang Mateo 15:36 ‘ibinigay niya sa kanila – LAHAT KAYO, kagaya sa Markos 14:23-24, sa sunud-sunod na ulat ni Markos ang mga Disipolo ay UMINOM at pagkatapos ay sinabi ni Yahshu’a ang salitang ito. Sa Mateo ay PINALITAN ITO at ginawang pautos na INUMIN NINYO sinundan ng salitang ‘AKING DUGO’, tingnan ang Leviticus 17:11 dahil ang dumanak na dugo ang dahilan ng buhay at kung ilalagay ito sa altar ay MAKAKAPAGPATAWAD ng mga KASALANAN na may relasyon sa Huling Hapunan. Sa mga salita na nasalin sa Griyego, tingnan ang Markos 14:24 ‘MARAMI’, tingnan ang Mateo 20:28, dahil sa ‘KAPATAWARAN NG KASALANAN’ AY IDINUGTUNG SA AKLAT NI MATEO. Parehas na salita ang nasa Markos 1:4 sa pagbabautismo ni YahYah Bautista ngunit sa Mateo ay INIWASAN ITO (Mateo 3:11). Ginawa ito maari dahil ‘NAIS NIYANG IPALAGAY NA ANG PAGSASAKRIPISYO NG MESSIAH SA KAMATAYAN AY ANG MAGBIBIGAY NG KAPATAWARAN NG MGA KASALANAN’.

Maliwanan na IDINAGDAG lamang sa Mateo na ang ‘KAPATAWARAN NG MGA KASALANAN AY ANG KAMATAYAN NG MESSIAH’. Ano ba ang KAPATAWARAN ng mga kasalanan?

JUBILEE YEAR Ang Kapatawaran sa Mga Kasalanan Leviticus 25:8-55, ang Jubilee Year ay ang KAPATAWARAN sa mga materyal na mga pagkakautang, ngunit ang espiritual na utang ay mga kasalanan na katulad sa Jubilee Year na PINATATAWAD ang materyal na utang ay ganoon din PINATATAWAD ang espiritual na utang na mga kasalanan. Lukas 4:19 ‘upang ituro ang Katanggap-tanggap na Taon ni Yahweh’. Ang tinutukoy na Katanggap-tanggap na Taon ni Yahweh ay ang Jubilee Year. Lahat ng mga Escolar ay naniniwala na ang Katanggap-tanggap na Taon ni Yahweh ay ang Jubilee Year. Lukas 7:36-50 ‘si Yahshu’a ay inimbitahan ni Simon na isang Pariseo upang kumain sa kanyang tahanan, at ang isang masamang babae ay hinugasan sa luha at pinunasan ng kanyang buhok, nilagyan ng pabango at hinalikan ang mga paa ni Yahshu’a. Ang mga nanduroong Pariseo ay nagsabi na kung talagang Propeta si Yahshu’a ay makikilala niya agad ito na isang masamang babae. Ngunit tinanong ni Yahshu’a si Simon (na

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Pariseo) tungkol sa dalawang tao na may pagkakautang na 500 Dinaryo at 50 Dinaryo, Nang hindi parehong makapagbayad ay agad na pinatawad sa pagkakautang ang dalawa. Ngayon sino sa kanila ang higit na magmamahal sa nagpatawad sa utang? Sumagot si Simon na ang mas Malaki ang pagkakautang ang mas higit na magmamahal. Sa ganitong sagot ni Simon ay itinuro ni Yahshu’a ang makasalanang babae (Lukas 7:47) at sinabi na kahit Marami o Malaki ang kasalanan ng babae ay PINATAWAD NA dahil Malaki rin ang isinukli niyang pagmamahal. At sinabi ni Yahshu’a sa babae ‘Ang iyong mga kasalanan ay PINATAWAD NA’ (Lukas 7:48). At ang mga kasalo sa pagkain ay nagsimulang magtanong sa sarili, ‘sino ba ito na pati pagpapatawad ng kasalanan ay pinanga-ngahasan? Ngunit sinabi ni Yahshu’a sa babae ‘INILIGTAS KA NG IYONG PANANALIG, YUMAON KA NA AT IPANATAG MO ANG IYONG KALOOBAN’. Samakatwid ang may malaking pagkakautang na pinatawad ay kagaya noong babae na may malaking kasalanan, ito ay ang ibig sabihin ng Jubilee Year, na mas-Malaki ang halaga na maisasanla ang ari-arian kung Malaki pa ang panahon bago dumating ang Jubilee Year, at mas-Maliit naman ang halaga kung maliit na ang panahon bago dumating ang Jubilee Year. Ang Jubilee Year ay nagpapatawad sa mga utang na materyal, samantala ang utang na espiritual ay ang mga kasalanan ay ganoon din ay PINATATAWAD sa Taon na Katanggap-tanggap kay Yahweh . Ang pananampalataya ng babae ang nagligtas sa kanya, ito ang pananampalataya sa itinuro ni Yahshu’a sa Lukas 4:19 na Jubilee Year. Kung ang pananampalataya sa Taon na Katanggap-tanggap kay Yahweh (Jubilee Year) ay isang daan sa IKAPAPATAWAD sa mga utang na kasalanan, Bakit kailangan pang mamatay ang Messiah sa ikapapatawad ng ating mga kasalanan?

IMBISTIGASYON SA MGA NAGANAP: SINO ANG NAGPLANO NA IPAPATAY ANG MESSIAH? YahYah 11:45-54 ‘marami sa mga Hudyong dumalaw kay Maria ang nakakita sa ginawa ni Yahshu’a at nanalig sa kanya. Ngunit ang ilan sa kanila’y pumunta sa mga Pariseo at ibinalita ang ginawa ni Yahshu’a, kaya’t tinipon ng mga punong Seserdote at ng mga Pariseo ang mga Kagawad ng Sanhedrin. ‘Ano ang gagawin natin? Wika nila, ‘gumagawa ng maraming kababalaghan ang taong iyon, kung siya’y pababayaan natin mananampalataya sa kanya ang lahat, paparito ang mga Romano at wawasakin ang Templo at ang ating bansa. Ngunit ang isa sa kanila si Caipas ang pinaka-punong Seserdote noon ay nagsabi ng ganito, ‘Ano ba kayo, hindi ba ninyo naiisip na mas mabuti para sa atin na isang tao lamang ang mamatay alang-alang sa bayan, sa halip na mapahamak ang buong bansa. ( sinabi niya ito hindi sa ganang kanyang sarili lamang bilang punong-Seserdote sa panahong iyon – hinulaan niya na mamamatay si Yahshu’a dahil sa bansa – at hindi lamang sa bansang iyon lamang kundi upang tipunin ang nagkawatak-watak na mga Anak ng Maykapal). Mula noon ay binalangkas na nila kung paano ipapapatay si Yahshu’a. Kaya’t siya’y hindi na hayagang naglakad sa Hudea. Sa halip, siya’y nagpunta sa Efraim, isang bayang malapit sa ilang at doon siya nanirahan kasama ng kanyang mga alagad’.

IBIG IPAPATAY NI HERODES SI YAHSHU’A Lukas 13:31 ‘Dumating noon ang ilang Pariseo, sinabi nila kay Yahshu’a, ‘umalis ka rito, sapagkat ibig kang ipapatay ni Herodes’. Lukas 3:6 ‘umalis ang mga Pariseo at nakipagsabwatan sa mga kampon ni Herodes upang ipapatay si Yahshu’a’.

BLASPHEMY

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Noong kapanahunan nang ang Israel ay masasakop na ng Bansang Assyria ay naglabas ng Batas ang Sanhedrin, sa sinumang bumanggit ng Banal na pangalang Yahweh ay magkakasala ng ‘Pamumusong’ (Blasphemy). Ito ay mababasa sa Encyclopedia Judaica sa Titulong ‘YHWH”. Kahit na ang pinaikling tawag kay Yahweh na ‘Yah’ ay binibigkas na ng ‘Ye’ (Ezra 2:2) sa pag-iwas sa pagbanggit ng pangalang Yahweh. Sa kapanahunan ni Yahshu’a Messiah ay pinatawan siya ng pagkakasala ng Blasphemy. Mateo 26: 64-65 ‘sinasabi ko sa inyo na ang ‘Anak ng Tao’ ay uupo sa kanan ng ‘Makapangyarihan’ at darating sa mga alapaap ng kalangitan’ sa ganoon ay pinunit ng punong Seserdote ang sariling kasuutan at pinatawan ng kasalanang ‘Kapusungan’ (Blasphemy) si Yahshu’a. Ang ‘Blasphemy’ ay pagkakasala sa pagbigkas ng Banal na pangalang Yahweh, kaya hindi ‘Makapangyarihan’ ang binanggit ni Yahshu’a kundi ang pangalang Yahweh kaya siya ay pinatawan ng pagkakasala ng “Pamumusong’ (Blasphemy). Si Yahshu’a ay dinala ng mga tauhan ng punong seserdote kay Gobernador Pilato at ipinadala naman ni Pilato si Yahshu’a kay Tetraikang Herodes, ngunit hindi hinatulan ng Kamatayan ni Herodes si Yahshu’a, at si Yahshu’a ay ibinalik kay Gobernador Pilato. Naging magkaibigan tuloy sila na dati’y magkagalit. Sa ganiton pananaw ay hindi sasalungatin ni Pilato ang naging desisyon ni Herodes na kabago-bago palang niyang kaibigan, (Lukas 23:13-15). Si Gobernador Pilato naman ay pinagsabihan ng kanyang asawa na huwag pakialaman si Yahshu’a dahil pinahirapan siya sa panaginip sa nakaraang gabi. Sa ganito ay hindi nanaisin ni Pilato na hindi pagbigyan ang kahilingan ng kanyang asawa, (Mateo 27:19). Dahil lamang sa pangangailangang pagbigyan ang mga tao na alam ni Pilato na sinuhulan ng mga punong Seserdote ay kinailangang baguhin ang una niyang desisyon na ‘walang kasalanan si Yahshu’a at kanyang palalayain, (YahYah 18:38, Luke 23:4, Luke 23:13-16, Luke 23:20).

ANO ANG UGALI NI GOBERNADOR PILATO? Paanong maging sunod-sunuran si Pilato sa kagustuhan ng mga tao lamang, kung ang ugali niya ay ganito, ‘ ang naisulat na niya’y hindi na pwedeng baguhin? Samakatwid, ang unang desisyon ni Pilato na si Yahshu’a ay walang kasalanan at palalayain ay hindi pwedeng magbago. Ngunit dahil sa pagnanais ng mga punong Seserdote (na mas mababa ang kapangyarihan kaysa kay Gobernador Pilato) na maipapatay si Yahshu’a, kinakailangan pulungin ni Pilato ang lahat ng kanyang batalyon. Pinapasok niya ang mga ito sa kanyang palasyo at doon ay sila-sila lamang ang nag-usap na paanong ipatupad ang kagustuhan ng mga tao na sinuhulan ng mga punong Seserdote at ang pagsunod sa unang desisyon ni Pilato na palayain si Yahshu’a. (Hindi nakapasok sa Palasyo ang mga Hudyo dahil maituturing silang marumi at hindi karapat-dapat sa Hapunang pang-Paskua, (YahYah 18:28, YahYah 19:19-22). Lumabas ang Batalyon na kasama si Yahshu’a na may buhat na kahoy (krus). Nang makita nila si Simon na tagaCyrene (Libya sa ngayon), kanilang ipina-buhat kay Simon ang kahoy na buhat ni Yahshu’a at si Yahshu’a ay inilagay sa likuran. Ang kanilang dinaanan ay pasilyong makitid na daanan lamang, kaya sa susunod na pagliko ay ang nakita na ng mga tao na may buhat ng kahoy ay si Simon na. Mapapansin na sa ika-labingdala ng tanghali hanggang sa ikatlo ng hapon ay nagdilim sa kapaligiran. Mapapansin din na walang nakasulat sa Bagong Tipan na ‘isinauli ni Simon kay Yahshu’a ang kahoy kaya ng siya ay sumigay ng ‘Ama, patawarin mo sila dahil hindi nila alam ang kanilang ginagawa’. Si Simon na taga Cyrene ay nagsasalita ng Griyegong wika. Sa Cyrene hanggang sa ngayon ay marami pang lahi ng mga Griyego sa Susa, sa Shihat, sa Beda at sa iba pang lugar sa Libya. YahYah 8:29 ‘at kasama ko ang nagsugo sa akin, hindi niya ako iniiwan sapagkat lagi kong ginagawa ang nakalulugod sa kanya’. Paanong si Yahshu’a ay magsasalita ng ‘Ama, Ama bakit mo ako pinabayaan? o ang ‘Eli, Eli lama Sabacthani’ kung hindi naman siya iniiwan ng nagsugo sa kanya?

Ayon sa Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Hebrew Bible Chaldean Hebrew at Greek Dictionary:

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Greek Dictionary: 2241 (Greek) ELI = my God – in Hebrew (EL) ‘Ale’ = mighty, Almighty 1682 (Greek) ELOI = my God 2982 (Greek) LAMA = why – in Hebrew 4100 MAH = why In Hebrew 3027 YAD = Thou 4518 (Greek) SABACTHANI = thou has left me – in Hebrew 7662 In Hebrew 7662 SHEBAQ = allow to remain ‘Ama, Ama, Bakit Mo Ako Pinabayaan’ ay salitang sumisisi sa Ama. Yob (Job) 1:22 ‘sa kabila ng mga pangyayaring ito ay hindi nagkasala si Yob, hindi niya sinisi si Yahweh’. Hindi maaring sisihin ni Yahshu’a ang Ama sa Langit dahil ito ay kasalanan. Si Yob ay hindi nagkasala dahil hindi niya sinisi ang Ama sa Langit.

MGA SAKSI May mga saksi na ang taong nakabayubay sa kahoy (krus) ay sumigaw ng Eli, Eli Lama Sabacthani na isang salitang Griego. Hinintay ng mga saksi na baka dumating si Propeta EliYah na tinawag ng nakabayubay sa kahoy. SI YAHSHU’A AY HINDI NAGSASALITA NG SALITANG GRIYEGO KUNDI SALITANG HEBREO LAMANG Gawa 10:28, Gawa 26:14 ‘alam ninyo na ang isang Hudyo ay pinagbabawalan ng kanyang pananampalataya na makisama o dumalaw sa isang hindi Hudyo’. ‘ Nakarinig ako na nagsasalita sa wikang Hebreo’

KASABWAT SI PILATO SA SABWATAN SA GOLGOTHA Markos 15:44 ‘hindi magugulat si Gobernador Pilato at magtatanong pa, ‘kung may napatay’ at kung tutuo na desisyon ni Pilato na ipapatay si Yahshu’a.

ANG DECOY YahYah 19:39 ‘sumama sa kanya si Nicodemus, may dalang pabango, mga 100 libra ng pinaghalong mira at aloe (si Nicodemus ang nagsadya kay Yahshu’a isang gabi). Mateo 27:62-65‘kinabukasan, pagkatapos ng Araw ng paghahanda, sama-samang nagpunta kay Pilato ang mga punong Seserdote at mga Pariseo. Sinabi nila ‘Naaalala po namin na sinabi ng mapagpanggap na iyon noong nabubuhay pa na siya’s muling mabubuhay pagkaraan ng tatlong araw. Baka pumaroon ang kanyang mga alagad at nakawin ang bangkay at sabihin nila sa mga tao na siya’y muling nabuhay. At ang pandarayang ito ay magiging ‘MASAHOL PA SA NAUNA’

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Mateo 28:65 ‘ dahil sa ang napatay ay nagsasalita ng wikang Griyego na Eli, Eli Lama Sabacthani ay pinuntahan kaagad ng mga punong seserdote si Gobernador Pilato upang matiyak nila kung sino ang talagang napatay. Nagdahilan pa sila na baka mabuhay muli ang napatay ayon sa sinabi nito ng nabubuhay pa at baka nakawin ng kanyang alagad at palabasing nabuhay na muli. Ito ay mababaw na dahilan dahil kakailanganing maipakita ang taong napatay na ito ay buhay. Kaya sinabi sa kanila ni Gobernador Pilato na mayroon silang sariling kawal (kawal ng punong Seserdote na dumakip kay Yahshu’a) kaya sinabihan sila ni Pilato na ‘bantayan nila ang libingan’ (Mateo 27:65) Mateo 28:14-15 ‘bukas na ang libingan ng datnan ng mga kawal at ipinakita sa mga punong Seserdote. Inakala naman nila na makakarating sa Gobernador na pinakialaman nila ang libingan na buksan upang masiguro kung sino ang nailibing doon, ngunit wala silang natagpuang bangkay, kaya nagkatha sila ng salita at sinuhulan ang mga kawal ng punong Seserdote na palabasin na kinuha ang bangkay ng mga alagad ni Yahshu’a.. ‘Sinabi ng mga Seserdote na ‘huwag kayong mag-alala, makarating man ito sa Gobernador ‘KAMI ANG BAHALA’.Tinanggap ng mga bantay ang salapi at ginawa ang bilin sa kanila – hanggang sa ngayon ito parin ang sabi ng mga Hudyo’.

MGA SAKSI NA SI YAHSHU’A AY BUHAY Si Gobernador Festo at Si Apostol Saul Gawa 25:19 ‘ ang pinagtatalunan lamang nila ay tungkol sa kanilang pananampalataya at sa isang tao na ang pangalan ay Yahshu’a, patay na ang taong ito ngunit ipinipilit naman ni Saul (Pablo) na siya’y SIGURADONG BUHAY. Si Gobernador Festo ang pumalit kay Gobernador Felix at nang dumating si Haring Agrippa upang bumati kay Festo, inilahad ni Festo kay Haring Agrippa ang tungkol kay Pablo, at sa kanyang salita sa Hari ay nabanggit niya na ipinipilit ni Saul na SIGURADONG BUHAY si Yahshu’a. Sa pagsasalita sa kagalanggalang na Hari, ang isang Gobernador ay magsasalita ng tamang salita, at si Gobernador Festo ay nakapag-aral na tao at alam niya ang salitang ‘RESURRECTION’ o nabuhay na muli, ngunit bakit hindi niya ginamit ang salitang ‘NABUHAY NA MULI’ kundi ang kanyang tinuran ay ‘ipinipilit ni Saul na si Yahshu’a ay SIGURADONG BUHAY’.

Anghel ni Yahweh Lukas 24:5 ‘bakit ninyo hinahanap ang BUHAY sa gitna ng mga patay? Ito ang tinuran ng Anghel ni Yahweh na sinabing si Yahshu’a ay ‘BUHAY’ at hindi ang ‘Resurrection o Nabuhay na Muli’. Ang isang Anghel ni Yahweh ay hindi magsasalita ng mali, sa Lukas 24:23 ‘mga Angel na nagsabing ‘BUHAY SI YAHSHU’A’.

Si Yahshu’a na mismo ang Saksi Lukas 13:31-33 ‘dumating doon ang ilang Pariseo, sinabi nila kay Yahshu’a na ‘umalis ka dito sapagkat ibig kang ipapatay ni Herodes’. At sumagot si Yahshu’a, ‘sabihin mo sa kanya na nagpapalayas pa ako ngayon ng mga demonyo at nagpapagaling, bukas ay ganoon din, at sa ikatlong araw tatapusin ko ang aking gawain. Ngunit dapat akong magpatuloy sa lakad ngayon, bukas at sa makalawa sapagkat ‘IMPOSIBLENG MAMATAY ANG ISANG PROPETA SA LABAS NG YAHRUSALEM’. (Hosea 6:2). Si Yahshu’a narin ang nagsabi na imposibleng mamatay ang propeta na tinutukoy niya ang sarili niya (Deoteronomo 18:15).

Sa Awit ni Haring David

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Awit 118:17-22 ‘hindi ako mamamatay kundi mabubuhay, ihahayag ang kagila-gilalas na ginawa ni Yahweh. Kinastigo ako ni Yahweh, ngunit hindi ako ibinigay sa kamatayan’. 118:22 ‘ang batong inayawan ay siyang naging pinaka-saligang bato’

Sa Isinulat ni Lukas Ito ay naisalin sa Gawa 4:11-12 ‘ang batong inayawan ay naging pinaka-saligang bato, walang kaligtasan sa kaninuman, dahil walang tanging pangalan sa silong ng langit na ipinagkaloob sa mga tao kundi sa pangalan ni Yahshu’a Messiah’. HINDI PWEDENG PATAYIN ANG ANOINTED NI YAHWEH 1 Samuel 24:4-7 “Ang mga tauhan ni David ay sinabihan siya, dumating na ang araw sa sinabi ni Yahweh na aking ipagkakaloob sa iyong kamay ang iyong kaaway upang gawaan mo siya ng iyong ikatutuwa. At si David ay pinutol ang laylayan ng damit ni Saul ng palihim”. Sa puso ni David ay pinatay na niya si Saul dahil pinutol niya ang laylayan ng damit ni Saul. At sinabi ni David sa kanyang mga tauhan “patawarin ako ni Yahweh sa ginawa kong ito sa aking amo na ‘Anointed ni Yahweh’ na lumaban ako sa kanya na alam nating siya ay Anointed ni Yahweh”. Sinabihan ni David ang kanyang mga tauhan na huwag silang gagawa ng masama kay Saul. At si Saul ay nagising at lumabas ng kweba”. 1 Samuel 24:10 “Ngayong araw na ito nakita ng mga mata mo sa loob ng kweba ay ipinagapi ka sa akin, ang iba ay sinabihan ako na patayin ka, ngunit sa aking mata ay iniligtas kita at sinabi ko na hindi ko gagamitin ang aking kamay laban sa aking amo DAHIL SIYA AY ANOINTED NI YAHWEH”. 2 Samuel 1:14-16 “sinabi ni David ‘Hindi kaba Natakot na ginamit mo ang iyong kamay upang wasakin ang Anointed ni Yahweh?, at tinawag ni David ang isang kabataang lalaki at ipinapatay ang Amalekita. At sinabi ni David ‘ang dugo mo ay sumaiyong ulo dahil sa iyong labi ay sumaksi ka laban sa iyong sarili nang sinabi mong ‘Pinatay Mo ang Anointed ni Yahweh’.

Natagpuang aklat ni Pedro sa isang Libingan sa Egypto Bible Dictionary of the Holy Bible Natagpuan sa isang libingan sa Egypto noong 1886 A.D. ang ‘THE GOSPEL OF PETER’ at nailathala noong 1892 A.D. ay maaaring DOCETIC GOSPEL at mahalagang katibayan sa istorya na CRUCIFIXION at RESURRECTION kahit na ito ay may halatang BINAGO sa pag-pabor sa mga HERESY na iyan.

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BAKIT NAGKAIBA-IBA ANG PAGKAKA-UNAWA SA BIBLIA? Hayaan natin ang Biblia ang sumagot, sa John 14:26“Ngunit ang Mang-aaliw na siyang Banal na Ispiritu, na ipinadadala ng Ama (Yahweh) sa aking pangalan (Yahshu‟a), ay siyang magtuturo sa iyo ng lahat ng mga bagay, at siya rin ang magpapa-alala sa atin sa lahat ng itinuro ko sa inyo” Ang Banal na Ispiritu ang Tigapagturo sa atin, at ang Banal na Ispiritu ay ipinadadala ng Ama (Yahweh) sa pangalang Yahshu‟a. Ipadadala ba ang Banal na Ispiritu sa ibang pangalan, o sa pangalang Iesous, sa pangalang Iesus, sa pangalang Jesus , sa pangalang Hesus? Ito ang dahilan ng pagkaiba-iba ang pagkaka-unawa sa Biblia dahil walang Banal na Ispiritu ang mga nangaral sa pangalang Iesous, Iesus, Jesus o Hesus. Tandaan natin na Tanging sa Pangalang Yahshu‟a lamang ipadadala ang Banal na Ispiritu at iyang Banal na Ispiritung iyan ang siyang magtuturo sa atin at magpapa-alala sa mga itinuro ni Yahshu‟a. Acts 4: 12 “ walang tanging pangalan ibinigay ni Yahweh sa silong ng langit na sukat nating ikaligtas, at ang nag-iisang pangalang iyan ay Yahshu‟a ang tunay na pangalan ng Messiah.

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UNA TANGING LEVITA LAMANG ANG MAY KARAPATANG HUMAWAK NG ORIHINAL NA KASULATAN NI MOSES.

TANGING LEVITA LAMANG ANG MAY KARAPATANG HUMAWAK NG MGA AKLAT NI MOSES
Ang Torah ni Moses o ang aklat ni Moses ay nadala ni Ezra na lahi ni Aaron na Levita dahil tanging ang lahi lamang ng Levita ang may karapatang humawak at mag-ingat noon. Mamamatay ang hindi Levita na humawak noon dahil iyon ay nakalagak sa Ark of the Covenant. 2Samuel 6:6-7 And when they came to Nachon's threshingfloor, Uzzah put forth his hand to the ark of Yahweh, and took hold of it; for the oxen shook it. And the anger of Yahweh was kindled Against Uzzah; and Yahweh smote him there for his error; and there he died by the ark of Yahweh. According to the Tanakh, Uzzah (fl. 1010 BC) was from the tribe of Yahuwdah whose death is associated with touching the Ark of the Covenant. He was the son of Abinadab the second of the eight sons of Jesse (1 Samuel 16:8). Jesse is the father of king David. Deuteronomy 10:8 At that time Yahweh separated the tribe of Levi, to bear the Ark of the Covenant of Yahweh, to stand before Yahweh to minister unto him, and to bless in his name, unto this day. Deuteronomy 31:26 Take this book of the law, and put it in the side of the Ark of the Covenant of Yahweh your Mighty One, that it may be there for a witness against thee.

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DALAWANG KAHARIAN – DALAWANG KLASENG ARAL – DALAWANG KLASENG PARI

Two Countries, Two Writers
The first two sources, J and E, were written by two persons who lived during the period that I described in the last chapter. They were tied to the life of that period, its major events, its politics, its religion, and its catastrophes. In this chapter I intend to demonstrate this and to identify the persons who wrote them. First, the author of J came from Judah and the author of E came from Israel. A number of biblical scholars before me have suggested this, but what is new here is that I mean to present a stronger collection of evidence for this than has been made known before, I mean to be more specific about who the two writers were, and I mean to show more specifically how the biblical stories actually related to these two men and to the events of their world. The mere fact that different stories in the first books of the Bible call God by different names of course proves nothing in itself. Someone could write about the queen of England and sometimes call her the queen and sometimes call her Elizabeth I I . But, as I have said, there was something more suspicious about the way the different names of the deity lined up in the first few books of the Bible. The two different names, Yahweh and Elohim, seemed to line up consistently in each of the two versions of the same stories in the doublets. If we separate the Elohim (E) stories from the Yahweh (J) stories, we get a consistent series of clues that the E stories were written by someone concerned with Israel and the J stories by someone concerned with Judah.

J from Judah, E from Israel
First, there is the matter of the settings of the stories. In Genesis, in stories that call God Yahweh, the patriarch Abraham lives in Hebron. Hebron was the principal city of Judah, the capital of Judah under King David, the city from which David's Judean chief priest, Zadok, came. In the covenant that Yahweh makes with Abraham, he promises that Abraham's descendants will have the land "from the river of Egypt to t h e . . . river Euphrates." These were the nation's boundaries under King David, the founder of Judah's royal family. But in a story that calls God Elohim, Abraham's grandson Jacob has a face-to-face fight with someone who turns out to be God (or perhaps an angel), and Jacob names the place where it happens Peni-El (which means "Face-ofGod"). Peni-El was a city that King Jeroboam built in Israel. Both sources, J and E, tell stories about the city of Beth-El, and both kingdoms, Judah and Israel, made political claims on Beth-El, which was on the border between them. Both sources, J and E, tell stories about the city of Shechem, which Jeroboam built and made the capital of Israel. But the two stories are very different. According to the J story, a man named Shechem, who is the original prince of that city, loves Jacob's daughter Dinah and sleeps with her. He then asks for her hand in marriage. Jacob's sons reply that they could not contemplate this or any intermarriage with the people of Shechem because the Shechemites are not circumcised and the sons of Jacob are. The prince of Shechem and his father Hamor therefore persuade all the men of Shechem to undergo circumcision. While the men are immobile from the pain of the surgery, two of Jacob's sons, Simeon and Levi, enter the city, kill all of the men, and take back their sister Dinah. Their father Jacob criticizes them for doing this, but they answer, "Should he treat our sister like a whore?" And that is the end of the story. This J story of how Israel acquired its capital city is not a very pleasant one. The E story, meanwhile, tells it this way: And [Jacob] bought the portion of the field where he pitched his tent from the hand of the sons of Hamor, father of Shechem, for a hundred qesita. How did Israel acquire Shechem? The E author says they bought it. The J author says they massacred it .
6 7 1 0

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ANG NAKOPYA AT UMIRAL ANG ARAL MULA SA MGA PEKENG PARI.
The Gospel Dates "It's important to acknowledge that strictly speaking, the gospels are anonymous." Dr. Craig L. Blomberg, The Case for Christ (26)

ANG MGA PINANINIWALAAN NG MGA GREGO AT ROMANO NA MGA ALAMAT BAGO REBISAHIN ANG PENTATEUCH GREEK O SEPTUAGINT LATIN OLD TESTAMENT NG MGA GREGO AT ROMANONG MANUNULAT

ALAMAT NI MYTHRA (1200 B.C.E.) Si Mythra ng Persia ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw. ALAMAT NI ATTIS (1200 B.C.E.) Si Attis ng Gresya ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw. ALAMAT NI KRISHNA (900 B.C.E.) Si Krishna ng India ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw. ALAMAT NI TAMMUZ Ezekiel 8:14 (597 B.C.E) Si Nimrod II ay tinawag naTammuz ng mga Babylonia, Azur naman ang tawag ng mga Asyrian, at Osiris naman ang tawag ng mga Egyptian. Si Nimrod II ay napatay at ang kanyang asawa ay nagbuntis sa ibang lalaki at pinalabas na ang bata ay si Nimrod II na „NABUHAY NA MULI‟. Mula noon ang Alamat na ito ay naging bantog sa mga Alamat ng Griyego at Romano kahanay nila Jupiter at Zeus. ALAMAT NI HORUS (300 B.C.E.) Si Horus ng Egypt ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw.

Si Origen noong 235 A.D. na isang Christian scholar ng Alexandria ay binuo ang „Hexapla‟ na binubuo ng anim na hanay na sa unang hanay ang bersyong Hebrew Text. Sa unang hanay ay Hebreo at sa ikalawang hanay ay Hebrew sa Greek bersyon at ang ikatlong hanay ay ang Makabagong Greek bersyon na Aquila ng Sinope‟s Greek bersyon, ika-apat ang Pinaka-lumang (Pentateuch) Greek Septuagint bersyon Symmachus ang Ebionite‟s bersyon, ang ika-lima ay ang LXX o Septuagint na pinagsama-sama ang lahat ng Greek bersyon na may mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon ito nagmula. Ang ika-limang hanay na kumbinasyon ng pinagsama-samang bersyon ng Greek ay kinopya ng marami beses at isinalin muli ngunit tinanggal ang mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon nagmula, at ang Lumang Greek bersyon ng Septuagint ay hindi isinama sa pagkakasalin. Ang pang-anim ay ang Theodotion bersyon. Itong mga pinagsama-samang mga teksto ay naging unang paniniwala ng mga Christian rebisyon ng Septuagint na tinawag na “HEXAPLAR RECENSION”.

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We were taught by unlearned teachers in the past and the continuation of their teachings, still indoctrinating the mind and belief of our society especially of our youth. What will be the result? The continuations of indoctrination of wrong and false teaching into our youth will result to our future leaders and people will depend and relies on the falsehood and will no longer accept the truth as what is going on now. As I remember my poem when I was in my grade schools, the poem is “We are what we are today, because You our Elders have made us this way, We are what we are, because we had become a victim, an endless victim of your bungler and smugness, your incompetence …” Now this time the elders I am talking is I myself and you my dear intellectuals, will we not stand to correct the wrong, will we not move our hands to change the falsehood into truth? When I will start to move, this is the same question I asked myself when I found the falsehood, maybe I will move if I am now old, yes I will move when I am no longer active in my organization, or I will move to correct the falsehood when I am no longer here in this world. Remember our life is so short, how many more years I will live, how many more years you will live? Lets move now and correct the falsehood in ourselves and specially in our belief and everything will follows, our family and relatives will follow, our friends will follow, our society will follow, our politics of course will follow, our life style or way of life will be corrected and the economy will follow, regional and global understanding will based on our basic foundation that is the TRUE and CORRECT FOUNDATION that can only be found in the MANUAL OF MANKIND THE BIBLE. How the Falsehood in Religion Interact with Regionalism and Globalization Because of very fast communication and bulks of information in the internet, this falsehood will be revealed and those hiding in white garments will be unmasked and people will no longer believe in their teaching that will turn away from the Faith and will betray and hate each other, and because of increased in wickedness, the love of most will grow cold. There will be no more Good Samaritans in the road, their will be no more alms-givers, their will be no more philanthropies, everything will be with price, there will be no more free in this world even the basic needs, as we are experiencing now. You have to pay when you use the comfort room, you have to pay when you enter the park to relax your eyes, and time will come that we need to pay to have fresh air to breath. As what is going on now in Europe, church-goers are becoming lesser and lesser and priesthood is no longer popular professions. Churchianity in particular will loose their grab to their members and loose their importance to the society. There will be tremendous effect in our politics. The lawmakers will no longer be influenced by Churchianity and the laws will favor the fast growth of globalization in expense of the basic human right needs. Because of the revelations of falsehood, many will turn away from Churchianity and will betray and hate each other, and because of increased in wickedness, the love of most will grow cold. This is because there were no teachers of the TRUTH, there were no GOOD Examples, and there is no TRUE and CORRECT FOUNDATION. Teachers of the TRUTH, how can you teach the TRUTH if you did not study and learned what you are teaching? Teachers based their teaching in the teaching of Man. Teachers teaching Darwin’s theory of Evolution, “You know students MAN came fromMonkey”. Evolution is a continuous process, where can we find a man now saying his father is a monkey? But most of our Elders now knew more on Monkey business. There were no GOOD examples, as a leader you must be a good example. But leaders is the one who were corrupt, leaders were the one doing vises, leaders were the one showing correct is wrong and wrong is correct. The leaders is not limited to government officials only but also in show business society and also those famous. Being famous you must show the correctness in you into our society. They married and divorced and married and divorced, having children with different partners, are they good example to our society? Why this is happening, because we have no law that restricts this wrong attitude of our society? We have law that restricts Jaywalkers but we cannot restrict Famous People. Yes we have many laws to restrict them but it was not applied for them. The leaders are not only limited to famous and government official but also all matured individual father or mother or brother or sister of individual family and organizations. As a leader we have to show GOOD Examples to others, but what is that good example? This is the problem, we don’t

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know the good example to others because we been incorrectly doctrinated by the movies we idolized. As an example when I was in my youth, I was punched in my face and what comes immediately into my mind, I remember the movie I saw when the actor was punched, the actor immediately retaliated with a fist to show that he is a tough guy. But this is wrong; correcting the wrong by applying wrong action is not the solution. If they throw you stone throw them bread. All seven of the great religions of the world have Golden Rules: The Hindu: "The true rule is to guard and do by the things of others as you do by your own." The Buddhist: "One should see for others the happiness one desires for oneself." The Zoroastrian: "Do as you would be done to you." The Confucian: What you do not wish done to yourself do not do to others." The Mohammedan: "Let none of you treat your brother in a way he would dislike to be treated." The Jew: "Whatever you do not wish your neighbor to do to you, do not unto him." The Christian: "All things whatsoever ye would that men do unto you, do you even so to them."

All of this golden rules are good to the sight of men but Without TRUE and CORRECT Foundation, in Proverbs 14:12, it is good to the sight of man but will lead to death” How can we have foundation if no one knows what is right or wrong. No one read the correct foundation that only can be found in the Manual of Mankind the Bible. Now I challenges every one of us here as a pilot project, all of us read the Bible and we come back and meet again, there will be big difference in you, each and everyone of us here will have different understanding from the present, in opinion and in deeds. But how we read the Bible? In John his name is YahYah not John because there was no letter J in his life time. YahYah 14:26 of the New testament „ The Holy Spirit will be send by the Father in my Name, and that Holy Spirit will be the one to teach you all things and remind you of everything the Messiah thought”. Our teacher is the Holy Spirit and that Holy Spirit will be send by the Father Yahweh in Heaven thru the name YAHSHU’A only, not on Jesus name or any other name. Therefore when we read the Bible we have to restore the correct name of Yahshu’a whenever we find in the Bible the name Jesus. Also in Old Testament and in New Testament whenever we find God or LORD we have to replace it by the correct name of the Father in Heaven which is YAHWEH. In doing this the Holy Spirit will come to us to teach you of all and everything’s Yahshu’a thought. Bare in mind the reminder in Revelation 22:18 “………” we will not be included in the plagues and curses because we restore the correct name of Yahweh and Yahshu’a. Remember we are not nor removing anything from the Bible, we are only restoring the correct name that the writers removed from the original copy, Jeremiah 8:8.

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SAAN GALING ANG BIBLIA
Septuagint

Around AD 235, Origen, a Christian scholar in Alexandria, completed the Hexapla, a comprehensive comparison of the ancient versions and Hebrew text side-by-side in six columns, with diacritical markings (a.k.a. "editor's marks", "critical signs" or "Aristarchian signs"). Much of this work was lost, but several compilations of the fragments are available. In the first column was the contemporary Hebrew, in the second a Greek transliteration of it, then the newer Greek versions each in their own columns. Origen also kept a column for the Old Greek (the Septuagint) and next to it was a critical apparatus combining readings from all the Greek versions with diacritical marks indicating to which version each line (Gr. στἰχος) belonged. [12] Perhaps the voluminous Hexapla was never copied in its entirety, but Origen's combined text ("the fifth column") was copied frequently, eventually without the editing marks, and the older uncombined text of the LXX was neglected. Thus this combined text became the first major Christian recension of the LXX, often called the Hexaplar recension. In the century following Origen, two other major recensions were identified by Jerome, who attributed these to Lucian and Hesychius.[3]

2 Timoteo 3:15-16 “At mula sa pagkabata ay nalaman ninyo na ang Banal na Kasulatan ay makakapagpatalino sa inyo sa paraan ng Kaligtasan sa pamamagitan ng pananampalataya na siyang nakay Yahshu’a Messiah, Lahat ng Kasulatan ay ipinagkaloob sa patnubay ni Yahweh, at ito ay mapapakinabangan sa pundasyon ng paniniwala, sa pagpapatunay, sa pagtutuwid, sa pagtuturo ng tamang aral sa tamang pagganap sa mga kautusan.

Ang tinutukoy dito na Banal na Kasulatan ay ang Old Testament dahil wala pang naisulat na New Testament sa panahong sinulatan ni Apostol Pablo si Timoteo.
ni

Alfonso Datu-Aca Tabilog

TALAAN NG MGA NILALAMAN
PAHINA

Saan Galing Ang Old Testament…………………..1 Saan Galing Ang New Testament....………………17 50 Kopya ng Biblia ni Contantine………………...24 Pinagmulan ng English Bible……………………..29 How Yeshu’a Become Jesus ………………………32 Salamat Sa Pinagkunan Ng Mga Saliksik…..…….a

SAAN GALING ANG OLD TESTAMENT?
Jacob Tinawag ni Yahweh na Yahshear sa Gen.32:28
Sina Yahshaak (Isaac) at Ismaale (Ismael) ay Anak at Lahi rin ni Abraham at si Ismaale ang naunang nanirahan sa Masry (Egypt) sa Genesis 21:21 at sumunod ang mga anak ni Yahshaak kay Yahkoob (Jacob) na tinawag ni Yahweh bilang Yahshear (Gen. 32:28).

THE NAME ‘ISRAEL’ ORIGINATED FROM THE NAME (YASHAR) ‘YAHSHEAR’ yaw-shar' a primitive root; to be straight ‘yesh-oo-roon' Jeshurun, a symbol. name for Israel yis-raw-ale' a symbolical name of Jacob
Genesis 32:28 And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel –₃₄₇₄ for as a prince hast thou power with Elohim and with men, and hast prevailed.

Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance Hebrew-Greek Dictionary ‘search’ for "Israel"–₃₄₇₄
3474 yashar yaw-shar' a primitive root; to be straight or even; figuratively, to be (causatively, to make) right, pleasant, prosperous:--direct, fit, seem good (meet), + please (will), be (esteem, go) right (on), bring (look, make, take the) straight (way), be upright(-ly). 3475 Yesher yay'-sher from 3474; the right; Jesher, an Israelite: -Jesher. 3476 yosher yo'-sher from 3474; the right:--equity, meet, right, upright(-ness). 3477 yashar yaw-shawr' from 3474; straight (literally or figuratively):--convenient, equity, Jasher, just, meet(-est), + pleased well right(-eous), straight, (most) upright(-ly, -ness). 3484 Yshuruwn yesh-oo-roon' from 3474; upright; Jeshurun, a symbol. name for Israel:--Jeshurun. 3478 Yisra'el yis-raw-ale' from 8280 and 410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity: --Israel. 3479 Yisra'el yis-raw-ale' (Aramaic) corresponding to 3478:--Israel. 3481 Yisr'eliy yis-reh-ay-lee' patronymically from 3478; a Jisreelite or descendant of Jisrael:--of Israel, Israelite. 3484 Yshuruwn yesh-oo-roon' from 3474; upright; Jeshurun, a symbol. name for Israel:--Jeshurun.

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Nang ang salita ni YAHWEH ay dumating kay Abraham sa Genesis 15:13-14 “At sinabi ni Yahweh kay Abraham, sinabi ko sa iyo na ang lahi ng iyong mga anak ay magsisilbi sa ibang lupain ng mga Hentil at sila ay pahihirapan sa loob ng 400 taon, at ang Nasyong iyon na kanilang pinagsilbihan ay aking hahatulan at pagkatapos ay ilalabas ko sila na may dalang malaking yaman”. Sa Genesis 21:12-13 ― kay Yahshaak (Isaac) ang iyong lahi ay tatawagin at ang anak mo sa katulong ay aking gagawin din na isang Nasyon, DAHIL SIYA AY ANAK AT LAHI MO RIN‖. Genesis 46:3 ―Ako si YAHWEH, ang makapangyarihan ng iyong mga magulang, huwag kang matakot pumaroon sa Masry; dahil gagawin ko kayong malaking Nasyon‖. Samakatwid ang lahi ni Abraham sa kanyang dalawang anak sina Ismaale at Yahshaak ay naging tigapagsilbi sa lupain na hindi kanila sa lupain ng Masry kagaya sa sinabi ni Yahweh sa Genesis 15:13-14. Ang sinabi ay paglipas ng 400 na taon ay lalabas sila sa Nasyong iyon na kanilang pinagsilbihan at sa Exodus 12:52 ―si YAHWEH ay inilabas ang mga anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) (Tribo ng Yahshurun) Gen.32:28 mula sa lupain ng Masry‖. Sa lupain ng Masry ang Tribo ni Ismaale at Tribo ni Yahshurun (mula sa pangalang Yahshear) ay ang tanging ―Tribong Tuli‖, upang magkaroon ng pagkaka-kilanlan sa dalawang Tribong-Tuli ang Tribong Yahshurun ay tinawag ng mga nagsasalita ng Aramaic ng ―Yisraw-ale‖ (Yisrawale naging Israel) ibig sabihin ay ―Prinsipe ni Sarah‖ at ang Ismaale naman ay tinawag na ―Ishmael‖ na ibig sabihin ay ‗sa Pangalan ni Sarah‖. Ang ‗Ale‘ sa wikang Hebreo ay ‗Among-Babae‘, tinutukoy ang amo ni Hagar na si Sarah.

13 TIBO NG YAHSHURUN Ang 12 anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) na tinawag na 12 Tribo ni Yahshurun ay orihinal na 12, ngunit ng akuin ni Yahshear ang dalawang anak ni Yohseph sina Efraim at Manase na kanyang anak na rin sa Genesis 48:5-6 ay naging 13 ang Tribo ng Yahshurun. Ang nakatalaga para kay Yohseph ay pinalitan ng kanyang dalawang anak, samakatwid ang Tribo ni Yahshurun ay naging 13 Tribo na lumabas sa lupain ng Masry sa panahon ni Moshe (Moses).
1. Ruben 2. Simeon 3. Levi 4. Yahuwdah 5. Dan 6. Nepthali 7. Gad 8. Asher 9. Isachar 10.Zabulon Dinah (Leah) Yohseph anak sina Manaseh at Efraim 11. Manaseh 12. Efraim 13. BenYahmin

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Dath
Dath ‫תד‬

‫תד‬

1) decree, law, edict, regulation, usage ,a) decree, edict, commission, b) law, rule

dath <1881> Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance Hebrew Dictionary Pronunciation: Definition: Dawth 1) decree, law, edict, regulation, usage 1a) decree, edict, commission 1b) law, rule of uncertain (perhaps foreign) derivation: a royal edict or statute:-commandment, commission, decree, law, manner. DaTH I used to think of DaTH (dawth) as meaning void, since that's the way the fluffy bunny new age kabbalah books present it. I was curious one day and decided to see if the word was in the Bible (in Hebrew version) and found that it means something like the Law written in our hearts, a kosmic consciousness that lets us know if we are in sync with the Tao That Be (or however you want to describe it). Here are a few of my notes on my research into DaTH. Go on a spiritual quest to find values you can hold up as being what you stand for. You have found your inner DaTH. You have found the law written in your heart. What is law? A king gives a decree or edict that is the expression of the king’s will. [Esther 3:14, 8:13, 9:14] There was the concept that once a king issued this DaTH, it cannot be altered or revoked. [Daniel 2:15, 6:16] DaTH is entrusted to people. In the case of civil law, this DaTH is in the hands of judges, enforced by police, argued by lawyers, voted upon and recorded by politicians. The Israelites had the concept of the ToWRaH being the DaTH of Yahweh. Ezra was given the title of Secretary of the irrevocable DaTH of the Almighty of heaven. [Ezra 7:2, 1 Esdras 8:9] The irrevocability of the DaTH from Yahweh was not questioned by Yahshua. Yahshua was not out to destroy the ToWRaH representing the DaTH from Yahweh, but to bring it to life in the hearts of people. [Matthew 5:17] He was not getting out a giant cosmic eraser. What he challenged was that DaTH of Yahweh was complete and contained in scriptures and traditions. He offered that DaTH of Yahweh can be known in the heart, directly experienced, with continued insights into this DaTH, renewed revelation, and ongoing prophecy. This was not anti-Jewish at all. The idea was found in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Jews continued to redefine DaTH with the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Kabbalah, and to this day with books being published, web sites being built, deeper insights explored and lived out.

Here is something you can count on to be true for your entire life — CHoKMaH/Sophia and DaTH are treasures that will be your salvation. The greatest treasure comes from uniting with Yahweh. [Isaiah33:6]

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A treasure is a reward after following a treasure hunt. A gift is never really valued as a treasure. YAHWEH with a multitude approaches, from his right hand comes a shining DaTH. [Deuteronomy 33:2] DaTH is the invisible SHiPHRaH, the Law in the heart of Yahweh. DaTH is Law, but DaTH is also having an active conscious, a living Law written in the heart. DaTH is being conscious of the will of Yahweh, which we can concentrate upon, which we can be mindful of, which can direct our view of what Yahweh wants in each given situation. DaTH is beyond memorizing a collection of ancient rules. DaTH is a living part of each of us. I would dare say that people who have never heard one word of religion still know that it would be wrong to go on a murdering spree or steal from the neighbors when they are not at home. The commandments part of ToWRaH are not the DaTH, but are examples of using the DaTH in specific situations. The DaTH extends far beyond the few ancient case-by-case examples of what would not be acceptable behavior. Thus the Jewish/Kabbalist quest for the invisible DaTH is much like the Gnostic quest for direct connect, for gnosis. Maybe it is invisible because it is from another dimension, that light trapped in the darkness, our core Messiah’s Consciousness, our native our Nature. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - Dath Mosha Middle Eastern and North African Jewish community headdress may also resemble that of the ancient Israelites. In Yemen, the wrap around the cap was called ‫ ַמ ַמ ר‬massar; the head covering worn by all women according to Dath Mosha was a ‫" ַמרגּוש‬Gargush" ‫ג‬

Yahshear-Dath o (Sacer-dote) Ang anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) na Tribo ni Levi ay itinalaga sa Pagpapari (Priesthood o Yahshear-Dath o Sacerdote) sa Exodus 29. Ang tatlong anak ni Levi si Yahshear-Dath Gerson, Yahshear-Dath Cohat at Yahshear-Dath Merari o mga Yahshear-Dath o mga Sacerdote ay inihalo sa 12 Tribo ng Yisrawale upang pamahalaan ang trabaho ng Pagpapari at sa pagsisilbi sa pagsamba kay YAHWEH na mababasa sa Joshua 21:1-8 at 1Chronicles 6:63-81.

Tatlong Anak ni Levi Itinalagang Yahshear-Dath o Sacerdote o Pari ay Inihalo sa 12 Tribo ng Yisrawale (Israel) 1.Sacerdote o Yahshear-Dath Gerson 2.Sacerdote o Yahshear-Dath Cohat 3.Sacerdote o Yahshear-Dath Merari

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Ang mga anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) kay Leah, Rachel, Bilha, Zilpa:
1. Ruben ---------- 1. Ruben (Leah) - Yahshear Dath Merari ang Pari 2. Simeon ---------- 2. Simeon (Leah) – Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari 3. Levi ---------Levi (Leah) mga anak sina Gerson, Cohat, Merari 4. Yahuwdah ---------- 3. Yahuwdah (Leah) – Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari 5. Dan ---------- 4. Dan (Bilha-Rachel ) – Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari 6. Nepthali ---------- 5. Nepthali (Bilha-Rachel) – Yahshear Dath Gerson ang Pari 7. Gad ---------- 6. Gad (Zilpa-Leah) – Yahshear Dath Merari ang Pari 8. Asher ---------- 7. Asher (Zilpa-Leah) – Yahshear Dath Gerson ang Pari 9. Isachar ---------- 8. Isachar (Leah) –Yahshear Dath Gerson ang Pari 10.Zabulon ---------- 9. Zabulon (Leah) – Yahshear Dath Merari ang Pari Dinah (Leah) 11.Yohseph ---------Yohseph (Rachel) mga anak sina Manaseh at Efraim 12.BenYahmin ---------10. Manaseh-kalahating tribo - Yahshear Dath Gerson ang Pari Manaseh- kalahating tribo – Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari 11. Efraim – Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari 12. BenYahmin(Rachel) - Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari

Si Yohseph ay ipinagbili ng kanyang mga kapatid sa mga Ismaalita at dinala sa Masry (Egypt) na pinagbili naman bilang alipin at dumating ang panahon na naging tagapamahala ng Pharaoh at naging Malaya at pinalitan ang pangalan na Zaphenathpaneah. Ang isang alipin ay ibabalik sa kanyang magulang ngunit si Yohseph ay binili sa lahi ng Ismaalita kaya ibinalik siya sa Ismaalita at binigyan ng asawa na pangalan ay Asenath na anak na babae ng Pari ng Ismaalita na si Potiphera sa lahi ni Ismaale na nagkaroon ng 12 prinsesa na kagaya ni Yahshurun na nagkaroon ng 12 anak at ang isa ay si Levi na naatasan sa pamamahala ng Pagpapari sa Exodus 29, Genesis 17:7, 17:23, 16:12 ―siya ay kahalubilo ng kanyang mga kapatid‖. Nang si Abraham ay mamatay sina Ismaale at Yahshaak ang naglibing sa kanya sa kweba ng Machpelah katabi ng kanyang asawang si Sarah sa Genesis 25:9. Ang anak at lahi ni Ismaale ay nadala ng dalawang anak ni Yohseph sina Manase at Efraim, samantalang ang anak at lahi ni Yahshaak ay nadala ng 12 Tribo ng Yahshurun (Jacob tinawag ni Yahweh na Yahshear) sa lupain ng Masry at inilabas sila ni Yahweh sa Exodus 12:51, upang matupad ang sinalita ni Yahweh sa Genesis 15:13-14.

YISRAWALE (ISRAEL) KING
1Samuel 8:5 And said unto him, Behold, thou art old, and thy sons walk not in thy ways: now make us a king to judge us like all the nations. 1Samuel 8:6 But the thing displeased Samuel, when they said, Give us a king to judge us. And Samuel prayed unto . 1Samuel 12:19 And all the people said unto Samuel, Pray for thy servants unto thy Elohim, that we die not: for we have added unto all our sins this evil, to ask us a king.

King Saul (BenYahmin) Kohath ang Pari King David (Yahuwdah) Kohath ang Pari King Solomon (Yahuwdah) Kohath ang Pari
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DALAWANG KAHARIAN
Lumipas ang panahon pagkamatay ni Haring Solomon ay nahati sila sa dalawang kaharian, sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale at Kaharian ng Yahuwdah. Ang Katiwala ni Haring Solomon na mula sa Tribo ng Efraim (1Kings 11:26) si Yeroboam ang naging Hari ng Yisrawale na sumama ang 10 Tribo ay pinagsisilbihan naman ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Sacerdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Cohat, Yahshear Dath Gerson at Yahshear Dath Merari. Ang anak ni Haring Solomon si Rehoboam ang naging Hari ng 2 Tribo ng Yahuwdah na pinagsisilbihan ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Sacerdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Cohat.

King Jeroboam sa Tribong Efraim ---- King Rehoboam sa Tribong Yahuwdah
YISRAWALE (ISRAEL) King Jeroboam (Efraim) 10 tribo ng Yisrawale (Israel) Samaria City YAHUWDAH (JEWS) ----------------------------- King Rehoboam (Yahuwdah) ----------------------------- 2 tribo ng Yahuwdah at BenYahmin (Jews) ----------------------------Jerusalem City

Nakatalagang Sacerdote: ---------------------------- Nakatalagang Sacerdote: Sacerdote o Yahshear Dath Merari ----------------------- Sacerdote o Yahshear Dath ang Pari ng Tribo nila Ruben, Gad, Kohath ang Pari ng Tribo nila Zabulon Yahuwdah at BenYahmin Sacerdote o Yahshear Dath Kohath ang Pari ng Tribo nila Simeon, Dan, ½Manaseh, Efraim Sacerdote o Yahshear Dath Gershon ang Pari ng Tribo nila Nepthali, Asher, Isachar, , ½Manaseh

KAHARIAN NG YAHUWDAH

Dalawang (2) Tribo ang sumama kay Haring Rehoboam ng Yahuwdah (Yahuwdah at BenYahmin) at ang lungsod ay ang Yahrusalem (Jerusalem) na pinagsisilbihan ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Sacerdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Cohat.

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KAHARIAN NG YISRAWALE

Sampung (10) Tribo ang sumama kay Haring Yeroboam (Jeroboam) ng Kaharian ng Yisrawale at ang lungsod ay ang Samaria na pinagsisilbihan ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Sacerdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Cohat, Yahshear Dath Gerson at Yahshear Dath Merari na mababasa sa Joshua 21:1-8 at 1Chronicles 6:63-81.

Si Haring Yeroboam ng Yisrawale ay TINANGGAL ang Pagsisilbi ng mga Levitang YahshearDath o Sacerdote sina YahshearDath-Cohat, YahshearDath-Gerson at YahshearDath-Merari at PINALITAN sila ng mga pangkaraniwang tao lamang na HINDI LEVITA.

Si Haring Yeroboam ng Yisrawale ay nagtayo ng templo sa mataas na lugar at ginawang Tigapagsilbing Pari ay pangkaraniwang tao lamang na HINDI LEVITA at itinalaga ang Kapistahan sa ika-Walong Buwan na dapat ay ika-Pitong buwan na ginaganap ng Kaharian ng Yahuwdah sa pagdiriwang ng mga kapistahan sa 1 Kings 12:31-32, 1 Kings 13:33-34.

Tatlong (3) Taon

Levitang YahshearDath o Sacerdote mula kay YahshearDath Cohat, Gerson at Merari ay Tinanggal Bilang Tigapagsilbing YahshearDath o Sacerdote sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale at sila ay Lumayas sa lupain ng Yisrawale na dala ang kanilang mga ari-arian ay tumungo sa Kaharian ng YAHUWDAH sa lungsod ng Yahrusalem at nanatili sa loob ng tatlong (3) taon

2Chronicles 11:13-17 ‗at ang lahat ng mga Sacerdoteng Pari at Levita na nasa Yisrawale at sa lahat ng baybayin ay lumayas na dala ang kanilang ari-arian at tumungo sa Yahuwdah at sa lungsod ng Yahrusalem: dahil si Haring Yeroboam at kanyang mga anak ay Pinalayas sila bilang Tigapagsilbing Sacerdote para kay Yahweh at si Haring Yeroboam ay nagtalaga ng mga Sacerdoteng Paring Hindi Levita sa matataas na lugar at para sa Demonyo at sa Istatwang Guya na kanyang ginawa. Ang mga Levitang YahshearDath o Sacerdoteng Pari mula sa tribo ng Yisrawale, ay itinalaga ang kanilang sarili at puso na hanapin si Yahweh na Makapangyarihan ng Yisrawale sa pagpunta nila sa Yahrusalem upang magsakripisyo para kay Yahweh na Makapangyarihan ng kanilang 7

mga magulang. Naging matatag ang Kaharian ng Yahuwdah at maging si Haring Rehoboam na anak ni YahdidiYah (Solomon) ay naging matatag, sa loob ng tatlong taon; dahil tatlong taon silang sumunod sa palatuntunan kagaya sa pagsunod ni Haring DowDow (David) at Haring YahdidiYah (Solomon)‖.

Ang mga Levitang YahshearDath o Sacerdoteng Pari na lahi ni Yahshear Dath Cohat, Gerson at Merari na pinalayas sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale ay hindi nagtagal sa Kaharian ng YAHUWDAH: 2 Chronicles 20:18-19

Ang mga Levitang YahshearDath o Sacerdoteng Pari mula sa lahi ni YahshearDath Cohat, Gerson at Merari na pinalayas sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale na tumungo sa Kaharian ng YAHUWDAH sa Yahrusalem ay nawala sa kapanahunan ni Haring Yahoshaphat. (776 B.C.E. 1Kings 22:51, 62 taon mula sa paghahari ni Haring Yeroboam) sa 2Chronicles 20:18-19 ―at ang mga Levita mula sa mga anak ni (Cohat) Cohathites at mga anak ni Corhites ay tumayo upang purihin si Yahweh ang nag-iisang Makapangyarihan ng Yisrawale sa napaka-lakas na boses na mataas.‖

Mga Barko Patungong OPHIR Naglakbay ng Pabalik sa loob ng Tatlong Taon

Mga Barko na ipinagawa ni Haring YahdidiYah (Solomon) ay pumupunta parin sa OPHIR para kumuha ng mga ginto 1Kings 9:26, at nagpagawa pa ng mga panibagong Barko si Haring Yahoshaphat sa 1 Kings 22:48 ngunit hindi na ito natuloy. Ang mga Levitang YahshearDath o Sacerdoteng Pari mula sa lahi ni YahshearDath Gerson, YahshearDath Cohat at YahshearDath Merari na pinalayas sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale na tumungo sa Kaharian ng Yahuwdah ay hindi nagtagal sa Kaharian ng Yahuwdah. Walang tanging pupuntahan sila kundi ang sumama sa mga barkong ipinagawa ni Haring YahdidiYah na kanilang nadatnan sa Yahrusalem sa pagtigil nila ng tatlong (3) taon dahil tatlong (3) taon din ang paglalakbay ng mga barko patungong Tarshish at Ophir pabalik sa Yahrusalem na mababasa sa 2 Chro.9:21 at 2Chronicles 11:13-17. Bago pa magpagawa ng panibagong Barko si Haring Yahoshaphat sa 1Kings 22:48, naisulat sa 2Chronicles 20:18-19 sa paghahari ni Haring Yahoshaphat na 62 taon na ang lumipas mula sa paghahari ni Haring Yeroboan na katiwala ni Haring YahdidiYah (Solomon) sila ay hindi na natagpuan sa Yahrusalem sa 2 Chronicles 20:18-19.

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MGA NAGANAP SA MGA NAIWAN SA SAMARIA AT SA YAHRUSALEM KASALANAN NG SAMBAHAYAN NI HARING JEROBOAM NG YISRAWALE

1 Kings 12:31-32, 1 Kings 13:33-34

Si Haring Yeroboam ng Yisrawale ay nagtayo ng templo sa mataas na lugar at ginawang Tigapagsilbing Pari ay pangkaraniwang tao lamang na HINDI LEVITA at itinalaga ang Kapistahan sa ika-Walong Buwan na dapat ay ika-Pitong buwan na ginaganap ng Kaharian ng Yahuwdah sa pagdiriwang ng mga Kapistahan ni Yahweh. 1Kings 13:33 Si Jeroboam ay Hindi nagbago sa kanyang Masamang Ginagawa, patuloy parin siyang nagtatalaga ng mga Pari na Hindi Levita kundi pangkaraniwang tao lamang na kanyang naisin. 1Kings 13:34 At ito ang naging kasalanan ng sambahayan ni Jeroboam, kaya‟t pinutol ito at winasak sa buong lupain.

LIMANG (5) NASYON ANG PINATIRA SA LUPAIN NG ISRAEL SA SAMARIA KAPALIT NG MGA ISRAELITA NA IPINATAPON SA MGA LUNGSOD NG ASSYRIA

Yisrawale (Israel) 2Kings 17:23 Hanggang inalis sila ni Yahweh sa Kanyang paningin kagaya ng ipinasabi Niya sa mga Propeta. Ang mga Israelita ay Dinalang Bihag sa mga lupain ng Assyria. 2Kings 17:24 At ang Hari ng Assyria ay nagdala ng mga tao mula sa Babylon, at mula sa Cuthah, at mula sa Ava, at mula sa Hamath, at mula sa Sepharvaim, at pinatira sa lungsod ng Samaria kapalit ng mga Anak ni Israel: at kanilang inangkin ang Samaria at tuluyang nanirahan doon. 2Kings 17:27 Ang hari ng Assyria ay nag-utos na dalhin pabalik sa Samaria ang isang Pari na dinalang bihag sa Assyria at manirahan na sa Samaria upang siyang magturo ng pamamaraan sa Sinasamba sa lupaing iyon. 2Kings 17:28 At isa nga sa mga Pari na dinalang-bihag sa Assyria ay dumating at tumira sa Beth-el ay nagturo kung paano sila magkakaroon ng takot sa Sinasamba ng lupaing iyon. Ang Pari na dinalang pabalik sa Beth-el na lupain ng Israel ay ang Pari na itinalaga ni Haring Yeroboam (Jeroboam) na pangkaraniwang tao lamang na HINDI LEVITA.

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2Kings 17:24 Ang limang nasyon na pinatira sa Israel, ang bawat nasyon ay gumawa ng kani-kanilang istatwang sinasamba na kanilang inilagay sa mataas na sambahan sa kani-kanilang lungsod. Ang taga Babylonia ay gumawa ng istawa ni Succoth-benoth, ang taga Cuthah gumawa ng istatwa ni Nergal, ang taga Hamath ginawa ang istatwa ni Ashima, ang taga Ava ginawa ang istatwa ni Nibhaz at Tartak, ang taga Separvaim ay nagsusunog naman ng kanilang anak para sa kanilang istatwang si Adrammelech at Anammelec. 2Kings 17:24 Sila ay may takot sa Makapangyarihan ngunit pinagsisilbihan nila ang kani-kanilang istatwa. (Dito nagsimula na hindi na tawagin ang pangalan ni Yahweh kundi pinalitan ng El na naging Elohim). Ang mga Tunay na Levitang Yahshear-dath (Sacerdote) ang may hawak ng mga aklat ni Moses kaya ang HINDI-LEVITANG PARI ay kumatha rin ng kanilang sariling kwento patungkol sa mga naganap noon. Dahil hindi nila alam ang kahalagahan ng Banal na Pangalan ni Yahweh ay pinalitan nila ito ng ‗El‘ o ‗Elohim‘ upang maintindihan ng mga taga Babylonia, at taga Cuthah, at taga Ava, at taga Hamath, at taga Sepharvaim. Ang ‗El‘ o ‗Elohim‘ ay ang pangkaraniwang tawag sa mga istatwa ng mga bansang ito. Ang mga Tunay Na Israelita na Ipinadalang Bihag sa mga lupain ng Assyria ay nagpalit ng wika mula sa Hebreo ay napilitang magsalita ng Assyrian-Aramaic. 2Kings 18:26 ‗At nagsalita sina Eliakim na anak ni Hilkiah, at Shebna, at Joah kay Rab-shakeh, magsalita ka sa wikang Assyrian-Aramaic dahil naiintidihan namin at huwag kang makipag-usap sa amin sa wika ng Hudyo na Hebreo na naririnig ng maraming tao sa tabi ng pader.

ANG MGA LEVITANG PARI AY TINATAWAG NA SACERDOTE O YAHSHEARDATH SA WIKANG HEBREO, ANG MGA HINDI LEVITANG PARI AY TINAWAG NA „KAHEN‟-3549 SA WIKANG ARAMAIC

3547 kahan kaw-han' a primitive root, apparently meaning to mediate in religious services; but used only as denominative from 3548; to officiate as a priest; figuratively, to put on regalia:--deck, be (do the office of a, execute the, minister in the) priest('s office). 3548 kohen ko-hane' active participle of 3547; literally, one officiating, a priest; also (by courtesy) an acting priest (although a layman):--chief ruler, X own, priest, prince, principal officer. 3549 kahen kaw-hane' (Aramaic) corresponding to 3548:--priest. (KAHEN IS ARAMAIC)

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Kaharian ng Yahuwdah Ay Hindi Rin Sumunod sa mga Utos ni Yahweh kaya Ipinagapi sila sa Kaharian ng Babylonia
Yahuwdah (Jews) 2Kings 17:19 Ganoon din ang Yahuwdah ay hindi rin sumunod sa mga kautusan ni Yahweh na kanilang Makapangyarihan, sila ay gumaya sa pamamaraan ng mga Israelita. Daniel 1:1 Sa ikatlong taon ng paghahari ni Jehoiakim Hari ng Yahuwdah ay dumating sa Yahrusalem si Nebuchadnezzar na Hari ng Babylonia at sinakop ito. Jeremiah 44:2 Sinabi ni Yahweh na Makapangyarihan ng Israel, nakita ninyong lahat ang kasamaan na ipinadala ko sa Yahrusalem at sa lahat ng lungsod ng Yahuwdah at ngayon lahat ng lugar doon ay walang tao na tumitira. Jeremiah 44:7 ‗Nagsalita si Yahweh na Makapangyarihan ng Israel, dahil ginawa ninyo ang nakakamanghang kasalanan laban sa inyong kaluluwa samakatwid tatapusin na mula sa lalaki at babae at bata at pati sumususo pa ay aalisin sa lugar ng Yahuwdah upang wala ng matira Kahit-Isa‘. Jeremiah 44:11 ‗At sinabi pa ni Yahweh ang makapangyarihan ng Israel, aking ihaharap ang aking mukha laban sa inyo para sa Kasamaan at Puputulin lahat ang mga Yahuwdah‘. Jeremiah 44:12 ‗at aking kukunin ang mga NATIRANG TAO ng Yahuwdah na tumungo sa Egypto upang tumira at lahat sila ay lilipulin sa itak at kalamidad at mangamamatay mula sa mababa hanggang sa mataas at sila ay magiging sumpa at kamangha-mangha at isang kapulaan‘. Jeremiah 44:28 ‗Ngunit may Kakaunting-Nakatakas sa itak ang babalik mula sa lupain ng Egypto patungo sa lupain ng Yahuwdah, at lahat ng Natira ng Yahuwdah ay malalaman kung kaninong salita ang mananaig, ang salita nila o ang Aking Sinalita‘.

Kaharian ng Babylonia ay Nagapi ng Kaharian ng Persia

Naka-ukit sa kabundukan ng Iran ang Behistun Rock kung paano ang Kaharian ng Persia ay nagapi ang Kaharian ng Babylonia kasama ang Egypt at kasama ang Yahuwdah ay naging parte ng Kaharian ng Persia. Ang namumuno sa Kaharian ng Persia ay si Cyrus ay nag utos sa isang Royal Decree na pinayagan ang mga Yahuwdah na Bumalik sa Yahrusalem upang itayong muli ang kanilang mga tahanan at ang Templong Sambahan.

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Pagbabalik sa Lupang Pangako
Ang mga nakabalik sa Yahrusalem ay pinamunuan ni Sheshbazzar at Zerubbabel na kapwa galing sa lahi ng Yahuwdah. Ang gumanap na Pari ay si Ezra na galing sa lahi ni Aaron na may dalang mga aklat ni Moses at Karapatan na ibinigay ni Artaxerxes na Emperador noon ng Persia. Si NehemiYah naman ang naatasan ng Emperador na maging Governador at ipinatupad ang pagganap ng mga Sabbath at Kapistahan ni Yahweh, ipinagbawal ang pag-aasawa ng mga Yahuwdah sa ibang lahi at pinahiwalay ang mga Yahuwdah na nakapag-asawa ng ibang lahi. Ang lupain ng Yahuwdah ay naging isang probinsya ng Persia. Ipinatawag ni Ezra ang lahat sa Kapistahan ng Tabernakulo sa ika-pitung buwan at binasa ang Torah ni Moses na napakinggan ng lahat at ang lahat ay sumumpang susundin muli ang kontrata at kasunduan ni Yahweh at ng mga Yahuwdah.

LIMANG AKLAT NI MOSES
Ang Torah ni Moses o ang limang aklat ay nadala ni Ezra na lahi ni Aaron dahil tanging ang lahi lamang ni Aaron ang may karapatang humawak at mag-ingat noon. Paglipas ng panahon ay nakasama ang mga teksto at komentaryo ng mga Pari na hindi nagmula sa lahi ng Levitang si Aaron, Nehemiah 7:64. Ang Yahweh (J) Text at ang Elohim (E) Text at ang Sacerdotal (P) Text at ang Deuteronomy (D) Text ay magkakasama sa nabuong mga aklat na tinawag ngayon na Torah ni Moses. Mapapansin ang nakasulat sa Torah ni Moses ay inuulit-ulit ng J, E, P at D text. Ang J Text o Yahweh Text ay mula sa pag-iingat ng mga Levitang lahi ni Aaron, na tanging mga Levitang lahi sa anak ni Aaron lamang ang inatasan ni Yahweh na hahawak at mag-iingat ng mga banal na kasulatan o mga aklat ni Moses (2Samuel 6:6-7, Deuteronomy 10:8, 31:26). Ang E text o Elohim Text ay mula sa mga Israelitang Hindi Levita na itinalagang Pari ni Haring Yeroboam (Jeroboam) (1 Kings 12:31-32, 1 Kings 13:33-34), sila ay hindi naatasan na mag-ingat ng mga kasulatan na tanging Levita na lahi ni Aaron lamang ang may karapatang humawak. Ang P Text at D Text ay mula sa mga Pari na nagmula sa limang bansa (Neh 7:64) na walang talaan na lahi sila ng Levita at naturuan lamang ng Paring Israelita na Hindi Naman Levita na pinabalik ng Hari ng Assyria sa lupain ng Israel (2Kings 17:27-28).

Inulit-ulit ang Nakasulat sa Torah ni Moses
Genesis 1 ay Elohim (E) Text ay inulit sa Genesis 2 na Yahweh (J) Text, nadagdag ang Sacerdotal (P) Text at Deuteronomy (D) Text 12

Ang istorya nila Adam at Eve at Cain at Abel ay Yahweh (J) Text ay tinutukoy ang pagiging malapit sa anghel (tunay na anghel hindi istatwa), sa mga halaman at pakikipag usap sa ahas. Ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay walang kwento tungkol dito. At binangit ang henerasyon mula kay Adam hanggang kay Noah. Ang istorya sa naganap na malaking baha sa Yahweh (J) Text ay 40 araw na umulan. Ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay halos isang taong delubyo. Ang Yahweh (J) Text ay may 14 na malilinis na mga hayop at 2 di-malinis na hayop. Ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay 2 malinis at 2 di-malinis na hayop. Yahweh (J) Text ay nagpadala si Noah ng 3 kalapati o tatlong beses na nagpalipad ng kalapati, ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay isang uwak ang pinalipad ni Noah. Ang J at E Text sa Kontrata ni Abraham sa Gnesis 15 ay siningitan ng ibang istorya at sa Genesis 17 naman ang P Text, lumalabas na dalawang beses nagkita sila Abraham at Yahweh. Mas dramatiko ang J at E Text sa Exodus 17 nang si Moses ay kumuha ng tubig sa bato, samantalang ang P Text sa dalawang aklat sa Numbers 20 ay lumalabas na dalawang insidente sa dalawang magkaibang pankakataon o panahon samantalang naganap iyon sa isang lugar sa Meriba at sa isang pagkakataon. Ang Ten Commandment ay inulit muli ni Moses sa Deuteronomy 5 kahit ito ay magkaiba sa Exodus 20.

Sa Exodus 20:8-11 Remember the sabbath day to sanctify i t . . . because in six days Yahweh made the heavens and the earth, the sea and ail that is in them, and he rested on the seventh day Therefore Yahweh blessed the sabbath day and sanctified it. Sa Deuteronomy 5:12-15 Ngunit sa Deuteronomy, nang inulit ni Moses : Keep the sabbath day to sanctify i t . . . and you shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and Yahweh your God brought you out from there with a strong hand and an outstretched arm. There' fore Yahweh your God commanded you to observe the sabbath day. Ang unang bersyon galing sa P text, ang dahilan sa pag-iingat sa Sabbath: ‗because God rested on the seventh day‘. Ang ikalawang bersyon mula sa D Text, ang dahilan sa pag-iingat sa Sabbath: ‗because God freed you from slavery‘. Sa Dead Sea Scroll na natagpuan ay parehas na hindi itong dalawang bersyon ang dahilan sa pag iingat sa Sabbath: ‗ Sa lahat ng ito ay walang pamamaraan na nag-uutos na pamahalaan ang pag iingat ng Sabbath‘. (In all of this, no one method governs the process). Itong naisulat at iniaral ng P at D Text ay itinuwid ng Messiah na mababasa sa Matthew 12:1-12. 13

Alexander The Great Nasakop Ang Kaharian ng Persia Itinayo ang Alexandria Library sa Egypt
Nasakop ni Alexander the Great ang Kaharian ng Persia na pinaghaharian noon ni Darius III. Nasakop din ni Alexander the Great ang Syria, Egypt, Mesapotamia, Bactria at ang India. Itinatag niya ang Alexandria sa Egypt na sentro ng kanyang kaharian, at ang pumalit sa kanya bilang Pharaoh ay si Ptolemy II Soter ay itinayo naman ang Museum at Library ng Alexandria. Ang kanyang mga General si Ptolemy at Nearchus, Aristobulus at Onesicritus. Siya rin ang naging dahilan ng paglaganap ng mga Grego. Ang mga dokumento mula sa Assyria (kasama ang mga dokumento ng naipatapon noon na mga Israelita sa Assyria), Greece, Persia, Egypt, India at maraming nasyon ay nakalagak sa Alexandria Library at Museum. Maraming scholars ang tumira sa Museum upang mag-saliksik, magsulat, magsalin at maglimbag ng mga dokumento.

Greek Pentateuch
Si Ptolemy II ay nagpatawag ng 72 Hebrew scholars at nag utos na isalin sa wikang Grego ang mga Kasulatan ng mga Hebreo ang limang aklat ni Moses na tinawag sa Grego na ‗Pentateuch‘. Sinulatan ni Ptolemy II si Eleazar ang Punong Pari sa Yahrusalem upang maglagay ng anim (6) na Hudyong Tigapagsalin na nanggaling sa bawat Tribo ng Israel (12 x 6 = 72). Tinawag ang unang limang aklat ni Moses na ‗Pentateuch‘ na ibig sabihin ay Limang- aklat.

ROMAN TIME Nasira ang Alexandria Library sa Egypt
Tinalo ng mga Romano ang mga Grego at nasira ang Alexandria Library sa pagkubkub ng mga Romano sa Alexandria na sentro ng mga Grego.

GREEK PENTATEUCH NAGING LATIN SEPTUAGINT Ipinagpatuloy ni Ptolemy ang pagsasalin ng 72 Hebrew scholars ng limang aklat ni Moses sa Hebrew ay isinasalin sa wikang Grego at ang iba pang mga Kasulatan ng mga Hebreo ay idinagdag dito.

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Paglipas ng panahon nadagdag na ang iba-iba pang mga aklat sa Hebreo ay ipinasalin na rin sa wikang Grego at maraming beses itong neribisa sa pagkakasalin sa wikang Grego at ang ‗Pentateuch‘ na nakasama na ang iba-iba pang aklat na Hebreo naisalin sa Lumang-Wikang Grego ay isinalin muli sa Makabagong-Wikang Koine Greek. Ang Lumang-Wikang Gregong ‗Pentateuch‘ (ibig sabihin ay Limang-Aklat) (Pinaka-lumang Greek Septuagint bersyon Symmachus ang Ebionite‘s bersyon) ay naisalin naman sa wikang Latin at tinawag na Septuagint sa Latin o LXX (dahil hindi na ito Limang Aklat kundi marami na) na siya namang pinagbasehan ng mga bersyon ng Slavonic, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian at Coptic na bersyon. At ito rin ang mga pinagbasehan ng mga Apostolic Fathers at Christian New Testament. Samantala ang Makabagong -Wikang Koine Greek bersyon ay nirebisa at isinalin sa ‗Aquila‘ ng Sinope‘s Greek bersyon. Ang Septuagint o LXX ay ang pinagbasehan na ―PINANIWALAAN‖ (canon) at ang iba pang aklat na idinagdag na mga sulat ng mga Propeta kagaya ng aklat na Maccabees, Wisdom of Ben Sira, Daniel at Esther ay mas mahaba pa sa Masoretic Text. Ang ilan na bagong dagdag, ang aklat na Wisdom of Solomon, 2 Macabees at iba pa ay galing sa orihinal na Gregong pagkakasulat. Hindi naisama sa Septuagint ang sikat na mga aklat na ‗Enosh o Jubilees‘ at iba pang mga kasulatan. Ang Septuagint ay galing sa salitang Latin na ibig sabihin ay ‗pitumpong tigapagsalin‘ o LXX. Sumunod na panahon ay masusing nirebisa at isinalin sa Makabagong Greek bersyon na tinawag na ‗Aquila, Symmachus at Theodotion. Ang tatlong ito ang Masmakabagong Greek bersyon ng kasulatang Septuagint na hango sa Pentateuch na hango sa aklat ni Moses sa Hebreo at iba pang nadagdag na mga aklat sa Hebreo at Grego.

ANG MGA PINANINIWALAAN NG MGA GREGO AT ROMANO NA MGA ALAMAT BAGO REBISAHIN ANG PENTATEUCH GREEK O SEPTUAGINT LATIN OLD TESTAMENT NG MGA GREGO AT ROMANONG MANUNULAT

ALAMAT NI MYTHRA (1200 B.C.E.) Si Mythra ng Persia ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw. ALAMAT NI ATTIS (1200 B.C.E.) Si Attis ng Gresya ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw. ALAMAT NI KRISHNA

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(900 B.C.E.) Si Krishna ng India ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw.

ALAMAT NI TAMMUZ Ezekiel 8:14 (597 B.C.E) Si Nimrod II ay tinawag naTammuz ng mga Babylonia, Azur naman ang tawag ng mga Asyrian, at Osiris naman ang tawag ng mga Egyptian. Si Nimrod II ay napatay at ang kanyang asawa ay nagbuntis sa ibang lalaki at pinalabas na ang bata ay si Nimrod II na „NABUHAY NA MULI‟. Mula noon ang Alamat na ito ay naging bantog sa mga Alamat ng Griyego at Romano kahanay nila Jupiter at Zeus. ALAMAT NI HORUS (300 B.C.E.) Si Horus ng Egypt ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw.

NAKILALA NG MARAMING TAO SI YAHSHU‟A ANG MESSIAH NA TAGA NAZARETH NA MAY 12 DISIPOLO Ang pangalan ni Yahshu‘a ang Messiah ng Nazareth ay pangalang Hebreo ay isinusulat sa Aramaic na Yeshu‘a na ang pagbigkas ay Yah-shu‘a. Ang Aramaic ang umiiral na pangkalahatang wika sa Yahrusalem noong panahong iyon. Mula sa Aramaic ay isinalin ito sa wikang Grego na IESOUS na binibigkas na ‗Yeh-soos‘ at nang maisalin ang Gregong pangalan sa Latin ay naging IESUS na binibigkas sa Latin na ‗Yay-soos‘. Nang maimbento ang letrang ‗J‘ ay naging JESUS na bigkas ay ‗Jay-zus‘. (Tingnan ang pahina 32).

MARAMING BESES SINIRA ANG ALEXANDRIA LIBRARY Si Theophilus ay Patriarka ng Alexandria noong 385 hanggang 412 A.D. ang mga Hudyo, Christian at pagano ay sama-samang naninirahan sa Alexandria. Nagkaroon ng pagkaka-alitan sila-sila at nawasak na naman ang Alexandria. Ang huling sinisisi sa pagkakasunog sa Alexandria ay si Moslem Caliph Omar noong 640 A.D. pagkatapos na malaman niya na nasa Alexandria ang lahat ng kasulatan at talino sa mundo na kumokontra sa Koran ay lahat ng aklat sa Alexandria ay sinunog na tumagal ng halos anim na buwan. 16

SAAN GALING ANG NEW TESTAMENT?
Si Origen noong 235 A.D. na isang Christian scholar ng Alexandria ay binuo ang ‗Hexapla‟ na binubuo ng anim na hanay na sa unang hanay ang bersyong Hebrew Text. Sa unang hanay ay Hebreo at sa ikalawang hanay ay Hebrew sa Greek bersyon at ang ikatlong hanay ay ang Makabagong Greek bersyon na Aquila ng Sinope‘s Greek bersyon, ika-apat ang Pinaka-lumang (Pentateuch) Greek Septuagint bersyon Symmachus ang Ebionite‘s bersyon, ang ika-lima ay ang LXX o Septuagint na pinagsama-sama ang lahat ng Greek bersyon na may mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon ito nagmula. Ang ika-limang hanay na kumbinasyon ng pinagsamasamang bersyon ng Greek ay kinopya ng marami beses at isinalin muli ngunit tinanggal ang mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon nagmula, at ang Lumang Greek bersyon ng Septuagint ay hindi isinama sa pagkakasalin. Ang pang-anim ay ang Theodotion bersyon. Itong mga pinagsama-samang mga teksto ay naging unang paniniwala ng mga Christian rebisyon ng Septuagint na tinawag na “HEXAPLAR RECENSION”. Ang New Testament o Tinatawag na Greek New Testament o Greek Scriptures

Ang orihinal na indibidwal na aklat ay naisulat noong 45 A.D. sa Koine Greek dahil iyan ang pangkalahatang wikang umiiral noong panahong iyon sa Emperyo ng Roman. Nagmula ang ilan sa Hebreo at Greek na sulatin. Ang Rylands Papyrus 52 ay pangkalahatang tinanggap na pinaka- unang naitalang New Testament na umiidad noong 117 A.D at 138 A.D.

NAKILALANG MGA CHURCH FATHERS: Ang mga Church Fathers ay ang mga naunang maimpluwensyang manunulat sina Clement ng Rome, Ignatius ng Antioch at Polycarp ng Smyrna. Ang kasulatan na Didache at Shepherd of Hermas ay kasulatan ng mga Church Fathers ngunit hindi lang alam kung sino ang sumulat. Si Clement ng Roma ay sinulat ang 1 Clement noong 96 A.D., siya ay nanawagan sa mananampalataya ng Corinto. 17

Si Ignatius ng Antioch ay istudyante ng Desipolong si John (YahYah) ay sumulat sa mga naunang Christians bago siya patayin sa Roma. Binanggit siya sa mga sulat ni Apostol Pablo. Polycarp ng Smyrna ay isang Bishop ng Smyrna (ngayon ay Izmir, Turkey). Siya ay Desipolo ni John (YahYah) na anak ni Zebedee na pinaniniwalaan na sumulat ng ikaapat na Gospel. Samantalang si Eusebius na ipinagpipilitan na si Polycarp ay kasama ni John the Evangelist. Si Polycarp ay pinakiusapan si Anicetus na Bishop ng Rome na ipagdiwang ang Easter sa 14 Nisan ay hindi siya pumayag, kahit sa paggamit sa kalendaryo ng mga taga Kanluran. Si Polycarp ay pinatay ng mga taga Smyrna noong 155 A.D. Hindi siya nasunog sa apoy na pinaglagyan sa kanya, kaya siya ay sinaksak hanggang mamatay at dahil sa dugo niya ay namatay ang apoy sa kanyang paligid.

GREEK FATHERS: Clement ng Rome, Irenaeus ng Lyons, Clement ng Alexandria, Athanasius ng Alexandria, John Chrysostom, Cyril ng Alexandria ang Cappadocian Fathers (Basil ng Caesarea, Gregory Nazianzus, Peter ng Sebaste & Gregory ng Nyssa), at Maximus ang Confessor.

Irenaeus ng Lyons

Saint Irenaeus, (b. 2nd century; d. end of 2nd/beginning of 3rd century) ay bishop ng Lugdunum sa Gaul, sa ngayon ay Lyons, France. Siya ay disipolo ni Polycarp. Siya ang unang tumanggap na ang apat na Gospel ay katanggap-tanggap na piliin, noon nagsimula ang pagkalikha ng New Testament noong 180 A.D.

Clement ng Alexandria

Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens) (c.150-211/216), ay kaanib ng iskwelahan at simbahan ng Alexandria. Sinulat niya ang Clement of Alexandria.

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Origen of Alexandria Origen, o Origen Adamantius (c 185 - c254) isa sa mga naunangChristian eskolar at isang Egyptian na nagtuturo sa Alexandria kung saan nagturo rin si Clement. Ang Patriarka ng Alexandria una ay sumusuporta sa kanya ngunit siya ay tinanggal dahil naordinahan ng walang permiso ng Patriarka. Sa kanyang kaalaman sa Hebreo itinuwid niya ang Septuagint at sumulat ng mga komentaryong napasama nang isalin sa mga aklat sa Biblia. Sa kanya si Yahweh ay hindi makapangyarihan kundi isa lamang Unang Prinsipyo at ang antas ng Messiah ay mas mababa, ang kanyang pagkaka- unawa sa Trinity ang pre-existence ng kaluluwa ay idineklara na isang paglait. Sumulat siya ng mahigit 6,000 aklat. Si Origen noong 235 A.D. na isang Christian scholar ng Alexandria ay binuo ang ‗Hexapla‟ na binubuo ng anim na hanay na sa unang hanay ang bersyong Hebrew Text. Sa unang hanay ay Hebreo at sa ikalawang hanay ay Hebrew sa Greek bersyon at ang ikatlong hanay ay ang Makabagong Greek bersyon na Aquila ng Sinope‘s Greek bersyon, ika-apat ang Pinaka-lumang Greek Septuagint bersyon Symmachus ang Ebionite‘s bersyon, ang ika-lima ay ang LXX o Septuagint na pinagsama-sama ang lahat ng Greek bersyon na may mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon ito nagmula. Ang ika-limang hanay na kumbinasyon ng pinagsama-samang bersyon ng Greek ay kinopya ng marami at isinalin muli ngunit tinanggal ang mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon nagmula, at ang Lumang Greek bersyon ng Septuagint ay hindi isinama sa pagkakasalin. Ang pang-anim ang Theodotion bersyon. Itong pinagsama-samang mga teksto ay naging unang paniniwala ng mga Christian rebisyon ng Septuagint na tinawag na “HEXAPLAR RECENSION”. Si Philo at Josephus ay nagtiwala at pinagbasehan ang Septuagint sa kanilang mga sinulat na patungkol sa mga kasulatan ng Hudyo.

The term "hexapla" signifies "six-fold" or "six-columned", and describes the arrangement of the six English versions underneath the Greek text in the book. The term "hexapla" is also applied to Origen's 3rd century edition of the Old Testament, which present six versions of the old testament, in Hebrew, Hebrew in Greek letters, Aquila of Sinope's Greek version, Symmachus the Ebionite's version, the LXX or Septuagint, and Theodotion's version.
MGA AKLAT NG NEW TESTAMENT Maraming aklat ang unti-unting nakolekta upang maging isang aklat ang Greek New Testament na binubuo ng 27 aklat. Ang pinagbasehan nito ay ang ―Hexaplar Recension‖ na Greek bersyon, Apat na aklat ay ang Gospel, isa dito ay salaysay ng sina-unang paniniwala ng mga Apostol na sinulat ni Luke na isa sa gumawa ng Gospel, 21 sulat at Apocalyptic prophecy.

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Gospels Bawat isa sa Gospel ay nagsasalaysay ng naging takbo ng buhay ni Iesous ( Jesus) ng Nazareth. Ang mga nagsulat ay inakala na sina:

Ang Gospel ni Matthew, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle Matthew, anak ni Alphaeus ayon kay Papias, ( Gospel according to the Hebrews) Clement ng Alexandria, Irenaeus at Eusebius. Ang Gospel ni Mark, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Mark the Evangelist, na sumulat sa mga koleksyon ni Apostle Simon Peter ayon kay Papias, Clement ng Alexandria, Irenaeus, Eusebius. Ang Gospel ni Luke, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Luke, isang Doktor at nakasama ni Apostle Paul ayon kay Clement ng Alexandria, Irenaeus, Eusebius, Canon Muratori. Ang Gospel of John, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle John, anak ni Zebedee ayon kay Papias, Clement ng Alexandria, Irenaeus, Eusebius, Canon Muratori, Codex Vaticanus Alexandrinus. Book of Acts of the Apostles

Ang aklat ng Gawa ng mga Apostol (The book of Acts of the Apostles), ay kadugtong ng Gospel ni Lukas ayon kay Clement ng Alexandria, Eusebius, Canon Muratori.

Mga Sulat ni Paul Ang mga sulat ni Paul (or Corpus Paulinum) ay tradisyon na sinulat ni Paul.).
             

Epistle to the Romans First Epistle to the Corinthians Second Epistle to the Corinthians Epistle to the Galatians Epistle to the Ephesians Epistle to the Philippians Epistle to the Colossians First Epistle to the Thessalonians Second Epistle to the Thessalonians First Epistle to Timothy Second Epistle to Timothy Epistle to Titus Epistle to Philemon Epistle to the Hebrews – sinabi ni Origen (254 A.D.) "ang mga tao noon ay ibinigay kay Paul ang epistle na ito ngunit ang sumulat ay ang Lumikha lamang ang nakakaalam) ngunit maraming eskolars ang naniniwala na sinulat ito noon ni Paul.

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General Epistles

Kasama ang mga sulat sa mga simbahan,(catholic ang ibig sabihin ay universal).
      

Epistle of James, sa tradisyon sinulat ni James, kapatid ni Iesous (Jesus ) at Jude Thomas. First Epistle of Peter, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle Simon, tinawag na Peter. Second Epistle of Peter, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle Simon, tinawag na Peter. First Epistle of John, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle John, anak ni Zebedee. Second Epistle of John, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle John, anak ni Zebedee. Third Epistle of John, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle John, anak ni Zebedee. Epistle of Jude, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle Jude Thomas, kapatid ni Iesous(Jesus) at James.

Revelation

Ang huling aklat ng Biblia sa New Testament ay ang Book of Revelation, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle John of Patmos, ang aklat na ito ay hindi binabasa ng Eastern Orthodox church.

PAGKAKAAYOS NG MGA AKLAT SA NEW TESTAMENT

Ang mga aklat ng New Testament ay iba ang pagkakaayos sa bawat religion. Sa Protestant Bibles ay gumaya sa Roman Catholic na pagkakaayos ngunit ang Lutheran ay iba ang pagkakaayos. Sa labas ng Western European Catholic/Protestant ay iba rin ang pagkakaayos sa Slavonic, Syriac at Ethiopian Bibles (Gospels, Acts, Catholic epistles, Pauline epistles, at Apocalypse).

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Apocrypha

Ang mga Apocrypha na mga aklat ang Gospel of Thomas ang Epistle to the Laodiceans. Ang 4th century Codex Sinaiticus ay isinama ang Old at New Testaments ang Epistle of Barnabas at The Shepherd of Hermas. Ang Pinagtatalunang Sulatin, ang Epistle of James at kay Jude, at second epistle of Peter, at lahat ng second at third of John, nagdududa sila kung ito ay ginawa niya o ng ibang tao na parehas ang pangalan. Ang Acts of Paul, at ang Shepherd, at ang Apocalypse of Peter, at ang epistle of Barnabas, at ang Teachings of the Apostles. Ang Apocalypse of John, at ang Gospel according to the Hebrews... ay ang mga pinagtatalunang mga aklat. Ang mga aklat na Gospels of Peter, ni Thomas, ni Matthias, at ang ilan at ang Acts of Andrew at John at nang ibang Apostoles ay napatunayan na mga kathang isip lamang kaya hindi sila naisama sa New Testament. Noong 1611 A.D. King James Version sa English New Testament ay naisalin mula sa Textus Receptus, texto mula sa bagong edisyon ni Erasmus' na nailathala sa Greek New Testament na lumalabas na binasehan ay ang tipo ng Byzantine text. Karamihan sa modernong English bersyon ng New Testament ay binase sa kritikal na pagbuo ng Greek text, kagaya ng Nestle-Alands' Novum Testamentum Graece o Greek New Testament o United Bible Societies'.

Mga Bagong Idinagdag na Texto sa New Testament
      

Matt 16:2b-3 Mark 16:9-20 Luke 22:19b-20,43–44 John 5:4 John 7:53-8:11 1 John 5:7b–8a Romans 16:24

Christian New Testament
Sa sumunod na panahon dalawang pangunahing pinag-ingatang rebisyon ang pinagbasehan ni Lucian at Hesychius, ito ay pinatunayan ni Jerome. Ito rin ang pinagbasehan at palaging binabanggit sa Christian New Testament. Masoretic Text ay Hebrew text na siyang Biblia (Tanakh) ng mga Hudyo na naisulat noong 700 A.D. hanggang 1000 A.D. Ito rin ang pinagbasehan ng mga Protestanteng Biblia at ganoon din ng mga Katolikong Biblia.

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Pope Theonas of Alexandria ay ang Punong Papa ng Alexandria na naging Coptic Church at ang Greek Church ng Alexandria noong 282 hanggang 300 A.D. Pope Achillas of Alexandria ang pang 18 Papa ng Coptic Orthodox Church at ng Greek Church ng Alexandria noong 312 hanggang 313 A.D. Si Achillas naman ay inordinahan na Pari ni Pierius, at naging lider ng Catechetical School of Alexandria sa pagkawala ni Pierius na naging martir ng Alexandria. Siya ay kasing galing sa Greek philosophy at theological science kapantay ni Athanasius ng Alexandria at tinawag siyang "Achillas the Great". Siya ang pumalit pagkamatay ni Peter ng Alexandria sa kapanahunan ng Pagpapahirap ni Diocletian . Minana niya ang mga problema ng simbahan kagaya ng Meletian heresy at ang patuloy na alitan sa Arianism. Sa pamumuno ni Achillas bilang Patriarka, siya ay naimpluwensyahan ng mga sumusuporta kay Arius upang tanggalin ang suspensyon kay Arius. Sa resulta nito ay ibinalik si Arius bilang Pari sa Bucalis na isang pinakamatanda at maimpluwensyang simbahan sa Alexandria.

EMPEROR CONSTANTINE

Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), commonly known in English as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Christians) Saint Constantine (pronounced /ˈ nst nta n/), was Roman k emperor from 306, and the sole holder of that office from 324 until his death in 337A.D. Kilala bilang kauna-unahang Roman Emperor na naging Christian , at binigyang laya ang mga religion sa kanyang nasasakupang emperyo. Ginawa siya at ang kanyang ina si Reyna Helena bilang Santo ng Eastern Orthodox Church at Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine. Sa Latin Church kahit hindi siya ginawang santo ngunit siya ay tinawag nila na ―Constantine The great‖ sa kanyang kontribusyon sa Christianity. Si Constantine ay ginawa ang sina-unang Greek colony ng Byzantium bilang bagong imperial residence ang Constantinople na nanatiling kapital ng Byzantine Empire sa loob ng 1,000 taon.

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50 KOPYA NG BIBLIA NI CONSTANTINE

Noong 322 A.D. inutusan ni Emperor Constantine si Eusebius na gumawa ng 50 kopya ng Banal na Kasulatan na ginawa ng Kilalang-Manunulat at isulat na maliwanag na madaling maintindihan at sa tatlo o apat na kopya ay ihatid sa kanya upang siyasatin at gamitin ang dalawang karwahe ng kaharian sa paghahatid. Si Eusebius ay kumuha ng mga aklat sa kanyang lugar sa Caesarea ng mga bagong-salin na mga aklat mula sa Hexaplar Recension na nagmula sa sulat ni Origen na ―Hexapla”. Ang 27 aklat na pinagbasehan ay ang rebisyon ng ―HEXAPLAR RECENSION”.

The Bibles of Constantine
There is another piece of evidence that bears on the subject of the canon - even though we may not know how to interpret it. About the year 322 CE, the emperor Constantine, wishing to promote and organize Christian worship in the growing number of churches in Constantinople, directed Eusebius to have 50 copies of the sacred Scriptures made by practiced scribes and written legibly on prepared parchment. At the same time the emperor informed him, in a letter still preserved to us, that everything necessary for doing this was placed at his command, among other things two public carriages for conveying the completed manuscripts to the emperor for his personal inspection. According to Eusebius:
Such were the emperor's commands, which were followed by the immediate execution of the work itself, which we sent him in magnificent and elaborately bound volumes of a threefold and fourfold form. (Vita Const. 4.36.37)

The exact meaning of the concluding words has been taken in a half dozen different senses. Two of the most popular are, that the pages had 'three or four columns of script', or that as the copies were completed, they were sent off for the emperor's inspection 'three or four at a time'. The astonishing thing is that Eusebius, who took care to tell us at some length about the fluctuations of opinion in regard to certain books, has not one word to say regarding the choice he made on this important occasion. Of course, 50 magnificent copies, all uniform, could not but exercise a great influence on great influence on future copies, at least within the bounds of the patriarchate of Constantinople, and would help forward the process of arriving at a commonly accepted New Testament in the East.

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Some have suggested that the codex Sinaiticus is one of the 50 bibles commissioned by Constantine, but its Alexandrian type of text makes this unlikely.

Around AD 235, Origen, a Christian scholar in Alexandria, completed the Hexapla, a comprehensive comparison of the ancient versions and Hebrew text side-by-side in six columns, with diacritical markings (a.k.a. "editor's marks", "critical signs" or "Aristarchian signs"). Much of this work was lost, but several compilations of the fragments are available. In the first column was the contemporary Hebrew, in the second a Greek transliteration of it, then the newer Greek versions each in their own columns. Origen also kept a column for the Old Greek (the Septuagint) and next to it was a critical apparatus combining readings from all the Greek versions with diacritical marks indicating to which version each line (Gr. στἰχος) belonged. Perhaps the voluminous Hexapla was never copied in its entirety, but Origen's combined text ("the fifth column") was copied frequently, eventually without the editing marks, and the older uncombined text of the LXX was neglected. Thus this combined text became the first major Christian recension of the LXX, often called the Hexaplar recension. In the century following Origen, two other major recensions were identified by Jerome, who attributed these to Lucian and Hesychius.

Alexander Bishop ng Alexandria
Alexander ng Alexandria ay pang 19 na Patriarka ng Alexandria mula 313 A.D. hanggang pagkamatay niya noong 326 A.D. siya ang nagtala ng Easter, siya ay ang lider na kontra sa Arianism sa First Council of Nicaea. Siya rin ang adviser ni Athanasius ng Alexandria na pumalit sa kanya bilang lider ng Church fathers.

Athanasius ng Alexandria
Athanasius ng Alexandria (c 293-2 May 373) isang theologian, pumalit kay Bishop Alexander ng Alexandria, Pope ng Alexandria, ay isang Egyptian. Siya ay kilala sa aral niyang Trinity.

Arius
Arius (AD ca. 250 or 256 - 336) isang Paring Christian mula sa Alexandria, Egypt ang nagpasimuno ng Arianism. Siya ay mula sa Libya na sakop pa ng Egypt, ang kanyang ama ay si Ammonius. Si Arius ay estudyante ni Saint Lucian ng Antioch. Siya ay na excommunikado ni Bishop Peter ng Alexandria sa kanyang pagsuporta sa paniniwala ni Meletius. Si Bishop Peter ay pinalitan ni Bishop Achillas ay muling tinanggap bilang Pari si Arius sa simbahan ng Baucalis sa distrito ng Alexandria.. Noong 318 A.D. nakipagtalo siya sa kanyang Bishop si Alexander ng Alexandria na pumalit kay Bishop Achillas. Ipinilit niya na si Iesous ( Jesus) "ang Son of God," ay hindi katulad o hindi 25

parehas na mananatili magpakailanman (co-eternal) kagaya ng God the Father, at minsan binanggit niya na hindi tutuo ang Iesous (Jesus). Si Arius kasama ang kanyang tigasunod na mga Pari ay na excommunikado, ngunit ang debate ay nagpatuloy sa Eastern Roman Empire. Maraming bishops lalo na ang mga nakapag-aral kay Lucian ng Antioch ay naniwala kay Arius. Sa panahong iyon si Constantine I ay ang naging Emperador ng Silanganan noong 324 A.D. at ang mga debate ay matitindi sa panahong iyon. Maraming sinulat si Arius ngunit walang natira, inutos ni Emperor Constantine ang pagsunog sa lahat ng sulat ni Arius at ang mga natira sa sinulat ni Arius ay sinira ng mga nakalaban ni Arius. Ang tatlong natira sa sinulat ni Arius ang sulat niya kay Alexander ng Alexandria na naitago ng mga Athanasius, On the Councils of Arminum and Seleucia, 16; Epiphanius, Refutation of All Heresies, 69.7; and Hilary, On the Trinity, 4.12), Ang sulat niya kay Eusebius ng Nicomedia (as recorded by Epiphanius, Refutation of All Heresies, 69.6 and Theodoret, Church History, 1.5) . Ang kanyang kumpisal kay Constantine (as recorded in Socrates Scholasticus, Church History 1.26.2 and Sozomen, Church History 2.27.6-10).

COUNCIL OF NICAEA

Noong 325 A.D. si Emperor Constantine ay binuo ang Council of Nicaea . Sa 1,800 na Bishop na imbitado, 318 na Bishop lamang ang nakadalo. Natalo sa debate si Arius at si Athanasius na ipinadala ni Bishop Alexander ng Alexandria ang pinanigan ni Constantine na ang itinuturo ay ang Trinity. Ang pananatili ni Athanasius ay hindi tumagal nang namatay si Bishop Alexander sa Alexandria noong 327 A.D., pinalitan siya ni Athanasius bilang Bishop. Si Eustathius ng Antioch na sumusuporta kay Athanasius ay natanggal dahil sa pakikipagtalo ka Eusebius ng Caesaria. Si Marcellus ng Ancyra na isa pang kakampi ni Athanasius ay kinasuhan ng Sabellianism sa kanyang pag-depensa sa Nicene Christology ay tinanggal noong 336 A.D. Si Eusebius ng Nicomedia naman ay pinagbuntunan ng galit, si Athanasius ay sumulat kay Emperor Constantine at pinabalik ni Emperor Constantine si Arius na nagtatago sa Palestine. Inutusan din ni Constantine si Athanasius na tanggaping muli si Arius sa komunyon, ngunit hindi pumayag si Athanasius kaya si Athanasius ay na exile sa Trier. Ipinatawag si Arius ni Constantine upang husgahan at inutusan si Alexander ng Constantinople na muling tanggapin si Arius sa komunyon, ngunit sa huling araw na dapat magkomunyon si Arius ay bigla itong namatay. Ang sinabi ng mga kalaban ni Arius ay ‗himala o miracle‘, samantalang sinabi ni Constantine ay ‗pinaslang o murder‘ dahil si Arius ay nilason ng kanyang mga kalaban. Ang mga panig kay Arius sina Eusebius ng Nicomedia at Eusebius ng Caesarea ay maimpluwensya ay ipinaglaban ang mga doktrina ni Arius. 26

Doktrina ni Arius
Na ang makapangyarihan (God) ay hindi laging ang Ama (Father) kundi may panahon na hindi siya Ama, at ang mga salita ng Makapangyarihan (God) ay hindi Magpakailanman (Eternity) kundi galing lang sa wala. Dahil ang Nananatiling Makapangyarihan (Existing God) sa (‗the I AM‘—the eternal One) ay ginawa dahil hindi siya dati nang nag- e-exist. (made him who did not previously exist) na nagmula sa wala, at ang Anak ay Nilikha o isang ginawa. Hindi siya ang Ama kundi isa lang na Nilikha ng Kanyang gawa at mali na tawaging Salita at Talino dahil isa rin siyang Nilikha ng Salita ng Maykapal, na kung saan ay nilikha ng Ama ang lahat kasama siya. Kaya sa kanyang natural na pagkatao ay makadadanas ng pagbabago kagaya ng lahat ng nilikha. Ang Salita ay iba sa Ama at ang Ama ay hindi kayang ipaliwanag ng Anak at hindi niya nakikita at ang Salita ay hindi kilala ang Ama at di nakikita. Ang Anak ay hindi alam ang natural na pagkakakilanlan ng kanyang sarili dahil siya ay nilikha dahil sa atin upang likhain tayo sa pamamagitan niya, kagaya ng instrumento. Nilikha Siya ng Ama dahil ninais ng Ama na likhain tayo.

Emperor Constantine Nagpabautismo sa Arian Priest
Ang asawa ni Constantine si Constantina ay naniniwala sa aral ni Arius. Si Emperor Constantine ang kauna-unahang Roman Emperor na naging Christian. Siya ay nabautismuhan ni Eusebius ng Nicomedia na isang Arian Priest. Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341) was the man who baptised Constantine. He was a bishop of Berytus (modern-day Beirut) in Phoenicia, then of Nicomedia where the imperial court resided in Bithynia, and finally of Constantinople from 338 up to his death.

Ang Mga Sumunod na Mga Bishop ng Alexandria
Cyril ng Alexandria Cyril ng Alexandria (ca. 378 - 444) ay Bishop ng Alexandria sa kapanahunan ng kasikatan ng Emperyo ng Romano ". John Chrysostom John Chrysostom (c 347– c 407), Pangunahing Bishop ng Constantinople, sinulat niya ang Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom . Cappadocian Fathers Ang mga eskolar sina Saint Macrina the Younger , Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa at Peter of Sebaste na naging Bishop ng Sebaste. Ang mga eskolar kasama ang kanilang kaibigan si Gregory Nazianzus ay ipinakita na ang mga Christian ay kayang makipag usap sa mga mataas ang aral na nagsasalita ng Grego kahit na ang kanilang paniniwala ay talihis kay Plato at Aristotle at iba pang Pilosopong Grego ay nakapag-dagdag ng malaki sa pagkaka-kilala sa Trinity na tinapos sa First Council of Constantinople noong 381 A.D at ang pinal na bersyon ng Nicene Creed. 27

Mga Latin Fathers
Ang mga sumulat sa wikang Latin ay ang tinawag na Latin Fathers sila Tertullian, si Cyprian ng Carthage, si Gregory the Great, si Augustine ng Hippo, si Ambrose ng Milan, at si Jerome. Tertullian Promotor ng Tawag na Old Testament at New Testament Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (c 160 - c 225), ay naging Christian noong 197 A.D. ay isang manunulat at theologian ay isang anak ng Romanong Centurion. Siya ay isang abogado sa Roma at binansagang ―Father of the Latin Church‖. Siya ang nag lunsad ng salitang ―Trinitas‖ ng Christian Devine Trinity sa wikang Latin kahit na nauna ng naisulat ni Theophilus of Antioch (c. 115 - c. 183) na nagmula sa Koine Greek at ang ―vetus testamentum (Old Testament) at "novum testamentum" (New Testament). Siya rin ang nauna na tumawag ng "vera religio", na naging sistema ng Religion ng Roman Empire at iba pang tinanggap na Kulto na tinawag na "superstitions". Sa sumunod na panahon sumali siya sa sektang Montanists na kontra sa umiiral na paniniwala. Cyprian ng Carthage Saint Cyprian (Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus) ay bishop ng Carthage ay isang importanteng manunulat na ipinanganak sa Carthage na naging Bishop noong 249 A.D. Ambrose ng Milan Saint Ambrose (c. 338 – 4 April 397), ay bishop ng Milan na naging maimpluwensya at isa sa apat na orihinal na Doctors of the Church. Jerome of Stridonium Saint Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ay kilala na translator ng Biblia sa Latin mula sa Grego at Hebreo na gumawa ng Vulgate Bible na ginagamit ng Roman Catholic Church. Siya ay tinawag na Doctor of the Church. Augustine ng Hippo Saint Augustine (November 13, 354 – August 28, 430), ay ipinanganak sa Algeria ay naging Bishop ng Hippo, isang philosopher at theologian ay isang Latin Father at Doctor of the Church. Siya ay importante sa paglaganap ng Western Christianity. Siya ay naimpluwensyahan ng Platonism. Ang mga ginawa niya ay ipinagpatuloy ni Pope Gregory the Great. Gregory the Great Saint Gregory I the Great (c. 540 – March 12, 604) ay ang pope mula September 3, 590 A.D. hanggang mamatay. Kilala rin siya bilang Gregorius Dialogus (Gregory the Dialogist) sa Eastern Orthodoxy ay Doctor of the Church at pang apat sa great Latin Fathers of the Church (ang ibang Latin Fathers sina Ambrose, Augustine, at Jerome).

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Apologetic Fathers Sina St. Justin Martyr, Tatian, Athenagoras of Athens, Hermias at Tertullian. Ang Pangalawang Council of Nicea noong 787 A.D. Ang ika-pitong Economical Council ng Roman Catholic sa Nicaea (Iznik sa Turkey) ay ibinalik ang pagpuri sa mga imahen na pinatigil noong panahon ng Byzantine Empire sa panahon ni Leo III. Modern positions Sa Roman Catholic Church, si St. John ng Damascus, na nabuhay noong ika-walong siglo ay ang pinaka-huling Church Fathers at ang una sa susunod na Church writers, scholasticism. Si St. Bernard ay isa pa rin sa huling Church Fathers.

PINAGMULAN NG ENGLISH BIBLE
Mula sa Hexaplar Recension ay isinalin ito sa English Hexapla na New Testament ng Wiclif's Bible noong 1380 A.D., William Tyndale's Bible noong 1534A.D., Cranmer's the Great Bible noong 1539 A.D., ang Geneva Bible noong 1557 A.D., Rheims Bible noong 1582 A.D., at ang Authorised, o King James Bible noong 1611 A.D., at naisalin na sa kasalukuyang New King James Bible, NIV Bible, Holy Bible, Catholic Bible.

Hexapla (Ἑξαπλά: Gr. for "sixfold") is the term for an edition of the Bible in six versions. Especially it applies to the edition of the Old Testament compiled by Origen of Alexandria, which placed side by side in six (6) columns:
1. Hebrew Culturally, it is considered a Jewish language 2. Hebrew transliterated into Greek characters 3. Aquila of Sinope native of Pontus in Anatolia known for producing an exceedingly literal translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek around 130 CE 4. Symmachus the Ebionite (fl. late 2nd century) was the author of one of the Greek versions of the Old Testament 5. Septuagint 72 Jewish scholars first translated the Torah into Koine Greek in the third century BC 6. Theodotion (d. ca. 200 A.D.) was a Hellenistic Jewish scholar

The English Hexapla is an edition of the New Testament in Greek, along with what were considered the six most important English language translations in parallel columns underneath, preceded by a detailed history of English translations and translators by S. P. Tregelles.
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The six English language translations provided are Wiclif's (1380), William Tyndale's (1534), Cranmer's (the Great Bible 1539), the Geneva Bible (1557), Rheims (1582), and the Authorised, or King James Bible, (1611). The term "hexapla" signifies "six-fold" or "six-columned", and describes the arrangement of the six English versions underneath the Greek text in the book. The term "hexapla" is also applied to Origen's 3rd century edition of the Old Testament, which present six versions of the old testament, in Hebrew, Hebrew in Greek letters, Aquila of Sinope's Greek version, Symmachus the Ebionite's version, the LXX or Septuagint, and Theodotion's version. The English Hexapla was published by Samuel Bagster and Sons, of Paternoster Row, London, who are described on the title page as being a "warehouse for Bibles, New Testaments, Prayer-books, Lexicons, Grammars, Concordances, and Psalters, in ancient and modern languages." It was published in 1841

Protestant
Ang Protestant religioun kahit na nagbase sa Sola Scriptura (the principle that the Bible itself is the ultimate authority in doctrinal matters), ang unang Protestant reformers, kagaya ng Catholic at Orthodox churches, ay nagbase sa theological interpretations ng scripture na itinatag ng mga naunang Church Fathers. Ang orihinal na Lutheran Augsburg Confession ng 1531 A.D. at ang Formula of Concord ng 1576-1584 ay kagaya ng doktrina ng First Council of Nicea. Ang John

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Calvin's French Confession of Faith of 1559 A.D. ay naglahad ng mga naitatag na ng sina-unang council. Binigyan nila ng importansya ang Tradisyon at ang Interpretasyon ng mga sina-unang Fathers kagaya ng Paleo-Orthodoxy. Ang American Protestant ay ang United Methodist Church, Presbyterian Church USA, Episcopal Church, at ang Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, ay iba ang doktrina at nag ordina ng babaeng pastora at pati homosexual. Sila ay di naniniwala sa mga naunang simbahan at naniniwala na ang lahat ay pwedeng dumerekta sa Maykapal kaya hindi na kailangan ng guidance o doktrina ng simbahan.

Latter-day Saints
Ang mga kaanib ng The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (o Mormons) ay tinatanggap ang Biblia kasama ang New Testament bilang salita ng Maykapal kung ito ay naisalin ng tama.

Messianic Judaism
Messianic Judaism ay kagaya ng pagkilala ng maraming evangelical Protestants sa atoridad ng New Testament.

Dead Sea Scroll
Ang natagpuan noong 1947 A.D. na maraming kasulatan sa Dead Sea Scroll lalo na ang mga nakasulat sa Aramaic ay mas malapit at mas pumapabor sa Septuagint kaysa Masoretic text. Sa simula noong 200 A.D. ang mga Hudyo ay maraming dahilan kaya hindi ginamit ang Septuagint, dahil ang mga naunang mga Hentil (hindi tuli Epeso 2:11) na Christian ay pinaniniwalaan at ginagamit ang Septuagint dahil hindi sila nakaka- intindi ng wikang Hebreo kundi ng wikang Grego lamang. Si Jerome ay isinalin ang Septuagint na wikang Latin (Vulgate Bible) ay napatunayan niya na ang Hebrew text ay mas maraming nagpapatunay tungkol sa Messiah kaysa sa Septuagint kaya siya ay Lumabas sa Tradisyon ng Simbahang Katoliko at isinalin niya ang Old Testament mula sa Hebreo sa tinawag na Vulgate Bible. Ang kanyang pagpuna sa Septuagint ay pinulaan ng mga Augustine at pinalabas na si Jerome ay isang (Forger) mandaraya ng kasulatan ngunit sa paglipas ng panahon ay ang kanyang Old Testament na Vulgate Latin Bible ay sinapawan ang Septuagint. Sa aklat ng Septuagint ay maraming aklat na hindi makikita sa Hebrew Bible. Marami sa mga biblia ng Protestante ay sumunod sa Jewish canon at hindi isinama ang ibang aklat. Ang Simbahang Katoliko naman ay isinama ang mga aklat na iyon, samantalang ang Simbahan ng Eastern Orthodox ay ginagamit lahat ang mga aklat sa Septuagint, ganoon din ang Anglical maliban lang sa Psalm 151. Ang King James Version naman ay isinama lahat ng nadagdag na aklat at inilagay sa isang seksyon na tinawag na ‗Apocrypha‘.

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ITUTURO SA LAHAT SA IBANG BANSA ANG PAGSISISI AT KAPATAWARAN NG MGA KASALANAN SA KANYANG PANGALANG YAHSHU‟A NA NAGSIMULA SA YAHRUSALEM Luke 24:47 ‗and the repentance and remission of sins should be preached in HIS NAME among all nations beginning at Jerusalem‘ Nagsimula sa Yahrusalem ang Pagtuturo sa pagsisisi at kapatawaran ng mga kasalanan sa Kanyang Pangalan na Yahshu‟a at mula sa Yahrusalem ay itinuro ito sa ibat-ibang Bansa na ang pagsisisi at kapatawaran ng mga kasalanan ay sa Pangalan ni Yahshu‟a ngunit inilihis at ginawa na ang pagsisisi at kapatawaran ng mga kasalanan ay sa ibang pangalan - kay Iesus o Jesus na.

How Yeshu‟a Become Jesus
By:JOSEPH STALLINGS

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Published in Catholic Digest January 1992 vol.32,no.6 page 17 The Mystery of the Magi
We usually don‟t think about it, but our Lord‟s name was not always Jesus. It was in fact originally the popular Aramaic name *Yeshu’a. In first century Judea and Galilee, the name Yeshu‟a was very common and shared fifth place with Eleazar (Lazarus) in popularity as a name for Jewish men. The most popular male names at that time were Shime‟on (Simon), Yosef (Joseph), Yehuda (Judah or Judas) and Yochanan (John). In the Holy Land at the time of Christ, Aramaic had replaced Hebrew in everyday conversation, but Hebrew remained the holy language and was used in worship and daily prayers. The rabbis also used Hebrew when instructing their disciples. The two languages were closely related, however, as close as Italian is to Spanish, and both used the same alphabet. Yeshu‟a was the Aramaic version of the Hebrew name Yehoshu‟a (Joshua), and means “Yahweh saves”. Throughout Christ‟s lifetime in Galilee, Samaria and Judea of course the name Yeshu‟a presented no problem for those who spoke Aramaic and read the Bible and prayed in Hebrew. But outside the Holy Land it become a different story as Good News spread. The Gentiles of the Roman Empire spoke Greek and Latin and simply could not pronounce Yeshu‟a. It contained sounds that did not exist in their language. When the Gospels were written in Greek, therefore, the Evangelists had a real problem regarding how they might render our Lord‟s name into acceptable Greek. The initially „Y‟ (Hebrew and Aramaic letter „yod‟) was easy. The Evangelists could use the Greek letter „iota‟, written „I,‟ since it was pronounced like the „y‟ in yet. The next sound was a vowel, and that was a little more difficult. Unlike Greek, all the letters of the Aramaic-Hebrew alphabet are consonants. The marks for the vowels were not invented until some centuries after Christ and were simple dots and dashes, placed above or beneath the letters. At the time of Christ apparently, the first vowel in our Lord‟s name was pronounced like the „a‟ in gate. And the Evangelists believed they could approximate that sound by using the Greek letter „eta‟. (The capital Greek letter looks just like our English letter H). Then followed the first of two almost insurmountable problems with Hebrew and Aramaic pronunciation. There was no letter for the „sh‟ sound in the Greek alphabet. Such a familiar name as Solomon was actually Sh‟lomo in Hebrew, Samson was Shimson and Samuel was Sh‟mu-El. Like the Greek translators of these Old Testament Hebrew names, the Evangelists used the Greek sigma (s) for the Hebrew shin (sh) when rendering Christ‟s name. The first three Greek letters „iota‟, „eta‟, and „sigma‟, moreover came to be used in early Byzantine religious art as an abbreviation of Jesus name. As they look very much like the Latin letters IHS, the letters were adapted in Western European religious paintings and church architecture as a symbol for Christ‟s name.

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The next letter in the Aramaic name Yeshu‟a was the Hebrew letter „waw‟, which here represents the sound „oo‟, as in too. It was easy for the Evangelists to duplicate this sound in Greek. It takes two letters, however, the omicron (o) and upsilon (u). But that easy substitution was followed by the biggest problem of all: the final „a‟ sound. In Greek, there was no substitute for the Hebrew letter „aiyin‟. Though the „aiyin‟ has no sound of its own, it causes the vowel that it controls to be pronounced deep in the throat. The Greek couldn‟t do that, and neither could the Romans when speaking in Latin. Usually, a Greek or Roman would pronounce an „aiyin‟-controlled „a’ like the „a‟ in father. A final „a‟ on a name however was most commonly feminine in both Greek and Latin. Thus it was decided to drop the Hebrew „aiyin‟ completely and replace it with the final Greek sigma (s) which most often indicates the masculine gender in nouns. Throughout the Roman Empire then our Lord‟s Aramaic name Yeshu‟a, had become the Greek name Iesous, pronounced yeh-SOOS. And this remained Christ‟s name throughout the Roman Empire as long as Greek remained the dominant language. But after some centuries Greek lost its favored position and Latin took its place. In the last quarter of the fourth century, the Bible was translated from Greek into Latin by *St. Jerome who had no trouble rendering the Greek Iesous into Latin, it became Iesus. The accent, however, was moved to the first syllable and the name pronounced YAY-soos, since the Romans liked to accent the second from the last syllable. In about 14th century, in the scriptoria of the monasteries where Bibles were copied by hand, Monks began to elongate the initial „I‟ of the words into a „J‟. (The pronounciation remained the same-like the „y‟ in yet but the Monks thought a „J‟ looked better). Probably the first Monks to do this were Germans because the letter „j‟ in that language sounds the same as the „y‟ in English. The name Iesus, consequently, evolved into the familiar written form of Jesus by the 17th century. Everyone still pronounced it YAY-soos, however, as it was in the official liturgical Latin. Way back in the fifth and sixth centuries, some pagan Germanic tribes called the Angles and Saxons invaded England. St Augustine of Canterbury came to convert them to Christianity in A.D.396. Of course St. Augustine established Jerome‟s Latin translation as England‟s official Bible. The Anglo-Saxon learned that our Lord‟s official Latin name was Iesus. Naturally the Germanic Anglo-Saxon converted the initial Latin „I‟ into the German „J‟. They pronounced the name, however, as YAY-zoos, since a single „s‟ between two vowels is sounded like our „z‟ in Germanic languages. When the Normans invaded England in A.D.1066 they brought with them the French language. Since neither the Anglo-Saxons nor the Normans would surrender their language to the other, the two become wedded and eventually evolved into Modern English. The Normans did influence the pronunciation of the first letter of Our Lord‟s name, though, they brought the French pronunciation of j (jh), which evolved into our English sound of j. When King James commissioned the first official translation of the Bibles into English in the early 17th century, the Latin Jesus was carried over unchanged into the new English Bible. The average English citizen of the day probably pronounced the name JAY-zus which ultimately evolved into our modern English JEE-zus. The long process was now complete. A name that began as the Aramaic Yeshu’a would remain written in English as it was in Medieval Latin, but now would be pronounced in English speaking countries as the familiar and loving name of the One who is our Savior, JESUS.

* Yeshu’a pronounced Yah-shua in Aramaic from Hebrew name Yahshu’a * St. Jerome name is Eusebius Hieronymus A.D.347 – A.D.419
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SAAN GALING ANG OLD TESTAMENT?
Jacob Tinawag ni Yahweh na Yahshear sa Gen.32:28
Sina Yahshaak (Isaac) at Ismaale (Ismael) ay Anak at Lahi rin ni Abraham at si Ismaale ang naunang nanirahan sa Masry (Egypt) sa Genesis 21:21 at sumunod ang mga anak ni Yahshaak kay Yahkoob (Jacob) na tinawag ni Yahweh bilang Yahshear (Gen. 32:28).

THE NAME ‘ISRAEL’ ORIGINATED FROM THE NAME (YASHAR) ‘YAHSHEAR’ yaw-shar' a primitive root; to be straight ‘yesh-oo-roon' Jeshurun, a symbol. name for Israel yis-raw-ale' a symbolical name of Jacob
Genesis 32:28 And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel –₃₄₇₄ for as a prince hast thou power with Elohim and with men, and hast prevailed.

Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance Hebrew-Greek Dictionary ‘search’ for "Israel"–₃₄₇₄
3474 yashar yaw-shar' a primitive root; to be straight or even; figuratively, to be (causatively, to make) right, pleasant, prosperous:--direct, fit, seem good (meet), + please (will), be (esteem, go) right (on), bring (look, make, take the) straight (way), be upright(-ly). 3475 Yesher yay'-sher from 3474; the right; Jesher, an Israelite: -Jesher. 3476 yosher yo'-sher from 3474; the right:--equity, meet, right, upright(-ness). 3477 yashar yaw-shawr' from 3474; straight (literally or figuratively):--convenient, equity, Jasher, just, meet(-est), + pleased well right(-eous), straight, (most) upright(-ly, -ness). 3484 Yshuruwn yesh-oo-roon' from 3474; upright; Jeshurun, a symbol. name for Israel:--Jeshurun. 3478 Yisra'el yis-raw-ale' from 8280 and 410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity: --Israel. 3479 Yisra'el yis-raw-ale' (Aramaic) corresponding to 3478:--Israel. 3481 Yisr'eliy yis-reh-ay-lee' patronymically from 3478; a Jisreelite or descendant of Jisrael:--of Israel, Israelite. 3484 Yshuruwn yesh-oo-roon' from 3474; upright; Jeshurun, a symbol. name for Israel:--Jeshurun.

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Nang ang salita ni YAHWEH ay dumating kay Abraham sa Genesis 15:13-14 “At sinabi ni Yahweh kay Abraham, sinabi ko sa iyo na ang lahi ng iyong mga anak ay magsisilbi sa ibang lupain ng mga Hentil at sila ay pahihirapan sa loob ng 400 taon, at ang Nasyong iyon na kanilang pinagsilbihan ay aking hahatulan at pagkatapos ay ilalabas ko sila na may dalang malaking yaman”. Sa Genesis 21:12-13 ― kay Yahshaak (Isaac) ang iyong lahi ay tatawagin at ang anak mo sa katulong ay aking gagawin din na isang Nasyon, DAHIL SIYA AY ANAK AT LAHI MO RIN‖. Genesis 46:3 ―Ako si YAHWEH, ang makapangyarihan ng iyong mga magulang, huwag kang matakot pumaroon sa Masry; dahil gagawin ko kayong malaking Nasyon‖. Samakatwid ang lahi ni Abraham sa kanyang dalawang anak sina Ismaale at Yahshaak ay naging tigapagsilbi sa lupain na hindi kanila sa lupain ng Masry kagaya sa sinabi ni Yahweh sa Genesis 15:13-14. Ang sinabi ay paglipas ng 400 na taon ay lalabas sila sa Nasyong iyon na kanilang pinagsilbihan at sa Exodus 12:52 ―si YAHWEH ay inilabas ang mga anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) (Tribo ng Yahshurun) Gen.32:28 mula sa lupain ng Masry‖. Sa lupain ng Masry ang Tribo ni Ismaale at Tribo ni Yahshurun (mula sa pangalang Yahshear) ay ang tanging ―Tribong Tuli‖, upang magkaroon ng pagkaka-kilanlan sa dalawang Tribong-Tuli ang Tribong Yahshurun ay tinawag ng mga nagsasalita ng Aramaic ng ―Yisraw-ale‖ (Yisrawale naging Israel) ibig sabihin ay ―Prinsipe ni Sarah‖ at ang Ismaale naman ay tinawag na ―Ishmael‖ na ibig sabihin ay ‗sa Pangalan ni Sarah‖. Ang ‗Ale‘ sa wikang Hebreo ay ‗Among-Babae‘, tinutukoy ang amo ni Hagar na si Sarah.

13 TIBO NG YAHSHURUN Ang 12 anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) na tinawag na 12 Tribo ni Yahshurun ay orihinal na 12, ngunit ng akuin ni Yahshear ang dalawang anak ni Yohseph sina Efraim at Manase na kanyang anak na rin sa Genesis 48:5-6 ay naging 13 ang Tribo ng Yahshurun. Ang nakatalaga para kay Yohseph ay pinalitan ng kanyang dalawang anak, samakatwid ang Tribo ni Yahshurun ay naging 13 Tribo na lumabas sa lupain ng Masry sa panahon ni Moshe (Moses).
1. Ruben 2. Simeon 3. Levi 4. Yahuwdah 5. Dan 6. Nepthali 7. Gad 8. Asher 9. Isachar 10.Zabulon Dinah (Leah) Yohseph anak sina Manaseh at Efraim 11. Manaseh 12. Efraim 13. BenYahmin

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Dath
Dath ‫תד‬

‫תד‬

1) decree, law, edict, regulation, usage ,a) decree, edict, commission, b) law, rule

dath <1881> Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance Hebrew Dictionary Pronunciation: Definition: Dawth 1) decree, law, edict, regulation, usage 1a) decree, edict, commission 1b) law, rule of uncertain (perhaps foreign) derivation: a royal edict or statute:-commandment, commission, decree, law, manner. DaTH I used to think of DaTH (dawth) as meaning void, since that's the way the fluffy bunny new age kabbalah books present it. I was curious one day and decided to see if the word was in the Bible (in Hebrew version) and found that it means something like the Law written in our hearts, a kosmic consciousness that lets us know if we are in sync with the Tao That Be (or however you want to describe it). Here are a few of my notes on my research into DaTH. Go on a spiritual quest to find values you can hold up as being what you stand for. You have found your inner DaTH. You have found the law written in your heart. What is law? A king gives a decree or edict that is the expression of the king’s will. [Esther 3:14, 8:13, 9:14] There was the concept that once a king issued this DaTH, it cannot be altered or revoked. [Daniel 2:15, 6:16] DaTH is entrusted to people. In the case of civil law, this DaTH is in the hands of judges, enforced by police, argued by lawyers, voted upon and recorded by politicians. The Israelites had the concept of the ToWRaH being the DaTH of Yahweh. Ezra was given the title of Secretary of the irrevocable DaTH of the Almighty of heaven. [Ezra 7:2, 1 Esdras 8:9] The irrevocability of the DaTH from Yahweh was not questioned by Yahshua. Yahshua was not out to destroy the ToWRaH representing the DaTH from Yahweh, but to bring it to life in the hearts of people. [Matthew 5:17] He was not getting out a giant cosmic eraser. What he challenged was that DaTH of Yahweh was complete and contained in scriptures and traditions. He offered that DaTH of Yahweh can be known in the heart, directly experienced, with continued insights into this DaTH, renewed revelation, and ongoing prophecy. This was not anti-Jewish at all. The idea was found in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Jews continued to redefine DaTH with the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Kabbalah, and to this day with books being published, web sites being built, deeper insights explored and lived out.

Here is something you can count on to be true for your entire life — CHoKMaH/Sophia and DaTH are treasures that will be your salvation. The greatest treasure comes from uniting with Yahweh. [Isaiah33:6]

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A treasure is a reward after following a treasure hunt. A gift is never really valued as a treasure. YAHWEH with a multitude approaches, from his right hand comes a shining DaTH. [Deuteronomy 33:2] DaTH is the invisible SHiPHRaH, the Law in the heart of Yahweh. DaTH is Law, but DaTH is also having an active conscious, a living Law written in the heart. DaTH is being conscious of the will of Yahweh, which we can concentrate upon, which we can be mindful of, which can direct our view of what Yahweh wants in each given situation. DaTH is beyond memorizing a collection of ancient rules. DaTH is a living part of each of us. I would dare say that people who have never heard one word of religion still know that it would be wrong to go on a murdering spree or steal from the neighbors when they are not at home. The commandments part of ToWRaH are not the DaTH, but are examples of using the DaTH in specific situations. The DaTH extends far beyond the few ancient case-by-case examples of what would not be acceptable behavior. Thus the Jewish/Kabbalist quest for the invisible DaTH is much like the Gnostic quest for direct connect, for gnosis. Maybe it is invisible because it is from another dimension, that light trapped in the darkness, our core Messiah’s Consciousness, our native our Nature. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - Dath Mosha Middle Eastern and North African Jewish community headdress may also resemble that of the ancient Israelites. In Yemen, the wrap around the cap was called ‫ ַמ ַמ ר‬massar; the head covering worn by all women according to Dath Mosha was a ‫" ַמרגּוש‬Gargush" ‫ג‬

Yahshear-Dath o (Sacer-dote) Ang anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) na Tribo ni Levi ay itinalaga sa Pagpapari (Priesthood o Yahshear-Dath o Sacerdote) sa Exodus 29. Ang tatlong anak ni Levi si Yahshear-Dath Gerson, Yahshear-Dath Cohat at Yahshear-Dath Merari o mga Yahshear-Dath o mga Secerdote ay inihalo sa 12 Tribo ng Yisrawale upang pamahalaan ang trabaho ng Pagpapari at sa pagsisilbi sa pagsamba kay YAHWEH na mababasa sa Joshua 21:1-8 at 1Chronicles 6:63-81.

Tatlong Anak ni Levi Itinalagang Yahshear-Dath o Secerdote o Pari ay Inihalo sa 12 Tribo ng Yisrawale (Israel) 1.Secerdote o Yahshear-Dath Gerson 2.Secerdote o Yahshear-Dath Cohat 3.Secerdote o Yahshear-Dath Merari

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Ang mga anak ni Yahshear (Jacob) kay Leah, Rachel, Bilha, Zilpa:
1. Ruben ---------- 1. Ruben (Leah) - Yahshear Dath Merari ang Pari 2. Simeon ---------- 2. Simeon (Leah) – Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari 3. Levi ---------Levi (Leah) mga anak sina Gerson, Cohat, Merari 4. Yahuwdah ---------- 3. Yahuwdah (Leah) – Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari 5. Dan ---------- 4. Dan (Bilha-Rachel ) – Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari 6. Nepthali ---------- 5. Nepthali (Bilha-Rachel) – Yahshear Dath Gerson ang Pari 7. Gad ---------- 6. Gad (Zilpa-Leah) – Yahshear Dath Merari ang Pari 8. Asher ---------- 7. Asher (Zilpa-Leah) – Yahshear Dath Gerson ang Pari 9. Isachar ---------- 8. Isachar (Leah) –Yahshear Dath Gerson ang Pari 10.Zabulon ---------- 9. Zabulon (Leah) – Yahshear Dath Merari ang Pari Dinah (Leah) 11.Yohseph ---------Yohseph (Rachel) mga anak sina Manaseh at Efraim 12.BenYahmin ---------10. Manaseh-kalahating tribo - Yahshear Dath Gerson ang Pari Manaseh- kalahating tribo – Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari 11. Efraim – Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari 12. BenYahmin(Rachel) - Yahshear Dath Cohat ang Pari

Si Yohseph ay ipinagbili ng kanyang mga kapatid sa mga Ismaalita at dinala sa Masry (Egypt) na pinagbili naman bilang alipin at dumating ang panahon na naging tagapamahala ng Pharaoh at naging Malaya at pinalitan ang pangalan na Zaphenathpaneah. Ang isang alipin ay ibabalik sa kanyang magulang ngunit si Yohseph ay binili sa lahi ng Ismaalita kaya ibinalik siya sa Ismaalita at binigyan ng asawa na pangalan ay Asenath na anak na babae ng Pari ng Ismaalita na si Potiphera sa lahi ni Ismaale na nagkaroon ng 12 prinsesa na kagaya ni Yahshurun na nagkaroon ng 12 anak at ang isa ay si Levi na naatasan sa pamamahala ng Pagpapari sa Exodus 29, Genesis 17:7, 17:23, 16:12 ―siya ay kahalubilo ng kanyang mga kapatid‖. Nang si Abraham ay mamatay sina Ismaale at Yahshaak ang naglibing sa kanya sa kweba ng Machpelah katabi ng kanyang asawang si Sarah sa Genesis 25:9. Ang anak at lahi ni Ismaale ay nadala ng dalawang anak ni Yohseph sina Manase at Efraim, samantalang ang anak at lahi ni Yahshaak ay nadala ng 12 Tribo ng Yahshurun (Jacob tinawag ni Yahweh na Yahshear) sa lupain ng Masry at inilabas sila ni Yahweh sa Exodus 12:51, upang matupad ang sinalita ni Yahweh sa Genesis 15:13-14.

YISRAWALE (ISRAEL) KING
1Samuel 8:5 And said unto him, Behold, thou art old, and thy sons walk not in thy ways: now make us a king to judge us like all the nations. 1Samuel 8:6 But the thing displeased Samuel, when they said, Give us a king to judge us. And Samuel prayed unto . 1Samuel 12:19 And all the people said unto Samuel, Pray for thy servants unto thy Elohim, that we die not: for we have added unto all our sins this evil, to ask us a king.

King Saul (BenYahmin) Kohath ang Pari King David (Yahuwdah) Kohath ang Pari King Solomon (Yahuwdah) Kohath ang Pari
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DALAWANG KAHARIAN
Lumipas ang panahon pagkamatay ni Haring Solomon ay nahati sila sa dalawang kaharian, sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale at Kaharian ng Yahuwdah. Ang Katiwala ni Haring Solomon na mula sa Tribo ng Efraim (1Kings 11:26) si Yeroboam ang naging Hari ng Yisrawale na sumama ang 10 Tribo ay pinagsisilbihan naman ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Secerdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Cohat, Yahshear Dath Gerson at Yahshear Dath Merari. Ang anak ni Haring Solomon si Rehoboam ang naging Hari ng 2 Tribo ng Yahuwdah na pinagsisilbihan ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Secerdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Cohat.

King Jeroboam sa Tribong Efraim ---- King Rehoboam sa Tribong Yahuwdah
YISRAWALE (ISRAEL) King Jeroboam (Efraim) 10 tribo ng Yisrawale (Israel) Samaria City YAHUWDAH (JEWS) ----------------------------- King Rehoboam (Yahuwdah) ----------------------------- 2 tribo ng Yahuwdah at BenYahmin (Jews) ----------------------------Jerusalem City

Nakatalagang Sacerdote: ---------------------------- Nakatalagang Sacerdote: Sacerdote o Yahshear Dath Merari ----------------------- Sacerdote o Yahshear Dath ang Pari ng Tribo nila Ruben, Gad, Kohath ang Pari ng Tribo nila Zabulon Yahuwdah at BenYahmin Sacerdote o Yahshear Dath Kohath ang Pari ng Tribo nila Simeon, Dan, ½Manaseh, Efraim Sacerdote o Yahshear Dath Gershon ang Pari ng Tribo nila Nepthali, Asher, Isachar, , ½Manaseh

KAHARIAN NG YAHUWDAH

Dalawang (2) Tribo ang sumama kay Haring Rehoboam ng Yahuwdah (Yahuwdah at BenYahmin) at ang lungsod ay ang Yahrusalem (Jerusalem) na pinagsisilbihan ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Secerdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Cohat.

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KAHARIAN NG YISRAWALE

Sampung (10) Tribo ang sumama kay Haring Yeroboam (Jeroboam) ng Kaharian ng Yisrawale at ang lungsod ay ang Samaria na pinagsisilbihan ng mga Levitang Pari (Yahshear-Dath o Secerdote) mula kay Yahshear Dath Cohat, Yahshear Dath Gerson at Yahshear Dath Merari na mababasa sa Joshua 21:1-8 at 1Chronicles 6:63-81.

Si Haring Yeroboam ng Yisrawale ay TINANGGAL ang Pagsisilbi ng mga Levitang YahshearDath o Secerdote sina YahshearDath-Cohat, YahshearDath-Gerson at YahshearDath-Merari at PINALITAN sila ng mga pangkaraniwang tao lamang na HINDI LEVITA.

Si Haring Yeroboam ng Yisrawale ay nagtayo ng templo sa mataas na lugar at ginawang Tigapagsilbing Pari ay pangkaraniwang tao lamang na HINDI LEVITA at itinalaga ang Kapistahan sa ika-Walong Buwan na dapat ay ika-Pitong buwan na ginaganap ng Kaharian ng Yahuwdah sa pagdiriwang ng mga kapistahan sa 1 Kings 12:31-32, 1 Kings 13:33-34.

Tatlong (3) Taon

Levitang YahshearDath o Secerdote mula kay YahshearDath Cohat, Gerson at Merari ay Tinanggal Bilang Tigapagsilbing YahshearDath o Secerdote sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale at sila ay Lumayas sa lupain ng Yisrawale na dala ang kanilang mga ari-arian ay tumungo sa Kaharian ng YAHUWDAH sa lungsod ng Yahrusalem at nanatili sa loob ng tatlong (3) taon

2Chronicles 11:13-17 ‗at ang lahat ng mga Secerdoteng Pari at Levita na nasa Yisrawale at sa lahat ng baybayin ay lumayas na dala ang kanilang ari-arian at tumungo sa Yahuwdah at sa lungsod ng Yahrusalem: dahil si Haring Yeroboam at kanyang mga anak ay Pinalayas sila bilang Tigapagsilbing Secerdote para kay Yahweh at si Haring Yeroboam ay nagtalaga ng mga Secerdoteng Paring Hindi Levita sa matataas na lugar at para sa Demonyo at sa Istatwang Guya na kanyang ginawa. Ang mga Levitang YahshearDath o Secerdoteng Pari mula sa tribo ng Yisrawale, ay itinalaga ang kanilang sarili at puso na hanapin si Yahweh na Makapangyarihan ng Yisrawale sa pagpunta nila sa Yahrusalem upang magsakripisyo para kay Yahweh na Makapangyarihan ng kanilang 7

mga magulang. Naging matatag ang Kaharian ng Yahuwdah at maging si Haring Rehoboam na anak ni YahdidiYah (Solomon) ay naging matatag, sa loob ng tatlong taon; dahil tatlong taon silang sumunod sa palatuntunan kagaya sa pagsunod ni DowDow (David) at YahdidiYah‖.

Ang mga Levitang YahshearDath o Secerdoteng Pari na lahi ni Yahshear Dath Cohat, Gerson at Merari na pinalayas sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale ay hindi nagtagal sa Kaharian ng YAHUWDAH: 2 Chronicles 20:18-19

Ang mga Levitang YahshearDath o Secerdoteng Pari mula sa lahi ni YahshearDath Cohat, Gerson at Merari na pinalayas sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale na tumungo sa Kaharian ng YAHUWDAH sa Yahrusalem ay nawala sa kapanahunan ni Haring Yahoshaphat. (776 B.C.E. 1Kings 22:51, 62 taon mula sa paghahari ni Haring Yeroboam) sa 2Chronicles 20:18-19 ―at ang mga Levita mula sa mga anak ni (Cohat) Cohathites at mga anak ni Corhites ay tumayo upang purihin si Yahweh ang nag-iisang Makapangyarihan ng Yisrawale sa napaka-lakas na boses na mataas.‖

Mga Barko Patungong OPHIR Naglakbay ng Pabalik sa loob ng Tatlong Taon

Mga Barko na ipinagawa ni Haring YahdidiYah (Solomon) ay pumupunta parin sa OPHIR para kumuha ng mga ginto 1Kings 9:26, at nagpagawa pa ng mga panibagong Barko si Haring Yahoshaphat sa 1 Kings 22:48 ngunit hindi na ito natuloy. Ang mga Levitang YahshearDath o Sacerdoteng Pari mula sa lahi ni YahshearDath Gerson, YahshearDath Cohat at YahshearDath Merari na pinalayas sa Kaharian ng Yisrawale na tumungo sa Kaharian ng Yahuwdah ay hindi nagtagal sa Kaharian ng Yahuwdah. Walang tanging pupuntahan sila kundi ang sumama sa mga barkong ipinagawa ni Haring YahdidiYah na kanilang nadatnan sa Yahrusalem sa pagtigil nila ng tatlong (3) taon dahil tatlong (3) taon din ang paglalakbay ng mga barko patungong Tarshish at Ophir pabalik sa Yahrusalem na mababasa sa 2 Chro.9:21 at 2Chronicles 11:13-17. Bago pa magpagawa ng panibagong Barko si Haring Yahoshaphat sa 1Kings 22:48. Naisulat sa 2Chronicles 20:18-19 sa paghahari ni Haring Yahoshaphat na 62 taon na ang lumipas mula sa paghahari ni Haring Yeroboan na katiwala ni Haring YahdidiYah (Solomon) sila ay hindi na natagpuan sa Yahrusalem sa 2 Chronicles 20:18-19.

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MGA NAGANAP SA MGA NAIWAN SA SAMARIA AT SA YAHRUSALEM KASALANAN NG SAMBAHAYAN NI HARING JEROBOAM NG YISRAWALE

1 Kings 12:31-32, 1 Kings 13:33-34

Si Haring Yeroboam ng Yisrawale ay nagtayo ng templo sa mataas na lugar at ginawang Tigapagsilbing Pari ay pangkaraniwang tao lamang na HINDI LEVITA at itinalaga ang Kapistahan sa ika-Walong Buwan na dapat ay ika-Pitong buwan na ginaganap ng Kaharian ng Yahuwdah sa pagdiriwang ng mga kapistahan ni Yahweh. 1Kings 13:33 Si Jeroboam ay Hindi nagbago sa kanyang Masamang Ginagawa, patuloy parin siyang nagtatalaga ng mga Pari na Hindi Levita kundi pangkaraniwang tao lamang na kanyang naisin. 1Kings 13:34 At ito ang naging kasalanan ng sambahayan ni Jeroboam, kaya‘t pinutol ito at winasak sa buong lupain.

LIMANG (5) NASYON ANG PINATIRA SA LUPAIN NG ISRAEL SA SAMARIA KAPALIT NG MGA ISRAELITA NA IPINATAPON SA MGA LUNGSOD NG ASSYRIA

Yisrawale (Israel) 2Kings 17:23 Hanggang inalis sila ni Yahweh sa Kanyang paningin kagaya ng ipinasabi Niya sa mga Propeta. Ang mga Israelita ay Dinalang Bihag sa mga lupain ng Assyria. 2Kings 17:24 At ang Hari ng Assyria ay nagdala ng mga tao mula sa Babylon, at mula sa Cuthah, at mula sa Ava, at mula sa Hamath, at mula sa Sepharvaim, at pinatira sa lungsod ng Samaria kapalit ng mga Anak ni Israel: at kanilang inangkin ang Samaria at tuluyang nanirahan doon. 2Kings 17:27 Ang hari ng Assyria ay nag-utos na dalhin pabalik sa Samaria ang isang Pari na dinalang bihag sa Assyria at manirahan na sa Samaria upang siyang magturo ng pamamaraan sa Sinasamba sa lupaing iyon. 2Kings 17:28 At isa nga sa mga Pari na dinalang-bihag sa Assyria ay dumating at tumira sa Beth-el ay nagturo kung paano sila magkakaroon ng takot sa Sinasamba ng lupaing iyon. Ang Pari na dinalang pabalik sa Beth-el na lupain ng Israel ay ang Pari na itinalaga ni Haring Jeroboam na pangkaraniwang tao lamang na HINDI LEVITA.

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2Kings 17:24 Ang limang nasyon na pinatira sa Israel, ang bawat nasyon ay gumawa ng kani-kanilang istatwang sinasamba na kanilang inilagay sa mataas na sambahan sa kani-kanilang lungsod. Ang taga Babylonia ay gumawa ng istawa ni Succoth-benoth, ang taga Cuthah gumawa ng istatwa ni Nergal, ang taga Hamath ginawa ang istatwa ni Ashima, Ang taga Ava ginawa ang istatwa ni Nibhaz at Tartak, ang taga Separvaim ay nagsusunog naman ng kanilang anak para sa kanilang istatwang si Adrammelech at Anammelec. 2Kings 17:24 Sila ay may takot sa Makapangyarihan ngunit pinagsisilbihan nila ang kani-kanilang istatwa. (Dito nagsimula na hindi na tawagin ang pangalan ni Yahweh kundi pinalitan ng El na naging Elohim). Ang mga Tunay na Levitang Yahshear-dath (Sacerdote) ang may hawak ng mga aklat ni Moses kaya ang HINDI-LEVITANG PARI ay kumatha rin ng kanilang sariling kwento patungkol sa mga naganap noon. Dahil hindi nila alam ang kahalagahan ng Banal na Pangalan ni Yahweh ay pinalitan nila ito ng ‗El‘ o ‗Elohim‘ upang maintindihan ng mga taga Babylonia, at taga Cuthah, at taga Ava, at taga Hamath, at taga Sepharvaim. Ang ‗El‘ ay ang pangkaraniwang tawag sa mga istatwa ng mga bansang ito. Ang mga Tunay Na Israelita na Ipinadalang Bihag sa mga lupain ng Assyria ay nagpalit ng wika mula sa Hebreo ay napilitang magsalita ng Assyrian Aramaic. 2Kings 18:26 ‗At nagsalita sina Eliakim na anak ni Hilkiah, at Shebna, at Joah kay Rab-shakeh, magsalita ka sa wikang Syrian-Aramaic dahil naiintidihan namin at huwag kang makipag-usap sa amin sa wika ng Hudyo na Hebreo na naririnig ng maraming tao sa tabi ng pader.

ANG MGA LEVITANG PARI AY TINATAWAG NA SACERDOTE O YAHSHEARDATH SA WIKANG HEBREO, ANG MGA HINDI LEVITANG PARI AY TINAWAG NA „KAHEN‟-3549 SA WIKANG ARAMAIC

3547 kahan kaw-han' a primitive root, apparently meaning to mediate in religious services; but used only as denominative from 3548; to officiate as a priest; figuratively, to put on regalia:--deck, be (do the office of a, execute the, minister in the) priest('s office). 3548 kohen ko-hane' active participle of 3547; literally, one officiating, a priest; also (by courtesy) an acting priest (although a layman):--chief ruler, X own, priest, prince, principal officer. 3549 kahen kaw-hane' (Aramaic) corresponding to 3548:--priest. (KAHEN IS ARAMAIC)

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Kaharian ng Yahuwdah Ay Hindi Rin Sumunod sa mga Utos ni Yahweh kaya Ipinagapi sila sa Kaharian ng Babylonia
Yahuwdah (Jews) 2Kings 17:19 Ganoon din ang Yahuwdah ay hindi rin sumunod sa mga kautusan ni Yahweh na kanilang Makapangyarihan, sila ay gumaya sa pamamaraan ng mga Israelita. Daniel 1:1 Sa ikatlong taon ng paghahari ni Jehoiakim Hari ng Yahuwdah ay dumating sa Yahrusalem si Nebuchadnezzar na Hari ng Babylonia at sinakop ito. Jeremiah 44:2 Sinabi ni Yahweh na Makapangyarihan ng Israel, nakita ninyong lahat ang kasamaan na ipinadala ko sa Yahrusalem at sa lahat ng lungsod ng Yahuwdah at ngayon lahat ng lugar doon ay walang tao na tumitira. Jeremiah 44:7 ‗Nagsalita si Yahweh na Makapangyarihan ng Israel, dahil ginawa ninyo ang nakakamanghang kasalanan laban sa inyong kaluluwa samakatwid tatapusin na mula sa lalaki at babae at bata at pati sumususo pa ay aalisin sa lugar ng Yahuwdah upang wala ng matira Kahit-Isa‘. Jeremiah 44:11 ‗At sinabi pa ni Yahweh ang makapangyarihan ng Israel, aking ihaharap ang aking mukha laban sa inyo para sa Kasamaan at Puputulin lahat ang mga Yahuwdah‘. Jeremiah 44:12 ‗at aking kukunin ang mga NATIRANG TAO ng Yahuwdah na tumungo sa Egypto upang tumira at lahat sila ay lilipulin sa itak at kalamidad at mangamamatay mula sa mababa hanggang sa mataas at sila ay magiging sumpa at kamangha-mangha at isang kapulaan‘. Jeremiah 44:28 ‗Ngunit may Kakaunting-Nakatakas sa itak ang babalik mula sa lupain ng Egypto patungo sa lupain ng Yahuwdah, at lahat ng Natira ng Yahuwdah ay malalaman kung kaninong salita ang mananaig, ang salita nila o ang aking sinalita‘.

Kaharian ng Babylonia ay Nagapi ng Kaharian ng Persia

Naka-ukit sa kabundukan ng Iran ang Behistun Rock kung paano ang Kaharian ng Persia ay nagapi ang Kaharian ng Babylonia kasama ang Egypt at kasama ang Yahuwdah ay naging parte ng Kaharian ng Persia. Ang namumuno sa Kaharian ng Persia ay si Cyrus ay nag utos sa isang Royal Decree na pinayagan ang mga Yahuwdah na Bumalik sa Yahrusalem upang itayong muli ang kanilang mga tahanan at ang Templong sambahan.

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Pagbabalik sa Lupang Pangako
Ang mga nakabalik sa Yahrusalem ay pinamunuan ni Sheshbazzar at Zerubbabel na kapwa galing sa lahi ng Yahuwdah. Ang gumanap na Pari ay si Ezra na galing sa lahi ni Aaron na may dalang mga aklat ni Moses at Karapatan na ibinigay ni Artaxerxes na Emperador noon ng Persia. Si NehemiYah naman ang naatasan ng Emperador na maging Governador at ipinatupad ang pagganap ng mga Sabbath at Kapistahan ni Yahweh, ipinagbawal ang pag-aasawa ng Yahuwdah sa ibang lahi at pinahiwalay ang mga Yahuwdah na nakapag-asawa ng ibang lahi. Ang lupain ng Yahuwdah ay naging isang probinsya ng Persia. Ipinatawag ni Ezra ang lahat sa Kapistahan ng Tabernakulo sa ika-pitung buwan at binasa ang Torah ni Moses na napakinggan ng lahat at ang lahat ay sumumpang susundin muli ang kontrata at kasunduan ni Yahweh at ng mga Yahuwdah.

LIMANG AKLAT NI MOSES
Ang Torah ni Moses o ang limang aklat ay binuo ni Ezra na lahi ni Aaron ay nakasama ang mga teksto at komentaryo ng mga Pari na hindi nagmula sa lahi ng Levitang si Aaron, Nehemiah 7:64. Ang Yahweh (J) Text at ang Elohim (E) Text at ang Sacerdotal (P) Text at ang Deuteronomy (D) Text ay magkakasama sa nabuong mga aklat na tinawag ngayon na Torah ni Moses. Mapapansin ang nakasulat sa Torah ni Moses ay inuulit-ulit ng J, E, P at D text. Ang J Text o Yahweh Text ay mula sa pag-iingat ng mga Levitang lahi ni Aaron, na tanging mga Levitang lahi sa anak ni Aaron lamang ang inatasan ni Yahweh na hahawak at mag-iingat ng mga banal na kasulatan o mga aklat ni Moses (2Samuel 6:6-7, Deuteronomy 10:8, 31:26). Ang E text o Elohim Text ay mula sa mga Israelitang Hindi Levita na itinalagang Pari ni Haring Jeroboam ay hindi naatasan na mag-ingat ng mga kasulatan na tanging Levita na lahi ni Aaron lamang ang may karapatang humawak. Ang P Text at D Text ay mula sa mga Pari na nagmula sa limang bansa (Neh 7:64) na walang talaan na lahi sila ng Levita at naturuan lamang ng Paring Israelita na Hindi Naman Levita na pinabalik ng Hari ng Assyria sa lupain ng Israel (2Kings 17:27-28).

Inulit-ulit ang Nakasulat sa Torah ni Moses
Genesis 1 ay Elohim (E) Text ay inulit sa Genesis 2 na Yahweh (J) Text, nadagdag ang Sacerdotal (P) Text at Deuteronomy (D) Text 12

Ang istorya nila Adam at Eve at Cain at Abel ay Yahweh (J) Text ay tinutukoy ang pagiging malapit sa anghel (tunay na anghel hindi istatwa), sa mga halaman at pakikipag usap sa ahas. Ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay walang kwento tungkol dito. At binangit ang henerasyon mula kay Adam hanggang kay Noah. Ang istorya sa naganap na malaking baha sa Yahweh (J) Text ay 40 araw na umulan. Ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay halos isang taong delubyo. Ang Yahweh (J) Text ay may 14 na malilinis na mga hayop at 2 di-malinis na hayop. Ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay 2 malinis at 2 di-malinis na hayop. Yahweh (J) Text ay nagpadala si Noah ng 3 kalapati o tatlong beses na nagpalipad ng kalapati, ang Sacerdotal (P) Text ay isang uwak ang pinalipad ni Noah. Ang J at E Text sa Kontrata ni Abraham sa Gnesis 15 ay siningitan ng ibang istorya at sa Genesis 17 naman ang P Text, lumalabas na dalawang beses nagkita sila Abraham at Yahweh. Mas dramatiko ang J at E Text sa Exodus 17 nang si Moses ay kumuha ng tubig sa bato, samantalang ang P Text sa dalawang aklat sa Numbers 20 ay lumalabas na dalawang insidente sa dalawang magkaibang pankakataon o panahon samantalang naganap iyon sa isang lugar sa Meriba at sa isang pagkakataon. Ang Ten Commandment ay inulit muli ni Moses sa Deuteronomy 5 kahit ito ay magkaiba sa Exodus 20.

Sa Exodus 20: Remember the sabbath day to sanctify i t . . . because in six days Yahweh made the heavens and the earth, the sea and ail that is in them, and he rested on the seventh day Therefore Yahweh blessed the sabbath day and sanctified it.20 Ngunit sa Deuteronomy, nang inulit ni Moses : Keep the sabbath day to sanctify i t . . . and you shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and Yahweh your God brought you out from there with a strong hand and an outstretched arm. There' fore Yahweh your God commanded you to observe the sabbath day21 Ang unang bersyon galing sa P text, ang dahilan sa pag iingat sa Sabbath: ‗because God rested on the seventh day‘. Ang ikalawang bersyon mula sa D Text, ang dahilan sa pag iingat sa Sabbath: ‗because God freed you from slavery‘. Sa Dead Sea Scroll na natagpuan ay parehas na hindi itong dalawang bersyon ang dahilan sa pag iingat sa Sabbath: Sa lahat ng ito ay walang pamamaraan na nag uutos na pamahalaan ang pag iingat ng Sabbath. (In all of this, no one method governs the process).

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Alexander The Great Nasakop Ang Kaharian ng Persia Itinayo ang Alexandria Library sa Egypt
Nasakop ni Alexander the Great ang Kaharian ng Persia na pinaghaharian noon ni Darius III. Nasakop din ni Alexander the Great ang Syria, Egypt, Mesapotamia, Bactria at ang India. Itinatag niya ang Alexandria sa Egypt na sentro ng kanyang kaharian, at ang pumalit sa kanya bilang Pharaoh ay si Ptolemy II Soter ay itinayo naman ang Museum at Library ng Alexandria. Ang kanyang mga General si Ptolemy at Nearchus, Aristobulus at Onesicritus. Siya rin ang naging dahilan ng paglaganap ng mga Grego. Ang mga dokumento mula sa Assyria, Greece, Persia, Egypt, India at maraming nasyon ay nakalagak sa Alexandria Library at Museum. Maraming scholars ang tumira sa Museum upang mag-saliksik, magsulat, magsalin at maglimbag ng mga dokumento.

Greek Pentateuch
Si Ptolemy II ay nagpatawag ng 72 Hebrew scholars at nag utos na isalin sa wikang Grego ang mga Kasulatan ng mga Hebreo ang limang aklat ni Moses na tinawag sa Grego na ‗Pentateuch‘. Sinulatan ni Ptolemy II si Eleazar ang Punong Pari sa Yahrusalem upang maglagay ng anim (6) na Hudyong Tigapagsalin na nanggaling sa bawat Tribo ng Israel (12 x 6 = 72). Tinawag ang unang limang aklat ni Moses na ‗Pentateuch‘ na ibig sabihin ay Limang- aklat.

ROMAN TIME Nasira ang Alexandria Library sa Egypt
Tinalo ng mga Romano ang mga Grego at nasira ang Alexandria Library sa pagkubkub ng mga Romano sa Alexandria na sentro ng mga Grego.

GREEK PENTATEUCH NAGING LATIN SEPTUAGINT Ipinagpatuloy ni Ptolemy ang pagsasalin ng 72 Hebrew scholars ng limang aklat ni Moses sa Hebrew ay isinasalin sa wikang Grego at ang iba pang mga Kasulatan ng mga Hebreo ay idinagdag dito.

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Paglipas ng panahon ang iba pang mga aklat sa Hebreo ay ipinasalin na rin sa wikang Grego at maraming beses itong neribisa sa pagkasalin sa wikang Grego at ang ‗Pentateuch‘ ang pinaka-unang naisalin sa Makabagong-wikang Koine Greek sa wikang Grego din. Naisalin naman ang wikang Gregong ‗Pentateuch‘ (ibig sabihin ay LimangAklat) sa wikang Latin at tinawag na Septuagint sa Latin o LXX (dahil hindi na ito Limang Aklat kundi marami na) na siya namang pinagbasehan ng mga bersyon ng Slavonic, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian at Coptic na bersyon. At ito rin ang mga pinagbasehan ng mga Apostolic Fathers at Christian New Testament. Ang Septuagint o LXX ay ang pinagbasehan na ―PINANIWALAAN‖ (canon) at ang iba pang aklat na idinagdag na mga sulat ng mga Propeta kagaya ng aklat na Maccabees, Wisdom of Ben Sira, Daniel at Esther ay mas mahaba pa sa Masoretic Text. Ang ilan na bagong dagdag, ang aklat na Wisdom of Solomon, 2 Macabees at iba pa ay galing sa orihinal na Gregong pagkakasulat. Hindi naisama sa Septuagint ang sikat na mga aklat na ‗Enosh o Jubilees‘ at iba pang mga kasulatan. Ang Septuagint ay galing sa salitang Latin na ibig sabihin ay ‗pitumpong tigapagsalin‘ o LXX. Sumunod na panahon ay masusing nirebisa at isinalin sa Makabagong Greek bersyon na tinawag na ‗Aquila, Symmachus at Theodotion. Ang tatlong ito ang Masmakabagong Greek bersyon ng kasulatang Septuagint na hango sa Pentateuch na hango sa aklat ni Moses sa Hebreo at iba pang nadagdag na mga aklat sa Hebreo at Grego.

ANG MGA PINANINIWALAAN NG MGA GREGO AT ROMANO NA MGA ALAMAT BAGO REBISAHIN ANG PENTATEUCH GREEK O SEPTUAGINT LATIN OLD TESTAMENT NG MGA GREGO AT ROMANONG MANUNULAT

ALAMAT NI MYTHRA (1200 B.C.E.) Si Mythra ng Persia ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw. ALAMAT NI ATTIS (1200 B.C.E.) Si Attis ng Gresya ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw. ALAMAT NI KRISHNA (900 B.C.E.) Si Krishna ng India ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw. 15

ALAMAT NI TAMMUZ Ezekiel 8:14 (597 B.C.E) Si Nimrod II ay tinawag naTammuz ng mga Babylonia, Azur naman ang tawag ng mga Asyrian, at Osiris naman ang tawag ng mga Egyptian. Si Nimrod II ay napatay at ang kanyang asawa ay nagbuntis sa ibang lalaki at pinalabas na ang bata ay si Nimrod II na „NABUHAY NA MULI‟. Mula noon ang Alamat na ito ay naging bantog sa mga Alamat ng Griyego at Romano kahanay nila Jupiter at Zeus. ALAMAT NI HORUS (300 B.C.E.) Si Horus ng Egypt ay ipinanganak ng inang Birhen noong December 25, ipinako sa krus hanggang mamatay at „Nabuhay Na Muli‟ sa ikatlong araw.

NAKILALA NG MARAMING TAO SI YAHSHU‟A ANG MESSIAH NA TAGA NAZARETH NA MAY 12 DISIPOLO Ang pangalan ni Yahshu‘a ang Messiah ng Nazareth ay isinusulat sa Aramaic na Yeshu‘a. Ang Aramaic ang umiiral na pangkalahatang wika sa Yahrusalem noong panahong iyon. Mula sa Aramaic ay isinalin ito sa wikang Grego na IESOUS na binibigkas na ‗Yeh-soos‘ at nang maisalin ang Gregong pangalan sa Latin ay naging IESUS na binibigkas sa Latin na ‗Yay-soos‘. Nang maimbento ang letrang ‗J‘ ay naging JESUS na bigkas ay ‗Jay-zus‘.

MARAMING BESES SINIRA ANG ALEXANDRIA LIBRARY Si Theophilus ay Patriarka ng Alexandria noong 385 hanggang 412 A.D. ang mga Hudyo, Christian at pagano ay sama-samang naninirahan sa Alexandria. Nagkaroon ng pagkaka-alitan sila-sila at nawasak na naman ang Alexandria. Ang huling sinisisi sa pagkakasunog sa Alexandria ay si Moslem Caliph Omar noong 640 A.D. pagkatapos na malaman niya na nasa Alexandria ang lahat ng kasulatan at talino sa mundo na kumokontra sa Koran ay lahat ng aklat sa Alexandria ay sinunog na tumagal ng halos anim na buwan.

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SAAN GALING ANG NEW TESTAMENT?
Si Origen noong 235 A.D. na isang Christian scholar ng Alexandria ay binuo ang ‗Hexapla‟ na binubuo ng anim na hanay na sa unang hanay ang bersyong Hebrew Text. Sa unang hanay ay Hebreo at sa ikalawang hanay ay Hebrew sa Greek bersyon at ang ikatlong hanay ay ang Makabagong Greek bersyon na Aquila ng Sinope‘s Greek bersyon, ika-apat ang Pinaka-lumang Greek Septuagint bersyon Symmachus ang Ebionite‘s bersyon, ang ika-lima ay ang LXX o Septuagint na pinagsama-sama ang lahat ng Greek bersyon na may mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon ito nagmula. Ang ika-limang hanay na kumbinasyon ng pinagsama-samang bersyon ng Greek ay kinopya ng marami beses at isinalin muli ngunit tinanggal ang mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon nagmula, at ang Lumang Greek bersyon ng Septuagint ay hindi isinama sa pagkakasalin. Ang pang-anim ang Theodotion bersyon. Itong mga pinagsama-samang mga teksto ay naging unang paniniwala ng mga Christian rebisyon ng Septuagint na tinawag na “HEXAPLAR RECENSION”. Ang New Testament o Tinatawag na Greek New Testament o Greek Scriptures

Ang orihinal na indibidwal na aklat ay naisulat noong 45 A.D. sa Koine Greek dahil iyan ang pangkalahatang wikang umiiral noong panahong iyon sa Emperyo ng Roman. Nagmula ang ilan sa Hebreo at Greek na sulatin. Ang Rylands Papyrus 52 ay pangkalahatang tinanggap na pinaka- unang naitalang New Testament na umiidad noong 117 A.D at 138 A.D.

NAKILALANG MGA CHURCH FATHERS: Ang mga Church Fathers ay ang mga naunang maimpluwensyang manunulat sina Clement ng Rome, Ignatius ng Antioch at Polycarp ng Smyrna. Ang kasulatan na Didache at Shepherd of Hermas ay kasulatan ng mga Church Fathers ngunit hindi lang alam kung sino ang sumulat. Si Clement ng Roma ay sinulat ang 1 Clement noong 96 A.D., siya ay nanawagan sa mananampalataya ng Corinto. 17

Si Ignatius ng Antioch ay istudyante ng Desipolong si John (YahYah) ay sumulat sa mga naunang Christians bago siya patayin sa Roma. Binanggit siya sa mga sulat ni Apostol Pablo. Polycarp ng Smyrna ay isang Bishop ng Smyrna (ngayon ay Izmir, Turkey). Siya ay Desipolo ni John (YahYah) na anak ni Zebedee na pinaniniwalaan na sumulat ng ikaapat na Gospel. Samantalang si Eusebius na ipinagpipilitan na si Polycarp ay kasama ni John the Evangelist. Si Polycarp ay pinakiusapan si Anicetus na Bishop ng Rome na ipagdiwang ang Easter sa 14 Nisan ay hindi siya pumayag, kahit sa paggamit sa kalendaryo ng mga taga Kanluran. Si Polycarp ay pinatay ng mga taga Smyrna noong 155 A.D. Hindi siya nasunog sa apoy na pinaglagyan sa kanya, kaya siya ay sinaksak hanggang mamatay at dahil sa dugo niya ay namatay ang apoy sa kanyang paligid.

GREEK FATHERS: Clement ng Rome, Irenaeus ng Lyons, Clement ng Alexandria, Athanasius ng Alexandria, John Chrysostom, Cyril ng Alexandria ang Cappadocian Fathers (Basil ng Caesarea, Gregory Nazianzus, Peter ng Sebaste & Gregory ng Nyssa), at Maximus ang Confessor.

Irenaeus ng Lyons

Saint Irenaeus, (b. 2nd century; d. end of 2nd/beginning of 3rd century) ay bishop ng Lugdunum sa Gaul, sa ngayon ay Lyons, France. Siya ay disipolo ni Polycarp. Siya ang unang tumanggap na ang apat na Gospel ay katanggap-tanggap na piliin, noon nagsimula ang pagkalikha ng New Testament noong 180 A.D.

Clement ng Alexandria

Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens) (c.150-211/216), ay kaanib ng iskwelahan at simbahan ng Alexandria. Sinulat niya ang Clement of Alexandria.

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Origen of Alexandria Origen, o Origen Adamantius (c 185 - c254) isa sa mga naunangChristian eskolar at isang Egyptian na nagtuturo sa Alexandria kung saan nagturo rin si Clement. Ang Patriarka ng Alexandria una ay sumusuporta sa kanya ngunit siya ay tinanggal dahil naordinahan ng walang permiso ng Patriarka. Sa kanyang kaalaman sa Hebreo itinuwid niya ang Septuagint at sumulat ng mga komentaryong napasama nang isalin sa mga aklat sa Biblia. Sa kanya si Yahweh ay hindi makapangyarihan kundi isa lamang Unang Prinsipyo at ang antas ng Messiah ay mas mababa, ang kanyang pagkaka- unawa sa Trinity ang pre-existence ng kaluluwa ay idineklara na isang paglait. Sumulat siya ng mahigit 6,000 aklat. Si Origen noong 235 A.D. na isang Christian scholar ng Alexandria ay binuo ang ‗Hexapla‟ na binubuo ng anim na hanay na sa unang hanay ang bersyong Hebrew Text. Sa unang hanay ay Hebreo at sa ikalawang hanay ay Hebrew sa Greek bersyon at ang ikatlong hanay ay ang Makabagong Greek bersyon na Aquila ng Sinope‘s Greek bersyon, ika-apat ang Pinaka-lumang Greek Septuagint bersyon Symmachus ang Ebionite‘s bersyon, ang ika-lima ay ang LXX o Septuagint na pinagsama-sama ang lahat ng Greek bersyon na may mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon ito nagmula. Ang ika-limang hanay na kumbinasyon ng pinagsama-samang bersyon ng Greek ay kinopya ng marami at isinalin muli ngunit tinanggal ang mga paliwanag kung saang bersyon nagmula, at ang Lumang Greek bersyon ng Septuagint ay hindi isinama sa pagkakasalin. Ang pang-anim ang Theodotion bersyon. Itong pinagsama-samang mga teksto ay naging unang paniniwala ng mga Christian rebisyon ng Septuagint na tinawag na “HEXAPLAR RECENSION”. Si Philo at Josephus ay nagtiwala at pinagbasehan ang Septuagint sa kanilang mga sinulat na patungkol sa mga kasulatan ng Hudyo.

The term "hexapla" signifies "six-fold" or "six-columned", and describes the arrangement of the six English versions underneath the Greek text in the book. The term "hexapla" is also applied to Origen's 3rd century edition of the Old Testament, which present six versions of the old testament, in Hebrew, Hebrew in Greek letters, Aquila of Sinope's Greek version, Symmachus the Ebionite's version, the LXX or Septuagint, and Theodotion's version.
MGA AKLAT NG NEW TESTAMENT Maraming aklat ang unti-unting nakolekta upang maging isang aklat ang Greek New Testament na binubuo ng 27 aklat. Ang pinagbasehan nito ay ang ―Hexaplar Recension‖ na Greek bersyon, Apat na aklat ay ang Gospel, isa dito ay salaysay ng sina-unang paniniwala ng mga Apostol na sinulat ni Luke na isa sa gumawa ng Gospel, 21 sulat at Apocalyptic prophecy.

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Gospels Bawat isa sa Gospel ay nagsasalaysay ng naging takbo ng buhay ni Iesous ( Jesus) ng Nazareth. Ang mga nagsulat ay inakala na sina:

Ang Gospel ni Matthew, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle Matthew, anak ni Alphaeus ayon kay Papias, ( Gospel according to the Hebrews) Clement ng Alexandria, Irenaeus at Eusebius. Ang Gospel ni Mark, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Mark the Evangelist, na sumulat sa mga koleksyon ni Apostle Simon Peter ayon kay Papias, Clement ng Alexandria, Irenaeus, Eusebius. Ang Gospel ni Luke, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Luke, isang Doktor at nakasama ni Apostle Paul ayon kay Clement ng Alexandria, Irenaeus, Eusebius, Canon Muratori. Ang Gospel of John, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle John, anak ni Zebedee ayon kay Papias, Clement ng Alexandria, Irenaeus, Eusebius, Canon Muratori, Codex Vaticanus Alexandrinus. Book of Acts of the Apostles

Ang aklat ng Gawa ng mga Apostol (The book of Acts of the Apostles), ay kadugtong ng Gospel ni Lukas ayon kay Clement ng Alexandria, Eusebius, Canon Muratori.

Mga Sulat ni Paul Ang mga sulat ni Paul (or Corpus Paulinum) ay tradisyon na sinulat ni Paul.).
             

Epistle to the Romans First Epistle to the Corinthians Second Epistle to the Corinthians Epistle to the Galatians Epistle to the Ephesians Epistle to the Philippians Epistle to the Colossians First Epistle to the Thessalonians Second Epistle to the Thessalonians First Epistle to Timothy Second Epistle to Timothy Epistle to Titus Epistle to Philemon Epistle to the Hebrews – sinabi ni Origen (254 A.D.) "ang mga tao noon ay ibinigay kay Paul ang epistle na ito ngunit ang sumulat ay ang Lumikha lamang ang nakakaalam) ngunit maraming eskolars ang naniniwala na sinulat ito noon ni Paul.

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General Epistles

Kasama ang mga sulat sa mga simbahan,(catholic ang ibig sabihin ay universal).
      

Epistle of James, sa tradisyon sinulat ni James, kapatid ni Iesous (Jesus ) at Jude Thomas. First Epistle of Peter, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle Simon, tinawag na Peter. Second Epistle of Peter, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle Simon, tinawag na Peter. First Epistle of John, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle John, anak ni Zebedee. Second Epistle of John, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle John, anak ni Zebedee. Third Epistle of John, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle John, anak ni Zebedee. Epistle of Jude, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle Jude Thomas, kapatid ni Iesous(Jesus) at James.

Revelation

Ang huling aklat ng Biblia sa New Testament ay ang Book of Revelation, sa tradisyon ay sinulat ni Apostle John of Patmos, ang aklat na ito ay hindi binabasa ng Eastern Orthodox church.

PAGKAKAAYOS NG MGA AKLAT SA NEW TESTAMENT

Ang mga aklat ng New Testament ay iba ang pagkakaayos sa bawat religion. Sa Protestant Bibles ay gumaya sa Roman Catholic na pagkakaayos ngunit ang Lutheran ay iba ang pagkakaayos. Sa labas ng Western European Catholic/Protestant ay iba rin ang pagkakaayos sa Slavonic, Syriac at Ethiopian Bibles (Gospels, Acts, Catholic epistles, Pauline epistles, at Apocalypse).

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Apocrypha

Ang mga Apocrypha na mga aklat ang Gospel of Thomas ang Epistle to the Laodiceans. Ang 4th century Codex Sinaiticus ay isinama ang Old at New Testaments ang Epistle of Barnabas at The Shepherd of Hermas. Ang Pinagtatalunang Sulatin, ang Epistle of James at kay Jude, at second epistle of Peter, at lahat ng second at third of John, nagdududa sila kung ito ay ginawa niya o ng ibang tao na parehas ang pangalan. Ang Acts of Paul, at ang Shepherd, at ang Apocalypse of Peter, at ang epistle of Barnabas, at ang Teachings of the Apostles. Ang Apocalypse of John, at ang Gospel according to the Hebrews... ay ang mga pinagtatalunang mga aklat. Ang mga aklat na Gospels of Peter, ni Thomas, ni Matthias, at ang ilan at ang Acts of Andrew at John at nang ibang Apostoles ay napatunayan na mga kathang isip lamang kaya hindi sila naisama sa New Testament. Noong 1611 A.D. King James Version sa English New Testament ay naisalin mula sa Textus Receptus, texto mula sa bagong edisyon ni Erasmus' na nailathala sa Greek New Testament na lumalabas na binasehan ay ang tipo ng Byzantine text. Karamihan sa modernong English bersyon ng New Testament ay binase sa kritikal na pagbuo ng Greek text, kagaya ng Nestle-Alands' Novum Testamentum Graece o Greek New Testament o United Bible Societies'.

Mga Bagong Idinagdag na Texto sa New Testament
      

Matt 16:2b-3 Mark 16:9-20 Luke 22:19b-20,43–44 John 5:4 John 7:53-8:11 1 John 5:7b–8a Romans 16:24

Christian New Testament
Sa sumunod na panahon dalawang pangunahing pinag-ingatang rebisyon ang pinagbasehan ni Lucian at Hesychius, ito ay pinatunayan ni Jerome. Ito rin ang pinagbasehan at palaging binabanggit sa Christian New Testament. Masoretic Text ay Hebrew text na siyang Biblia (Tanakh) ng mga Hudyo na naisulat noong 700 A.D. hanggang 1000 A.D. Ito rin ang pinagbasehan ng mga Protestanteng Biblia at ganoon din ng mga Katolikong Biblia.

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Pope Theonas of Alexandria ay ang Punong Papa ng Alexandria na naging Coptic Church at ang Greek Church ng Alexandria noong 282 hanggang 300 A.D. Pope Achillas of Alexandria ang pang 18 Papa ng Coptic Orthodox Church at ng Greek Church ng Alexandria noong 312 hanggang 313 A.D. Si Achillas naman ay inordinahan na Pari ni Pierius, at naging lider ng Catechetical School of Alexandria sa pagkawala ni Pierius na naging martir ng Alexandria. Siya ay kasing galing sa Greek philosophy at theological science kapantay ni Athanasius ng Alexandria at tinawag siyang "Achillas the Great". Siya ang pumalit pagkamatay ni Peter ng Alexandria sa kapanahunan ng Pagpapahirap ni Diocletian . Minana niya ang mga problema ng simbahan kagaya ng Meletian heresy at ang patuloy na alitan sa Arianism. Sa pamumuno ni Achillas bilang Patriarka, siya ay naimpluwensyahan ng mga sumusuporta kay Arius upang tanggalin ang suspensyon kay Arius. Sa resulta nito ay ibinalik si Arius bilang Pari sa Bucalis na isang pinakamatanda at maimpluwensyang simbahan sa Alexandria.

EMPEROR CONSTANTINE

Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), commonly known in English as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Christians) Saint Constantine (pronounced /ˈ kɒnstɛntaɪn/), was Roman emperor from 306, and the sole holder of that office from 324 until his death in 337A.D. Kilala bilang kauna-unahang Roman Emperor na naging Christian , at binigyang laya ang mga religion sa kanyang nasasakupang emperyo. Ginawa siya at ang kanyang ina si Reyna Helena bilang Santo ng Eastern Orthodox Church at Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine. Sa Latin Church kahit hindi siya ginawang santo ngunit siya ay tinawag nila na ―Constantine The great‖ sa kanyang kontribusyon sa Christianity. Si Constantine ay ginawa ang sina-unang Greek colony ng Byzantium bilang bagong imperial residence ang Constantinople na nanatiling kapital ng Byzantine Empire sa loob ng 1,000 taon.

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50 KOPYA NG BIBLIA NI CONSTANTINE

Noong 322 A.D. inutusan ni Emperor Constantine si Eusebius na gumawa ng 50 kopya ng Banal na Kasulatan na ginawa ng Kilalang-Manunulat at isulat na maliwanag na madaling maintindihan at sa tatlo o apat na kopya ay ihatid sa kanya upang siyasatin at gamitin ang dalawang karwahe ng kaharian sa paghahatid. Si Eusebius ay kumuha ng mga aklat sa kanyang lugar sa Caesarea ng mga bagong-salin na mga aklat mula sa Hexaplar Recension na nagmula sa sulat ni Origen na ―Hexapla”. Ang 27 aklat na pinagbasehan ay ang rebisyon ng ―HEXAPLAR RECENSION”.

The Bibles of Constantine
There is another piece of evidence that bears on the subject of the canon - even though we may not know how to interpret it. About the year 322 CE, the emperor Constantine, wishing to promote and organize Christian worship in the growing number of churches in Constantinople, directed Eusebius to have 50 copies of the sacred Scriptures made by practiced scribes and written legibly on prepared parchment. At the same time the emperor informed him, in a letter still preserved to us, that everything necessary for doing this was placed at his command, among other things two public carriages for conveying the completed manuscripts to the emperor for his personal inspection. According to Eusebius:
Such were the emperor's commands, which were followed by the immediate execution of the work itself, which we sent him in magnificent and elaborately bound volumes of a threefold and fourfold form. (Vita Const. 4.36.37)

The exact meaning of the concluding words has been taken in a half dozen different senses. Two of the most popular are, that the pages had 'three or four columns of script', or that as the copies were completed, they were sent off for the emperor's inspection 'three or four at a time'. The astonishing thing is that Eusebius, who took care to tell us at some length about the fluctuations of opinion in regard to certain books, has not one word to say regarding the choice he made on this important occasion. Of course, 50 magnificent copies, all uniform, could not but exercise a great influence on great influence on future copies, at least within the bounds of the patriarchate of Constantinople, and would help forward the process of arriving at a commonly accepted New Testament in the East.

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Some have suggested that the codex Sinaiticus is one of the 50 bibles commissioned by Constantine, but its Alexandrian type of text makes this unlikely.

Around AD 235, Origen, a Christian scholar in Alexandria, completed the Hexapla, a comprehensive comparison of the ancient versions and Hebrew text side-by-side in six columns, with diacritical markings (a.k.a. "editor's marks", "critical signs" or "Aristarchian signs"). Much of this work was lost, but several compilations of the fragments are available. In the first column was the contemporary Hebrew, in the second a Greek transliteration of it, then the newer Greek versions each in their own columns. Origen also kept a column for the Old Greek (the Septuagint) and next to it was a critical apparatus combining readings from all the Greek versions with diacritical marks indicating to which version each line (Gr. στἰχος) belonged. Perhaps the voluminous Hexapla was never copied in its entirety, but Origen's combined text ("the fifth column") was copied frequently, eventually without the editing marks, and the older uncombined text of the LXX was neglected. Thus this combined text became the first major Christian recension of the LXX, often called the Hexaplar recension. In the century following Origen, two other major recensions were identified by Jerome, who attributed these to Lucian and Hesychius.

Alexander Bishop ng Alexandria
Alexander ng Alexandria ay pang 19 na Patriarka ng Alexandria mula 313 A.D. hanggang pagkamatay niya noong 326 A.D. siya ang nagtala ng Easter, siya ay ang lider na kontra sa Arianism sa First Council of Nicaea. Siya rin ang adviser ni Athanasius ng Alexandria na pumalit sa kanya bilang lider ng Church fathers.

Athanasius ng Alexandria
Athanasius ng Alexandria (c 293-2 May 373) isang theologian, pumalit kay Bishop Alexander ng Alexandria, Pope ng Alexandria, ay isang Egyptian. Siya ay kilala sa aral niyang Trinity.

Arius
Arius (AD ca. 250 or 256 - 336) isang Paring Christian mula sa Alexandria, Egypt ang nagpasimuno ng Arianism. Siya ay mula sa Libya na sakop pa ng Egypt, ang kanyang ama ay si Ammonius. Si Arius ay estudyante ni Saint Lucian ng Antioch. Siya ay na excommunikado ni Bishop Peter ng Alexandria sa kanyang pagsuporta sa paniniwala ni Meletius. Si Bishop Peter ay pinalitan ni Bishop Achillas ay muling tinanggap bilang Pari si Arius sa simbahan ng Baucalis sa distrito ng Alexandria.. Noong 318 A.D. nakipagtalo siya sa kanyang Bishop si Alexander ng Alexandria na pumalit kay Bishop Achillas. Ipinilit niya na si Iesous ( Jesus) "ang Son of God," ay hindi katulad o hindi 25

parehas na mananatili magpakailanman (co-eternal) kagaya ng God the Father, at minsan binanggit niya na hindi tutuo ang Iesous (Jesus). Si Arius kasama ang kanyang tigasunod na mga Pari ay na excommunikado, ngunit ang debate ay nagpatuloy sa Eastern Roman Empire. Maraming bishops lalo na ang mga nakapag-aral kay Lucian ng Antioch ay naniwala kay Arius. Sa panahong iyon si Constantine I ay ang naging Emperador ng Silanganan noong 324 A.D. at ang mga debate ay matitindi sa panahong iyon. Maraming sinulat si Arius ngunit walang natira, inutos ni Emperor Constantine ang pagsunog sa lahat ng sulat ni Arius at ang mga natira sa sinulat ni Arius ay sinira ng mga nakalaban ni Arius. Ang tatlong natira sa sinulat ni Arius ang sulat niya kay Alexander ng Alexandria na naitago ng mga Athanasius, On the Councils of Arminum and Seleucia, 16; Epiphanius, Refutation of All Heresies, 69.7; and Hilary, On the Trinity, 4.12), Ang sulat niya kay Eusebius ng Nicomedia (as recorded by Epiphanius, Refutation of All Heresies, 69.6 and Theodoret, Church History, 1.5) . Ang kanyang kumpisal kay Constantine (as recorded in Socrates Scholasticus, Church History 1.26.2 and Sozomen, Church History 2.27.6-10).

COUNCIL OF NICAEA

Noong 325 A.D. si Emperor Constantine ay binuo ang Council of Nicaea . Sa 1,800 na Bishop na imbitado, 318 na Bishop lamang ang nakadalo. Natalo sa debate si Arius at si Athanasius na ipinadala ni Bishop Alexander ng Alexandria ang pinanigan ni Constantine na ang itinuturo ay ang Trinity. Ang pananatili ni Athanasius ay hindi tumagal nang namatay si Bishop Alexander sa Alexandria noong 327 A.D., pinalitan siya ni Athanasius bilang Bishop. Si Eustathius ng Antioch na sumusuporta kay Athanasius ay natanggal dahil sa pakikipagtalo ka Eusebius ng Caesaria. Si Marcellus ng Ancyra na isa pang kakampi ni Athanasius ay kinasuhan ng Sabellianism sa kanyang pag-depensa sa Nicene Christology ay tinanggal noong 336 A.D. Si Eusebius ng Nicomedia naman ay pinagbuntunan ng galit, si Athanasius ay sumulat kay Emperor Constantine at pinabalik ni Emperor Constantine si Arius na nagtatago sa Palestine. Inutusan din ni Constantine si Athanasius na tanggaping muli si Arius sa komunyon, ngunit hindi pumayag si Athanasius kaya si Athanasius ay na exile sa Trier. Ipinatawag si Arius ni Constantine upang husgahan at inutusan si Alexander ng Constantinople na muling tanggapin si Arius sa komunyon, ngunit sa huling araw na dapat magkomunyon si Arius ay bigla itong namatay. Ang sinabi ng mga kalaban ni Arius ay ‗himala o miracle‘, samantalang sinabi ni Constantine ay ‗pinaslang o murder‘ dahil si Arius ay nilason ng kanyang mga kalaban. Ang mga panig kay Arius sina Eusebius ng Nicomedia at Eusebius ng Caesarea ay maimpluwensya ay ipinaglaban ang mga doktrina ni Arius. 26

Doktrina ni Arius
Na ang makapangyarihan (God) ay hindi laging ang Ama (Father) kundi may panahon na hindi siya Ama, at ang mga salita ng Makapangyarihan (God) ay hindi Magpakailanman (Eternity) kundi galing lang sa wala. Dahil ang Nananatiling Makapangyarihan (Existing God) sa (‗the I AM‘—the eternal One) ay ginawa dahil hindi siya dati nang nag- e-exist. (made him who did not previously exist) na nagmula sa wala, at ang Anak ay Nilikha o isang ginawa. Hindi siya ang Ama kundi isa lang na Nilikha ng Kanyang gawa at mali na tawaging Salita at Talino dahil isa rin siyang Nilikha ng Salita ng Maykapal, na kung saan ay nilikha ng Ama ang lahat kasama siya. Kaya sa kanyang natural na pagkatao ay makadadanas ng pagbabago kagaya ng lahat ng nilikha. Ang Salita ay iba sa Ama at ang Ama ay hindi kayang ipaliwanag ng Anak at hindi niya nakikita at ang Salita ay hindi kilala ang Ama at di nakikita. Ang Anak ay hindi alam ang natural na pagkakakilanlan ng kanyang sarili dahil siya ay nilikha dahil sa atin upang likhain tayo sa pamamagitan niya, kagaya ng instrumento. Nilikha Siya ng Ama dahil ninais ng Ama na likhain tayo.

Emperor Constantine Nagpabautismo sa Arian Priest
Ang asawa ni Constantine si Constantina ay naniniwala sa aral ni Arius. Si Emperor Constantine ang kauna-unahang Roman Emperor na naging Christian. Siya ay nabautismuhan ni Eusebius ng Nicomedia na isang Arian Priest. Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341) was the man who baptised Constantine. He was a bishop of Berytus (modern-day Beirut) in Phoenicia, then of Nicomedia where the imperial court resided in Bithynia, and finally of Constantinople from 338 up to his death.

Ang Mga Sumunod na Mga Bishop ng Alexandria
Cyril ng Alexandria Cyril ng Alexandria (ca. 378 - 444) ay Bishop ng Alexandria sa kapanahunan ng kasikatan ng Emperyo ng Romano ". John Chrysostom John Chrysostom (c 347– c 407), Pangunahing Bishop ng Constantinople, sinulat niya ang Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom . Cappadocian Fathers Ang mga eskolar sina Saint Macrina the Younger , Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa at Peter of Sebaste na naging Bishop ng Sebaste. Ang mga eskolar kasama ang kanilang kaibigan si Gregory Nazianzus ay ipinakita na ang mga Christian ay kayang makipag usap sa mga mataas ang aral na nagsasalita ng Grego kahit na ang kanilang paniniwala ay talihis kay Plato at Aristotle at iba pang Pilosopong Grego ay nakapag-dagdag ng malaki sa pagkaka-kilala sa Trinity na tinapos sa First Council of Constantinople noong 381 A.D at ang pinal na bersyon ng Nicene Creed. 27

Mga Latin Fathers
Ang mga sumulat sa wikang Latin ay ang tinawag na Latin Fathers sila Tertullian, si Cyprian ng Carthage, si Gregory the Great, si Augustine ng Hippo, si Ambrose ng Milan, at si Jerome. Tertullian Promotor ng Tawag na Old Testament at New Testament Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (c 160 - c 225), ay naging Christian noong 197 A.D. ay isang manunulat at theologian ay isang anak ng Romanong Centurion. Siya ay isang abogado sa Roma at binansagang ―Father of the Latin Church‖. Siya ang nag lunsad ng salitang ―Trinitas‖ ng Christian Devine Trinity sa wikang Latin kahit na nauna ng naisulat ni Theophilus of Antioch (c. 115 - c. 183) na nagmula sa Koine Greek at ang ―vetus testamentum (Old Testament) at "novum testamentum" (New Testament). Siya rin ang nauna na tumawag ng "vera religio", na naging sistema ng Religion ng Roman Empire at iba pang tinanggap na Kulto na tinawag na "superstitions". Sa sumunod na panahon sumali siya sa sektang Montanists na kontra sa umiiral na paniniwala. Cyprian ng Carthage Saint Cyprian (Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus) ay bishop ng Carthage ay isang importanteng manunulat na ipinanganak sa Carthage na naging Bishop noong 249 A.D. Ambrose ng Milan Saint Ambrose (c. 338 – 4 April 397), ay bishop ng Milan na naging maimpluwensya at isa sa apat na orihinal na Doctors of the Church. Jerome of Stridonium Saint Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ay kilala na translator ng Biblia sa Latin mula sa Grego at Hebreo na gumawa ng Vulgate Bible na ginagamit ng Roman Catholic Church. Siya ay tinawag na Doctor of the Church. Augustine ng Hippo Saint Augustine (November 13, 354 – August 28, 430), ay ipinanganak sa Algeria ay naging Bishop ng Hippo, isang philosopher at theologian ay isang Latin Father at Doctor of the Church. Siya ay importante sa paglaganap ng Western Christianity. Siya ay naimpluwensyahan ng Platonism. Ang mga ginawa niya ay ipinagpatuloy ni Pope Gregory the Great. Gregory the Great Saint Gregory I the Great (c. 540 – March 12, 604) ay ang pope mula September 3, 590 A.D. hanggang mamatay. Kilala rin siya bilang Gregorius Dialogus (Gregory the Dialogist) sa Eastern Orthodoxy ay Doctor of the Church at pang apat sa great Latin Fathers of the Church (ang ibang Latin Fathers sina Ambrose, Augustine, at Jerome).

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Apologetic Fathers Sina St. Justin Martyr, Tatian, Athenagoras of Athens, Hermias at Tertullian. Ang Pangalawang Council of Nicea noong 787 A.D. Ang ika-pitong Economical Council ng Roman Catholic sa Nicaea (Iznik sa Turkey) ay ibinalik ang pagpuri sa mga imahen na pinatigil noong panahon ng Byzantine Empire sa panahon ni Leo III. Modern positions Sa Roman Catholic Church, si St. John ng Damascus, na nabuhay noong ika-walong siglo ay ang pinaka-huling Church Fathers at ang una sa susunod na Church writers, scholasticism. Si St. Bernard ay isa pa rin sa huling Church Fathers.

PINAGMULAN NG ENGLISH BIBLE
Mula sa Hexaplar Recension ay isinalin ito sa English Hexapla na New Testament ng Wiclif's Bible noong 1380 A.D., William Tyndale's Bible noong 1534A.D., Cranmer's the Great Bible noong 1539 A.D., ang Geneva Bible noong 1557 A.D., Rheims Bible noong 1582 A.D., at ang Authorised, o King James Bible noong 1611 A.D., at naisalin na sa kasalukuyang New King James Bible, NIV Bible, Holy Bible, Catholic Bible.

Hexapla (Ἑξαπλά: Gr. for "sixfold") is the term for an edition of the Bible in six versions. Especially it applies to the edition of the Old Testament compiled by Origen of Alexandria, which placed side by side in six (6) columns:
1. Hebrew Culturally, it is considered a Jewish language 2. Hebrew transliterated into Greek characters 3. Aquila of Sinope native of Pontus in Anatolia known for producing an exceedingly literal translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek around 130 CE 4. Symmachus the Ebionite (fl. late 2nd century) was the author of one of the Greek versions of the Old Testament 5. Septuagint 72 Jewish scholars first translated the Torah into Koine Greek in the third century BC 6. Theodotion (d. ca. 200 A.D.) was a Hellenistic Jewish scholar

The English Hexapla is an edition of the New Testament in Greek, along with what were considered the six most important English language translations in parallel columns underneath, preceded by a detailed history of English translations and translators by S. P. Tregelles.
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The six English language translations provided are Wiclif's (1380), William Tyndale's (1534), Cranmer's (the Great Bible 1539), the Geneva Bible (1557), Rheims (1582), and the Authorised, or King James Bible, (1611). The term "hexapla" signifies "six-fold" or "six-columned", and describes the arrangement of the six English versions underneath the Greek text in the book. The term "hexapla" is also applied to Origen's 3rd century edition of the Old Testament, which present six versions of the old testament, in Hebrew, Hebrew in Greek letters, Aquila of Sinope's Greek version, Symmachus the Ebionite's version, the LXX or Septuagint, and Theodotion's version. The English Hexapla was published by Samuel Bagster and Sons, of Paternoster Row, London, who are described on the title page as being a "warehouse for Bibles, New Testaments, Prayer-books, Lexicons, Grammars, Concordances, and Psalters, in ancient and modern languages." It was published in 1841

Protestant
Ang Protestant religioun kahit na nagbase sa Sola Scriptura (the principle that the Bible itself is the ultimate authority in doctrinal matters), ang unang Protestant reformers, kagaya ng Catholic at Orthodox churches, ay nagbase sa theological interpretations ng scripture na itinatag ng mga naunang Church Fathers. Ang orihinal na Lutheran Augsburg Confession ng 1531 A.D. at ang Formula of Concord ng 1576-1584 ay kagaya ng doktrina ng First Council of Nicea. Ang John

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Calvin's French Confession of Faith of 1559 A.D. ay naglahad ng mga naitatag na ng sina-unang council. Binigyan nila ng importansya ang Tradisyon at ang Interpretasyon ng mga sina-unang Fathers kagaya ng Paleo-Orthodoxy. Ang American Protestant ay ang United Methodist Church, Presbyterian Church USA, Episcopal Church, at ang Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, ay iba ang doktrina at nag ordina ng babaeng pastora at pati homosexual. Sila ay di naniniwala sa mga naunang simbahan at naniniwala na ang lahat ay pwedeng dumerekta sa Maykapal kaya hindi na kailangan ng guidance o doktrina ng simbahan.

Latter-day Saints
Ang mga kaanib ng The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (o Mormons) ay tinatanggap ang Biblia kasama ang New Testament bilang salita ng Maykapal kung ito ay naisalin ng tama.

Messianic Judaism
Messianic Judaism ay kagaya ng pagkilala ng maraming evangelical Protestants sa atoridad ng New Testament.

Dead Sea Scroll
Ang natagpuan noong 1947 A.D. na maraming kasulatan sa Dead Sea Scroll lalo na ang mga nakasulat sa Aramaic ay mas malapit at mas pumapabor sa Septuagint kaysa Masoretic text. Sa simula noong 200 A.D. ang mga Hudyo ay maraming dahilan kaya hindi ginamit ang Septuagint, dahil ang mga naunang mga Hentil (hindi tuli Epeso 2:11) na Christian ay pinaniniwalaan at ginagamit ang Septuagint dahil hindi sila nakaka- intindi ng wikang Hebreo kundi ng wikang Grego lamang. Si Jerome ay isinalin ang Septuagint na wikang Latin (Vulgate Bible) ay napatunayan niya na ang Hebrew text ay mas maraming nagpapatunay tungkol sa Messiah kaysa sa Septuagint kaya siya ay Lumabas sa Tradisyon ng Simbahang Katoliko at isinalin niya ang Old Testament mula sa Hebreo sa tinawag na Vulgate Bible. Ang kanyang pagpuna sa Septuagint ay pinulaan ng mga Augustine at pinalabas na si Jerome ay isang (Forger) mandaraya ng kasulatan ngunit sa paglipas ng panahon ay ang kanyang Old Testament na Vulgate Latin Bible ay sinapawan ang Septuagint. Sa aklat ng Septuagint ay maraming aklat na hindi makikita sa Hebrew Bible. Marami sa mga biblia ng Protestante ay sumunod sa Jewish canon at hindi isinama ang ibang aklat. Ang Simbahang Katoliko naman ay isinama ang mga aklat na iyon, samantalang ang Simbahan ng Eastern Orthodox ay ginagamit lahat ang mga aklat sa Septuagint, ganoon din ang Anglical maliban lang sa Psalm 151. Ang King James Version naman ay isinama lahat ng nadagdag na aklat at inilagay sa isang seksyon na tinawag na ‗Apocrypha‘.

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ITUTURO SA LAHAT SA IBANG BANSA ANG PAGSISISI AT KAPATAWARAN NG MGA KASALANAN SA KANYANG PANGALANG YAHSHU‟A NA NAGSIMULA SA YAHRUSALEM Luke 24:47 ‗and the repentance and remission of sins should be preached in HIS NAME among all nations beginning at Jerusalem‘ Nagsimula sa Yahrusalem ang Pagtuturo sa pagsisisi at kapatawaran ng mga kasalanan sa Kanyang Pangalan na Yahshu‟a at mula sa Yahrusalem ay itinuro ito sa ibat-ibang Bansa na ang pagsisisi at kapatawaran ng mga kasalanan ay sa Pangalan ni Yahshu‟a ngunit inilihis at ginawa na ang pagsisisi at kapatawaran ng mga kasalanan ay sa ibang pangalan - kay Iesus o Jesus na.

How Yeshu‟a Become Jesus
By:JOSEPH STALLINGS

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Published in Catholic Digest January 1992 vol.32,no.6 page 17 The Mystery of the Magi
We usually don‟t think about it, but our Lord‟s name was not always Jesus. It was in fact originally the popular Aramaic name *Yeshu’a. In first century Judea and Galilee, the name Yeshu‟a was very common and shared fifth place with Eleazar (Lazarus) in popularity as a name for Jewish men. The most popular male names at that time were Shime‟on (Simon), Yosef (Joseph), Yehuda (Judah or Judas) and Yochanan (John). In the Holy Land at the time of Christ, Aramaic had replaced Hebrew in everyday conversation, but Hebrew remained the holy language and was used in worship and daily prayers. The rabbis also used Hebrew when instructing their disciples. The two languages were closely related, however, as close as Italian is to Spanish, and both used the same alphabet. Yeshu‟a was the Aramaic version of the Hebrew name Yehoshu‟a (Joshua), and means “Yahweh saves”. Throughout Christ‟s lifetime in Galilee, Samaria and Judea of course the name Yeshu‟a presented no problem for those who spoke Aramaic and read the Bible and prayed in Hebrew. But outside the Holy Land it become a different story as Good News spread. The Gentiles of the Roman Empire spoke Greek and Latin and simply could not pronounce Yeshu‟a. It contained sounds that did not exist in their language. When the Gospels were written in Greek, therefore, the Evangelists had a real problem regarding how they might render our Lord‟s name into acceptable Greek. The initially „Y‟ (Hebrew and Aramaic letter „yod‟) was easy. The Evangelists could use the Greek letter „iota‟, written „I,‟ since it was pronounced like the „y‟ in yet. The next sound was a vowel, and that was a little more difficult. Unlike Greek, all the letters of the Aramaic-Hebrew alphabet are consonants. The marks for the vowels were not invented until some centuries after Christ and were simple dots and dashes, placed above or beneath the letters. At the time of Christ apparently, the first vowel in our Lord‟s name was pronounced like the „a‟ in gate. And the Evangelists believed they could approximate that sound by using the Greek letter „eta‟. (The capital Greek letter looks just like our English letter H). Then followed the first of two almost insurmountable problems with Hebrew and Aramaic pronunciation. There was no letter for the „sh‟ sound in the Greek alphabet. Such a familiar name as Solomon was actually Sh‟lomo in Hebrew, Samson was Shimson and Samuel was Sh‟mu-El. Like the Greek translators of these Old Testament Hebrew names, the Evangelists used the Greek sigma (s) for the Hebrew shin (sh) when rendering Christ‟s name. The first three Greek letters „iota‟, „eta‟, and „sigma‟, moreover came to be used in early Byzantine religious art as an abbreviation of Jesus name. As they look very much like the Latin letters IHS, the letters were adapted in Western European religious paintings and church architecture as a symbol for Christ‟s name.

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The next letter in the Aramaic name Yeshu‟a was the Hebrew letter „waw‟, which here represents the sound „oo‟, as in too. It was easy for the Evangelists to duplicate this sound in Greek. It takes two letters, however, the omicron (o) and upsilon (u). But that easy substitution was followed by the biggest problem of all: the final „a‟ sound. In Greek, there was no substitute for the Hebrew letter „aiyin‟. Though the „aiyin‟ has no sound of its own, it causes the vowel that it controls to be pronounced deep in the throat. The Greek couldn‟t do that, and neither could the Romans when speaking in Latin. Usually, a Greek or Roman would pronounce an „aiyin‟-controlled „a’ like the „a‟ in father. A final „a‟ on a name however was most commonly feminine in both Greek and Latin. Thus it was decided to drop the Hebrew „aiyin‟ completely and replace it with the final Greek sigma (s) which most often indicates the masculine gender in nouns. Throughout the Roman Empire then our Lord‟s Aramaic name Yeshu‟a, had become the Greek name Iesous, pronounced yeh-SOOS. And this remained Christ‟s name throughout the Roman Empire as long as Greek remained the dominant language. But after some centuries Greek lost its favored position and Latin took its place. In the last quarter of the fourth century, the Bible was translated from Greek into Latin by *St. Jerome who had no trouble rendering the Greek Iesous into Latin, it became Iesus. The accent, however, was moved to the first syllable and the name pronounced YAY-soos, since the Romans liked to accent the second from the last syllable. In about 14th century, in the scriptoria of the monasteries where Bibles were copied by hand, Monks began to elongate the initial „I‟ of the words into a „J‟. (The pronounciation remained the same-like the „y‟ in yet but the Monks thought a „J‟ looked better). Probably the first Monks to do this were Germans because the letter „j‟ in that language sounds the same as the „y‟ in English. The name Iesus, consequently, evolved into the familiar written form of Jesus by the 17th century. Everyone still pronounced it YAY-soos, however, as it was in the official liturgical Latin. Way back in the fifth and sixth centuries, some pagan Germanic tribes called the Angles and Saxons invaded England. St Augustine of Canterbury came to convert them to Christianity in A.D.396. Of course St. Augustine established Jerome‟s Latin translation as England‟s official Bible. The Anglo-Saxon learned that our Lord‟s official Latin name was Iesus. Naturally the Germanic Anglo-Saxon converted the initial Latin „I‟ into the German „J‟. They pronounced the name, however, as YAY-zoos, since a single „s‟ between two vowels is sounded like our „z‟ in Germanic languages. When the Normans invaded England in A.D.1066 they brought with them the French language. Since neither the Anglo-Saxons nor the Normans would surrender their language to the other, the two become wedded and eventually evolved into Modern English. The Normans did influence the pronunciation of the first letter of Our Lord‟s name, though, they brought the French pronunciation of j (jh), which evolved into our English sound of j. When King James commissioned the first official translation of the Bibles into English in the early 17 th century, the Latin Jesus was carried over unchanged into the new English Bible. The average English citizen of the day probably pronounced the name JAY-zus which ultimately evolved into our modern English JEE-zus. The long process was now complete. A name that began as the Aramaic Yeshu’a would remain written in English as it was in Medieval Latin, but now would be pronounced in English speaking countries as the familiar and loving name of the One who is our Savior, JESUS.

* Yeshu’a pronounced Yah-shua in Aramaic from Hebrew name Yahshu’a * St. Jerome name is Eusebius Hieronymus A.D.347 – A.D.419
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PINAGKUNAN NG SALIKSIK
The English Hexapla is an edition of the New Testament in Greek, along with what were considered the six most important English language translations in parallel columns underneath, preceded by a detailed history of English translations and translators by S. P. Tregelles. The six English language translations provided are Wiclif's (1380), William Tyndale's (1534), Cranmer's (the Great Bible 1539), the Geneva Bible (1557), Rheims (1582), and the Authorised, or King James Bible, (1611). The term "hexapla" signifies "six-fold" or "six-columned", and describes the arrangement of the six English versions underneath the Greek text in the book. The term "hexapla" is also applied to Origen's 3rd century edition of the Old Testament, which present six versions of the old testament, in Hebrew, Hebrew in Greek letters, Aquila of Sinope's Greek version, Symmachus the Ebionite's version, the LXX or Septuagint, and Theodotion's version. The English Hexapla was published by Samuel Bagster and Sons, of Paternoster Row, London, who are described on the title page as being a "warehouse for Bibles, New Testaments, Prayer-books, Lexicons, Grammars, Concordances, and Psalters, in ancient and modern languages." It was published in 1841

Origen's Hexapla General Information
Although most of his writings have disappeared, Origen's literary productivity was enormous. The Hexapla was the first attempt to establish a critical text of the Old Testament. Text edited by Rev. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson and first published by T&T Clark in Edinburgh in 1867. Additional introductionary material and notes provided for the American edition by A. Cleveland Coxe, 1886.

Origen's Hexapla Catholic Information

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Hexapla was the name given to Origen's edition of the Old Testament in Hebrew and Greek, the most colossal critical production of antiquity. This work was urgently demanded by the confusion which prevailed in Origen's day regarding the true text of Scripture. The Church had adopted the Septuagint for its own; this differed from the Hebrew not only by the addition of several books and passages but also by innumerable variations of text, due partly to the ordinary process of corruption in the transcription of ancient books, partly to the culpable temerity, as Origen called it, of correctors who used not a little freedom in making "corrections", additions, and suppressions, partly to mistakes in translation, and finally in great part to the fact that the original Septuagint had been made from a Hebrew text quite different from that fixed at Jamnia as the one standard by the Jewish Rabbis, under Akiba the founder of Rabbinical Judaism. Aquila, a proselyte from Christianity, gave (c. A.D. 130) a very accurate translation of this text, aiming above all at being literal; still he borrows quite freely from the Septuagint when its rendering is consistent with his own chief aim. Symmachus and Theodotion both flourished towards the end of the second century, but it is uncertain which had priority as translator. Symmachus, who was an Ebionite according to Eusebius and Jerome, a Jewish proselyte from Samaritanism according to Epiphanius, gave a new translation which was to a considerable extent a more idiomatic and elegant rendering of Aquila. It was followed extensively by Jerome in his own work as translator of the Old Testament. Both Aquila and Symmachus produced two editions to which Jerome refers. Theodotion, who was an Ebionite or a Jew, and perhaps had been a Christian, gave a version much closer than the others to the Septuagint. The circulation of these versions, each so insistent in its claim to superiority, in so many instances differing from the Septuagint and yet so close to it in many others, made a comparison between them and the Septuagint imperative for a knowledge of the true text of Holy Scripture. The Hexapla, the concept of a great genius executed with unexampled patience and industry, is Origen's attempt to show the exact relations of the Septuagint to these versions and especially to the Hebrew text. The work itself has perished; its character, however, has been pretty well known to scholars through statements in early Church writers, through scholia on numerous manuscripts of the Bible, and through chance quotations found in the works of certain Fathers. Quite recently (1896 and 1900) fragments of the Hexaplar Psalms were fortunately discovered, which give us our only specimens of connected portions of Origen's work and afford a good idea of its general appearance. Our earliest authorities, Eusebius of Cæsarea, St. Epiphanius, and St. Jerome, agree that Origen made a collection into one work of texts and versions of the entire Old Testament, arranging them in parallel columns according to the following order: First, the Hebrew text in Hebrew characters; second, the Hebrew text transliterated into Greek characters; third, the version of Aquila; fourth, that of Symmachus; fifth, the Septuagint; sixth, the version of Theodotion. The recovered fragments corroborate this testimony, though they lack the first column. Aquila's version was placed next to the Hebrew, most probably because it was the most literal rendering; Symmachus next to Aquila, because his version was largely a revision of the other; for a similar reason, Theodotion's version came after the Septuagint. To these six columns, according to the same testimony, Origen added, but for certain books only, a seventh and an eighth column containing two more Greek versions, which were called respectively the Quinta and the Sexta, because they were the fifth and sixth versions in Origen's arrangement. Eusebius and Jerome mention a seventh Greek version, however nothing seems to be known of the character of the Septima. It may have been a very fragmentary version, a collection of variant readings which later editors did not consider worth preserving. Concerming the Quinta and Sexta, St. Jerome tells us that their authors were Jews. Field finds traces of the Quinta not only in Psalms, Job, Proverbs, and the Canticle of Canticles, but also in the Pentateuch and 2 Kings, though, in regard to 2 Kings, Burkitt has advanced good reasons for considering the Quinta a collection of variant readings, probably rejected from the Septuagint. The Sexta is quoted for Exodus, 1 Kings, Psalms, Job, Canticle of Canticles, Amos, and Habacuc. The presence of these two additional versions in the Hexapla has led to a discussion of that term and of others applied to Origen's work. By some the "six-fold" Bible was considered so called because it contained six Greek versions of certain books; but the common opinion has been that the name designates probably the six columns (the two of Hebrew and the four of the chief Greek versions, which consititute the bulk of the work), and came to be extended to the entire work. The terms Pentapla, Heptapla, Octapla, were also used of Origen's work, according as it contained five, seven, or eight columns. Since the six or seven columns, as the case might be, were visible at every opening of the Hexapla, each column must have been quite narrow. The fragments show, in fact, that one or at most two Hebrew words were placed on each line, with the transliteration in the adjoining column and the various renditions in the succeeding columns, all on the same level. This arrangement would naturally necessitate, at times, a shifting of the Greek words from their proper order, although this was not always done. An arrangement so minute and liberal must produce a work of enormous bulk. Swete estimated 3250 leaves, or 6500 pages, but Nestle considers 6000 leaves not far beyond the number. In addition to these columns of texts and versions, Origen copied out on the margins or between the lines other readings which he cited as given by ‗o ‗Ebrâios, ‗o E&úros, tò Samareitikón, the meaning of which is obscure. Field considers "the Hebrew" to be the Hebrew author of a Greek version, otherwise unknown, of certain books; "the Syrian", the author of another Greek version made in Syria; while "the Samaritan" gives Greek readings taken, not from the current Hebrew text, but from the Samaritan Pentateuch (thirty-six out of fortythree readings agree with that text). Loisy's opinion, not the mention many others, is that "the Hebrew" denotes citations from a Targum, "the Syrian", from the Peschito. Origen's purpose, as regards the Septuagint, was to indicate very clearly its exact relation to the Hebrew text, and incidentally to the other Greek versions. With this in view, he adopted (and placed in the Septuagint column only) the symbols used by Aristarchus in his edition of Homer. "As employed by Origen in the fifth column of the Hexapla, the obelus was prefixed to words or lines which were wanting in the Hebrew, and therefore, from Origen's point of view, of doubtful authority, while the asterisk called attention to words or lines wanting in the Septuagint, but present in the Hebrew. The close of the context to which the obelus or asterisk was intended to apply was marked by another sign known as the metobelus" (Swete). The fifth column, therefore, contained not the mere text of the Septuagint only, but in addition a translation taken generally from Theodotion (occasionally from Aquila) of these words or lines of the Hebrew which were lacking in the Septuagint. In certain instances, where the Septuagint translation differed widely from the Hebrew meaning, Origen inserted the true rendering (from Theodotion or Aquila) alongside the false; he deleted nothing from the

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Septuagint text. By this arrangement and these symbols, any reader, even if ignorant of Hebrew, could generally tell at a glance the exact relation of the Septuagint text to the Hebrew. The principles which guided Origen in his work as textual critic are partly explained by Origen himself. He began by assuming the correctness of the current Hebrew textus receptus, and considered the Septuagint as more or less pure according to the degree in which it approximated to the Hebrew. He frequently changed the spelling of proper names to conform with the Hebrew. The symbols were intended not only to indicate a difference between the two texts, but to mark a departure from the Hebrew verity or genuine text. These principles are rightly discredited by modern scholars, who recognize that the Septuagint often bears plain witness to a Hebrew original different from the textus receptus and older than it in some parts. Moreover, of two readings, one a free, the other a literal, translation of the Hebrew, the free is more likely to be the original rendering of the Septuagint translator, while the literal is more apt to represent the effort of correctors, who very frequently endeavoured to bring the Greek into greater conformity with the Hebrew. Origen's critical principles were at fault, then, but his use of symbols ought to have guarded others from being led by his work into error. Unfortunately, the symbols were not reproduced in many copies which were taken of the fifth column - the Septuagint together with the readings from Theodotion and Aquila. After the completion of the Hexapla, Origen prepared a minor edition, or extract from it, consisting of the four principal versions, Aquila, Symmachus, the Septuagint, and Theodotion; this is the Tetrapla. It has been sometimes maintained, however, that the Tetrapla is the earlier work and was expanded into the Hexapla, principally on the ground that the Hexapla, which in a few instances has a superior reading, as at Ps. lxxxvi, 5, presents light missing to Origen when he composed the Tetrapla, a very unstable ground, we judge, for the Hexapla did not leave the hand of Origen as a printed work becomes independent of a modern author, but received occasional additions and corrections with the progress of his knowledge. The language of Eusebius implies that the Tetrapla was the later work. The dates of the two works, however, cannot be definitely fixed; all we know, says Field, is that the Hexapla or the Tetrapla was composed before Origen's letter to Africanus (c. 240). No copy of the entire Hexapla, on account of the immense labour and expense involved, seems ever to have been made, but the Psalter, minus the first column, was copied, as the two fragments prove. A reading in Isaias is quoted from the Pentapla, which possibly (though very doubtfully) implies the existence of a similar copy. Shortly after the beginning of the fourth century, Pamphilus, the martyr, and Eusebius, Bishop of Cæsarea, gave out an edition of the fifth column of the Hexapla, containing the Septuagint, the insertions from Theodotion and Aquila, and the symbols, together with variant readings on the margin, in the belief that they were bestowing on the Church the purest text. It was through the reproduction of this edition by later scribes, without Origen's critical signs, that arose the Hexaplar text which so greatly increased the confusion of Septuagint manuscripts. However, it hardly circulated outside of Palestine. It was translated into Syriac, "with the Origenic signs scrupulously retained", by Paul, Bishop of Tella, in Mesopotamia, who accomplished the work at Alexandria about 616-17. Several books and large portions of this Syro-Hexaplar text survive, and are the source, in a very great measure, of our knowledge of Origen's work. The Hexaplar text also influenced St. Jerome very strongly in his first two translations of the Psalter into Latin, the Psalterium Romanum and (particularly) the Gallicanum. Saint Jerome also followed the Hexaplar text, for which he had a very high regard, as the basis of his translations, no longer extant, of other books. The same influence is further seen in the Coptic (Sahidic), the Arabic, and the Armenian versions. If the original Septuagint text be taken as the standard, it is unquestionable that Origen's influence, both upon the Septuagint and its daughter versions, ultimately availed, through the negligence of copyists, to remove them further from the pristine purity of the Biblical text; but by all those who regard the Hexaplar text, by reason of its insertions and corrections from the textus receptus, as nearer to the original Hebrew than is the Septuagint, his influence must be judged to have worked, on the whole, for the spread of a truer text. The Hexaplar manuscript was kept at Cæsarea in Palestine, where it was consulted by Eusebius, Epiphanius, and Jerome; it disappeared from sight shortly after the beginning of the seventh century. The first attempt to collect its disjecta membra, scattered over Biblical manuscripts and patristic writings, was made by Drusius (Driesch) in his work "In Psalmos Davidis Veterum Interpretum quæ extant Fragmenta", Antwerp, 1581 (so Mercati). Additions were made by Peter Morin in his notes to the Greek Bible authorized by Sixtus V (158), as also in the posthumous work of Drusius (1622), and the monumental work of Montfaucon (1713). The publication of the Syro-Hexaplar text by Ceriani and others gave back to the world a great part of Origen's work. Frederick Field in his "Origenis Hexaplorum quæ supersunt … fragmenta" (Oxford, 1875) collected into one grand work the results of two centuries of investigation and discovery. Since his day, Pitra's "Analecta Sacra", III (Venice, 1883), Klosterman's "Analecta zur … Hexapla" (Leipzig, 1895), and Dom Morin's "Anecdota Maredsolana", III, i, have given the world further discoveries. Add to these, to complete the history of the Hexapla's recovery, the palimpsest fragments of several of the psalms discovered by Mercati in the Ambrosian Library of Milan (1896), and the palimpsest fragment of Ps. xxii recovered from a genizah of Cairo (1900), which reproduce almost the exact form of Origen's work. Though much has been lost, including most of the versions of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, still, by these patient, untiring labours, vast materials have been gathered for the reconstruction of a purer Sacred Text. [See MANUSCRIPTS OF THE BIBLE; ORIGEN; SEPTUAGINT; VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE Greek)]. Publication information Written by John Francis Fenlon. Transcribed by WG Kofron. With thanks to Fr. John Hilkert and St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII. Published 1910. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York Septuagint From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton's Greek edition and English translation. The Septuagint (pronounced ), or simply "LXX", referred to in critical works by the abbreviation 𝔊 or 𝔖,[1] is the Koine Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, translated in stages between the 3rd and 1st centuries BC in Alexandria.[2] It is the oldest of several ancient translations of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, lingua franca of the eastern Mediterranean Basin from the time of Alexander the Great (356-323 BC).

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The Septuagint was held in great respect in ancient times; Philo and Josephus ascribed divine inspiration to its authors.[3] Besides the Old Latin versions, the LXX is also the basis for the Slavonic, the Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian and Coptic versions of the Old Testament.[4] Of significance for all Christians and for Bible scholars, the LXX is quoted by the Christian New Testament and by the Apostolic Fathers Contents

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1 Creation of the Septuagint 2 Naming and designation 3 Textual history o 3.1 Relationship between the Septuagint and the Masoretic text o 3.2 Dead Sea Scrolls 4 Use of the Septuagint o 4.1 Jewish use o 4.2 Christian use o 4.3 Apocrypha 5 Language of the Septuagint 6 Books of the Septuagint 7 Printed editions 8 English Translations of the Septuagint 9 International Septuagint Day 10 Defining Septuagint 11 Table of Books 12 References 13 See also 14 Other References 15 External links o 15.1 General o 15.2 Texts and translations o 15.3 The LXX and the NT

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Creation of the Septuagint Jewish scholars first translated the Torah into Koine Greek in the third century BC[5]. Further books were translated over the next two centuries. It is not altogether clear which was translated when, or where; some may even have been translated twice, into different versions, and then revised.[6] The quality and style of the different translators also varied considerably from book to book, from the literal to paraphrasing to interpretative. According to one assessment "the Pentateuch is reasonably well translated, but the rest of the books, especially the poetical books, are often very poorly done and even contain sheer absurdities". [7] As the work of translation progressed gradually, and new books were added to the collection, the compass of the Greek Bible came to be somewhat indefinite. The Pentateuch always maintained its pre-eminence as the basis of the canon; but the prophetic collection changed its aspect by having various hagiographa incorporated into it. Some of the newer works, those called anagignoskomena in Greek, are not included in the Jewish canon. Among these books are Maccabees and the Wisdom of Ben Sira. Also, the Septuagint version of some works, like Daniel and Esther, are longer than those in the Masoretic Text.[8] Some of the later books (Wisdom of Solomon, 2 Maccabees, and others) apparently were composed in Greek.[9] The authority of the larger group of writings, out of which the ketuvim were selected, had not yet been determined, although some sort of selective process must have been employed because the Septuagint did not include other well-known Jewish documents such as Enoch or Jubilees or other writings that are now part of the Pseudepigrapha. It is not known what principles were used to determine the contents of the Septuagint beyond the "Law and the Prophets", a phrase used several times in the New Testament. Naming and designation The Septuagint derives its name from Latin Interpretatio septuaginta virorum, (Greek: ἡ μεηάθραζις ηῶν ἑβδομήκονηα, hē metáphrasis tōn hebdomēkonta), "translation of the seventy interpreters".[2]

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The word septuaginta[10] means "seventy" in Latin (hence the abbreviation LXX). The Latin title refers to a legendary account in the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas of how seventy-two Jewish scholars were asked by the Greek King of Egypt Ptolemy II Philadelphus in the 3rd century BC to translate the Torah (or Pentateuch) from Hebrew into Greek for inclusion in the Library of Alexandria.[3] A later version of that legend narrated by Philo of Alexandria states that although the translators were kept in separate chambers, they all produced identical versions of the text in seventy-two days. Although this story may be improbable, it underlines the fact that some ancient Jews wished to present the translation as authoritative.[3] A version of this legend is found in the Tractate Megillah of the Babylonian Talmud (pages 9a-9b), which identifies fifteen specific unusual translations made by the scholars. Only two of these translations are found in the extant LXX. Textual history Modern scholarship holds that the LXX was written during the 3rd through 1st centuries BC. But nearly all attempts at dating specific books, with the exception of the Pentateuch (early- to mid-3rd century BC), are tentative and without consensus. [3] Later Jewish revisions and recensions of the Greek against the Hebrew are well attested, the most famous of which include the Three: Aquila (AD 128), Symmachus, and Theodotion. These three, to varying degrees, are more literal renderings of their contemporary Hebrew scriptures as compared to the Old Greek. Modern scholars consider one or more of the 'three' to be totally new Greek versions of the Hebrew Bible.[11] Around AD 235, Origen, a Christian scholar in Alexandria, completed the Hexapla, a comprehensive comparison of the ancient versions and Hebrew text side-by-side in six columns, with diacritical markings (a.k.a. "editor's marks", "critical signs" or "Aristarchian signs"). Much of this work was lost, but several compilations of the fragments are available. In the first column was the contemporary Hebrew, in the second a Greek transliteration of it, then the newer Greek versions each in their own columns. Origen also kept a column for the Old Greek (the Septuagint) and next to it was a critical apparatus combining readings from all the Greek versions with diacritical marks indicating to which version each line (Gr. ζηἰρνο) belonged. [12] Perhaps the voluminous Hexapla was never copied in its entirety, but Origen's combined text ("the fifth column") was copied frequently, eventually without the editing marks, and the older uncombined text of the LXX was neglected. Thus this combined text became the first major Christian recension of the LXX, often called the Hexaplar recension. In the century following Origen, two other major recensions were identified by Jerome, who attributed these to Lucian and Hesychius.[3] The oldest manuscripts of the LXX include 2nd century BC fragments of Leviticus and Deuteronomy (Rahlfs nos. 801, 819, and 957), and 1st century BC fragments of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and the Minor Prophets (Rahlfs nos. 802, 803, 805, 848, 942, and 943). Relatively complete manuscripts of the LXX postdate the Hexaplar rescension and include the Codex Vaticanus and the Codex Sinaiticus of the 4th century and the Codex Alexandrinus of the 5th century. These are indeed the oldest surviving nearly-complete manuscripts of the Old Testament in any language; the oldest extant complete Hebrew texts date some 600 years later, from the first half of the 10th century.[4] While there are differences between these three codices, scholarly consensus today holds that one LXX — that is, the original pre-Christian translation — underlies all three. The various Jewish and later Christian revisions and recensions are largely responsible for the divergence of the codices. [3] Relationship between the Septuagint and the Masoretic text The sources of the many differences between the Septuagint and the Masoretic text have long been discussed by scholars. The most widely accepted view today is that the original Septuagint provided a reasonably accurate record of an early Semitic textual variant, now lost, that differed from ancestors of the Masoretic text. Ancient scholars, however, did not suspect this. Early Christians—who were largely unfamiliar with Hebrew texts, and were thus only made aware of the differences through the newer Greek versions— tended to dismiss the differences as a product of uninspired translation of the Hebrew in these new versions. Following the Renaissance, a common opinion among some humanists was that the LXX translators bungled the translation from the Hebrew and that the LXX became more corrupt with time. These issues notwithstanding, the text of the LXX is in general close to that of the Masoretes. For example, Genesis 4:1-6 is identical in both the LXX and the Masoretic Text. Likewise, Genesis 4:8 to the end of the chapter is the same. There is only one noticeable difference in that chapter, at 4:7, to wit:

Genesis 4:7, LXX (NETS)

Genesis 4:7, Masoretic (NRSV)

If you offer correctly but do not divide correctly, have you

If you do well, will you not be accepted? And if you do not do

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not sinned? Be still; his recourse is to you, and you will rule over him.

well, sin is lurking at the door; its desire is for you, but you must master it.

This instance illustrates the complexity of assessing differences between the LXX and the Masoretic Text. Despite the striking divergence of meaning here between the two, nearly identical consonantal Hebrew source texts can be reconstructed. The readily apparent semantic differences result from alternative strategies for interpreting the difficult verse and relate to differences in vowelization and punctuation of the consonantal text. The differences between the LXX and the MT thus fall into four categories. [13] 1. Different Hebrew sources for the MT and the LXX. Evidence of this can be found throughout the Old Testament. Most obvious are major differences in Jeremiah and Job, where the LXX is much shorter and chapters appear in different order than in the MT, and Esther where almost one third of the verses in the LXX text have no parallel in the MT. A more subtle example may be found in Isaiah 36.11; the meaning ultimately remains the same, but the choice of words evidences a different text. The MT reads "...al tedaber yehudit be'ozne ha`am al ha-homa" [speak not the Judean language in the ears of (or — which can be heard by) the people on the wall]. The same verse in the LXX reads according to the translation of Brenton "and speak not to us in the Jewish tongue: and wherefore speakest thou in the ears of the men on the wall." The MT reads "people" where the LXX reads "men". This difference is very minor and does not affect the meaning of the verse. Scholars at one time had used discrepancies such as this to claim that the LXX was a poor translation of the Hebrew original. With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, variant Hebrew texts of the Bible were found. In fact this verse is found in Qumran (1QIsaa) where the Hebrew word "haanashim" (the men) is found in place of "haam" (the people). This discovery, and others like it, showed that even seemingly minor differences of translation could be the result of variant Hebrew source texts. Differences in interpretation stemming from the same Hebrew text. A good example is Genesis 4.7 shown above. Differences as a result of idiomatic translation issues (i.e. a Hebrew idiom may not easily translate into Greek, thus some difference is intentionally or unintentionally imparted). For example, in Psalm 47:10 the MT reads "The shields of the earth belong to God". The LXX reads "To God are the mighty ones of the earth." The metaphor "shields" would not have made much sense to a Greek speaker; thus the words "mighty ones" are substituted in order to retain the original meaning. Transmission changes in Hebrew or Greek (Diverging revisionary/recensional changes and copyist errors)

2. 3.

4. Dead Sea Scrolls

The discovery of many Biblical fragments in the Dead Sea scrolls that agree with the Septuagint rather than the Masoretic Text proved that many of the variants in Greek were also present in early Semitic manuscripts. [14] Many of the oldest Biblical fragments among the Dead Sea Scrolls, particularly those in Aramaic, correspond more closely with the LXX than with the Masoretic text (although the majority of these variations are extremely minor, e.g. grammatical changes, spelling differences or missing words, and do not affect the meaning of sentences and paragraphs). [2][15][16] This confirms the scholarly consensus that the LXX represents a separate Hebrew-text tradition from that which was later standardized as the Masoretic text. [2][17] Use of the Septuagint Jewish use In the 3rd century BC, most Jewish communities were located in the Hellenistic world where Greek was the lingua franca. It is believed that the LXX was produced because many Jews outside of Judea needed a Greek version of the scripture for use during synagogue readings[18][19] or for religious study.[20] Some theorise that Hellenistic Jews intended the septuagint as a contribution to Hellenistic culture.[3] Alexandria held the greatest diaspora Jewish community of the age and was also a great center of Greek letters. Alexandria is thus likely the site of LXX authorship, a notion supported by the legend of Ptolemy and the 72 scholars. [21] The Septuagint enjoyed widespread use in the Hellenistic Jewish diaspora and even in Jerusalem, which had become a rather cosmopolitan (and therefore Greek-speaking) town. Both Philo and Josephus show a reliance on the Septuagint in their citations of Jewish scripture. Starting approximately in the 2nd century AD (see also Council of Jamnia), several factors led most Jews to abandon use of the LXX. The earliest gentile Christians of necessity used the LXX, as it was at the time the only Greek version of the bible, and most, if not all, of these early non-Jewish Christians could not read Hebrew. The association of the LXX with a rival religion may have rendered it suspect in the eyes of the newer generation of Jews and Jewish scholars.[4] Perhaps more importantly, the Greek language—and

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therefore the Greek Bible—declined among Jews after most of them fled from the Greek-speaking eastern Roman Empire into the Aramaic-speaking Persian Empire when Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans. Instead, Jews used Hebrew/Aramaic Targum manuscripts later compiled by the Masoretes; and authoritative Aramaic translations, such as those of Onkelos and Rabbi Yonathan ben Uziel.[22] What was perhaps most significant for the LXX, as distinct from other Greek versions, was that the LXX began to lose Jewish sanction after differences between it and contemporary Hebrew scriptures were discovered. Even Greek-speaking Jews — such as those remaining in Palestine — tended less to the LXX, preferring other Jewish versions in Greek, such as that of Aquila, which seemed to be more concordant with contemporary Hebrew texts.[4] While Jews have not used the LXX in worship or religious study since the second century AD, recent scholarship has brought renewed interest in it in Judaic Studies. Christian use The early Christian Church used the Greek texts since Greek was a lingua franca of the Roman Empire at the time, and the language of the Church. In addition the Church Fathers tended to accept Philo's account of the LXX's miraculous and inspired origin. Furthermore, the New Testament writers, when citing the Jewish scriptures or when quoting Jesus doing so, freely used the Greek translation, implying that the Apostles and their followers considered it reliable. [23] When Jerome undertook the revision of the Old Latin translations of the Septuagint, he checked the Septuagint against the Hebrew texts that were then available. He came to believe that the Hebrew text better testified to Christ than the Septuagint. [24] He broke with church tradition and translated most of the Old Testament of his Vulgate from Hebrew rather than Greek. His choice was severely criticized by Augustine, his contemporary; a flood of still less moderate criticism came from those who regarded Jerome as a forger. But with the passage of time, acceptance of Jerome's version gradually increased until it displaced the Old Latin translations of the Septuagint.[4] The Hebrew text diverges in some passages that Christians hold to prophesy Christ[25] and the Eastern Orthodox Church still prefers to use the LXX as the basis for translating the Old Testament into other languages. The Eastern Orthodox also use LXX untranslated where Greek is the liturgical language, e.g. in the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, the Church of Greece and the Cypriot Orthodox Church. Many modern critical translations of the Old Testament, while using the Masoretic text as their basis, consult the Septuagint as well as other versions in an attempt to reconstruct the meaning of the Hebrew text whenever the latter is unclear, undeniably corrupt, or ambiguous.[4] Apocrypha Main article: Biblical Apocrypha The Septuagint includes some books not found in the Hebrew Bible. Many Protestant Bibles follow the Jewish canon and exclude the additional books. Roman Catholics, however, include some of these books in their canon while Eastern Orthodox Churches use all the books of the Septuagint. Anglican lectionaries also use all of the books except Psalm 151, and the full Authorized (King James) Version includes these additional books in a separate section labelled the "Apocrypha". Language of the Septuagint Some sections of the Septuagint may show Semiticisms, or idioms and phrases based on Semitic languages like Hebrew and Aramaic.[23] Other books, such as LXX Daniel and Proverbs, show Greek influence more strongly.[3] The book of Daniel that is found in almost all Greek bibles, however, is not from the LXX, but rather from Theodotion's translation, which more closely resembles the Masoretic Daniel.[3] The LXX is also useful for elucidating pre-Masoretic Hebrew: many proper nouns are spelled out with Greek vowels in the LXX, while contemporary Hebrew texts lacked vowel pointing.[26] One must, however, evaluate such evidence with caution since it is extremely unlikely that all ancient Hebrew sounds had precise Greek equivalents. [27] Books of the Septuagint See also Table of books below. All the books of western canons of the Old Testament are found in the Septuagint, although the order does not always coincide with the Western ordering of the books. The Septuagint order for the Old Testament is evident in the earliest Christian Bibles (5th century).[3] Some books that are set apart in the Masoretic text are grouped together. For example the Books of Samuel and the Books of Kings are in the LXX one book in four parts called Βαζηιεηῶλ ("Of Reigns"); scholars believe that this is the original arrangement before the

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book was divided for readability. In LXX, the Books of Chronicles supplement Reigns and it is called Paraleipoménon (Παξαιεηπνκέλωλ—things left out). The Septuagint organizes the minor prophets as twelve parts of one Book of Twelve. [3] Some scripture of ancient origin are found in the Septuagint but are not present in the Hebrew. These include additions to Daniel and Esther. For more information regarding these books, see the articles Biblical apocrypha, Biblical canon, Books of the Bible, and Deuterocanonical books. The New Testament makes a number of allusions to and may quote the additional books. The books are Tobit, Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Jesus Sirach, Baruch, Epistle of Jeremy (which later became chapter 6 of Baruch in the Vulgate), additions to Daniel (The Prayer of Azarias, the Song of the Three Children, Sosanna and Bel and the Dragon), additions to Esther, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, 1 Esdras, Odes, including the Prayer of Manasses, and Psalm 151. The canonical acceptance of these books varies among different Christian traditions, and there are canonical books not derived from the Septuagint; for a discussion see the article on Biblical apocrypha. Printed editions All the printed editions of the Septuagint are derived from the three recensions mentioned above.

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The editio princeps is the Complutensian Polyglot. It was based on manuscripts that are now lost, but seems to transmit quite early readings.[28] The Aldine edition (begun by Aldus Manutius) appeared at Venice in 1518. The text is closer to Codex Vaticanus than the Complutensian. The editor says he collated ancient manuscripts but does not specify them. It has been reprinted several times. The most important edition is the Roman or Sixtine, which reproduces the Codex Vaticanus" almost exclusively. It was published under the direction of Cardinal Caraffa, with the help of various savants, in 1586, by the authority of Sixtus V, to assist the revisers who were preparing the Latin Vulgate edition ordered by the Council of Trent. It has become the textus receptus of the Greek Old Testament and has had many new editions, such as that of Robert Holmes and James Parsons (Oxford, 1798-1827), the seven editions of Constantin von Tischendorf, which appeared at Leipzig between 1850 and 1887, the last two, published after the death of the author and revised by Nestle, the four editions of Henry Barclay Swete (Cambridge, 1887-95, 1901, 1909), etc. Grabe's edition was published at Oxford, from 1707 to 1720, and reproduced, but imperfectly, the "Codex Alexandrinus" of London. For partial editions, see Fulcran Vigouroux, Dictionnaire de la Bible, 1643 sqq. Alfred Rahlfs, a longtime Septuagint researcher at Göttingen, began a manual edition of the Septuagint in 1917 or 1918. The completed Septuaginta was published in 1935. It relies mainly on Vaticanus, Sinaiticus, and Alexandrinus, and presents a critical apparatus with variants from these and several other sources.[29] The Göttingen Septuagint (Vetus Testamentum Graecum: Auctoritate Academiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum) is a major critical version, comprising multiple volumes published from 1931 to 2006 and not yet complete. Its two critical apparatuses present variant Septuagint readings and variants from other Greek versions.[30] In 2006, a revision of Alfred Rahlfs's Septuaginta was published by the German Bible Society. This editio altera includes over a thousand changes to the text and apparatus.[31] The Apostolic Bible Polyglot contains a Septuagint text derived mainly from the agreement of any two of the Complutensian Polyglot, the Sixtine, and the Aldine texts.[32]

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English Translations of the Septuagint The Septuagint has been translated a few times into English, the first one (though excluding the Apocrypha) being that of Charles Thomson in 1808; his translation was later revised and enlarged by C. A. Muses in 1954. The translation of Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton, published in 1851, is a long-time standard. For most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. It is based primarily upon the Codex Vaticanus and contains the Greek and English texts in parallel columns. There also is a revision of the Brenton Septuagint available through Stauros Ministries, called The Apostles' Bible, released in January 2008. [2] The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS) has produced A New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included Under that Title (NETS), an academic translation based on standard critical editions of the Greek texts. It was published by Oxford University Press in October 2007. The Apostolic Bible Polyglot, published in 2007, includes the Greek books of the Hebrew canon along with the Greek New Testament, all numerically coded to the AB-Strong numbering system, and set in monotonic orthography. Included in the printed edition is a concordance and index.

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The Orthodox Study Bible was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the New King James Version. It also includes extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective.[33] The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible (EOB) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton‘s translation which was primarily based on Codex Vaticanus. Its language and syntax has been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants. International Septuagint Day The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS), a nonprofit, learned society formed to promote international research in and study of the Septuagint and related texts, [34] has established February 8 annually as International Septuagint Day, a day to promote the discipline on campuses and in communities. Defining Septuagint Although the integrity of the Septuagint as a text distinct from the Masoretic text is supported by Dead Sea scroll evidence, the LXX does show signs of age in that textual variants are attested. There is at least one highly unreliable nearly complete text of the LXX, Codex Alexandrinus. Nearly complete texts of the Septuagint are also found in the Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209 and Codex Sinaiticus, which do not perfectly coincide. But the LXX is a particularly excellent text when compared to other ancient works with textual variants. It has been argued that it is unjustified to reject the existence of a Septuagint merely on the basis of variation due to editorial recension and typographical error.[35][36] The title "Septuagint" should not to be confused with the seven or more other Greek versions of the Old Testament, most of which do not survive except as fragments. These other Greek versions were once in side-by-side columns of Origen's Hexapla, now almost wholly lost. Of these the most important are "the three:" those by Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, which are identified by particular Semiticisms and placement of Hebrew and Aramaic characters within their Greek texts. One of two Old Greek texts of the Book of Daniel has been recently rediscovered and work is ongoing in reconstructing the original form of the Septuagint as a whole.[3] Table of Books The Orthodox Old Testament [2][15][37] Greek-based name Conventional English name

Law

Γένεςισ Ἔμνδνσ

Génesis

Genesis

Éxodos

Exodus

Λευϊτικόν Ἀξηζκνί

Leuitikón

Leviticus

Arithmoí

Numbers

Δευτερονόμιον

Deuteronómion

Deuteronomy

History Ἰεζνῦο Nαυῆ

Iêsous Nauê

Joshua

Κριταί

Kritaí

Judges

j

Ῥνύθ
[38] Βαςιλειῶλ Αʹ

Roúth

Ruth

I Reigns

I Samuel

Βαςιλειῶλ Βʹ

II Reigns

II Samuel

Βαςιλειῶλ Γʹ

III Reigns

I Kings

Βαςιλειῶλ Δʹ

IV Reigns I Paralipomenon[39]

II Kings

Παραλειπομένων Αʹ

I Chronicles

Παραλειπομένων Βʹ Ἔζδξαο Αʹ Ἔζδξαο Βʹ Ἐζζήρ Ἰνπδίθ Σωβίτ[40]

II Paralipomenon

II Chronicles

I Esdras

1 Esdras;

II Esdras

Ezra-Nehemiah

Esther

Esther with additions

Ioudith

Judith

Tobit

Tobit or Tobias

Μακκαβαίων Αʹ

I Maccabees

1 Maccabees

Μακκαβαίων Βʹ

II Maccabees

2 Maccabees

Μακκαβαίων Γʹ

III Maccabees

3 Maccabees

Wisdom

Ψαλμοί

Psalms

Psalms

Ψαλμόσ ΡΝΑʹ

Psalm 151

Psalm 151

Προςευχὴ Μανάςςη Ἰώβ

Prayer of Manasseh

Prayer of Manasseh

Iōb

Job

Παροιμίαι Ἐθθιεζηαζηήσ

Proverbs

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Ecclesiastes

k

Ἆζκα Ἀζκάηων

Song of Songs

Song of Solomon

΢οφία ΢αλoμῶληνσ ΢οφία Ἰεζνῦ ΢ειράχ

Wisdom of Solomon

Wisdom

Wisdom of Jesus the son of Seirach

Sirach or Ecclesiasticus

Prophets

Δώδεκα Ὡζεέ Αʹ Ἀκώο Βʹ

The Twelve

Minor Prophets

I. Osëe

Hosea

II. Ämōs

Amos

Μιχαίασ Γʹ Ἰωήι Γʹ
[41] Ὀβδίνπ Δʹ

III. Michaias

Micah

IV. Ioel

Joel

V. Obdias

Obadiah

Ἰωλᾶο Ϛ'

VI. Ionas

Jonah

Ναοφμ Ζʹ Ἀκβαθνύκ Ηʹ

VII. Naoum

Nahum

VIII. Ambakum

Habakkuk

΢οφονίασ Θʹ Ἀγγαῖνο Ιʹ

IX. Sophonias

Zephaniah

X. Ängaios

Haggai

Ζαχαρίασ ΙΑʹ Ἄγγεινο ΙΒʹ Ἠζαΐασ Ἱεξεκίασ

XI. Zacharias

Zachariah

XII. Messenger

Malachi

Hesaias

Isaiah

Hieremias

Jeremiah

Βαροφχ

Baruch

Baruch

Θρῆλνι

Lamentations

Lamentations

Επιςτολή Ιερεμίου

Epistle of Jeremiah

Letter of Jeremiah

l

Ἰεδεθηήλ

Iezekiêl

Ezekiel

Δανιήλ

Daniêl

Daniel with additions

Appendix

Μακκαβαίων Δ' Παράρτημα

IV Maccabees

4 Maccabees

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ^ Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, for instance. ^ a b c d e Karen Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint ISBN 1-84227-061-3, (Paternoster Press, 2001). - The current standard for Introductory works on the Septuagint. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Jennifer M. Dines, The Septuagint, Michael A. Knibb, Ed., London: T&T Clark, 2004 ^ a b c d e f Ernst Würthwein, The Text of the Old Testament, trans. Errol F. Rhodes, Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1995. ^ Josephus, Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews, 12.2.11-15; Whiston, William; The Complete Works of Josephus; Hendrickson Publishers, (Nashville, Tennessee, 1987); ISBN 0-913573-86-8 ^ Joel Kalvesmaki, The Septuagint ^ Sir Godfrey Driver, Introduction to the Old Testament of the New English Bible (1970) ^ Rick Grant Jones, Various Religious Topics, "Books of the Septuagint," (Accessed 2006.9.5). ^ See Books of the Bible ^ The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, chapter by Sundberg, page 72, adds further detail: "However, it was not until the time of Augustine of Hippo (354-430 AD) that the Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures came to be called by the Latin term septuaginta. [70 rather than 72] In his City of God 18.42, while repeating the story of Aristeas with typical embellishments, Augustine adds the remark, "It is their translation that it has now become traditional to call the Septuagint" ...[Latin omitted]... Augustine thus indicates that this name for the Greek translation of the scriptures was a recent development. But he offers no clue as to which of the possible antecedents led to this development: Exod 24:1-8, Josephus [Antiquities 12.57, 12.86], or an elision. ...this name Septuagint appears to have been a fourth- to fifth-century development." ^ Compare Dines, who is certain only of Symmachus being a truly new version, with Würthwein, who considers only Theodotion to be a revision, and even then possibly of an earlier non-LXX version. ^ Jerome, From Jerome, Letter LXXI (404 AD), NPNF1-01. The Confessions and Letters of St. Augustin, with a Sketch of his Life and Work, Phillip Schaff, Ed. ^ See, Jinbachian, Some Semantically Significant Differences Between the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint, [1]. ^ Jones, Table: Dead Sea Scrolls-Septuagint Alignments Against the Masoretic Text. ^ a b Timothy McLay, The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research ISBN 0-8028-6091-5. — The current standard introduction on the NT & LXX. ^ V.S. Herrell, The History of the Bible, "Qumran: Dead Sea Scrolls." ^ William Priestly, "The Dead Sea Scrolls." — A detailed explanation with scholarly apparatus. ^ L.L. Grabbe, Judaism from Cyrus to Hadrian. I. Persian and Greek Periods. II. Roman Period, London: SCM Press, 1994. ^ Joachim Schaper, Eschatology in the Greek Psalter, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1995. ^ H. Orlinsky, "The Septuagint and its Hebrew Text," in The Cambridge History of Judaism, vol. II, The Hellenistic Age, W. Davies and L. Finkelstein, Eds., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. ^ There is some debate, however, regarding the location of the translations of the non-Pentateuch books. See Dines. One theory, that even the Pentateuch reflects variant "local" forms, is criticized in Emmanuel Tov, The Text Critical Use of The Septuagint in Biblical Research, 2nd edn., Jerusalem: Simor, 1997. ^ Greek-speaking Judaism (see also Hellenistic Judaism), survived, however, on a smaller scale into the medieval period. Cf. Natalio Fernández Marcos, The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Bible, Leiden: Brill, 2000. ^ a b H. B. Swete, An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, revised by R.R. Ottley, 1914; reprint, Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1989. ^ Jerome; Translated by Kevin P. Edgecomb (2007-09-06). "Beginning of the Prologue of Saint Jerome the Presbyter on the Pentateuch". http://www.bombaxo.com/prologues.html. Retrieved 2009-02-04. ^ name=http://www.nccbuscc.org/nab/bible/psalms/psalm40.htm ^ Hoffman, Book Review,, 2004. ^ Paul Joüon, SJ, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, trans. and revised by T. Muraoka, vol. I, Rome: Editrice Pontificio Instituto Biblico, 2000. ^ Joseph Ziegler, "Der griechische Dodekepropheton-Text der Complutenser Polyglotte," Biblica 25:297-310, cited in Würthwein. ^ Rahlfs, A. (Ed.). (1935/1979). Septuaginta. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

m

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

^ IOSCS: Critical Editions of Septuagint/Old Greek Texts ^ German Bible Society ^ Introduction to the Apostolic Bible ^ About the Orthodox Study Bible ^ http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/ioscs/ ^ Priestly ^ "A New Look at the Septuagint" ^ The canon of the original Old Greek LXX is disputed. This table reflects the canon of the Old Testament as used in Orthodoxy currently. ^ Βαςιλειῶν (Basileiōn) is the genitive plural of Βαςιλεῖα (Basileia). ^ That is, supplementary material for Reigns ^ also called Σωβείτ or Σωβίθ in some sources. ^ Obdiou is genitive from "The vision of Obdias," which opens the book.

Diocletian's destruction and Constantine's production of scripture

Introduction: 1. 303 AD the Roman Emperor, Diocletian calls for the destruction of all the scriptures of the Christians. Obviously there must have been a set of books (a canon) so well defined and universally accepted, that even outsiders knew which books the Christians considered as scripture. The edict of Diocletian, therefore shows that long before the first extant "canon lists" came along, a canon already existed. It also forced the Christians to meditate on the subject of which books were most sacred and inspired. So with the solders knocking at the door and the Christian inside, as Everet puts it: "for the most part they knew what books the soldiers were looking for". (Lee Martin McDonald, James A. Sanders, Editors: The Canon Debate; Everett Ferguson, Factors Leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament Canon, p 317, 2002) There must have been a well defined canon at this time. In a most providential twist of events, Roman Emperor Constantine a few years later, enlisted the help of Eusebius, to create 50 copies in codex form, of the entire Bible. Although know one knows for sure what was in this Bible and no definite copies have been located, it proves a definite canon existed in the time period of 275 - 315 AD.

2. 3.

4. 5.

Discussion: 1. Two major attempts to establish conformity in the empire in the early fourth century C.E. probably also affected the scope of the New Testament canon by causing the church to make conscious decisions about what literature it considered sacred. The first of these was an edict of Diocletian on February 23, 303, to promote religious uniformity. This edict, which remained in effect until 313, led to the persecution of the church and called for the burning of its sacred writings. Diocletian also compelled Christians to turn over their sacred books to the authorities to be burned. The Christians tried to salvage as much of their sacred literature as possible by turning over to them less important texts that were not considered sacred. Those who gave in to pressure and handed sacred scripture over to the authorities were called "traitors" (traditores). On the other hand, those who refused and consequently were imprisoned or killed were called confessors and martyrs (homologetai and martyres). Such distinctions presume, of course, that by this time individual congregations had determined which literature was sacred and which was not, what was worth dying for and what was not. Second, and just as compelling, was Constantine's push for religious unity and conformity within the Christian communities, threatening banishment for those who did not conform. This call to unity is the context in which discussions of biblical canons begin to appear, first in the writings of Eusebius and subsequently in other lists, discussions, an church councils. What may well have triggered Eusebius's interest in defining or delimiting'' the scope of the Christian scriptures was Constantine's request that he produce fifty copies of the Christian scriptures for use in the churches in the new capital of the Roman empire Constantinople. These two historical factors provide the social context that led to the closing of the biblical canon. (Lee Martin McDonald, James A. Sanders, Editors: The Canon Debate; Lee Martin McDonald, Identifying Scripture and Canon in the Early Church: The Criteria Question, p 417, 2002) By the time of the Diocletianic persecution in 303 Roman authorities, in their campaign to confiscate Christian property, included the requirement that Christian books be handed in and burned. In the words of Eusebius, "We saw with our very eyes ... the inspired and sacred scriptures committed to the flames in the marketplaces" in response to the imperial letter "ordering the destruction by fire of the scriptures" (Hist. eccl. 8.2.l and 4). The requirement showed that the authorities knew Christians had an identifiable set of holy writings and knew their importance to the Christian communities. Hierocles, governor of Bithynia and the chief promoter of the persecution, knew the Christian Bible, and had already attempted in two books against the Christians "to prove the falsehood of sacred scripture," by which was meant Christian sacred writings, as the reference to Paul and Peter makes clear. Christians themselves thought they had an identifiable

2.

n

3.

set of scriptures, for they immediately experienced a moral dilemma over giving up documents to the authorities, an issue that became the occasion for the Donatist schism. Christians might hide writings, try to pass off apocryphal and heretical texts, or in some cases debate what to hand over and what not to, but for the most part they knew what books the soldiers were looking for. (Lee Martin McDonald, James A. Sanders, Editors: The Canon Debate; Everett Ferguson, Factors Leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament Canon, p 317, 2002) When the situation reversed under Constantine, the Roman government financed the multiplication of copies of scriptures instead of destroying them. Constantine directed Eusebius to have prepared for the churches in Constantinople fifty copies "of the sacred scriptures which you know to be especially necessary for the restoration and use in the instruction of the church." Eusebius says his prompt fulfillment of the request was acknowledged by letter from Constantine (Vit. Const. 4.37). Constantine knew there was such an entity as the Christian scriptures, required for public reading in the new churches being built in Constantinople, and certain books were copied and others left out. Constantine's commission did not require that Christians decide what the contents of scripture were; it was intended to replace those copies of the scriptures destroyed in the persecution. (Lee Martin McDonald, James A. Sanders, Editors: The Canon Debate; Everett Ferguson, Factors Leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament Canon, p 318, 2002) Constantine Wrote Matthew 28:19 Into Your Bible!

What Did Matthew Actually Write, "Baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost," OR "Go ye, and make disciples of all the nations IN MY NAME"? This article is based on a publication which was originally written in 1961 and titled ―A Collection of the Evidence For and Against the Traditional Wording of the Baptismal Phrase in Matthew 28:19‖. The author was a minister, presumably Protestant. He signed his work simply as A. Ploughman. He lived in Birmingham, England. The author had not encountered anything dealing with the authenticity of Matthew 28:19, during his 50 years of Biblical study except from out of print articles, books and encyclopedias. I would have never considered reviewing this information except for the fact that a trusted friend was quite zealous about the importance of the conclusions reached. In this article, only the secular historical quotations have been retained as written from Ploughman‘s research. Questioning the authenticity of Matthew 28:19 is not a matter of determining how easily it can or cannot be explained within the context of established doctrinal views. Rather, it is a matter of discovering the very thoughts of our God, remembering that His truth, and not our traditions, is eternal. The information presented is extremely relevant to our faith. The amount of information supporting the conclusions presented may seem overwhelming, but for the serious seeker of truth, the search is well worth effort. I hope that you will allow the facts contained in this article to stir you into action. If you discover that you have not been baptized into the name of the true God, and have knowingly accepted a substitute, how would God respond? However, it must be remembered that we have no known manuscripts that were written in the first, second or even the third centuries. There is a gap of over three hundred years between when Matthew wrote his epistle and our earliest manuscript copies. (It also took over three hundred years for the Catholic Church to evolve into what the ―early church fathers‖ wanted it to become.) No single early manuscript is free from textual error. Some have unique errors; other manuscripts were copied extensively and have the same errors. Again, our aim is to examine all of the evidence and determine as closely as possible what the original words were. Considering the fact that all of the scriptures from Genesis thru Malachi make no reference to a Trinitarian God, and that from Mark thru Revelation we also find no evidence for a Trinity, we must consider the possibility that all the existing manuscripts may have one or more textual errors in common. According to the Biblical historian Dr. C. R. Gregory: The Greek manuscripts of the text of the New Testament were often altered by the scribes, who put into them the readings which were familiar to them, and which they held to be the right readings. More on these changes will be addressed later. Another writer said: A great step forward is taken when we propose to give manuscripts weight, not according to their age, but according to the age of the text which they contain. By proving how honest a text is rather than strictly how old it is provides us with a text which has content that is truly ancient. When we verify that a text is older than the fourth century, that it was current in the third or better still the second century, we still cannot be sure that it has not been altered. We need to try to verify that the text is pure text. There is reason to believe that the very grossest errors that have ever deformed the text had entered it already in the second century. What we wish to ascertain, however, is not merely an ancient text but an accurate text.

o

Of course, ―the grossest errors,‖ that this writer is referring to are not doctrinal errors, but the errors in the text itself. Not surprisingly tho, some of these textual corruptions occurred simultaneously with the respective doctrinal changes as they were being introduced in the early church. This historic falling away will be addressed later. Just as with the manuscripts, all extant Versions, containing the end of Matthew, also contain the Triune name. But, of course, there is more to be considered than what is present in a document. One must also take into consideration what is absent. Again quoting from the Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics: ―In all extant versions the text is found in the traditional [Trinitarian] form ...though it must be remembered that the best manuscripts, both of the African Old Latin and of the Old Syriac Versions are defective at this point.‖ F.C. Conybeare further elaborated: In the only codices which would be even likely to preserve an older reading, namely the Sinaitic Syriac and the oldest Latin Manuscript, the pages are gone which contained the end of Matthew. So then, though all early Versions contain the traditional Triune name in Matthew 28:19, the earliest of these Versions do not contain the verse at all. And curiously, not due to omission, but due to removal! We can not be certain of the motives why these pages were destroyed, but for the sake of our study we are now compelled to consult the early historical writings Excerpts of Early Catholic Writers Before we make references concerning these early writers, it should be emphatically stated, that if the question under consideration were one of doctrine, the written records of these Catholic writers would be totally irrelevant. Doctrine must be obtained from the pure Word of God alone, and not from Catholics, Jews or other sources. These self proclaimed ―fathers‖ lived in an age of unrestrained heresy. Their testimony is valuable only because they provide an incidental and independent verification of scriptural texts much older than our current complete copies. In the course of my reading I have been able to substantiate these doubts of the authenticity of the text of Matthew 28:19 by adducing patristic [L. pater: "father"] evidence against it, so weighty that in the future the most conservative of divines will shrink from resting on it any dogmatic fabric at all, while the more enlightened will discard it as completely as they have its fellow-text of the „Three Witnesses‟. - F.C. Conybeare in the Hibbert Journal Could this bold statement be true? While not a single manuscript from the first three centuries remains in existence, we do have ―eye witness‖ observations of at least two men who actually had access to manuscripts dating much earlier than our earliest. Others also quoted Matthew 28:19, whose written works have been preserved, dating to much earlier times than our best manuscript copies. We are about to examine who these men were and what the circumstances were. We will attempt to determine if these are reliable quotations of the original scriptures. How did they quote Matthew 28:19? Did their comments imply an existing controversy surrounding the use of the scriptures being quoted? Was a Trinity implied? These are questions that can be answered. In the pages ahead, we will consider evidence from the following men, either via quotations from their writings, or as commented upon thru the writings of their contemporaries: 1) Eusebius of Caesurae, 2) The unknown author of De Rebaptismate, 3) Origen, 4) Clement of Alexandria, 5) Justin Martyr, 6) Macedonius, 7) Eunomius and 8) Aphraates. Our search through their writings is not to establish any doctrine, but to find early witnesses to the verse in question. Eusebius of Caesurae Our first witness will be Eusebius of Caesurae, also known as Eusebius Pamphili. He was born around 270 A.D., and died around 340 A.D. He lived in times of rampant doctrinal change, was a Trinitarian, and in later life assisted in the formation of the Nicene Creed. Regarding our inquiry into Matthew 28:19, Eusebius is our key witness. Therefore, to establish his veracity as a credible witness, let us consider the following quotes: ―Eusebius of Caesurae, to whom we are indebted for the preservation of so many contemporary works of antiquity, many of which would have perished had he not collected and edited them.‖ Robert Roberts, in Good Company, vol. III, pg. 10 Eusebius, the greatest Greek teacher of the Church and most learned theologian of his time...worked untiringly for the acceptance of the pure Word of the New Testament as it came from the Apostles...Eusebius...relies throughout only upon ancient manuscripts, and always openly confesses the truth when he cannot find sufficient testimony. E.K. in the Christadelphian Monatshefte, Aug, 1923 from Mosheim, in an editorial footnote. Eusebius Pamphili, Bishop of Caesurae in Palestine, a man of vast reading and erudition, and one who has acquired immortal fame by his labors in ecclesiastical history, and in other branches of theological learning. Chapter 2, 9...Till about 40 years of age he lived in great intimacy with the martyr Pamphilus, a learned and devout man of Caesurae, and founder of an extensive library there, from which Eusebius derived his vast store of learning. Dr. Wescott, in ―General Survey,‖ page 108

p

Eusebius, to whose zeal we owe most of what is known of the history of the New Testament. Peake Bible Commentary, page 596 The most important writer in the first quarter of the fourth century was Eusebius of Caesurae...Eusebius was a man of little originality or independent judgment. But he was widely read in the Greek Christian literature of the second and third centuries, the bulk of which has now irretrievably perished, and subsequent ages owe a deep debt to his honest, if somewhat confused, and at times not a little prejudiced, erudition. Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature Some hundred works, several of them very lengthy, are either directly cited or referred to as having been read by Eusebius. In many instances he would read an entire treatise for the sake of one or two historical notices, and must have searched many others without finding anything to serve his purpose. Under the head the most vital question is the sincerity of Eusebius. Did he tamper with the materials or not? The sarcasm of Gibbon (Decline and Fall, c. xvi) is well known...The passages to which Gibbon refers do not bear out his imputation...Eusebius contents himself with condemning these sins...in general terms, without entering into details...but it leaves no imputation on his honesty. Mosheim, again in an editorial note. Eusebius was an impartial historian, and had access to the best helps for composing a correct history which his age afforded. Mosheim Of the patristic witnesses to the text of the New Testament as it stood in the Greek Manuscripts from about 300-340 A.D., none is so important as Eusebius of Caesurae, for he lived in the greatest Christian Library of that age, that namely which Origen and Pamphilus had collected. It is no exaggeration to say from this single collection of manuscripts at Caesurae derives the larger part of the surviving ante-Nicene literature. In his Library, Eusebius must have habitually handled codices of the gospels older by two hundred years than the earliest of the great uncials that we have now in our libraries. F.C. Conybeare, in the Hibbert Journal, October 1902. Considering the honesty, ability and opportunity of Eusebius as a witness to the ―New Testament‖ text, let us now move on to the his evidence concerning Matthew 28. The Evidence of Eusebius According to Ludwig Knupfer, the editor of the Christadelphian Monatshefte, Eusebius, among his many other writings compiled a file of corrupted variations of the Holy Scriptures, and: …the most serious of all the falsifications denounced by him, is without doubt the traditional reading of Matthew 28:19. His source material has been lost, as he later wrote: …through events of war I have lost all of my files and other materials connected with the magazine. But various authorities mention a work entitled Discrepancies in the Gospels, and another work entitled The Concluding Sections of the Gospels. According to Conybeare: Eusebius cites this text (Matt. 28:19) again and again in works written between 300 and 336, namely in his long commentaries on the Psalms, on Isaiah, his Demonstratio Evangelica, his Theophany ...in his famous history of the Church, and in his panegyric of the emperor Constantine. I have, after a moderate search in these works of Eusebius, found eighteen citations of Matthew 28:19, and always in the following form: „Go ye and make disciples of all the nations in My name, teaching them to observe all things, whatsoever I commanded you.‟ Ploughman‘s research uncovered all of these quotations except for one, which is in a catena published by Mai in a German magazine, the Zeitschrift fur die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft, edited by Dr. Erwin Preuschen in Darmstadt in 1901. Eusebius was not content merely to cite the verse in this form, but he more than once commented on it in such a way as to show how much he confirmed the wording “in my name”. Thus, in his Demonstratio Evangelica he wrote the following: For he did not enjoin them “to make disciples of all the nations” simply and without qualification, but with the essential addition “in his name”. For so great was the virtue attaching to his appellation that the Apostle says, "God bestowed on him the name above every name, that in the name of Jesus every knee shall bow of things in heaven and on earth and under the earth." It was right therefore that he should emphasize the virtue of the power residing in his name but hidden from the many, and therefore say to his Apostles, "Go ye, and make disciples of all the nations in my name.‟ (col. 240, p. 136)

q

Conybeare proceeded, in Hibbert Journal, 1902: It is evident that this was the text found by Eusebius in the very ancient codices collected fifty to a hundred and fifty years before his birth by his great predecessors. Of any other form of text he had never heard and knew nothing until he had visited Constantinople and attended the Council of Nice. Then in two controversial works written in his extreme old age, and entitled, the one „Against Marcellus of Ancyra,‟ and the other „About the Theology of the Church,‟ he used the common reading. One other writing of his also contains it, namely a letter written after the Council of Nice was over, to his seer of Caesurae. In his Textual Criticism of the New Testament Conybeare wrote: It is clear therefore, that of the manuscripts which Eusebius inherited from his predecessor, Pamphilus, at Caesurae in Palestine, some at least preserved the original reading, in which there was no mention either of baptism or of Father, Son and Holy Ghost. It has been conjectured by Dr. David-son, Dr. Martineau, by the Dean of Westminster, and by Prof. Harnack (to mention but a few names of the many) that here the received text could not contain the very words of Jesus this long before anyone except Dr. Burgon, who kept the discovery to himself, had noticed the Eusebian form of the reading. Naturally an objection was raised by Dr. Chase, Bishop of Ely, who argued that Eusebius indeed found the traditional text in his manuscripts, but substituted the briefer wording in his works for fear of vulgarizing the ―sacred‖ Trinitarian wording. Interestingly, a modern Bishop revived the very argument used 150 years earlier, in support of the forged text of 1 John 5:7-8: For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. And there are three that bear witness in earth, the spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one. According to Porson (in a preface to his Letters): Bengel...allowed that the words (The Three Witnesses) were in no genuine manuscripts...Surely then, the verse is spurious! No! This learned man finds a way of escape. „The passage was of so sublime and mysterious a nature that the secret discipline of the Church withdrew it from the public books, till it was gradually lost.‟ Under what a lack of evidence must a critic labor who resorts to such an argument!? Conybeare continued, refuting the argument of the Bishop of Ely: It is sufficient answer to point out that Eusebius‟ argument, when he cites the text, involves the text „in my name.‟ For, he asks, „in whose name?‟ and answers that it was the name spoken of by Paul in his Epistle to the Philippians 2:10. Finally, the Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics states: The facts are, in summary, that Eusebius quotes Matthew 28:19 twenty-one times, either omitting everything between „nations‟ and „teaching,‟ or in the form „make disciples of all the nations in my name,‟ the latter form being the more frequent. Having considered the evidence of Eusebius, let us also consider some other early writers. Other Early Writings The anonymous author of De Rebaptismate in the third century so understood them, and dwells at length on „the power of the name of Jesus invoked upon a man by Baptism‟. (The Author of De Rebaptismate, from Smith‘s Dictionary of the Bible, Vol. I, page 352.) In Origen‟s works, as preserved in the Greek, the first part of the verse is cited three times, but his citation always stops short at the words „the nations‟; and that in itself suggests that his text has been censored, and the words which followed, „in my name‟, struck out. – Conybeare In the pages of Clement of Alexandria a text somewhat similar to Matthew 28:19 is once cited, but from a Gnostic heretic named Theodotus, and not as from the canonical text, but as follows: „And to the Apostles he gives the command: Going around preach ye and baptize those who believe in the name of the Father and Son and Holy Spirit.‟" - Excerta cap. 76, ed. Sylb. page 287, quote from Conybeare.

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Justin [Martyr]...quotes a saying of Christ...as a proof of the necessity or regeneration, but falls back upon the use of Isaiah and apostolic tradition to justify the practice of baptism and the use of the triune formula. This certainly suggests that Justin did not know the traditional text of Matthew 28:19. - Enc. of Religion and Ethics In Justin Martyr, who wrote between A.D. 130 and 140, there is a passage which has been regarded as a citation or echo of Matthew 28:19 by various scholars, e.g. Resch in his Ausser canonische Parallelstellen, who sees in it an abridgement of the ordinary text. The passage is in Justin‟s dialogue with Trypho 39, p. 258: „God hath not afflicted nor inflicts the judgment, as knowing of some that still even today are being made disciples in the name of his Christ, and are abandoning the path of error, who also do receive gifts each as they be worthy, being illuminated by the name of this Christ.‟ "The objection hitherto to these words being recognized as a citation our of text was that they ignored the formula „baptizing them in the name of the Father and Son and Holy Spirit.‟ But the discovery of the Eusebian form of text removes the difficulty: and Justin is seen to have had the same text as early as the year 140, which Eusebius regularly found in his manuscripts from 300 to 340. - Conybeare (Hibbert Journal) We may infer that the text was not quite fixed when Tertullian was writing, early in the third century. In the middle of that century Cyprian could insist on the use of the triple formula as essential in the baptism even of the orthodox. The pope Stephen answered him that the baptisms even of the heretics were valid, if the name of Jesus alone was invoked. (This decision did not prevent the popes of the seventh century from excommunicating the entire Celtic Church for its remaining faithful to the old use of invoking in Jesus name). In the last half of the fourth century, the text „in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost‟ was used as a battle cry by the orthodox against the adherents of Macedonius, who were called „pneumato-machi‟ or „fighters against the Holy Spirit‟, because they declined to include the Spirit in a Trinity of persons as co-equal, consubstantial and co-eternal with the Father and Son. They also stoutly denied that any text in the New Testament authorized such a coordination of the Spirit with the Father and Son. Whence we infer that their texts agreed with that of Eusebius. - Conybeare (Hibbert Journal) Exceptions are found which perhaps point to an old practice dying out. Cyprian (Ep. 73) and the „Apostolic Canons‟ (no. 50) combat the shorter formula, thereby attesting to its use in certain quarters. The ordinance of the Apostolic Canon therefore runs: „If any bishop or presbyter fulfill not three baptisms of one initiation, but one baptism which is given (as) into the death of the Lord, let him be deposed.‟ "This was the formula of the followers of Eunomius (Socr. 5:24), „for they baptized not into the Trinity, but into the death of Christ.‟ They accordingly used single immersion only. - Encyclopedia Biblia (Article on ―Baptism‖) There is one other witness whose testimony we must consider. He is Aphraates...who wrote between 337 and 345. He cites our text in a formal manner, as follows: „Make disciples of all the nations, and they shall believe in me‟. The last words appear to be a gloss on the Eusebian reading „in my name‟. But in any case, they preclude the textus receptus with its injunction to baptize in the triune name. Were the writing of Aphraates an isolated fact, we might regard it as a loose citation, but in the presence of the Eusebian and Justinian texts this is impossible. – Conybeare How the Manuscripts Were Changed The following quotations demonstrate how freely the scribes altered the manuscripts of the ―New Testament‖, in stark contrast to the scribes of the ―Old Testament‖ scriptures who copied the holy writings with reverence and strict accuracy. These quotations also show the early heretical beginning of Trine immersion at a time when the doctrine of the Trinity was being formulated, and how the ―New Testament‖ writings were changed to conform to the syncretized practice. In the case just examined (Matt. 28:19), it is to be noticed that not a single manuscript or ancient version has preserved to us the true reading. But that is not surprising, for as Dr. C.R. Gregory, one of the greatest of our textual critics, reminds us: „The Greek Manuscripts of the text of the New Testament were often altered by scribes, who put into them the readings which were familiar to them, and which they held to be the right readings.‟ (Canon and Text of the N.T. 1907, pg. 424). “These facts speak for themselves. Our Greek texts, not only of the Gospels, but of the Epistles as well, have been revised and interpolated by orthodox copyists. We can trace their perversions of the text in a few cases, with the aid of patristic citations and ancient versions. But there must remain many passages which have been so corrected, but where we cannot today expose the fraud. It was necessary to emphasize this point, because Dr. Wescott and Hort used to aver that there is no evidence of merely doctrinal changed having been made in the text of the New Testament. This is just the opposite of the truth, and such distinguished scholars as Alfred Loisy, J. Wellhausen, Eberhard Nestle, Adolf Harnack, to mention only four names, do not scruple to recognize the fact.” While this is perfectly true, nevertheless, “there are a number of reasons why we can feel confident about the general reliability of our translations.” - Peter Watkins, in an excellent article ‗Bridging the Gap‘ in The Christadelphian, January, 1962, pp. 4-8. Codex B. (Vaticanus) would be the best of all existing manuscripts...if it were completely preserved, less damaged, (less) corrected, more easily legible, and not altered by a later hand in more than two thousand places. Eusebius therefore, is not without ground for accusing the adherents of Athanasius and of the newly arisen doctrine of the Trinity of falsifying the Bible more than once. - Fraternal Visitor 1924, page 148, translation from Christadelphian Monatshefte.

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We certainly know of a greater number of interpolations and corruptions brought into the Scriptures...by the Athanasians, and relating to the Doctrine of the Trinity, than in any other case whatsoever. While we have not, that I know of, any such interpolation or corruption, made in any one of them by either the Eusebians or Arians. Whiston - in Second Letter to the Bishop of London, 1719, p. 15. While trine immersion was thus an all but universal practice, Eunomius (circa 360) appears to have been the first to introduce (again) simple immersion „unto the death of Christ.‟ This practice was condemned on pain of degradation, by the Canon Apostolic 46 (al 50). But it comes before us again about a century later in Spain; but then, curiously enough, we find it regarded as a badge of orthodoxy in opposition to the practice of the Arians. These last kept to the use of trine immersion, but in such a way as to set forth their own doctrine of a gradation in the three Persons. Smith‘s Dictionary of Christian Antiquities (Article on Baptism) In the „Two Ways‟ of the Didache, the principal duties of the candidates for baptism and the method of administering it by triple immersion or infusion on the head are outlined. This triple immersion is also attested to by Tertullian (Adverses Prax 26)...The most elaborate form of the rite in modern Western usage is in the Roman Catholic Church. Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church - pp. 125-126 The threefold immersion is unquestionably very ancient in the Church...Its object, of course, to honor the three Persons of the Holy Trinity in whose name it is conferred. Catholic Encyclopedia - page 262 If it be thought, as many critics think, that no manuscript represents more than comparatively late recensions of the text, it is necessary to set against the mass of manuscript evidence the influence of baptismal practice. It seems easier to believe that the traditional text was brought about by this influence working on the „Eusebian‟ text, than that the latter arose out of the former in spite of it. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics - Article on ―Baptism‖ The exclusive survival (of the traditional text of Matt. 28:19) in all manuscripts, both Greek and Latin, need not cause surprise...But in any case, the conversion of Eusebius to the longer text after the council of Nice indicates that it was at that time being introduced as a Shibboleth of orthodoxy into all codices...The question of the inclusion of the Holy Spirit on equal terms in the Trinity had been threshed out, and a text so invaluable to the dominant party could not but make its way into every codex, irrespective of its textual affinities. Conybeare - In the Hibbert Journal Athanasius...met Flavian, the author of the Doxology, which has since been universal in Christendom: „Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, etc.‟ This was composed in opposition to the Arian Doxology: „Glory to the Father, by the Son, in the Holy Spirit‟. Robert Roberts, in ―Good Company‖ (Vol. iii, page 49) Whiston, in Second Letter Concerning the Primitive Doxologies, 1719, page 17, wrote: The Eusebians...sometimes named the very time when, the place where, and the person by whom they (the forms of doxology) were first introduced...Thus Philoflorgius, a writer of that very age, assures us in „Photius‟ Extracts‟ that in A.D. 348 or thereabouts, Flavianus, Patriarch of Antioch, got a multitude of monks together, and did there first use this public doxology, „Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit‟. And regarding the alteration of scripture based on liturgical use, Hammond, in ―Textual Criticism Applied to the N.T.‖ (1890) page 23 wrote: There are two or three insertions in the New Testament which have been supposed to have their origin in ecclesiastical usage. The words in question, being familiarly known in a particular connection, were perhaps noted in the margin of some copy, and thence became incorporated by the next transcriber; or a transcriber‟s own familiarity with the words may have led to his inserting them. This is the source to which Dr. Tregelles assigns the insertion of the doxology at the close of the Lord‟s Prayer in Matthew 6, which is lacking in most of the best authorities. Perhaps also Acts 8:37, containing the baptismal profession of faith, which is entirely lacking in the best authorities, found its way into the Latin text in this manner. Considering the evidence of the manuscripts, the versions and now the early writings, you should by now have come to conclusion that in the early centuries some copies of Matthew did not contain the modern Triune wording. Regardless of the opinions or positions taken by our commentators, we must at the very least admit that fact. In legal practice where copies of an original lost document vary, the ―Internal Evidence‖ is used to resolve the discrepancy. That is, a comparison of the undisputed text with text in question, in order to determine which of the variant wordings is more likely to be the original. With both variants in mind, we will now turn to the scriptures themselves for our internal evidence. Internal Evidence

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"Prove all things; hold fast that which is good." (1 Thessalonians 5:21) In this verse, the Greek word translated as ―prove‖ is dokimazo, and it means, “to test, examine, prove, scrutinize (to see whether a thing is genuine or not), to recognize as genuine after examination, to approve, deem worthy.” In our efforts to determine which reading of Matthew 28:19 is original, we will submit both renderings to ten ―tests‖. In doing so, we will be able to recognize the genuine, and expose the spurious. 1. The Test of Context When examining the context, we find that today‘s Trinitarian wording lacks logical syntax, that is, the true understanding of the verse is obscured by a failure of the varying concepts to harmonize. If however, we read as follows, the whole context fits together and the progression of the instructions is comprehensible: All power is given unto me...go therefore...make disciples in my name, teaching them...whatsoever I have commanded ...I am with you... (Matthew 28:18-20) 2. The Test of Frequency Is the phrase ―in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit‖ used elsewhere in the scripture? Not once. Did Jesus use the phrase “in my name” on other occasions? Yes, 17 times to be exact, examples are found in Matt. 18:20; Mark 9:37,39 and 41; Mark 16:17; John 14:14 and 26; John 15:16 and 16:23. 3. The Test of Doctrine Is any doctrine or concept of scripture based on an understanding of a threefold name, or of baptism in the threefold name? None whatsoever. Is any statement in scripture based on the fact of baptism in the name of Jesus? Yes! This is clarified in 1 Corinthians 1:13: “Is Christ divided? Was Paul crucified for you? Or were ye baptized in the name of Paul?” These words, when carefully analyzed, suggest that believers should to be baptized in the name of the One who was crucified for them. The Father, in His unfathomable love, gave us His only Son to die in our stead, He being later raised to incorruptibility by the Spirit of God. But it is the Lord Jesus Himself who was crucified, and therefore in His name believers must be baptized in water. According to Dr. Thomas, in Revealed Mystery Article XLIV: There is but one way for a believer of „the things concerning the Kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ‟ to put Him on, or to be invested with His name, and that is, by immersion into His name. Baptism is for this specific purpose." "As for it‟s significance, baptism is linked inseparably with the death of Christ. It is the means of the believer‟s identification with the Lord‟s death. - God‘s Way, pg. 190. The Father did not die, nor the Holy Spirit. As the scripture says, “buried with Him (Jesus) in baptism,” not with the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. (Romans 6:3-5) R. Roberts used this explanation in ―The Nature of Baptism‖, page 13): According to trine immersion, it is not sufficient to be baptized into the Son. Thus Christ is displaced from His position as the connecting link, the door of entrance, the „new and living way.‟ And thus there are three names under heaven whereby we must be saved, in opposition to the apostolic declaration, that „there is none other name (than the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth) under heaven given among men whereby we must be saved.‟ (Acts 4:12). This, of course, is the same reasoning offered by Paul. Were ye baptized in the name of Paul? Or in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, or in any other name that replaces Christ from His position as the sacrificial Lamb and the only name given to us for salvation? Based on the above understanding alone, we can ascertain the genuine text of Matthew 28:19 confirming the use of the phrase, “in my name.” 4. The Test of Analogy Does any other scripture make reference to baptism in the Triune name? No. Does any other scripture reference baptism in the name of Jesus? Yes! The Father baptized the disciples with the gift of the Holy Spirit, a promise that came according to Jesus “in His name.” (John 14:26) This is because Jesus is the ―common denominator‖ [Literally: Name] in both water baptism and baptism of the Holy Spirit, as made apparent by the following scriptures:

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John 16:7 Nevertheless I tell you the truth; it is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. John 14:26 But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you. (See also John 7:39). Acts 8:12 But when they believed Philip preaching the things concerning the kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women. Notice that they were baptized as a result of the preaching of the name of Jesus Christ, not the titles ―Father, Son and Holy Ghost.‖ By analogy, we should therefore be baptized in Jesus‘ name, because the invoking of His Name is the catalyst of understanding that prepares us for the baptism of the Spirit, which is also given in His name. (Acts 2:38-39, 19:1-5, John 3:3-5) 5. The Test of Consequence When we are baptized, do we ―put on‖ the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost? No. Do we put on the name of Jesus? Yes. When we are baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, according to all baptismal accounts recorded in scripture, we are quite literally being baptized ―into‖ the name of Jesus Christ. Galatians 3:27 For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ. No mention is made in scripture of any baptism being related to the titles of Father, Son and Holy Ghost. Every actual account mentions a clear connection with the person of Christ, and His atoning sacrifice. 6. The Test of Practice Did the disciples, as they were implementing the ―Great Commission‖ ever once baptize into the Trinity? Never! Did they baptize in the name of Jesus? Always! (Acts 2:38; 8:16; 10:48 (inferred); 19:5, etc.) The argument has been made when defending Triune immersion; ―I would rather obey Jesus, than to imitate the Apostles.‖ This kind of reasoning though, places the Apostles in rebellion, and makes all Apostolic baptisms contrary to the word of God. If all of God‘s Word was inspired, and it was, then we should not try to pit one verse against another, but rather seek to reconcile all of God‘s Word in proper context, and rightly apply it to our lives. It is easier to believe that the disciples followed the final instructions of Christ, than to believe that they immediately disobeyed His command. 7. The Test of Significance What significance is mentioned in scripture for baptizing believers in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost? None. What significance is conveyed toward being baptized in the name of Jesus? First, scripture teaches that baptism in the name of Jesus is an act of repentance leading to the forgiveness of sins (Acts 2:38). Second, baptism in His name alone is associated with the promise of God‘s Holy Spirit (Acts 2:38, 19:1-5). Third, baptism in the name of Jesus is compared to our personal willingness to be living sacrifices or even die with Christ. (Romans 6:1-4 and Colossians 2:12). Fourth, being baptized into Christ is how we ‗put on‘ Christ (Galatians 3:27). Fifth, baptism in His name is called the ―circumcision of Christ,‖ and reflects our ―putting off‖ of the man of sin, therefore becoming a ―new creature in Christ Jesus.‖ (Colossians 2:11-12, 2 Corinthians 5:17). Baptism in the name of Jesus expresses faith in the physical life of Jesus, the crucifixion of the Son of God for our sins, and the remission of sins through His name. Trinitarian baptism can only express faith in Catholic theology itself. 8. The Test of Parallel Accounts Matthew 28 is not the sole record in the gospels of the ―Great Commission‖ of the Church. Luke also recorded this event in great detail. In Luke 24:46-47, he wrote of Jesus speaking in the third person: “And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in His name among all nations.” This passage alone, in contradiction to the falsified text, establishes the correct wording of Matthew 28:19, where Jesus spoke in the first person, “in my name.” Further, the Gospel of Mark also records another version of the ―Great Commission,‖ using some of the same patterns of speech: “Go ye...all the world...preach the gospel...every creature ...baptized...in my name...” (Mark 16:15-18) Of course, it is not baptism that ―in my name‖ refers to here, but rather the works that the disciples would do. Yet compared to Matthew, the similarity is striking, for neither is baptism explicitly mentioned there, but that disciples should be made, “in my name.” 9. The Test of Complimentary Citation While there is no text that offers a complimentary citation of Trinitarian baptism, there is a striking resemblance between the actual wording of Matthew 28:18-20 and Romans 1:4-5. Matthew contains the Commission of Christ to His Apostles, while the Romans account is Paul‘s acceptance of his own commission as an apostle. Consider the following similarities:

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Matthew 28:18-20........................................Romans 1:4-5 “all power is given unto Me”........................“the Son of God with power” ―Go ye‖ ....................................................... “received...apostleship” “teaching them to observe”...........................“for obedience to the faith” “all nations”..................................................“all nations” “in My name”................................................“for His name” 10. The Test of Principle It is written: "whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus...‖ (Colossians 3:17). In this principle laid down by Paul, the implication is clear. The word “whatsoever” would of certain necessity include baptism, which is a command involving both word and deed. The traditional wording of Matthew, containing the Trinitarian wording, is clearly not in accordance with the above principle. The shorter wording, without the falsified insertion, follows this principle. This establishes which of the two wordings is the contradictory one. God‘s Word does not contradict itself; rather it compliments and completes itself. Paul not only expressed this principle, but he applied it specifically to the topic of baptism. In Acts 19:1-6 there is an account concerning the disciples of John who had been baptized under his ministry. Like baptism in Jesus‘ name, John‘s baptism was one of repentance for the remission of sins (Mark 1:4, Acts 2:38). John message, which accompanied his baptism, was that One would come after him, who would “take away the sins of the world” and “baptize with the Holy Spirit.” Paul introduced these disciples to that One, and applied the above principle re-baptized them. “When they heard this, they were baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. And when Paul laid his hands upon them, the Holy Spirit came upon them…” And so, applying the test of principle to our two readings in Matthew 28:19, we find very strong support for the phrase “in My name.” Other Sources Sufficient evidence has been produced to enable the reader to decide whether or not the Trinitarian wording in Matthew 28:19 is genuine. The following quotations are presented by way of interest, and are not used in the arena of textual criticism thus far employed. The cumulative evidence of these three lines of criticism (Textual Criticism, Literary Criticism and Historical Criticism) is thus distinctly against the view that Matt. 28:19 (in the traditional form) represents the exact words of Christ. - Hastings Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Article: Baptism: Early Christian. The command to baptize into the threefold name is a late doctrinal expansion. Instead of the words baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost‟ we should probably read simply, „into my name‟. Dr. Peake Bible Commentary, page 723 There is the “triune” baptismal formula, which may prove a very broken reed when thoroughly investigated, but...we leave it for separate treatment. The thoughtful may well ponder, meantime, why one cannot find one single instance, in Acts or Epistles, of the words ever being used at any of the main baptisms recorded, notwithstanding Christ‟s (seemingly) explicit command at the end of Matthew‟s Gospel. F. Whiteley in The Testimony (Oct. 1959, pg. 351. ―Back to Babylon‖) The command to baptize in Matt. 28:19 is thought to show the influence of a developed doctrine of God verging on Trinitarianism. Early baptism was in the name of Christ. The association of this Trinitarian conception with baptism suggests that baptism itself was felt to be an experience with a Trinitarian reference. Williams R.R. - Theological Workbook of the Bible, page 29 Doubtless the more comprehensive form in which baptism is now everywhere administered in the threefold name...soon superseded the simpler form of that in the name of the Lord Jesus only. Dean Stanley - ―Christian Institutions‖ The striking contrast and the illogical internal incoherence of the passage...lead to a presumption of an intentional corruption in the interests of the Trinity. In ancient Christian times a tendency of certain parties to corrupt the text of the New Testament was certainly often imputed. This increases our doubt almost to a decisive certainty concerning the genuineness of the passage. E.K. in the Fraternal Visitor - Article: ―The Question of the Trinity and Matt. 28:19.‖ 1924, pg. 147-151, from Christadelphian Monatshefte. In his Literal Translation of the Bible, Dr. Robert Young placed the Trinitarian ―names‖ of Matthew 28:19 in parentheses, thus indicating the words to be of doubtful authenticity.

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The very account which tells us that at last, after His resurrection, He commissioned His disciples to go and baptize among all nations, betrays itself by speaking in the Trinitarian language of the next century, and compels us to see in it the ecclesiastical editor, and not the evangelist, much less the Founder Himself. The Trinitarian formula (Matt. 28:19) was a late addition by some reverent Christian mind. James Martineau - Black‘s Bible Dictionary, article ―Seat of Authority‖, The obvious explanation of the silence of the New Testament on the triune name, and the use of another formula in Acts and Paul, is that this other formula was the earlier, and that the triune formula is a later addition. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Professor Harnack dismissed the text almost contemptuously as being “no word of the Lord‟.” Professor Harnack – History of Dogma (German Edition) Clerical conscience much troubled (see Comp. Bible App. 185) that the apostles and epistles never once employ the triune name of Matt. 28:19. Even Trinitarians, knowing the idea of the Trinity was being resisted by the Church in the fourth century, admits (e.g. Peake) „the command to baptize with the threefold name is a late doctrinal expansion‟, but still prior to our oldest yet known manuscripts (Fourth Century). It‟s sole counterpart, 1 John 5:7 is a proven interpolation. Eusebius (A.D. 264-340) denounces the triune form as spurious, Matthew‟s actual writing having been baptizing them „in my name‟. F. Whiteley in The Testimony footnotes to Article: Baptism, 1958. Should we correct the text of Matthew 28:19? We could not find a more serious divinely appointed symbolism in the entire Bible. The symbolic value of baptism in Matthew 28:19 could not be of less concern to God than that of the Ark of the Covenant was in ancient Israel. Uzzah died when he touched it, and few would conclude that his motives were anything but commendable! Every symbolic action required by God is associated with actual cause and effect. Consider the following cause-and-effect examples. When Joshua pointed his spear there was victory (Joshua 8:18) Only three victories were given to Joash when he struck the ground only three times (2 Kings 13:19-25) The Passover Lamb had to be without blemish (even as was Christ), if a household was to be protected from the Death Angel (Exodus 12:5). None of God‘s rituals are without true meaning and consequences. When God speaks, it is done! Christ called Lazarus, and Lazarus arose! In matters of ritual, such as Baptism and the Passover, we are dealing with God‘s rituals, not man‘s. All man-made rituals, no matter how well intentioned, when they deviate from the Word of God, are nothing more than unprofitable traditions that “making the Word of God of no effect” (Mark 7:13). Obedience to God‘s commands, however, will always ―cause‖ a desirable ―effect‖. In the matter of establishing the original text of Matthew 28:19, it is indeed important to determine what is genuine, and what is spurious, in order to properly obey God's command. After all, that is the essence of our introductory text from Deuteronomy 4:2, “You shall not add...nor take from...that you may keep the commandments.” When we are obedient to the true command of our Lord, we can expect an eternal effect. Believers were taught to anoint the sick “with oil in the name of the Lord.” (James 5:14) The result would be “that you may be healed”. When two or three gather together ―in His name”, the result is that He is there in the midst of them. As our evidence reveals, Jesus commanded us to go and make disciples ―in His name”. As a result, He would be with them “always, even to the end of the age.” Anything we do “in His name” directly involves Him. It is no wonder that Paul so clearly charged those believers in Colosse: ―Whatever you do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by Him!‖ Addendum 1. The Light is Dawning In 1960, The British and Foreign Bible Society published a Greek Testament, and the alternative rendering for Matthew 28:19 was phrased ―en to onomati mou‖ (―in my name‖). Eusebius was cited as the authority. The Jerusalem Bible, of 1966, a Roman Catholic production, has this footnote for Matthew 28:19: It may be that this formula...is a reflection of the liturgical usage established later in the primitive community. It will be remembered that Acts speaks of baptizing in the name of Jesus. 2. But Matthew 28:19 and Luke 24:47 Say Nothing of Baptism!

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This is true. They refer only of “making disciples of all nations” and “repentance and remission of sins.” However, once we have established that the original text of Matthew 28:19 simply says ―in my name,‖ we have essentially eliminated all support for baptizing ―in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost!‖ Because of this far reaching implication, we were forced to examine the internal evidence regarding baptism, in order to find any other possible support for the traditional reading, because the Trinitarian doctrinal concept that was added to Matthew 28:19 is connected with baptism. Though baptism is not specifically mentioned in Matthew 28:19 or Luke 24:47, it is inferred by the following two points: 1. In Matthew, the command is to ―make disciples in my name.‖ To ―make a disciple‖ of necessity includes baptism in the conversion process (Mark 16:15-16, John 3:3-5), and the entire process is under the umbrella of the specification to do so ―in His name.‖ 2. In Luke, “repentance and remission of sins” would be preached ―in His name.‖ By the testimony of other scriptures (Luke 3:3, Acts 2:38), it is clear that remission of sins comes through baptism, preceded by repentance. Both of these are to be preached ―in His name.‖ 3. The Evidence of Eusebius Jerome was born A.D. 331 and died in 420. He wrote many exegetical and controversial treatises and letters, as well as the renowned Latin Vulgate translation of the Scriptures.) He made an interesting statement which is is as follows (from the Catalogue of Ecclesiastical Writers): Matthew, who is also Levi...composed a gospel...in the Hebrew language and characters...Furthermore, the Hebrew itself is preserved to this day in the library at Caesurae which the martyr Pamphilus so diligently collected. Now Eusebius of Caesurae (260-340 A.D.) inherited from that Pamphilus (who died in A.D. 310) that famous Library, a library that was commenced by Origen (185-254 A.D.). The wording of that statement by Jerome apparently meant that the original Manuscript of Matthew was still to be seen in the Library at Caesurae. It could have meant that an early copy of Matthew‘s Hebrew writing was there, but the phraseology of Jerome appeared to indicate that it was the actual Manuscript written by Matthew himself. 4. The Mental Reservations of Eusebius On page 14, of the above reference, mention is made of the fact that after the Council of Nicaea Eusebius three times used the triune name-phrase in writing. The following three extracts shed light on this strange affair: 1. At the Council of Nicaea (A.D. 325) Eusebius took a leading part...He occupied the first seat to the emperor‟s right, and delivered the opening address to Constantine when he took his seat in the council chamber...Eusebius himself has left us an account of his doings with regard to the main object of the council in a letter of explanation to his church at Caesurae...This letter...is written to the Caesareans to explain that he would resist to the last any vital change in the traditional creed of his church, but had subscribed to these alterations, when assured of their innocence, to avoid appearing contentious. Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature; Eusebius 2. Our concern here is only with Nicaea as it affected Eusebius...his own account of the matter is transmitted to us...in the letter he addressed to his diocese an explanation of his actions at the Council, for with some misgiving he had signed the document bearing the revised text of the creed he had presented...But being satisfied that the creed did not imply the opposite Sabellian pitfall ...he signed the document. Wallace Hadrill, in ‗Eusebius of Caesurae,‘ (1960) 3. The Nicene Council followed, in the summer of A.D. 325. Eusebius, of course, attended and was profoundly impressed by the sight of that majestic gathering...He occupied a distinguished position in the Council; he was its spokesman in welcoming the Emperor...On the next day, as if yielding to those representations, and moved by the express opinion of Constantine, he signed the Creed, and even accepted the anathematism appended to it; but did so, as we gather from his own statement, by dint of evasive glosses which he certainly could not have announced at that time. While then he verbally capitulated in the doctrinal decisions of the Nicene Council...he did so reluctantly, under pressure, and in senses of his own...He knew that he would be thought to have compromised his convictions, and therefore wrote his account of the transaction to the people of his diocese, and, as Athanasius expresses it „excluded himself in his own way‟. William Bright in his Preface to Burton‘s „Text of Eusebius Ecclesiastical History‟ 5. Second Century Mutilations of the Sacred Text In the book, mention is made of the fact that textual critics have been able to reproduce the Sacred Text substantially correct as it existed in the second or third century. As was pointed out on page 7, ―there is every reason to believe that the grossest errors that have ever deformed the text had entered in already in the second century...If our touchstone only reveals to us texts that are ancient, we cannot hope to obtain for our result anything but an ancient text. What we wish however, is not merely an ancient, but the true text.‖ The following three excerpts are interesting and illustrate that pronouncement:

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1. The Introduction contains the following: "It may be accepted with confidence that we have at command the New Testament substantially as the writings contained in it would be read within a century of their composition. The Authentic New Testament was translated by Dr. Hugh J. Schonfield, published in 1962. It is in that century, as has been pointed out, that the ―very grossest textual errors‖ deformed the Sacred Text. 2. The S.P.E.C. commenting on Matthew 28:19 stated: One would expect this name to be that of Jesus and it is surprising to find the text continuing with „the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost,‟ which are no names at all. The suspicion that this is not what Matthew originally wrote naturally arises. In „Father, Son and Holy Ghost‟ we have the Trinitarian formula...which was associated with Christian Baptism in the second century, as evidenced in the Didache, chapter seven. The S.P.C.K. published in 1964, Volume One, of the Clarified New Testament. 3. F.C. Kenyon, in The Text of the Greek Bible, pages 241-242 said: At the first each book had its single original text, which it is now the object of criticism to recover, but in the first two centuries this original Greek text disappeared under a mass of variants, created by errors, by conscious alterations, and by attempts to remedy the uncertainties thus created." 6. The Source of the Error The earliest reference to the Trinitarian doctrinal insertion is found in the Didache. The Didache is a collection of fragments of writings from five or more documents. They were originally written, it is thought, between A.D. 80 and 160. Although we now have only 99 verses, those verses contain the seeds of many false teachings that developed into the Papal Superstitions. The seeds of Indulgences, the Mass, the Confessional, the substitution of sprinkling for immersion and other gross errors are to be found in that disreputable pseudo-Christian document. (Refs: IV1, IX2-4, X2-6, XIII3, XIV1 and IV6.) In the Didache, among all the above mentioned apostate beliefs, is found the Trinitarian phrase that later wormed its way into the text of Matthew 28:19, displacing the authentic words of Christ. Here, then, is the source of the erroneous written teaching reflecting the practice of apostate ―Christians‖ in the second century. 7. Should you be Re-Baptized? After restoring the text of Matthew 28:19 to its original form, i.e., ―Go ye therefore, and make disciples of all the nations in my name,‖ the following question naturally arises: ―I was baptized in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Since this is not Biblical, should I be re-baptized?‖ Rather than answer according to our own wisdom or bias, let us find the answer to this important question in the Word of God itself, for that alone is the true standard against which to measure our experience with the Lord. Turning to Acts we find the answer. Acts19:1-6 And it happened, while Apollos was at Corinth, that Paul, having passed through the upper regions, came to Ephesus. And finding some disciples he said to them, “Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?" So they said to him, “We have not so much as heard whether there is a Holy Spirit.” And he said to them, “Into what then were you baptized?” So they said, “Into John's baptism.” Then Paul said, “John indeed baptized with a baptism of repentance, saying to the people that they should believe on Him who would come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus.” When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. And when Paul had laid hands on them, the Holy Spirit came upon them, and they spoke with tongues and prophesied. By reading the above narrative, it is easy to discover the answer to our question. Paul found disciples, who like most of us today, had heard the message of the Kingdom of God, and had responded to that message by being baptized following our repentance. However, in this situation, these "disciples" had yet to hear the full gospel message, namely that Jesus, in His death, burial and resurrection had purchased salvation for all mankind by becoming the very Lamb of God that John had preached about. Because of this, their baptism, under the ministry and authority of John (who preceded Christ) did not reflect an association with the death and burial of Jesus that made baptism in His name effective. While we responded to the complete gospel message, they affirmed their belief by a baptism that only associated them with a doctrinal creed, rather than the atoning blood of Jesus that is only appropriated through His name. For Paul, the next step was obvious. Knowing that the promise of the Holy Spirit was given to those who through the obedience of faith had repented of their sins, and been baptized in the name of Jesus, he instructed them to be re-baptized: Acts 4:12…for there is no other name under heaven, given among men by which we must be saved.

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Was Paul mistaken? Or have we been? Certainly Paul was not, for according to God‘s promise, He laid hands on the people and they received the Holy Spirit only moments after being baptized in His name. Remember, baptism in the name of Jesus expresses faith in the Incarnation, the authentic human life of Jesus, the death of the Son of God on the stake for our sins, and the remission of sins through His name. In summary, using the name of Jesus in the baptismal formula expresses faith in: 1. The Person of Christ (who He really is); 2. The Work of Christ (His death, burial and resurrection for us); and 3. The Power and Authority of Christ (His ability to save us by Himself). For these very reasons, baptism was then, and should continue now to be administered in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ. His Word, not the tradition and fabrications of men, should be the standard which we teach, believe and obey. As the opening scripture so aptly admonishes us: Deuteronomy 4:2 You shall not add to the word which I command you, nor take from it, that you may keep the commandments of the Lord your God which I command you. It is extremely disconcerting to me that this glaringly problematic ―scriptural‖ assertion has been blindly accepted for centuries. On the day that I was baptized by a WCG minister back in 1973, I had serious reservations about the procedure as I watched those being baptized ahead of me, among a sizeable group of people, into the Trinity. I had not been able to confirm my suspicions about this scripture at that time, but I was bothered by this contradictory practice for 28 years before taking the appropriate action. I am indebted to Ploughman, now deceased, for his scholarly effort. He made a life long study of Matthew 28:19! He was quite passionate about exposing the fraud of early scribes. Were you baptized into apostasy?

Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 263 – c. 339[1]) (often called Eusebius Pamphili, "Eusebius [the friend] of Pamphilus") became the bishop of Caesarea Palaestina, the capital of Iudaea province, c 314.[1] He is often referred to as the Father of Church History because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church, especially Chronicle and Ecclesiastical History His date and place of birth are unknown and little is known of his youth, however it is estimated that he was born in 265 [2]. He became acquainted with the presbyter Dorotheus in Antioch and probably received exegetical instruction from him. In 296 he was in Palestine and saw Constantine who visited the country with Diocletian. He was in Caesarea when Agapius was bishop and became friendly with Pamphilus of Caesarea, with whom he seems to have studied the text of the Bible, with the aid of Origen's Hexapla and commentaries collected by Pamphilus, in an attempt to prepare a correct version. In 307, Pamphilus was imprisoned, but Eusebius continued their project. The resulting defence of Origen, in which they had collaborated, was finished by Eusebius after the death of Pamphilus and sent to the martyrs in the mines of Phaeno located in modern Jordan. Eusebius then seems to have gone to Tyre and later to Egypt, where he first suffered persecution. Eusebius is next heard of as bishop of Caesarea Maritima. He succeeded Agapius, whose time of office is not certain, but Eusebius must have become bishop soon after 313. Nothing is known about the early years of his tenure. When the Council of Nicaea met in 325, Eusebius was prominent in its transactions. He was not naturally a spiritual leader or theologian, but as a very learned man and a famous author who enjoyed the special favour of the emperor, he came to the fore among the members of the council (traditionally given as 318 attendees). He presented the creed of his own church to the council for its approval. This creed was "a sweet-sounding confession, dating from before the controversy, and was, therefore, wholly indefinite as to the particular problems involved."[3] It was rejected in favor of a more specifically anti-Arian creed from Palestine which became the basis of the council's major theological statement, the Nicene Creed.[4] Eusebius was involved in the further development of the Arian controversies. For instance he was involved in the dispute with Eustathius of Antioch who opposed the growing influence of Origen, including his practice of an allegorical exegesis of scripture. Eustathius perceived in Origen's theology the roots of Arianism. Eusebius was an admirer of Origen and was reproached by Eustathius for deviating from the Nicene faith—he was even alleged to hold to Sabellianism. Eustathius was accused, condemned, and deposed at a synod in Antioch. Part of the population of Antioch rebelled against this action, and the anti-Eustathians proposed Eusebius as its new bishop—he declined. After Eustathius had been removed, Athanasius of Alexandria, a more powerful opponent, was attacked by the anti-Nicene party headed by Eusebius of Nicomedia (not to be confused with Eusebius of Caesarea). In 334, Athanasius was summoned before a synod in Caesarea; he did not attend. In the following year, he was again summoned before a synod in Tyre at which Eusebius of Caesarea presided. Athanasius, foreseeing the result, went to Constantinople to bring his cause before the emperor. Constantine called the bishops to his court, among them Eusebius. Athanasius was condemned and exiled at the end of 335. At the same synod, another

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opponent was successfully attacked: Marcellus of Ancyra had long opposed the ant-Nicene party and had protested against the reinstitution of Arius. He was accused of Sabellianism and deposed in 336. Constantine died the next year, and Eusebius did not long survive him. Eusebius' date of death is unknown. It is estimated that he died between 337 and 340 after the death of Constantine Of the extensive literary activity of Eusebius, a relatively large portion has been preserved. Although posterity suspected him of Arianism, Eusebius had made himself indispensable by his method of authorship; his comprehensive and careful excerpts from original sources saved his successors the painstaking labor of original research. Hence, much has been preserved, quoted by Eusebius, which otherwise would have been destroyed. The literary productions of Eusebius reflect on the whole the course of his life. At first, he occupied himself with works on Biblical criticism under the influence of Pamphilus and probably of Dorotheus of Tyre of the School of Antioch. Afterward, the persecutions under Diocletian and Galerius directed his attention to the martyrs of his own time and the past, and this led him to the history of the whole Church and finally to the history of the world, which, to him, was only a preparation for ecclesiastical history. Then followed the time of the Arian controversies, and dogmatic questions came into the foreground. Christianity at last found recognition by the State; and this brought new problems—apologies of a different sort had to be prepared. Lastly, Eusebius wrote eulogies in praise of Constantine. To all this activity must be added numerous writings of a miscellaneous nature, addresses, letters, and the like, and exegetical works that extended over the whole of his life and that include both commentaries and treatises on Biblical archaeology. Pamphilus and Eusebius occupied themselves with the textual criticism of the Septuagint text of the Old Testament and especially of the New Testament. An edition of the Septuagint seems to have been already prepared by Origen, which, according to Jerome, was revised and circulated by Eusebius and Pamphilus. For an easier survey of the material of the four Evangelists, Eusebius divided his edition of the New Testament into paragraphs and provided it with a synoptical table so that it might be easier to find the pericopes that belong together. These canon tables or "Eusebian canons" remained in use throughout the Middle Ages, and illuminated manuscript versions are important for the study of early medieval art. Eusebius explained detailed in Epistula ad Carpianum how to use his canons. In his Church History or Ecclesiastical History, Eusebius wrote what was in fact the second attempted history (the doctor Luke who wrote the Gospel and Acts is first) of the Christian Church, as a chronologically-ordered account, based on earlier sources, and complete from the period of the Apostles to his own epoch. He also wrote that Matthew composed the Gospel according to the Hebrews. The time scheme correlated the history with the reigns of the Roman Emperors, and the scope was broad. Included were the bishops and other teachers of the Church; Christian relations with the Jews and those deemed heretical; and the Christian martyrs. Estimate of Eusebius Doctrine From a dogmatic point of view, Eusebius stands entirely upon the shoulders of Origen. Like Origen, he started from the fundamental thought of the absolute sovereignty (monarchia) of God. God is the cause of all beings. But he is not merely a cause; in him everything good is included, from him all life originates, and he is the source of all virtue. God sent Christ into the world that it may partake of the blessings included in the essence of God. Christ is God and is a ray of the eternal light; but the figure of the ray is so limited by Eusebius that he expressly emphasizes the self-existence of Jesus. Eusebius was intent upon emphasizing the difference of the persona of the Trinity and maintaining the subordination of the Son (Logos, or Word) to God (he never calls him theos) because in all contrary attempts he suspected polytheism or Sabellianism. The Son (Jesus), as Arianism asserted, is a creature of God whose generation, for Eusebius, took place before time. Jesus acts as the organ or instrument of God, the creator of life, the principle of every revelation of God, who in his absoluteness and transcendent is enthroned above and isolated from all the world. This Logos, as a derivative creature and not truly God as the Father is truly God, could therefore change (Eusebius, with most early theologians, assumed God was immutable), and he assumed a human body without altering the immutable divine Father. The relation of the Holy Spirit within the Trinity Eusebius explained similarly to that of the Son to the Father. No point of this doctrine is original with Eusebius, all is traceable to his teacher Origen. The lack of originality in his thinking shows itself in the fact that he never presented his thoughts in a system. After nearly being excommunicated for his heresy by Alexander of Alexandria, Eusebius submitted and agreed to the Nicene Creed at the First Council of Nicaea. Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus[3] (27 February c. 272[2] – 22 May 337), commonly known in English as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Christians) Saint Constantine (pronounced ˈ kɒ ɛ ɪ ), was Roman emperor from 306, and the sole holder of that office from 324 until his death in 337. Best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine reversed the persecutions of his predecessor, Diocletian, and issued (with his co-emperor Licinius) the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious toleration throughout the empire.

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The Byzantine liturgical calendar, observed by the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine rite, lists both Constantine and his mother Helena as saints. Although he is not included in the Latin Church's list of saints, which does recognize several other Constantines as saints, he is revered under the title "The Great" for his contributions to Christianity. Constantine also transformed the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium into a new imperial residence, Constantinople, which would remain the capital of the Byzantine Empire for over one thousand years. Foundation of Constantinople Coin struck by Constantine I to commemorate the founding of Constantinople Licinius' defeat represented the passing of old Rome, and the beginning of the role of the Eastern Roman Empire as a center of learning, prosperity, and cultural preservation. Constantine rebuilt the city of Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinopolis ("Constantine's City" or Constantinople in English), and issued special commemorative coins in 330 to honor the event. The new city was protected by the relics of the True Cross, the Rod of Moses and other holy relics, though a cameo now at the Hermitage Museum also represented Constantine crowned by the tyche of the new city.[193] The figures of old gods were either replaced or assimilated into a framework of Christian symbolism. Constantine built the new Church of the Holy Apostles on the site of a temple to Aphrodite. Generations later there was the story that a Divine vision led Constantine to this spot, and an angel no one else could see, led him on a circuit of the new walls. The capital would often be compared to the 'old' Rome as Nova Roma Constantinopolitana, the "New Rome of Constantinople".[192][194] Religious policy Further information: Constantine I and Christianity and Constantine I and Judaism Constantine the Great, mosaic in Hagia Sophia, c. 1000 Constantine is perhaps best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor; his reign was certainly a turning point for the Christian Church. In 313 Constantine announced toleration of Christianity in the Edict of Milan, which removed penalties for professing Christianity (under which many had been martyred in previous persecutions of Christians) and returned confiscated Church property. Though a similar edict had been issued in 311 by Galerius, then senior emperor of the Tetrarchy, Galerius' edict granted Christians the right to practice their religion but did not restore any property to them. [195] Scholars debate whether Constantine adopted his mother St. Helena's Christianity in his youth, or whether he adopted it gradually over the course of his life.[196]. Constantine would retain the title of pontifex maximus until his death, a title emperors bore as heads of the pagan priesthood, as would his Christian successors on to Gratian (r. 375–83). According to Christian writers, Constantine was over 40 when he finally declared himself a Christian, writing to Christians to make clear that he believed he owed his successes to the protection of the Christian High God alone.[197] Throughout his rule, Constantine supported the Church financially, built basilicas, granted privileges to clergy (e.g. exemption from certain taxes), promoted Christians to high office, and returned property confiscated during the Diocletianic persecution.[198] His most famous building projects include the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and Old Saint Peter's Basilica. Constantine did not patronize Christianity alone, however. After gaining victory in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, a triumphal arch—the Arch of Constantine—was built to celebrate; the arch is decorated with images of Victoria and sacrifices to gods like Apollo, Diana, or Hercules, but contains no Christian symbolism. In 321, Constantine instructed that Christians and non-Christians should be united in observing the "venerable day of the sun", referencing the esoteric eastern sun-worship which Aurelian had helped introduce, and his coinage still carried the symbols of the sun-cult until 324. Even after the pagan gods had disappeared from the coinage, Christian symbols appear only as Constantine's personal attributes: the chi rho between his hands or on his labarum, but never on the coin itself.[199] Even when Constantine dedicated the new capital of Constantinople, which became the seat of Byzantine Christianity for a millennium, he did so wearing the Apollonian sun-rayed Diadem. Constantine burning Arian books The reign of Constantine established a precedent for the position of the emperor in the Christian Church. Constantine himself disliked the risks to societal stability, that religious disputes and controversies brought with them, preferring where possible to establish an orthodoxy.[200] The emperor saw it as his duty to ensure that God was properly worshipped in his empire, and what proper worship consisted of was for the Church to determine.[201] In 316, Constantine acted as a judge in a North African dispute concerning the validity of Donatism. After deciding against the Donatists, Constantine led an army of Christians against the Donatist Christians. After 300 years of pacifism, this was the first intra-Christian persecution. More significantly, in 325 he summoned the Council of Nicaea, effectively the first Ecumenical Council (unless the Council of Jerusalem is so classified), Nicaea was to deal mostly with the heresy of Arianism. Constantine also enforced the prohibition of the First Council of Nicaea against celebrating Easter on the day before the Jewish Passover (14 Nisan) (see Quartodecimanism and Easter controversy).[202]

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Constantine made new laws regarding the Jews. They were forbidden to own Christian slaves or to circumcise their slaves. Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341) was the man who baptised Constantine. He was a bishop of Berytus (modern-day Beirut) in Phoenicia, then of Nicomedia where the imperial court resided in Bithynia, and finally of Constantinople from 338 up to his death.

The Bibles of Constantine There is another piece of evidence that bears on the subject of the canon - even though we may not know how to interpret it. About the year 322 CE, the emperor Constantine, wishing to promote and organize Christian worship in the growing number of churches in Constantinople, directed Eusebius to have 50 copies of the sacred Scriptures made by practiced scribes and written legibly on prepared parchment. At the same time the emperor informed him, in a letter still preserved to us, that everything necessary for doing this was placed at his command, among other things two public carriages for conveying the completed manuscripts to the emperor for his personal inspection. According to Eusebius: Such were the emperor's commands, which were followed by the immediate execution of the work itself, which we sent him in magnificent and elaborately bound volumes of a threefold and fourfold form. (Vita Const. 4.36.37) The exact meaning of the concluding words has been taken in a half dozen different senses. Two of the most popular are, that the pages had 'three or four columns of script', or that as the copies were completed, they were sent off for the emperor's inspection 'three or four at a time'. The astonishing thing is that Eusebius, who took care to tell us at some length about the fluctuations of opinion in regard to certain books, has not one word to say regarding the choice he made on this important occasion. Of course, 50 magnificent copies, all uniform, could not but exercise a great influence on great influence on future copies, at least within the bounds of the patriarchate of Constantinople, and would help forward the process of arriving at a commonly accepted New Testament in the East. Some have suggested that the codex Sinaiticus is one of the 50 bibles commissioned by Constantine, but its Alexandrian type of text makes this unlikely. "Constantine’s Bibles" We only known about this from Eusebius’ Life of Constantine. AD 331 – Emperor requested 50 new ‘Bibles’ (Books of Scriptures) from Eusebius for churches in Constantinople Eusebius had the copies made at his home church of Caesarea There was no decision by Constantine as to which books they should contain. Both he and Eusebius understood and assumed which texts were part of Scripture.

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YAHWEH CALENDER 2012
25th OF 49TH YEAR CYCLE CALENDAR - 1st YEAR OF METONIC 19TH YEAR CALENDAR

JANUARY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 8 9 10 11 12 13 3 15 16 17 18 19 20 4 22 23 24 25 26 27 5 29 30 31 10 degrees APRIL WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 8 9 10 11 12 13 16 15 16 17 18 19 20 17 22 23 24 25 26 27 18 29 30 15.0 degrees JULY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 27 1 2 3 4 5 6 28 8 9 10 11 12 13 29 15 16 17 18 19 20 30 22 23 24 25 26 27 31 29 30 31 20 degrees OCTOBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 40 1 2 3 4 5 41 7 8 9 10 11 12 42 14 15 16 17 18 19 43 21 22 23 24 25 26 44 28 29 30 31 18.5 degrees
Passover New Moon F.U.B

SAB 7 14 21 28

FEBRUARY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 5 1 2 3 6 5 6 7 8 9 10 7 12 13 14 15 16 17 8 19 20 21 22 23 24 9 26 27 28 29 15.5 degrees MAY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 18 1 2 3 4 19 6 7 8 9 10 11 20 13 14 15 16 17 18 21 20 21 22 23 24 25 22 27 28 29 30 31 20.5 degrees AUGUST WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 31 1 2 3 32 5 6 7 8 9 10 33 12 13 14 15 16 17 34 19 20 21 22 23 24 35 26 27 28 29 30 31 13.5.0 degrees NOVEMBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 44 1 2 45 4 5 6 7 8 9 46 11 12 13 14 15 16 47 18 19 20 21 22 23 48 25 26 27 28 29 30 12 degrees
w.s.offering Pentecost

SAB 4 11 18 25

MARCH WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 9 1 2 10 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 12 18 19 20 21 22 23 13 25 26 27 28 29 30 9.5 degrees JUNE WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 22 1 23 3 4 5 6 7 8 24 10 11 12 13 14 15 25 17 18 19 20 21 22 26 24 25 26 27 28 29 14.5 degrees SEPTEMBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 35 36 2 3 4 5 6 7 37 9 10 11 12 13 14 38 16 17 18 19 20 21 39 23 24 25 26 27 28 40 30 19.5 degrees DECEMBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 48 49 2 3 4 5 6 7 50 9 10 11 12 13 14 51 16 17 18 19 20 21 52 23 24 25 26 27 28 53 30 31 18.0 degrees
Atonement Tabernacles

SAB 3 10 17 24 31

SAB 7 14 21 28

SAB 5 12 19 26

SAB 2 9 16 23 30

SAB 7 14 21 28

SAB 4 11 18 25

SAB 1 8 15 22 29

SAB 6 13 20 27

SAB 3 10 17 24

SAB 1 8 15 22 29

Trumpets

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NEW YEAR START ON SUNSET OF MARCH 23, 2012

APPOINTED FEAST OF YAHWEH IN THE PHILIPPINE SOIL PASSOVER DAY Start on sunset of April 05, 2012 to sunset April 06, 2012 FEAST OF UNLEAVENED BREAD Start on sunset of April 06, 2012 until sunset of April 13, 2012 WAVE-SHEAF OFFERING DAY

New Moon Visible in Philippine shore

New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on

on sunset of March 23, 2012 @ 9.5 degrees sunset of August 18, 2012 @ 13.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on

April 06, 2012 Passover day Apr. 07-Apr.13, 2012 Feast of U-Bread April 08, 2012 Wave-Sheaf-Offering Day

on sunset of April 22, 2012 @ 15.0 degrees sunset of September 17, 2012 @ 19.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of May 22, 2012 @ 20.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of June 20, 2012 @ 14.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of October 17, 2012 @ 18.5 degrees

Start on sunset of April 07, 2012 until sunset of April 08, 2012

PENTECOST DAY New Moon Visible in Philippine shore New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on on sunset of July 20, 2012 @ 20.0 degrees sunset of November 15, 2012 @ 12 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of December 15, 2012 @ 18 degrees Start on sunset of May 26, 2012 until sunset of May 27, 2012 TRUMPETS DAY Start on sunset of Sept. 17 to sunset of Sept. 18, 2012 ATONEMENT DAY Start on

May 27, 2012 Pentecost Day September 18, 2012 Feast of Trumpets September 27, 2012 Atonement Day

New Moon on the Previous Year
New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of January 24, 2012 @ 10 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of February 23, 2012 @ 15.5 degrees by PILLAR March 17,2001 @Halul Island, Qatar

sunset of Sept. 26 until sunset of Sept. 27, 2012 FEAST OF TABERNACLES Start on sunset of Oct. 01 until sunset of Oct. 08, 2012 LAST GREAT DAY Start on sunset of Oct. 08 until sunset of Oct. 09, 2012

October 02-08, 2012 Feast of Tabernacles October 09, 2012 Last Great Day

YAHWEH CALENDER 2013
26th OF 49TH YEAR CYCLE CALENDAR - 2nd YEAR OF METONIC 19TH YEAR CALENDAR

JANUARY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 1 1 2 3 4 2 6 7 8 9 10 11 3 13 14 15 16 17 18 4 20 21 22 23 24 25 5 27 28 29 30 31 18 degrees APRIL WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 14 1 2 3 4 5 15 7 8 9 10 11 12 16 14 15 16 17 18 19 17 21 22 23 24 25 26 18 28 29 30 11 degrees JULY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 27 1 2 3 4 5 28 7 8 9 10 11 12 29 14 15 16 17 18 19 30 21 22 23 24 25 26 31 28 29 30 31 15.5 degrees OCTOBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 40 1 2 3 4 41 6 7 8 9 10 11 42 13 14 15 16 17 18 43 20 21 22 23 24 25 44 27 28 29 30 31 20.5 degrees
Passover New Moon F.U.B

SAB 5 12 19 26

FEBRUARY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI SAB 5 1 2 6 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 8 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 9 24 25 26 27 28 11.5 degrees

SAB 6 13 20 27

MAY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 18 1 2 3 19 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 12 13 14 15 16 17 21 19 20 21 22 23 24 22 26 27 28 29 30 31 16.5 degrees

SAB 4 11 18 25

SAB 6 13 20 27

AUGUST WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 31 1 2 32 4 5 6 7 8 9 33 11 12 13 14 15 16 34 18 19 20 21 22 23 35 25 26 27 28 29 30 9.5 degrees

SAB 3 10 17 24 31

MARCH WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 9 1 10 3 4 5 6 7 8 11 10 11 12 13 14 15 12 17 18 19 20 21 22 13 24 25 26 27 28 29 14 31 17 degrees JUNE WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 22 23 2 3 4 5 6 7 24 9 10 11 12 13 14 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 26 23 24 25 26 27 28 27 30 10 degrees SEPTEMBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 35 1 2 3 4 5 6 36 8 9 10 11 12 13 37 15 16 17 18 19 20 38 22 23 24 25 26 27 39 29 30

SAB 2 9 16 23 30

SAB 1 8 15 22 29

SAB 7 14 21 28

SAB 5 12 19 26

15 degrees NOVEMBER DECEMBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI SAB WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 44 1 2 48 1 2 3 4 5 6 45 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 49 8 9 10 11 12 13 46 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 50 15 16 17 18 19 20 47 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 51 22 23 24 25 26 27 48 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 52 29 30 31 14 degrees 20.0 degrees
Trumpets Atonement Tabernacles

SAB 7 14 21 28

w.s.offering

Pentecost

LGD

NEW YEAR START ON SUNSET OF MARCH 13, 2013

APPOINTED FEAST OF YAHWEH IN THE PHILIPPINE SOIL PASSOVER DAY Start on sunset of March 26, 2013 to sunset March 27, 2013 FEAST OF UNLEAVENED BREAD Start on sunset of March 27, 2013 until sunset of April 03, 2013 WAVE-SHEAF OFFERING DAY

New Moon Visible in Philippine shore

New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on

on sunset of March 13, 2013 @ 17 degrees sunset of August 07, 2013 @ 9.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on

March 27, 2013 Passover day Mar.28-Apr.03, 2013 Feast of U-Bread March 31, 2013 Wave-Sheaf-Offering Day

on sunset of April 11, 2013 @ 11 degrees sunset of September 06, 2013 @ 15 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of May 11, 2013 @ 16.5degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of June 09, 2013 @ 10 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of October 06, 2013 @ 20.5 degrees

Start on sunset of March 30, 2013 until sunset of March 31, 2013

PENTECOST DAY New Moon Visible in Philippine shore New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on on sunset of July 09, 2013 @ 15.5 degrees sunset of November 04, 2013 @ 14 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of December 04, 2013 @ 20 degrees Start on sunset of May 18, 2013 until sunset of May 19, 2013 TRUMPETS DAY Start on sunset of Sept. 06 to sunset of Sept. 07, 2013 ATONEMENT DAY Start on

May 19, 2013 Pentecost Day September 07, 2013 Feast of Trumpets September 16, 2013 Atonement Day

New Moon on the Previous Year
New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of January 13, 2013 @ 18 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of February 11, 2013 @ 11.5 degrees by PILLAR March 17,2001 @Halul Island, Qatar

sunset of Sept. 15 until sunset of Sept. 16, 2013 FEAST OF TABERNACLES Start on sunset of Sept. 20 until sunset of Sept.27, 2013 LAST GREAT DAY Start on sunset of Sept. 27 until sunset of Sept. 28, 2013

September 21-27, 2013 Feast of Tabernacles September 28, 2013 Last Great Day

YAHWEH CALENDER 2014
27th OF 49TH YEAR CYCLE CALENDAR - 3rd YEAR OF METONIC 19TH YEAR CALENDAR

JANUARY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 1 1 2 3 2 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 12 13 14 15 16 17 4 19 20 21 22 23 24 5 26 27 28 29 30 31 13.5 degrees APRIL WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 14 1 2 3 4 15 6 7 8 9 10 11 16 13 14 15 16 17 18 17 20 21 22 23 24 25 18 27 28 29 30 18 degrees JULY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 27 1 2 3 4 28 6 7 8 9 10 11 29 13 14 15 16 17 18 30 20 21 22 23 24 25 31 27 28 29 30 31 17 degrees OCTOBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 41 1 2 3 42 5 6 7 8 9 10 43 12 13 14 15 16 17 44 19 20 21 22 23 24 45 26 27 28 29 30 31 10 degrees
Passover New Moon F.U.B

SAT 4 11 18 25

FEBRUARY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI SAT 5 1 6 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 8 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 9 23 24 25 26 27 28 19 degrees

SAT 5 12 19 26

MAY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 18 1 2 19 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 11 12 13 14 15 16 21 18 19 20 21 22 23 22 25 26 27 28 29 30 12 degrees 17.5 degrees AUGUST WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 31 1 32 3 4 5 6 7 8 33 10 11 12 13 14 15 34 17 18 19 20 21 22 35 24 25 26 27 28 29 36 31 10.5 degrees NOVEMBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 45 46 2 3 4 5 6 7 47 9 10 11 12 13 14 48 16 17 18 19 20 21 49 23 24 25 26 27 28 50 30 15.5 degrees
w.s.offering Pentecost

SAT 3 10 17 24 31

MARCH WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 11 9 10 11 12 13 14 12 16 17 18 19 20 21 13 23 24 25 26 27 28 14 30 31 13 degrees JUNE WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 22 1 2 3 4 5 6 23 8 9 10 11 12 13 24 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 22 23 24 25 26 27 26 29 30 11.5 degrees SEPTEMBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 36 1 2 3 4 5 37 7 8 9 10 11 12 38 14 15 16 17 18 19 39 21 22 23 24 25 26 40 28 29 30 16 degrees DECEMBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 50 1 2 3 4 5 51 7 8 9 10 11 12 52 14 15 16 17 18 19 53 21 22 23 24 25 26 54 28 29 30 31 9 degrees
Atonement Tabernacles

SAT 1 8 15 22 29

SAT 7 14 21 28

SAT 5 12 19 26

SAT 2 9 16 23 30

SAT 6 13 20 27

SAT 4 11 18 25

SAT 1 8 15 22 29

SAT 6 13 20 27

Trumpets

LGD

NEW YEAR START ON SUNSET OF APRIL 01, 2014

APPOINTED FEAST OF YAHWEH IN THE PHILIPPINE SOIL PASSOVER DAY Start on sunset of April 14, 2014 to sunset April 15, 2014 FEAST OF UNLEAVENED BREAD Start on sunset of April 15, 2014 until sunset of April 23, 2014 WAVE-SHEAF OFFERING DAY Start on sunset of April 19, 2014 until sunset of April 20, 2014

New Moon Visible in Philippine shore

New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on

on sunset of April 01, 2014 @ 18 degrees sunset of August 26, 2014 @ 10.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on

April 15, 2014 Passover day Apr.16-Apr.23, 2014 Feast of U-Bread April 20, 2014 Wave-Sheaf-Offering Day

on sunset of April 30, 2014 @ 12 degrees sunset of September 25, 2014 @ 16 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of May 30, 2014 @ 17.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of June 28, 2014 @ 11.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of October 24, 2014 @ 10 degrees

PENTECOST DAY New Moon Visible in Philippine shore New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on on sunset of July 28, 2014 @ 17 degrees sunset of November 23, 2014 @ 15.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of December 22, 2014 @ 9 degrees Start on sunset of June 07, 2014 until sunset of June 08, 2014 TRUMPETS DAY Start on sunset of Sept. 25 to sunset of Sept. 26, 2014 ATONEMENT DAY Start on

June 08, 2014 Pentecost Day September 26, 2014 Feast of Trumpets October 05, 2014 Atonement Day

New Moon on the Previous Year
New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of January 02, 2014 @ 13.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of February 01, 2014 @ 19 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of March 02, 2014 @ 13 degrees by PILLAR March 17,2001 @Halul Island, Qatar

sunset of Oct. 04 until sunset of

Oct. 05, 2014
FEAST OF TABERNACLES Start sunset Oct.09- until sunset of Oct. 16, 2014

October 10-16, 2014 Feast of Tabernacles October 17, 2014 Last Great Day

Sunset Oct. 16 until sunset of Oct. 17, 2014

YAHWEH CALENDER 2015
28th OF 49TH YEAR CYCLE CALENDAR -

SABBATHICAL YEAR MARCH WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 8 9 10 11 12 13 11 15 16 17 18 19 20 12 22 23 24 25 26 27 13 29 30 31 14 degrees SAB 2 9 16 23 30 JUNE WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 23 1 2 3 4 5 24 7 8 9 10 11 12 25 14 15 16 17 18 19 26 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 19 degrees SEPTEMBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 37 1 2 3 4 38 6 7 8 9 10 11 39 13 14 15 16 17 18 40 20 21 22 23 24 25 41 27 28 29 30 12 degrees SAB 7 14 21 28 DECEMBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 50 1 2 3 4 51 6 7 8 9 10 11 52 13 14 15 16 17 18 53 20 21 22 23 24 25 54 27 28 29 30 31 17 degrees
Trumpets Atonement Tabernacles LGD

- 4th YEAR OF METONIC 19TH YEAR CALENDAR

JANUARY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 1 1 2 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 3 11 12 13 14 15 16 4 18 19 20 21 22 23 5 25 26 27 28 29 30 14.5 degrees APRIL WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 14 1 2 3 15 5 6 7 8 9 10 16 12 13 14 15 16 17 17 19 20 21 22 23 24 18 26 27 28 29 30 19.5 degrees JULY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 28 1 2 3 29 5 6 7 8 9 10 30 12 13 14 15 16 17 31 19 20 21 22 23 24 32 26 27 28 29 30 31

SAB 3 10 17 24 31

FEBRUARY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 7 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 22 23 24 25 26 27 9 20.5 degrees

SAB 7 14 21 28

SAB 7 14 21 28

SAB 4 11 18 25

SAB 4 11 18 25

12.5 degrees OCTOBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI SAB 42 1 2 3 43 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 44 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 45 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 46 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 17.5 degrees
Passover New Moon
NEW YEAR START ON SUNSET OF MARCH 21, 2015

MAY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 18 1 19 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 10 11 12 13 14 15 21 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 24 25 26 27 28 29 23 31 13 degrees AUGUST WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 32 33 2 3 4 5 6 7 34 9 10 11 12 13 14 35 16 17 18 19 20 21 36 23 24 25 26 27 28 37 30 31 18 degrees NOVEMBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 46 1 2 3 4 5 6 47 8 9 10 11 12 13 48 15 16 17 18 19 20 49 22 23 24 25 26 27 50 29 30 11 degrees

SAB 6 13 20 27

SAB 1 8 15 22 29

SAB 5 12 19 26

SAB 5 12 19 26

F.U.B

w.s.offering

Pentecost

APPOINTED FEAST OF YAHWEH IN THE PHILIPPINE SOIL PASSOVER DAY Start on sunset of April 03, 2015 to sunset April 04, 2015 FEAST OF UNLEAVENED BREAD Start on sunset of April 04, 2015 until sunset of April 11, 2015 WAVE-SHEAF OFFERING DAY Start on sunset of April 04, 2015 until sunset of April 05, 2015

New Moon Visible in Philippine shore

New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on

on sunset of March 21, 2015 @ 14 degrees sunset of August 16, 2015 @ 18 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on

April 04, 2015 Passover day Apr.05-Apr.11, 2015 Feast of U-Bread April 05, 2015 Wave-Sheaf-Offering Day

on sunset of April 20, 2015 @ 19.5 degrees sunset of September 14, 2015 @ 12 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of May 19, 2015 @ 13 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of June 18, 2015 @ 19 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of October 14, 2015 @ 17.5 degrees

PENTECOST DAY New Moon Visible in Philippine shore New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on on sunset of July 17, 2015 @ 12.5 degrees sunset of November 12, 2015 @ 11 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of December 12, 2015 @ 17 degrees Start on sunset of May 23, 2015 until sunset of May 24, 2015 TRUMPETS DAY Start on sunset of Sept. 14 to sunset of Sept. 15, 2015 ATONEMENT DAY Start on

May 24, 2015 Pentecost Day September 15, 2015 Feast of Trumpets September 24, 2015 Atonement Day

New Moon on the Previous Year
New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of January 21, 2015 @ 14.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of February 20, 2015 @ 20.5 degrees by PILLAR March 17,2001 @Halul Island, Qatar

sunset of Sept. 23 until sunset of Sept. 24, 2015 FEAST OF TABERNACLES Start on sunset of Sept. 28 until sunset of Oct.05, 2015 LAST GREAT DAY Start on sunset of Oct. 05 until sunset of Oct. 06, 2015

Sept. 29-Oct. 05, 2015 Feast of Tabernacles October 06, 2015 Last Great Day

YAHWEH CALENDER 2016
29th OF 49TH YEAR CYCLE CALENDAR - 5th YEAR OF METONIC 19TH YEAR CALENDAR

JANUARY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3 10 11 12 13 14 15 4 17 18 19 20 21 22 5 24 25 26 27 28 29 6 31 10.5 degrees APRIL WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 15 1 16 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 10 11 12 13 14 15 18 17 18 19 20 21 22 19 24 25 26 27 28 29 15 degrees JULY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 28 1 29 3 4 5 6 7 8 30 10 11 12 13 14 15 31 17 18 19 20 21 22 32 24 25 26 27 28 29 33 31 20 degrees OCTOBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 42 43 2 3 4 5 6 7 44 9 10 11 12 13 14 45 16 17 18 19 20 21 46 23 24 25 26 27 28 47 30 31 13 degrees
Passover New Moon F.U.B

SAB 2 9 16 23 30

FEBRUARY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 6 1 2 3 4 5 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 8 14 15 16 17 18 19 9 21 22 23 24 25 26 10 28 29 16 degrees

SAB 6 13 20 27

MARCH WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 10 1 2 3 4 11 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 13 20 21 22 23 24 25 14 27 28 29 30 31 9.5 degrees

SAB 5 12 19 26

SAB 2 9 16 23 30

MAY WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 21 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 22 23 24 25 26 27 23 29 30 31 9.0 degrees

SAB 7 14 21 28

JUNE WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 23 1 2 3 24 5 6 7 8 9 10 25 12 13 14 15 16 17 26 19 20 21 22 23 24 27 26 27 28 29 30 14.5 degrees SEPTEMBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 37 1 2 38 4 5 6 7 8 9 39 11 12 13 14 15 16 40 18 19 20 21 22 23 41 25 26 27 28 29 30 19.5 degrees DECEMBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 51 1 2 52 4 5 6 7 8 9 53 11 12 13 14 15 16 54 18 19 20 21 22 23 55 25 26 27 28 29 30 12.5 degrees

SAB 4 11 18 25

SAB 2 9 16 23 30

AUGUST WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 33 1 2 3 4 5 34 7 8 9 10 11 12 35 14 15 16 17 18 19 36 21 22 23 24 25 26 37 28 29 30 31 13.5 degrees NOVEMBER WK SUNMONTUEWEDTHU FRI 47 1 2 3 4 48 6 7 8 9 10 11 49 13 14 15 16 17 18 50 20 21 22 23 24 25 51 27 28 29 30 18.5 degrees
w.s.offering Pentecost

SAB 6 13 20 27

SAB 3 10 17 24

SAB 1 8 15 22 29

SAB 5 12 19 26

SAB 3 10 17 24 31

18 degrees
Tabernacles LGD

Trumpets

Atonement

NEW YEAR START ON SUNSET OF MARCH 09, 2016

APPOINTED FEAST OF YAHWEH IN THE PHILIPPINE SOIL PASSOVER DAY Start on sunset of March 22, 2016 to sunset March 23, 2016 FEAST OF UNLEAVENED BREAD Start on sunset of March 23, 2016 until sunset of March 30, 2016

New Moon Visible in Philippine shore

New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on

on sunset of March 09, 2016 @ 9.5 degrees sunset of August 04, 2016 @ 13.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on

March 23, 2016 Passover day Mar.24-Mar.30, 2016 Feast of U-Bread April 27, 2016 Wave-Sheaf-Offering Day

on sunset of April 08, 2016 @ 15 degrees sunset of September 03, 2016 @ 19.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of May 07, 2016 @ 9 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of June 06, 2016 @ 14.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of October 02, 2016 @ 13 degrees

WAVE-SHEAF OFFERING DAY Start on sunset of March 26, 2016 until sunset of March 27, 2016

PENTECOST DAY New Moon Visible in Philippine shore New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on on sunset of July 06, 2010 @ 20 degrees sunset of November 01, 2010 @ 18.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of November 30, 2016 @ 12.5 degrees Start on sunset of May 14, 2016 until sunset of May 15, 2016 TRUMPETS DAY Start on sunset of Sept. 03 to sunset of Sept. 04, 2016

May 15, 2016 Pentecost Day September 04, 2016 Feast of Trumpets September 13, 2016 Atonement Day

New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on
sunset of December 30, 2016 @18 degrees ATONEMENT DAY Start on sunset of Sept. 12 until sunset of Sept. 13, 2016 New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of January 10, 2016 @ 10.5 degrees New Moon Visible in Philippine shore on sunset of February 09, 2016 @ 16 degrees by PILLAR March 17,2001 @Halul Island, Qatar FEAST OF TABERNACLES Start on sunset of Sept. 17 until sunset of Sept.24, 2016 LAST GREAT DAY Start on sunset of Sept. 24 until sunset of Sept. 25, 2016

New Moon on the Previous Year

September 18-24, 2016 Feast of Tabernacles September 25, 2016 Last Great Day

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