Final Dissertation

Submitted by

ANU MATHEWS For the award of the




This is to certify that the final Dissertation entitled A STUDY ON CURRENT ATTITUDES INFLUENCING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR WITH REGARD TO COMPUTER PROTECTION SOFTWARE submitted by Anu Mathews to LIBA, LOYOLA COLLEGE, CHENNAI for the award of Post Graduate Diploma in Management is a bonafide record of research work carried out by him under my supervision. The contents of this report in full or in parts have not been submitted to any other Institute or University for the award of any degree or diploma.

The project work has been carried out at Loyola Institute of Business Administration (LIBA), Chennai.

Chennai - 600 034 Date:

Research Guide


I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this dissertation. Especially I am obliged to the Director, Loyola Institute of Business Administration (LIBA) Rev. Fr. Christie and the Finance Controller, LIBA Rev. Fr. Maria Augustine. I have furthermore to thank the Chairperson for the parttime PGDM programme Dr. Thiagarajan for his stimulating support.

I am deeply indebted to my supervisor Prof. Gopal whose help, stimulating suggestions and encouragement helped me in the research.


The objective of this study is to primarily understand the current attitudes and perceptions which influence consumer thinking with regard to the online and computer virus threats. Computer Security Software is a completed computer security solution which includes anti-virus, anti-spyware, anti-spam, personal firewall, parental control and some other additional features. The present attitude of the consumers with respect to the protection of their computers has to be studied. This will give an insight into the consumer awareness level on the dangers that the computer is exposed to in the everyday activities.

Also the study is meant to understand the consumer behavior factors influencing specific brand choice among current users for computer protection softwares. There are more than a dozen softwares brands available in the market today. The study would would also help in understanding the choice of a particular brand of software over another and the features that consumers look for in these brands.



: Anu Mathews

Date of Birth : 05 May 1986


: Loyola Institute of Business Administration, Chennai : MBA (Part-time)



: 2007 ± 2010

Roll No.

: P07005


: anumathewsin@gmail.com

Contact no.

: 98406 73521

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT CURRICULAM VITAE ii v GLOSSARY CHAPTER 1 Introduction Computer virus Antivirus software History Internet usage pattern in india Scope of the study Objective of the study CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Context of antivirus softwares Research and findings on online threats Infection strategies for virus Methods to avoid detection Vulnerability and countermeasures Research on computer threats for entreprises Types of online threats .

The role of software development The ideal anti-virus software Creating a policy Paid version vs free version Need for the current study CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research objectives Sample design Instrumentation Discussion guide Data analysis Limitations of the study CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Analysis and interpretation Reference terms in consumer mindspace understanding of computer threats Segmentation based on mindset and behaviour Segration based on the consumer behaviour Critical task in order to make the Consumers be more cautious about online threats and to increase the usage of computer security softwares Factors influencing specific brand choice among current users .

Choice of brands Choice of new brands CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION Conclusions And Recommendations Bibliography 44 .

LIST OF FIGURES Figure Title Page Professional Vs Free Antivirus Software Fundamental Difference Table Segration based on the consumer behaviour Critical task in order to make the consumers more cautious about online threats .

The software is designed to infiltrate a computer without the owner's informed consent. Hijackers: turns machine into a zombie computer. like passwords and information that is typesd into your computer. intrusive. It is a general term used by computer professionals to mean a variety of forms of hostile.GLOSSARY The following are some of the commonly used terms in this thesis: Viruses: A virus is a software that attaches itself to real programs Malware: Malware is a combination of malicious softwares. . or annoying software or program code. Common types of malware and what they might do to your infected computer: is useds to put up ads on your screen Adware: Spyware: collects some personal information about you. Dialers: forces the computer to make phone calls.

Phishing: Social engineering is a common term used for someone trying to get ones personal information -. Hacking: Hacking is referred to the unauthorized use of computer and the network resources. .online or in person.

and spyware programs that do not have the reproductive ability. which are technically different. . trojans. most rootkits. or carried it on a removable medium such as a floppy disk. including true viruses. DVD. for instance because a user sent it over a network or the Internet. adware. A virus usually spread from one computer to when its host is taken to the target computer. ³Computer virus" is sometimes used as a umbrella term to include all the various types of malware. and spyware programs that do not have the reproductive ability. The term "virus" is also commonly but used to refer to other types of malware. Malware includes computer viruses. Viruses are sometimes confused with computer worms and Trojan horses. or USB drive. and other malicious and unwanted software. worms.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION COMPUTER VIRUS: A computer virus is a computer program that copies itself to infect a computer. spyware. crimeware. adware. dishonest adware. CD.

worms. spyware. of Internet users. The topic for the study has been chosen to interpret the consumer behaviour with regard to the usage of anti-virus softwares and awareness level of online threats among computer users. including computer viruses. 57m are claimed users and 42 million are active internet users. detect. and remove malware. However. . Such programs may also prevent and remove adware. United States and Japan are ahead of India in the list. and other forms of malware. A variety of strategies are typically employed. Signature-based detection involves searching for known malicious patterns in executable code. In addition to the drawbacks mentioned above. and the trojan horses and the other viruses. Out of these. Only 13% of existing internet surfers prefer to read in english. 3 out of 4 computer users in India use Internet and PC ownership has increased by 48% last year. heuristics can be used. the effectiveness of antivirus software has also been researched and debated. India is listed 4th among the countries with highest no. One study found that the detection success of major antivirus software dropped over a one-year period. China. To counter such so-called zero-day threats. 4 million internet users access it through mobile phones. it is possible for a user to be infected with new malware for which no signature exists yet.ANTIVIRUS SOFTWARE Antivirus (or anti-virus) software is used to prevent. INTERNET USAGE PATTERN IN INDIA 85 million Indians are PC literates.

Also. the scope of the study includes factors influencing specific brand choice among current users and reasons for preferences have also been analyzed. current attitudes and perceptions which influence consumer thinking and behavior with regards to computer protection software 2.SCOPE OF THE STUDY The scope of the study is to understand the current attitudes and perceptions about the computer protection software and online computer threats. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The broad objective of the study is to provide relevant inputs developed through distilling of end consumer understanding in the following areas 1. factors influencing specific brand choice among current users .

initially through the use of modems. such as Microsoft Word. virus checkers essentially had to check executable files and the boot sectors of floppy and hard disks. presented a further risk. During this time. Possibly the first publicly documented removal of a computer virus in the wild was performed by Bernt Fix in 1987. viruses spread throughout the Internet. Earlier viruses were typically spread by infected floppy disks. . it became essential to update virus checkers more and more frequently. Powerful macros used in word processor applications. CONTEXT OF ANTIVIRUS SOFTWARES There are competing claims for the innovator of the first antivirus product. The literature review includes the following topics: (1) context of antivirus softwares (2) research and findings on the various online threats (3) need for the current study. This meant that computers could now also be at risk from infection by documents with hidden attached macros as programs. Antivirus software came into use.CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE This chapter reviews literature related to usage of antivirus softtwares as a safety measure for protection against virus threats. but was updated relatively infrequently. Virus writers started using the macros to write viruses embedded within documents. As always-on broadband connections became the norm and more and more viruses were released. Virus checkers had to check many more types of files. a new zeroday virus could become widespread before antivirus companies released an update to protect against it. Even then. However. as internet usage became common.

during the late 1980's and the early 1990's. Pakistani. it is a recent phenomenon that has threatened the PC world to a great extent today. In 1987. The virus also known as the Lahore. and Time began publishing articles about these destructive viruses running wild and demanded a solution for all these problems. . In 1991. It contained bugs to re-infect programs that were already infected. Pakistani Brain. This virus. the first anti-virus was designed to detect and remove the Brain virus. The anti-virus also immunized floppy disks to get rid of the Brian infection. Brain-A and UIUC would occupy unused space on the floppy disk so that it could not be used and would hide from detection. The Cascade virus was the first encrypted virus. on the computer and caused a great deal of damage received a lot of media attention. Anti-virus products from IBM. McAfee. The Lehigh virus was the first memory resident file infector that attacked executable files and took control when a file was opened. the Jerusalem virus was also a memory resident file infector. the Lehigh virus was discovered at Lehigh University in the United States. which was coded and could not be changed or removed. It would also disguise itself by displaying the uninfected bootsector on the disk.The way computer viruses work. Like the Lehigh virus. Thus. Amjad and Basit Farooq Alvi. In March 1988. was known only to infect boot records and not computer hard drives like most viruses today. PC magazine. The first computer virus popularly known as the 'Brain virus' was created in 1986 by two Pakistani brothers. where they come from and the problems they create. Digital Dispatch and Iris also became available. which spread via floppy disks. Fortune. Symantec released the Norton Anti-virus software. disks etc. At the same time. viruses on the loose which infected files. The Jerusalem virus also appeared around this time at Hebrew University in Israel. Newsweek. the Cascade virus appeared in Germany. Magazines such a Business Week. But the actual truth is that computer viruses have been around for longer than most people might think.

5 billion dollars in damage.. Hence. etc. The virus that was created in the Philippines was sent through email and spread around the world in one day infecting 10 percent of computers connected to the Internet and causing $ 5. for research projects. It is hard to determine the reasons for all these actions and why virus writers create computer viruses. pranks. while others want to help make improvements in programs.A few years ago. vandalism. in 2000. the ILOVEYOU virus wreaked havoc around the world. viruses are still common and still create chaos even today. . Some do it for their personal gain.

This approach does not fool anti-virus software.METHODS TO AVOID DETECTION In order to avoid detection by users. especially those which maintain and date Cyclic redundancy checks on file changes. As computers and operating systems grow larger and more complex. Some viruses try to avoid detection by killing the tasks associated with antivirus software before it can detect them. MS-DOS platform. . makesd sure that the "last modified" date of a host file stays the same when the file is infected by the virus. however. Some viruses can infect files without increasing their sizes or damaging the files. old hiding techniques need to be updated or replaced. Defending a computer against viruses may demand that a file system migrate towards detailed and explicit permission for every kind of file access. some viruses employ different kinds of deception.

Even computer hardware can be attacked. A system consists of the computer. Many attacks simply take advantage of weak spots in the operating system (i. WiFi adds another easily compromised element to the network. Sadly.TYPES OF ONLINE THREATS Cyber-attacks are naturally directed at weak spots in computing systems. called a key logger. Criminals also use legitimate websites by breaking in and substituting poisoned pages that attack anyone who visits them. but cyber-criminals keep looking for and finding new ones. the person at the keyboard is often the weakest link in computer security. including account numbers and passwords is sent to person who installed it. eavesdropping and hacking are methods used to attack the network. and any humans in the loop. y It's well known that the part most likely to cause an automobile accident is the nut behind the wheel.. For example.e. This is a growing threat. Online security efforts are focused on eliminating and plugging the soft spots of computer systems. between your keyboard and computer. it's simple to insert a simple bug. Network worms. Windows) or programs. if someone can gain momentary access to your computer. There are many ways to deliver malicious content to computers that will directly or indirectly install all sorts of malware The network (Internet for most users) is another vulnerable part of the system. . Then everything you type. the network is connected to.

ideally free . y The ideal anti-virus software should remove existing spyware and trojan horses from the pc y The ideal anti-virus software should proactively prevent spyware and trojan horses from invading the computer y The ideal anti-virus software should proactively remove all spyware and trojan horses from the computer y y The ideal anti-virus software should also remove all adware from the pc The ideal anti-virus software should also prevent adware from penetrating your pc y The ideal antivirus software should prevent popup ads from appearing on your pc y The ideal antivirus software should be reasonably priced. server and other operating systems y The ideal anti-virus software should also be able to prevent viruses from invading the pc in the future.THE IDEAL ANTI-VIRUS SOFTWARE The features of the ideal anti-virus software Factors we took into consideration while looking for an ideal anti-virus software y y The ideal anti-virus software should remove all the existing viruses on a pc The ideal anti-virus software should work on windows xp.windows 2000.desktop .

‡ Malicious websites on the rise. Source: Panda ‡ 90% of all email is scam. ‡ Apple IPHONE A loophole in the SMS application of the iPhone lets attackers get complete control over the cellphone.Flush. at which point they are redirected to a facebook lookalike page and asked to install a fake Flash update called µAdobe_player11. ‡ 182. The device can be turned . of all the unwanted email in circulation in the 2nd half of 2008. with most unsolicited advertisements delivered between 9 and 10am. 90.06 is the cost of a working stolen credit card number with CVV security number. sending more and more spam.4% contained links to spam sites and/or malicious websites. ‡ New Trojan fakes DHCP server: A new threat known as Trojan. on underground hacker websites.M is causing havoc around the world by cretaing new DHCP servers on infected machines. ‡ Facebook : Users are receiving fake messages claiming to lead them to videos of drunk girls dancing or performing stripteases.000 new pcs around the world are turned into zombies every day. ‡ 10.exe¶.500$ is the amount it costs a company with 1000 employees to deal with spam per year due to productivity losses. DNS translates web addresses into actual requests. ‡ Rs.000 $ is what hackers earn on an average by making others click on ads sent out from infected PCs.Some of the latest news from the world of antivirus software are: ‡ 330. Furthermore. meaning any url typed into a browser¶s address field on an infected PC can send the user to a fake clone website. 4. most surfers unaware: The research also found that more than 77% of the websites that were found to be malicious were actually sites with good reputations that had been compromised by attackers. using which it can reassign the DNS used by any computer on that network.

according to Mcafee. ‡ Online criminals becoming more savvy: Cisco annual report: According to the report.5%.2%. followed by Turkey. as are bogus employment sites which only collect users¶ personal details when they sign up. The company has warned that recession is prime time for criminals who prey on anxiety and uncertainty. The iPhone SMS application runs with full system permission and the message can forward itself to everyone in your contact list. There will be more victims of cybecrime as security is something that isnt visibly beneficial. ‡ Connections between cyber crime and recession: McAfee: Physical threats such as terrorism and the worsening state of the world¶s economies have diverted the attentions of most governments away from online security. Trends to watch out for in the field of corporate security inteligence include threats potentially caused by disgruntled employees and data loss through negligence or theft of equipment. Instances of phony email messages claiming to be from banks responding to customer¶s worries are on the rise. or approximately 90% of all emails. . and some people may start cutting corners. spam now accounts for nearly 200 billion email messages per day.into a zombie with a single manipulated message. Brazil and India in the sixth place with 3. Russia. The USA is the largest source of spam. acconting for 17. Canada. ‡ Underground botnet trading ring discovered and studied Web security hardware company Finjan has announced that its researchers successfully infiltrated an underground botnet trading ring where access to compromised PCs was bought and sold.

The level of entrepreneurship shown by online criminals only shows how sophisticated and widespread crime is becoming. .The prevalance of botnets means that more and more computers in homes and offices around the world are infected than people realize or are capable of detecting.

there is not much awareness among the consumers on the need for computer security softwares. And there is a very interesting discovery to be made in this topic because the use of the internet has increased drastically and so has the danger levels for the online threats. Hence there is a need to understand the minds of the consumers and their perception on online threats and computer protection softwares.However. .NEED FOR THE CURRENT STUDY The consumer attitude towards the computer protection softwares has not been researched upon by many people earlier.

The research objectives are: Primary Objectives: 1. To identify the perception about online threats ands the relevance of usage of computer protection softwares. inspite of the high level of danger posed by online threat.CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The main purpose of this study is to investigate the consumer attitude towards the use of computer protection as there is not much awareness among the consumers on the need for computer security softwares. To understand the attitude of the consumer with regards to the danger posed by the online threats. Secondary Objectives: 1. To assess the reasons for brand choice while buying a computer protection software . To identify the types of consumers using computer protection softwares. 2.

The SEC category of the sample was SEC A/B. INSTRUMENTATION The study used a preset discussion guide to help through the one to one discussion with the consumer. The discussion guide contained all the areas to be covered during the conversation.SAMPLE DESIGN The study was carried out among 32 one to one conversations with consumers across Chennai. . there was no questionnaire which had to be filled in by the consumers. However. The sample included males from the age group of 20-40 years. The research involved: y 16 conversations with non users of computer protection software. The conversations were recorded in audio and by memory. 6 of these were intending home computer/ personal laptop purchasers y 18 conversations with users of computer protection software.

..computer usage history and current practices .. what explanation can you give to make him understand.. worms etc . Researcher to check the semantics of terms of like virus. If the computer that you use at home could speak about the role that it thinks it plays in your life today.. feelings on hearing this phrase. Researcher to encourage the respondent to share his home.. differences if any perceived between the terms total internet security and anti virus h. Setting the Context: a.. (Among recent purchasers and others.. If you have to place yourself on this scale of ³High level of computer expertise´ to ³No computer expertise´.where have you heard this phrase often.Your immediate thoughts. Brief neutral warm up chat about current occupation etc b. other similar or related phrases? f.what are the computer problem situations that you think you can easily handle? What are the computer situations in which you will need to get help? Who do you call to help/solve computer problem? e. how it thinks it makes a difference to your everyday life..How long the computer at home? Details of the computer? Who all uses? The nature of usage by each? c.. Computer protection . are there signs/´symptoms´ of virus? Researcher to ask about the internetvirus connection if it does not come up for mention at all? g.DISCUSSION GUIDE 1..... images that come to your mind on hearing this phrase.source of virus. internet security. (If the word virus is spontaneously mentioned by the respondent)What if someone seeks your help to understand what computer virus is. security..source of computer virus. the pictures. researcher to use the term that respondents use to refer to this software ) ... what happens when there is computer virus. What makes you feel so about yourself... what if there is no computer from tomorrow onwards. threat. how all will it affect your everyday life? d.

. Did your computer face any attacks before you bought this? If yes.. value for money vs.the critical credentials iv. How do you think one computer protection software will be different from others? On what all aspects can one compare and evaluate such software.i.why that particular software and not anything else? Which are the software options that you overlooked..researcher to encourage the respondent to flesh out the story of the purchase.expensive vs. Your feelings about the price that you paid.. reasons? Who else was involved in the purchase/ the influencers? Mode of purchase? Price? Installation details. do you know what the original MRP is ? Appeal and relevance of additional features such as µcan be used to protect your windows enabled mobile phone¶ v. What do you think will be the difference between highly priced and lowly priced computer protection software? If price indicate of anything in the antivirus context? vi.. What are the advantages/benefits that you personally seek for yourself through this software? ii. Can you tell me about the computer protection software that you purchased recently---.who did? Why so? Was it complicated? Specific probe points ± what did he ask for. cheap« the frame of reference in your mind for coming to this conclusion about price .AV or Total Internet Security? Where did you buy it from? Did the retailer/influencer mention the option of Antivirus and Total Security? Did he know about options like these? Reactions to the two options from future purchase perspective If not purchased at original MRP. was the software installed before or after the attack? iii.

Are you .. kind of people that this brings to your mind« how do you know about this brand ? ix. How do you want each brand to present its credentials to you ? Demo vs.what do you know about this.vii. vfm grouping if respondents have a good sense of the brands xii.. pictures.. whether they have brought this up before the respondent and did the respondent refuse for any reason? . (For those with attitude of ³no immediate necessity´) what is it about your current situation that makes you feel that antivirus is not immediately necessary? iii. Expensive vs.. For each computer protection software brand mentioned. cheap vs. happy with product performance ? have they used customer support ? was it satisfactory ? renew the subscription? Reasons why ? are they going to i. Tv ad vs.. Researcher to understand in cases where there is service back up. what should each brand strive to do? What must it deliver for you that brands are not currently delivering? xiii. Can you create groups of these in any way. what have you heard.. To be dearer to you than other antivirus brands. researcher to ask respondent.researcher to encourage spontaneous grouping xi. recco (whose?) « feelings about these as means of getting to know a brand in this category? x. Which are the computer protection software brands that you are familiar with? Researcher to encourage respondents to list brand names viii. (Among non owners of computer protection software) i.. Researcher to establish whether it is a feeling of ³someone told me about this but it is not immediately necessary´ or a situation of ³ I have never thought about this before´ ii.

.what could have happened? v. What if you were given computer protection software for free.. would you want it to use it. How expensive do you think it is to buy computer protection software? How do you think one can go about buying antivirus software... Are there any names that you know of? Researcher to carry the discussion further into brand credentials perceptions level of etc depending on the respondent¶s knowledge familiarity and .for what reasons? vi. Imagine that I meet you after six months and find that you have computer protection software installed in your computer.iv.. where does one get it from? How does one get it installed on the computer? Is there anyone who you would get in touch with for this? vii..

which are inherent in nature and are out of the researcher¶s control. Some of the information provided by the respondents might not be true. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Though the research has been properly planned and well executed. The effectiveness of the project is felt only when the results are read along with the limitations and constraints faced during the course of this study.DATA ANALYSIS Data was analyzed through the SPSS program using Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. The reason for this may be attributed to their busy schedule. This may be due to lack of interest or time on their part. and simple regression analysis. Getting timely responses from the respondents was a difficult task. there are certain limitations. The response from the respondents could be casual in nature. The correctness of information provided by the respondents in the personal data could not be established. These techniques are appropriate to variables with interval scales and each allows an independent variable to be correlated with a dependent variable. .

This chapter covers the following analysis and interpretations made on consumer behavior with regard to computer security softwares: REFERENCE TERMS IN CONSUMER MINDSPACE ³Computer Virus´ y The word computer virus enjoys high prominence in consumer mind space and is used most frequently during the conversation y Ccomputer virus is used as a blanket term to refer to all threats to a computer. Threats from other infected computers as well as those from the internet are referred to as computer virus y Familiarity with terms like ³Malware´. ³ Worms´ is relatively more limited than the term ³Virus´ y Even consumers familiar with these terms tend to use ³Virus´ as an easy reference term while referring to internet sourced threats .CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION The analysis based on the research that was carried out gave some definite and useful insights into the consumer perception and attitude on the use computer security softwares and their attiude towards the dangers which their computer is exposed to everytime they use the internet. ³Spyware´.

Antivirus means identifying and deleting virus when it enters computer through pen drive and all´ ³ Internet protection is like a wall which prevents viruses from the entering the computer from the net´ UNDERSTANDING OF COMPUTER THREATS The first category of consumers have a high prominence for computer security threats. . They tend have a much higher mindspace for computer security softwares. These consumers also have high familiarity levels for computer security softwares.³Antivirus´ y ³Antivirus´ enjoys prominence in common conversations as a blanket term referring to protection from all computer threats y There are consumers who are able to differentiate between ³Internet protection´ software and ³Antivirus´ software when these terms are presented side by side but with the tendency to use ³Antivirus´ as the blanket term to refer to both Below are some of the statements made by the respondents ³ Internet protection means protecting the computer from threats while downloading. Their perceptions are based in high number of incidents which have either happened either to them or their friends.

Silent (not easily perceptible threats) The low prominence of threats are most prevalent with respect to computer hijack /remote control They also involve stealing vital information from the computer Privacy invasion is another risk posed by the silent and not easily perceptible online threats Hacking into accounts other accounts also can be categorized as a silent threat . They have had lower impressions of incidents which have either happened either to them or their friends and their impressions are also based on these low number of incidents.Computer Destruction Before One¶s Eyes - The consumers in this category have experience their computer crashing in front of their eyes Their files have got corrupted or they have suffered from data loss Their computers have experienced drastic slowing up and frequent hanging of the system as initial indicators - The second category of consumers has a low prominence for computer security threats. They tend have a much lower mindspace for computer security softwares. These consumers also have lower familiarity levels for computer security softwares.

SEGMENTATION BASED ON MINDSET AND BEHAVIOUR Following are the segments of consumers based on the mindset and behavior with regard to the usage of computer security softwares SEGMENTS Enlightened Victims Vigilant Novice Freeloaders Dropouts Smug Apathetic .

Religious about updating ‡ Category endorsement as reaction to a personal event. agenda of preventing another disaster Enlightened Victim Some of the statements made by the enlightened victims during the conversation are: ³ computer became extremely slow and was hanging very frequently«applications do not get launched properly and the computer used to get restarted by itself all of a sudden« it used to be a pain using the computer´ . twice shy´ state of mind ‡ Aversion towards taking risk with an unknown brand ‡ Have learnt the hard way the real dangers of computer being infected ±computer loss/data loss/serious life disruption ‡ Willingness to pay the price for guaranteed protection ‡ ³Scan first´ attitude.ENLIGHTENED VICTIMS SEGMENT DEFINING ASPECTS KEY IMPLCATIONS Enlightened Victims ‡ ³Once bitten.

computer usage for work and fun ‡ Belief in tried and tested brands is core to the vigilant mindset ‡ Price by itself not the criterion for choice ‡ attitude of the computer being incomplete without protection software ‡ realization that threats are inevitable based on his understanding of computers/ internet. familiarity with incidents in his circles .³ my computer crashed«this is my second computer and I have now bought antivirus along with this´ ³ there was important files related to my work in my laptop which were corrupted«it made my life really difficult«now do not want to take a chance anymore´ VIGILANT SEGMENT DEFINING ASPECTS KEY IMPLCATIONS Vigilant ‡ computer protection is felt to be a positive step in the context of leveraging the vast possibilities of the internet.

‡ not wanting to wait for an incident to occur. ‡ Sense of vigilance all the more when the same computer/laptop is used for serious work as well as for fun ‡ also found in a section of personal computer purchase intenders Vigilant Statements made by the vigilant victims during the conversation are: ³Anyone who uses the computer for accessing the net is under threat´ ³One can surf and download with a free mind when there is good antivirus protection in the computer´ ³I am sure that my system would have had viruses if I did not have protection in it´ ³I cannot be always be behind my son and daughter when they use the system« this way. I am safer´ .

while detection is possible. deleting might not be possible´ . not all files will get copied«un licensed cannot give good protection as licensed antivirus software´ ³ only licensed software can detect all viruses as only these will get updated properly´ ³ free antivirus versions will not be good«only the licensed ones that are bought will be able to get updates to offer protection from new virus´ ³ licensed softwares have more facilities´ ³ trial and free versions will not give protection against new viruses´ ³ with free versions.ENDORSEMENT OF LICENSED VERSIONS BY BOTH ENLIGHTENED VICTIMS AND VIGILANT SEGMENTS ³unlicensed might have some files missing because when a software is cracked.

not inclined to renew subscription. potential dropouts from the category ‡ Need to highlight the ³novice friendly´.NOVICE SEGMENT DEFINING ASPECTS KEY IMPLCATIONS Novice ‡ protection software was part of the ³overall computer package´ that he bought ‡ category relevance needs to be reinforced in his personal context ‡ No isolated decision or insistence in having this software. ³idiot proof´ aspects of the Client¶s product . ‡ limited appreciation of the seriousness of threats . it was the supplier who included this and told him that ³the computer is incomplete without this´ ‡ it needs to be established in his mind that the presence of the protection software is the must have antidote for his limited understanding. so significant dread of negative incidents competence with regards to computer and net usage ‡ lax about updating.

I bought it for my children to help them with their school projects and all«at the place where I bought the system.Novice: Some of the statements made by the novice customers during the conversation are: ³ I do not know much about computers and all«. they included the virus software also « I have not now bothered to renew´ ³ It was there as part of the initial things we got with the computer«but it has not been used much« I do not think we need to buy again now´ SEGMENT DEFINING ASPECTS KEY IMPLCATIONS Freeloaders ‡ approaching protection softwares more as medicines/cleaning pills rather than permanent computer insulation tools ‡ Need to make him wake up to the dangerous threat possibilities that occur anonymously without his knowledge ‡ ‡ belief in reacting to incidence of viruses through usage of free versions available in the net when occurrences are noticed Need to establish the ³personal exclusive advantages´ of licensed software ‡ impression that it is a waste of money to buy when companies are giving free trial versions .

there is no need to renew subscriptions´ .Free Loaders Some of the statements made by the free loaders during the conversation are: ³Why waste money when you have trial versions to use whenever you need?´ ³ As long you can access trial versions which offer solutions on that immediate moment when you sense there is a problem with your computer.

impressions of system slowing down. updates´ ± light on its ‡ impression that if there is nothing major at stake in terms of data/key personal files in the system. software not being able to differentiate between good and bad executable files ‡ Need to awaken him to the significant personal threats beyond data loss ‡ Opportunity to differentiate the Client¶s product as ³being lighter than other softwares´ and ³faster in scans. reformatting of the computer is perceived to be an effective means of problem resolution in case one faces such a situation . then it is worth taking the risk of not having a protection software feet and agile ‡ For those with the knowhow.DROP OUTS SEGMENT DEFINING ASPECTS KEY IMPLCATIONS Dropouts ‡ protection softwares are perceived to be significant pain in the every day usage context . scans and updates taking up too much time.

Drop outs Some of the statements made by the drop outs during the conversation are: ³I used to have it once « then I uninstalled it« Antivirus slows the computer significantly´ ³Antivirus takes a lot of space in the computer and increases its load´ ³ Antivirus consumes a lot of RAM and makes the computer very slow´ ³ Antivirus will keep launching dialogue boxes and will not let us work smoothly´ SMUG SEGMENT DEFINING ASPECTS KEY IMPLCATIONS Smug ‡ impression that one¶s inherent sense of caution and safety is adequate for computer protection ‡ Opening their eyes to threat incidents which they cannot normally perceive ‡ perception that the sites that one visits are safe and hence there is no risk ‡ Establishing that any activity on the net through a computer with no ‡ inclination to believe that once in a while surfing the net is not at all dangerous protection is a risk activity .

these must be at least 4000 to 5000 per year«it is not a necessary expense if one is visiting only secure sites´ µ when we have managed without antivirus for so long without facing problems. then why opt for one now? ´ . then why do I need to have an antivirus´ ³ only foreign softwares like Norton are available and these can be purchased only online and are very costly «.‡ in case of no net access. thorough caution with regards to use of pen drives etc leads to there being no need for protection software Smug Segment Some of the statements made by the smug during the conversation are: ³If you are connected with the internet. then only protection is necessary« I am very careful in terms of what is inserted in my computer´ ³ I am the only person using my computer«it is very safe as I use it only for mailing and for social networking´ ³ If I visit only secure sites.

impression that there are no immediate real personal threats to be weary of through one¶s computer activities ‡ need to provocatively e convey the serious personal consequences of computer threats ‡ need to dispel the ³safe today because safe yesterday¶ myth ‡ feeling that ³previous safety´ is reason enough to manage without computer protection software Apathetic segment Some of the statements made by the apathetic segment during the conversation are: ³ I have managed without it for so long« so why should I buy now?´ ³ they say all these things but I have not faced problems yet«so not really necessary´ .APATHETIC SEGMENT DEFINING ASPECTS KEY IMPLCATIONS Apathetic ‡ attitude of nonchalance . based on one¶s ³safe track record´.



.FACTORS INFLUENCING SPECIFIC BRAND CHOICE AMONG CURRENT USERS There are various factors which consciously influence the choice of brands for a computer protection software. in the computer protection context for the consumers is rooted in y impressions of its effectiveness. y credibility gathered from ³personal experts ³ y ³neutral´ credible sources It is the sense of popularity and goodwill perceived about a brand that has greater influence on involvement with it than factors like presence or absence of international lineage. Brand stature and acceptability. prestige value when it comes to the purchase of computer protection softwares Conviction about the brand¶s expertise is thus a minimum requirement for brand acceptance especially in situations where threat perceptions are real and immediate.

CHOICE OF BRANDS: When faced with choice of brands with established expertise and having to evaluate them. deleting of files y The concept of bargain purchase is of relevance only when the individual is impressed with the credentials of the brand y Ease of installation/method of installation is not seen as a significant brand differentiator currently Some of the statements made by the consumers about the choice of brands are: ³ Kaspersky has the reputation of being the best« it is a big brand all over the world´ ³ Everyone uses Kaspersky these days« hence there is nothing to think about before buying this´ ³ I was using Norton before« then the SP Road shopkeeper only suggested Kaspersky saying that thus is equally good´ ³ Everyone knows about Quick heal«it must be the most widely used antivirus´ ³ Anyone who you ask mentions the name of Quick heal only´ . the following factors find mention with weightage depending on personal considerations y y y y impact on overall system performance pace of scanning speed of file updates repair vs.

I feel that problem is not there´ CHOICE OF NEW BRANDS: y There is no positive sense of adventure and excitement in making the discovery of a computer protection brand that no one else is using in one¶s circle of significant others They are rather more assured to buy a software which has been rcommended by their friends/relatives. Norton. it cannot delete all«with K7. Avast which delete files instead of repairing´ ³Norton is the biggest name in antivirus« I think they are the world¶s biggest«you pay for that reliability and trust when you pay 200 Rs more for Norton´ ³ I let the person who comes to help with my computer problems decide which brand to buy« he said MacAfee is very good and it was his choice´ ³ shopkeeper recommended K7«he said that it was good and he will vouch for it«I bought antivirus from him last time as well« that time I bought Norton«but he told that this is lesser price but with no dip in quality or effectiveness« he recommended this as a better buy´ ³ came to know of K7 from the dealer«I bought the computer from him only«was using MacAfee before«while it searches for viruses. y New brand with unknown credentials is seen as a significant risk especially in situations .³ Positive of Quick heal is that it repairs corrupt files unlike MacAfee.

then the news will get to you´ ³ even before you see the brand advertisement and all. and safe« what if it is a stripped version which can give protection only from a few viruses´ ³ I do not ever want to try antivirus that I have not heard of before or that the person from whom I bought the computer does not know anything about´ ³ I need to know that the antivirus company will be giving safety from viruses that come up even after the day that I purchase it´ . That is more reassuring that a price offer for me´ ³ I will definitely doubt an unknown brand of antivirus that is priced much cheaper than the leading ones« who knows whether it is genuine.y in which the inclination to buy the protection software is rooted in the incidence of an unfortunate event or active personal concern A few statements made by the consumers on chosing new computer protection brands: ³ if it is a good brand. you get to read about it somewhere if it is very good´ ³ the best scheme for a new brand is when people who know about computers talk about it «.

Each one of them have their own experiences and reasoning for either using or not using a computer security software.CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The research study and analysis has helped in understanding the mindset of Indian consumers with regard to the use of computer security softwares. The consumers have been segmented in to Enlightened victims. Freeloaders. The segment of computer security software is highly cluttered and there is not a definite kind of ideal customer. The main concern being that the number of online threats and virus infections are on the rise. The behavioural pattern is highly influenced by their experience with the attack of viruses on their computers and not very dependent on the kind of websites they visit. the Indian consumer is clearly not very conscious about the safety of his computer. There is no positive sense of adventure and excitement in making the discovery of a computer protection brand. Novice. The purchase is made based on the recommendations made by their friends and family. Vigilant. The choice of brands is again not very reasonable. However. Dropouts. Smug and Apathetic. .

. to educate oneself about the high risks that the confidential data and computer gets exposed to everyday. The recommendations that can be made to any computer security software company is to firstly educate the consumers on the online threats and damges caused by viruses and malwares. in todays fast growing.It would take a few more years before the Indian consumer gets fully educated and aware of the threats faced by its computer and take protection proactively and not reactively. tech savvy economy. There is a very low level of awareness within the consumers and it would be the need of the hour.

CreateSpace. Addison-Wesley Professional. The . David LeBlanc. ³Crimeware: Understanding New Attacks and Defenses´. Paul Peter.Ben Smith (2010) ³Assessing Network Security´. Learn What it Takes to Crack Even the Most Secure Systems´. ³ Art of Computer Virus Research and Defense´. ³E-Habits What You Must Do to Craft a Successful Digital Footprint´. Alpha Books . Olson (2007). 4. Markus Jakobsson. Zulfikar Ramzan (2008). ³Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategy´. Tata McGraw Hill 6. 2.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. David Melnichuk (2010). Microsoft Press 5. Preston Gralla (2002). Addison-Wesley Professional 3. ³The Complete Idiot's Guide to Internet Privacy and Security´. J. ³ The Hacker¶s underground Handbook. Tata McGraw Hill 7. Peter Szor (2005). Kevin Lam. Elizabeth Charnock (2010).

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