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NOTES ON ITALIAN MEDALS-X'

BY G. F. HILL
I-SOME MEDALS BY BENVENUTO A fine reproduction was subsequently published
CELLINI by Dr. Buchenau,' who pointed out that Armand
was wrong in supposing that the inscription had
HE large medal which is been chased away. It had never been present.
illustrated on PLATE I, A, Concentric circles to guide the artist in placing
was recently acquired by Mr. his inscription had been incised on the model, and
Rosenheim, who recognized these are to be faintly seen on the proof. Dr. von
its importance, on account
not so much of any beauty Fabriczy5 gives a reduced illustrationof the piece,
it may possess as of the place remarking that the inscription was meant to be
which it takes in the work engraved on the proof, the concentric lines being
intended to guide the engraver. Doubtless they
of a well-known craftsman. The remarkswhich would serve that purpose, but their primaryobject
follow, both on the medal itself and on the was to guide the artist in building up the lettering
attribution of other medals to the same artist, on the model itself.6
are essentially due to Mr. Rosenheim, at whose The diameter of the Weimar proof is 140mm.7
wish I lay them before the readers of this maga- Mr. Rosenheim's lead measures 137 mm., a very
zine. small decreasefrom the diameterof the trial proof,
The medal is of lead, without reverse. It re-
considering the great size of the piece. Mr.
presents the bust, turned to the right, of Ercole II Rosenheim, who has himself just examined the
d'Este, fourth Duke of Ferrara, Modena and original at Weimar, considers that the loss in
Reggio. He wears a cuirass, on the breast of diameter may be due not to shrinkage, but to a
which is a grotesque mask, somewhat resembling
a panther's. The piece measures 137 mm. in trimming of the edge of the stone on which the
model was worked, which reduced the diameter
diameter. The inscription is HER%
FER but theII" DVX" by about 2 mm. In any case the lead is a good
-IIII*MVT*ET'REG, stops, and early cast, possibly made by the artist himself.
instead of being mere points, are of the triskeles The Weimar medal, as we have seen, has been
shape; and at the beginning of the inscription is recognized as the work of Benvenuto Cellini, and,
an ornament which appears to be a pine cone, or
indeed, as the obverse of the piece which he tells
something of the kind. us he made in 1540, when he was at Ferrara,on
This medal has already been known for some his way to France. Here is the relevant portion
time in an incomplete form. Armand described,2 of the passage in his autobiographys :-
as the work of an anonymous artist a specimen 'The duke sent for me, and bade me take his
in his own collection, measuring only 133 mm., to
which an alien reverse had been added. A speci- portrait; this I did upon a circular piece of black
stone about the size of a little trencher. . . It
men of this hybrid was recently acquired by Mr. took me eight days to complete his likeness; then
Rosenheim. The inscription on the obverse is he ordered me to design the reverse. On it I
blundered, IIII being converted into I M. This modelled Peace, giving her the form of a woman
is a mere mistake, and not to be regardedas an with a torch in her hand, setting fire to a trophy
abbreviation of ' Imolae.' The reverse,with two of arms; I portrayed her in an attitude of glad-
mounted knights tilting at each other before a
ness, with very thin drapery,and below her feet
castle, seems to be a pure invention, and is not lay Fury in despair,downcast and sad, and loaded
even medallic in style; it may possibly have been with chains. . . . The duke . . . gave me inscrip-
suggested by an ivory-carving. tions for both sides of the medal. That on the
Much more important than this hybrid is the reverse ran as follows: Pretiosa in conspectu
admirable one-sided specimen without inscription
in the Goethe Museum at Weimar. Armand Domini; it meant that his peace with the Pope
had been dearly bought.' Cellini adds that he
describes it as a fine proof, on which the legend took the medal, completed, to the duke before he
has disappeared, probably as the result of the went away.
chasing to which the piece has been subjected. Various views have been expressed about this
So far as I know, the piece was first identified in
For referenceto this, and to the articleby Dr. Buchenau,to be
print as the work of Cellini by Dr. Carl Ruland.s mentioned immediately,we are indebted to Herr Lockner,of
1For the previousarticlessee BURLINGTON
MAGAZINE,Vol. ix, Wiurzburg. Dr. Rulandagain called attention to the existence
p. 408 (September,19o6); Vol. x, p. 384 (March,1907) ; Vol. xii, of the piece in the ' Frankfurter Zeitung' for November 3, 1900
p. 141 (December, i9o7); Vol. xiii, p. 274 (August, 1908); (cited by Dr. Buchenau). He noted that the mask on the breast
Vol. xiv, p. 21o (January, 19o9); Vol. xv, pp. 31, 94 (April and of the cuirasswas not quite finishedin the proof.
May, 1909); Vol. xvi, p. 24 (October, i909); Vol. xvii, p, 143 4 'Blditter fiir Miinzfreunde,' 1900oo,p. 156, and Pl. 14o, No. 5,
(June, g19o). 5 'Italian Medals,'p. i45, P1. XXX, 4,
211, 147, ; III, 218, a. In 1, 147, 2, he mentions the passage 6See BURLINGTON April, 1909, p. 31.
MAGAZINE,
in Cellini's 'Life,' with which we shall deal presently, but 7Confirmed by Dr. von Oettingen. ' Thickness' in the
remarksthat the medal there describedis unknown. English translationof Fabriczyis an obviousslip for ' diameter.'
3 Das Goethe-Nationalmuseumzu Weimar,' Sonderabdruck 8P, 255 in Bacci's edition; I quote from Symonds's transla.
aus d. Jahrb.d. Kon, Akad. zu Erfurt,N.F., XXIV (1898), p. i8. tion, with a slight modification,

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Notes on Italian Medals
medal by writers to whom its existence in any I, B]. The specimen illustrated, from Mr. Rosen-
form was yet unknown: they may be read in heim's collection, is certainly altogether charac-
Plon's work on Cellini (p. 202). It is hardly teristic of Cellini's work. The figure of Prudence,
necessary to mention the theory that the piece holding a mirror in her left hand, a pair of
was not a medal in our sense of the word, but a compasses in her right, with a dragon at her feet,
carving in black stone. Such works do not as a is a skilful and charming design, with just that
rule have reverses. The black stone about the touch of prettiness that has made Cellini take a
size of a little trencher was of course a disc of place in popular estimation far above his merit as
slate, or something similar, such as we know was a creative artist. The craftsmanship displayed in
used by wax modellers for a modelling board.? the modelling and chasing of both portrait and
The ' little trencher' (taglierettoda tavola) aptly reverse design is brilliant. The doubts which
describes the size of the piece which has come have been expressed by critics such as Plon about
down to us. the attribution of this work to Cellini seem un-
But what else is there to connect it with Cellini ? necessary, so far as they are inspired by any
The mere fact that it is one side of a medal of supposed inferiorityof the piece to his accredited
Ercole II, corresponding more or less in size work. It may be noted that the specimen illus-
with one which Cellini says he made, is hardly trated by Plon is very poor, which may account
enough. There is, however, something more; if for the unfavourable opinion which he expresses.
we compare the treatment of the relief in the head Jean de Lorraine, born in 1498, became a Cardinal
of the Duke, and the head in Cellini's medal of in i518. Cellini may well have known him in
Clement VII [PLATE II, A], the similarityof hand- Rome; but the medal shows him at a mature age,
ling is at once apparent. Most noticeable is the so that it may have been made in France in
rather harsh way in which the relief fails to be 1537 or between 1540 and 1545-
modulated into the background; the perpendicu- One thing, however, is clear, apart from the
lar edge of the relief is especially perceptible in attribution to Cellini ; and that is that, whoever
the noses of both heads. The comparativecoarse- made this medal of the Cardinal,made also two
ness of rendering in the lead medal is no more other medals, neither of which, I believe, has
than might be expected in a piece of this size by hitherto been associated with it. The figure of
an artist accustomed to work on a smaller scale. Prudence on the reverse of the medal of Scara-
In the Weimar specimen much of this coarseness muccia Trivulzio (here illustrated, by Mr. Whit-
has been removed by chasing. combe Greene's permission, from his specimen),
The description of the missing reverse repeats [PLATEI, is line for line the same as on the
closely the account given by Cellini 0oof the reverse medal of thec],'•Cardinal de Lorraine. And it was
of the medal alreadymentioned,which he made for evidently designed to accompany the obverse, not
Pope Clement VII in I534. There too he repre- merely attached to it by a subsequent hand. It will
sented Peace as 'a slender woman, dressed in very be noticed that the stops on this reverse are of the
thin drapery, gathered at the waist, with a little same shape as on the medal of Ercole d'Este.
torch in her hand, setting fire to a heap of arms Fabriczyattributedthis medal,as well as another,'
bound together like a trophy. In the background apparentlya reduction from the first, if not by the
I had shown part of a temple, where was Discord same hand, to Caradosso. Dr. Bode's hesitation
chained with a load of fetters. Round about it in accepting the attribution1" seems wholly justified.,
ran a legend with these words: Clauduntur belli The ' modelling and extraordinarilyfine chasing,
portae.' This is a common medal; the specimen which Fabriczyregardsas favouringhis attribution'
illustratedin PLATE II, A, is in the British Museum." indicate Cellini just as much as Caradosso. The
The resemblance between this figure of Peace, resemblance to Caradosso lies chiefly on the
as shown on the medal of Clement, and the surface, especially in the flat modelling of the
figure of Prudence on a medal of Jean de Lorraine, portrait-bust. The date of the medal-between
Cardinal of Sant' Onofrio, has suggested1 that 1517 and 1522-iS, it must be admitted, early for
this latter medal is also from Cellini'shand [PLATE Cellini. But we know from his autobiography
See BURLINGTON MAGAZINE, ann. cit., p, 32. that he was experimenting in work of this kind in
Book I, Chapter LXX, in Symonds's translation.
10o
11Armand I, 148, 2. These medals, it should be remembered, his early days at Rome, when he was about twenty-
are struck from dies, not cast like the medal of Ercole d'Este. three years old; he made,'6 for instance, a large
12To
J. Friedlinder, ' Munzen u. Med. des B. Cellini,' Berlin,
1855, p. 7. Dr. Buchenau notes, as a point of connexion 13The specimen illustrated by Fabriczy (PI. XXXIV, 4) is
between this medal and the well-known medal of Bembo, that curious. On the obverse the inscription (which, by the way,
on both the word ' Cardinalis' is abbreviated as 'Car.,' not also has the abbreviation CAR.) reads wrongly COMIH for
*Card.' The point would be of more value if the medal of COMEN. The reverse, on the other hand, is evidently from
Bembo were quite certainly by Cellini, and if the same abbre- an unfinished model, since, like the Weimar Ercole d'Este, it
viation were not used by many other artists. See, for instance, has concentric lines, but no inscription.
14 A specimen is illustrated in the Simon Catalogue, No. 2o6.
Armand II, io9, 2 (Candida's medal of Giuliano della Rovere) ; 1 ' Zeitschr. fiir bild. Kunst,' XV, p.
I16, 45 (medal of Francesco Alidosi); 150, 15 (Jacopo Sadoleto) ; 42.
152, 8 (Antonio Pucci). In fact, it seems to be the commoner 16 p. 49 in Bacci's edition; Bk. I, Chap, XXV, in Symonds's
form of abbreviation. translation,

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iB

- -- "p~giL~IF

6F~I I I I s~
i~i"BI?Z

NOTES ON ITALIAN MEDALS.-X, PLATE I


A

B h•?B

C C

f E

lie

NOTES ON ITALIAN MEDALS.-X. PLATE 11


Notes on Italian Medals
golden medal for Gabbriello Ceserino to wear in quote are the medals by the 'Medallist of the
his hat, with a design of Leda and the Swan. Captive Love' of Jacopa Corregiaand Maddalena
(English readersmust not be misled, by Symonds's Rossi and Spinelli's medal of Andrea Gritti with
careless use of the word 'engraved,' to suppose the church of San Francesco della Vigna, dated
that this medal was a flat engraved badge; 1534. Doubtless a few other instances would be
the Italian word is 'isculpito.') Soon after men- revealed by search.
tioning this badge, Cellini speaks of the medallic This peculiar stop and a leaf-like ornament not
work7 of Caradosso and other artists, saying that unlike that which we have noticed on the medals
he proceeded to perfect himself in this art. The of the Cardinal de Lorraine and of Piantanida
way in which he mentions Caradosso indicates an occur, curiouslyenough, in conjunction on the fine
artistic debt to the Milanese medallist, which is, as medal of the otherwiseunknownVenetian,Antonio
we have seen, evident to a certain extent in the Bossi.12 The British Museum specimen is illus-
portraitof ScaramucciaTiivulzio. trated on PLATE II, C, not in order to support
The medals of the Cardinalde Lorraine and of an unwarrantableattributionto Cellini, but rather
ScaramucciaTrivulzio carrywith them yet another, to show how a stronger hand treats subjects akin
representing Pietro Piantanida [PLATE II,. B].18 to his. The noble figure of Fame on the reverse
The figure of Faith on this piece, holding a of this medal is more largely conceived, more
chalice and pointing upwards, is, it will surely be finely composed and modelled, than anything
admitted, own sister to the figures of Prudence on from Cellini's hand; its forms generally are cast
the medals of the Cardinal and Trivulzio. That in the mould of great sculpture. The handling of
being so, it is hardly necessaryto drawattention to the draperyon the medals of the Cardinalde Lor-
the triskelesstops in the legend DVM SPIRITVS raine, Trivulzio and Piantanida is seen to be
HOS REGET ARTVS, or to the little leaf-like niggling and petty when compared with this.
flourish in the exergue, which is found also at the We shall not be far wrong, I think, in seeing in
end of the legend on the medal of the Cardinal. this piece the influence of the great Florentine who
It would be interesting to know whether the worked at Venice, and whose works have some-
other reverse"9which occurs in association with times been claimed for Cellini-I mean Jacopo
the portraitof Piantanida is also by the same hand. Sansovino.
But no specimen is known to me, and Armand's II-ANTONELLO DELLA MONETA
statement that one is in the Vienna Hofmuseum Documents published by Count Nicol6 Papa-
seems to be incorrect."
dopoli 22 have thrown a certain amount of light on
Nothing appears to be known of Piantanida, the obscure history of the Venetian mint in the
but it is presumedthat he belonged to the Milanese fifteenth century. In these, among other refer-
family of that name. ences of interest,are to be found records of the
Thus we have a group of medals, representing
three persons, all indissolubly connected with each activity of a certain Antonello, engraver to the
other by the general style of their reverses, as well mint, which I enumerate in a footnote." From
as by the forms of their stops and ornaments. these documents it appears that Antonello di
One of these has alreadybeen attributedto Cellini. Pietro, variously described as ' orefice' or, from
2'Armand II, 225, 6; Fabriczy, P1, XVII, 4. The medal
two of them have the same stops as are found on to the thirdquarterof the sixteenthcentury.
belongs
The large portraitof Ercole II, also independently 2
' Alcunenotiziesugli intagliatori della Zecca di Venezia' in
attributedto Cellini, and corresponding, so far as ' Riv. ital. di numism.,' I (1888), pp. 351-358. Cp. his ' Monete
we can judge, with the medal of which he himself di Venezia,'in which information,analysedin the next note, is
given: I, pp. 277, 282 ; II, pp. 5, 44, 45.
gives us the description. In this deceitful world, "31454,26th July. Luca Sesto andAntonellodella Monetaare
no attribution is certain, even when a work is mentioned as in receipt of a salary as engravers of dies.
(Probably the second-namedartist had come into officeon the
signed; but the case for the attribution to Cellini death of GerolamoSesto in 1447; but this is mere conjecture.)
of all this group of medals seems to be very 1461, 13th March. The engraver Antonello receives an
order for dies.
respectable. 1462, I4th May. The Signoria approves the die for the
Some stresshas been laid on the three-legged or grosso, fato per man de MaistroAxtonelloa.
triskeles stop which is found on no less than three 1472, 24th July. Antonello di Pietro, called also Antonello
of these pieces. It is an unusual form, very rare della Moneta,and his two sons are in the employ of the mint,
in the fifteenth century, not common in the the salaryof the two sons being deductedfrom thatof Luca
Sesto, who is no longer capableof work.
sixteenth until after the middle of the century, 1483, i6th October. Luca Sesto, being old and unable to
when it is used, for instance, by Gianfederigo come to his work, asks for his son Bernardoto be made master
of the dies. This is granted.
Bonzagna and Giannantonio Rossi. In fact, the 1484,24thFebruary[given as 1483,27thFebruary,in ' Riv.
only other examples before 1550 which I can ital.,' I, p. 353; the difference in the years is presumablydue
a'7 Medaglie cesellate fatte di piastra' and 'medaglie in- to the calendar]. Alexander de Leopardis, goldsmith, is
tagliate in acciaio.' admittedas third master, without salary, with Luca Sesto and
Antonelloorefice. Silvestroand Pasquale sons of Antonello a
is From the BritishMuseumspecimen.
"iArmand III, 223, E. stampis, complain that they have served long in the hope of
S0Communicationfrom Ritter A von, Loehr. succeedingtheir father, and offer to submitproofsof their
skill.

'9
Notes on Italian Medals
his post, as 'della Moneta,' was active at the A glance at the two medals,as illustratedin PLATE
Venetian Mint from 1454 (perhaps from 1447) to II, D and F, will show the great difference in
1484. From the last entry it appears that his style between them, which seems amply to justify
family name was Grifo (or, as it is written in the the refusal of Armand and Heiss to admitthat they
note of Silvestro's death in 1503, Griffo). can be from the same hand." It is, however,
Now there are two interesting medals repre- extremely natural to suppose that medals of the
senting doges who were ruling during this period, doges should, in some cases at least, be made by
one signed AN, the other ANT. The initials AN, engravers at the Venetian mint at this period as
writes Fabriczy,"2'are insufficient to dispel the they were later, for instance, by Camelio. And
obscurityof' the origin of the former;and 'whether when we have an engraverAntonello employed at
the medal of the Doge Cristoforo Moro, signed the mint precisely at the period at which these
ANT, belongs to the same artist is doubtful on medals signed AN and ANT were produced, the
account of the difference in style.' However, let supposition in question becomes more naturalthan
us describe them : ever, even although it be recognized that names
(I) Francesco Foscari, Doge 1423-1457. beginning in Ant. . . are very common. We are
Obv. FRANCISCVS FOSCARI DVX. Bust however not much advanced so long as we do not
to right in ducal robe and cap. Rev. VENETIA know which of the two medals to attributeto our
MAGNA, and in exergue AN. Venetia, wearing engraver. The later piece, on the whole, seems on
cuirass over tunic, seated to front on a throne stylistic grounds to have much the stronger claim.
formed by two lions; she holds in her right a It lacks the largeness of style, the boldness of
sword erect, and in her left a kite-shaped shield modelling, which characterize the medal of Fos-
charged with a lion rampant; at her feet are two cari; the minute decoration of the cap and robe and
half-figures. the flat and uninspired reverse suggest that it may
Bibliothtque Nationale. Bronze, 46 mm. P1. II, D. Cp. well have been the work of a man accustomed to
Armand I, p. 25. Heiss, 'Venise,' P1. I, Nos. i (48 mm.) use the graver. The medal of Foscari, on the other
and 2 (41Imm.). The second medal is described by Heiss as
consisting only of a reverse, which is found attached to the hand, has considerable sculptural quality. It is
portraitof CristoforoMoroby the artist ' Ant.' He and Armand worth notice-though I do not advance it as a
both agree in supposingthat this combinationis a hybrid. reason for attribution-that Vettor Gambello, who
We may note that the type is adapted from, or was appointed engraver in 1484,was the son of one
goes back to a common original with, an inte- Antonio, marmorariuscognomentode San Zacharia,
resting relief on the fagade of the Palazzo Ducale at that time no longer living. The artistwho made
towards the Piazzetta25 representing' Venecia' with the Foscari medal, adapting for his reverse type
the same attributes,with the sea flowing beneath the design of a piece of sculpture on the fagade of
her feet, and the proud legend on a scroll: FORTIS the ducal palace, may well have been this sculptor.
IVSTA TRONO FVRIAS MARE SVB PEDE
PONO. The two half-figuresthen, on the medals
as on the relief, represent the 'furies' of discord III-THE MONUMENT OF GIAN GIACOMO
and sedition, not, as they have hitherto been TRIVULZIO
described, captives. The little medal illustratedin PLATEII, E, is, I
(2) Cristoforo Moro, Doge 1462-1471. believe, extremely rare.
Obv. CRISTOFORVS ?MAVRO *
DVX" (leaf Obve. IO IA MAR' VIGLE' MARE-
on stalk). Bust n to left, in ducal robe and cap; on SCAL FRAN ? 'TRI
Equestrian statue of Gian Gia-
the truncation, ANT * ?
como Trivulzio to right, holding batton in right;
Rev. Within an oak wreath,' in the exergue, device of a cross in flaming circle
ET' IVSTICIAE . CVLTOR inRELIGIONIS" four lines, and
two leaves on a stalk. (the ruota del Sole) between the letters S V.
Border of dots on both sides. Stops: invertedtriangles.
Rev. INGENIVM : SVPERAT : VIRES
British Museum. Bronze, 42 mm. P1. II, F., Keary, .-
and in exergue S V. Female figure seated to
'Guide.' No. 74. Cp. Armand I, 46, I. Heiss, Venise, PI. I, right on a stool, nude to waist, holding in right a
No. 6, p. 105. wand behind her head, in left a cord which is
attached to a lion standing on a garlanded basis.
1484,4th March. A trial is ordered.
1484,3oth March, The two sons of Antonello are retained Borderof dots on both sides.
to work with their father, one of them to succeed him on his Rosenheim Collection. Bronze, 31.5 mm. P1. II, E.
death.
1484, 28th September. Vettor di Antonio da San Zacharia
This is clearly Milanese work of the early part
(i.e , Vettor Gambelloor Camelio) is made master of the dies. of the sixteenth century. It reminds us in some
1484, 29th September. The work on the dies of the ducat degree of a small group of medals of Ludovico il
divided between Luca Sesto (uno de i pidiantiqui maistri de le
stampe de la zecha nostra)and Alessandrodei Leopardifor the Moro, which have been attributed to Caradosso,27
obverse, and Pasquale and Silvestro di Antonello for the reverse. " Of course, the fact that a copy of the reverse of the Foscari
1490, 9th December. Silvestro Grifo, master of the dies,
invents a new alloy. medal is found attached to the Moro portraitdoes not prove
21' Italian Medals,' p. 73. any
7
original connexion between them.
a2Venturi,'Storia dell' Arte ital.,' VI, pp. 27, 28. Friedl•nder,' Ital. Schaumiinzen,'p. 188.
20
Notes on Italian Medals
without very great probability.8 They celebrate conjectural date for the one before us. The
the defeats of the French and their expulsion young man is, perhaps, the marshal's son, Gian
from Italy. Nicol6.
The medal has not found its way into Armand's Rosmini is unable to explain the letters S V;
collection, although it had alreadybeen illustrated his suggestion that they are the signature of an
(by a very indifferent engraving, it is true) in artist is not likely. It is tempting to see in them
Rosmini's Life of the Marshal." Rosmini describes some allusion to Vigevano, but what the S may
the medal accurately except that he takes the mean I do not know. The place can hardly have
woman for a man. He makes the interesting boasted a 'Senate.' Although there was never a
suggestion that the reverse may refer to the rout mint at Vigevano, there prevailed,as earlyas 1596,
of the Venetians by the French (with whom a tradition that the marshal had coins (nummi) of
Trivulzio was present) at Agnadello on I4th bronze and silver struck there.s0 Possibly these
May, 1509, the lion representing Venice. So, we medals are the nummi in question.
may note, the horse represents Naples on one of The most interesting point about the medal,
the medals of Ludovico il Moro mentioned above. however, is none of these; but the fact that we
Rosmini says the piece reminds him in style and have on it an equestrianportraitof Trivulzio. In
colour of metal of another, which he describes spite of its small scale, the figure is clearly seen to
and illustrates. This medal also has escaped be a portrait. The general composition is doubt-
Armand'snet. I have been unable to meet with less more or less conventional, but it is impossible
a specimen, but describe it after Rosmini. to ignore it in connexion with the designs which
Obv. 10 IA TRI MAR VIGIE LE MA FRANT Leonardo da Vinci made for the equestrian
IE (trefoil) and, in exergue, MCCCCCVIII. monument of the marshal. It may be left to
The marshal on a prancing horse to right; he students of Leonardo to say whether it is
wears a cuirass, and holds baton erect in his actually inspired by Leonardo'sdesigns-in which
right; behind him, a young man on horseback case it might help us to sort out the drawings for
riding on his left. the Trivulzio monument from the others which
No reverse, Bronze. Diameter, 44 mm. (to judge from resemble them-or, as I am inclined to think more
illustration). Rosmini, II, Pl. III, 43. probable, is merely the medallist's notion, sug-
The date 15o8 on this medal confirms Rosmini's gested by his knowledge that the monument had
" H. de la Tour, 'Rev. Num.,' 1896, pp. 92 ff. been designed.
%C. de Rosmini, 'Dell' Istoria ... di Gian-JacopoTrivulzio'
(Milan, 1815), II, P1. III, No. 44 and p. 378. S"Rosmini, II, p. 346.

THE WEAKNESS AND STRENGTH OF TURNER


BY A. GLUTTON BROCK
NGLISH painting has always dwelt upon from childhood and what was endeared
been enfeebled by a desire to to them by a thousand associations. English
representwhat is not. Its evil painters, when they try to be Italian or French, do
genius is that Satan, the god of not paint what their eyes have dwelt upon from
unreality,whomBlake addressed childhood, and in their pictures there is none of
and defined in a wonderful that richness and intensity that only come from
verse-- association. They have made a false distinction
between idealism and realism,from not understand-
Though thou art worshipped by the names divine
Of Jesus and Jehovah, thou art still ing that the distinction exists only for the critic,
not for the artist. The artist must be both realist
The Son of Morn in weary night's decline, and idealist, always painting an idea that he gets
The lost traveller'sdream under the hill. from reality and its emotional associations, and
English painters are always painting 'the lost not from the pictures of other artists. In fact, his
traveller'sdream under the hill,' a dream of some raw material must be life, not art. From art he
'shady city of palm trees,' or of some past age of can only learn method, and it is often dangerous
the world in which they would rather live than in for him to learn method that is associated with
their own; and in trying to see that dream they a raw material different from his own.
get a distaste for the visible world about them. The besetting weaknesses of English art are
Painting is not the art of imitating reality, but illustratedmore signally, perhaps, in the career of
rather the art of expressing a passion for reality, Turner than of any other English painter, just
and without this passion no man can be a great because he was the greatest of our painters and at
painter. Correggio and Titian had it no less than last overcame them. And it is well to draw atten-
Rembrandt. They painted what their eyes had tion to these weaknesses because we cannot
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