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Planning means pre-thinking and pre-arranging things before an event takes place so as to achieve good results in health, convenience, comfort and happiness of all living beings. By careful planning, we can eradicate the mistakes of the past and be wiser in the future. Concept of a Town & Town Planning.Town or city is a place of urban living. Urban means an environment in which natural surroundings have been dominated by artificial or man-made surroundings, which man builds for himself-for his living, working and recreation. Town planning is considered as an art of shaping and guiding the physical growth of the town creating buildings and environments to meet the various needs such as social, cultural, economic and recreational etc. and to provide healthy conditions for both rich and poor to live, to work, and to play
or relax, thus bringing about the social and economic well-being for the majority of mankind. Aristotle once said: “A city should be built to give its inhabitants security and happiness” while Plato describes it as “a place where men had a common life for a noble end”. Principles of Town Planning. The main principles of Town planning are as below: (a) There should be no haphazard (laissez faire) method in planning process. (b) Housing accommodation to various classes of people should be allowed to develop. If slums are existing, they should be pulled down by making some alternate arrangement of accommodation in transit camps for dishoused persons. (c) Civic amenities like shopping centers, dispensaries, schools, nursery etc. should
be provided to all the residents. (d) Adequate open spaces should be reserved for public recreation centers and also for future expansion of the town. (e) Public and semi-public buildings should be grouped and distributed neatly throughout the town. (f) The system of zoning should be strictly followed. The town should be divided into suitable zones such as residential zone, commercial zones, industrial zone and recreational zone etc. (g) The growth of the town should be controlled by the provision of green belt, which is an open strip of land all round the town or city reserved for special purpose of limiting the growth of the city. Need of Town Planning A town or city which is properly planned affords more comforts and conveniences to the public. The need of town planning. Can very well be appreciated by mentioning the evil solutions which is town has to face in the absence of town planning. They are as following :(1) defective road system resulting in the formation of narrow streets and lanes; (2) development of slums and squatter settlements; (3) haphazard location of industries; (4) heavy traffic congestion during the working hours of the day; (5) inadequate open spaces for parks and playgrounds resulting in unhealthy living conditions; (6) lack of essential amenities like electricity, water supply and drainage; (7) noisy atmosphere disturbing the peace of city dwellers; (8) uncontrolled development of the town; (9) unhealthy living conditions; etc.
sociologist of Scotland. the then Governor of Madras. Welwyn and many other cities were planned on this principle. their places to live. Letchworth. Work (economical aspect). their families and communities they formed. It soon became the landmark in the history of town planning. (b) Sir Ebenezer Howard :The another well-known sociologist was Sir Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928) who after studying the industrial evils in Britain gave the concept of 'Garden City'. country magnet with their advantages and disadvantages and the third magnet with attractive features of both town and country life. published in 1898 which later republished under the title of 'Garden City of Tomorrow'. (a) Sir Patrick Geddes : The well-known town planner. Before coming to India. Folk organism (social aspect).1. These are the physical and social economic surveys. diagnosis before treatment to make a correct diagnosis of various ills from which the town suffers and then prescribe the correct remedies for its cure. He laid emphasis on 'Survey before Plan' i.1.e. He was the first man who introduced the sociological concept in the town planning. (1) The town planning primarily meant establishing organic relationship among 'Folk. Sir Patrick Geddes (1854-1932) came to India in 1915 at the invitation of Lord Pentland. Hence here human needs are most important than physical aspects. He gave his expert advice for the improvement of about eighteen major towns in India. Place (physical aspect). It made a deep impression in the field of town planning. . This epitomizes the essence of planning. He explained his idea of 'Garden City' by an impressive diagram ofThe Three Magnets shown in Fig. namely the town magnet. he had successfully overcome the horrors of Edinborough slums. Function and Environment. Naturally people preferred the third one namely Garden City. He had an idea which he set forth in a little book entitled 'To-morrow'. (2) The city is no longer a mere physical structure but it is now meant the people.THE GREAT TOWN PLANNERS OF MODERN AGE. to work and to play. Place and Work' which corresponds to triad (Geddesian triad) of Organism.
(iii) The employment facilities for all the people to be provided by starting a variety of industries. (v) The city should have a maximum population of thirty to thirty-five thousand .The main features of Garden City principles are : (i) The dwellings for all classes of people should be distributed about a large central court in which the public buildings would be located. (iv) The industries to be located on the outskirts of the town. (ii) The shopping centre to be located on the edge of the town.
sector etc. but overall planning of the whole neighborly area or 'super block'. gardens. hospitals. and amenities of urban life such as schools. recreation centres etc (viii) To eliminate the private ownership and whole of the land to be brought under co-operative basis or held in trust for the community in order to have the control on finance and the profit gained thereby be utilised for uplifting the community itself. (ii) Planning not in term of single block. (vii) The city should have the advantage of both rural life such as fresh air. The footpath for pedestrians should be safe and segregated from other vehicular traffic.people in an area of one thousand acres. (iii) The super blocks to be enclosed by main roads which in turn enclose the narrow lanes or alleys. playfields. (c) Clarence Stein : The principles of planning advocated by Stein are as below : (i) No grid-iron road pattern be provided in the road system. (iv) Expressway or parkway for high speed traffic with limited access from and to neighborhoods. (v) . cottages etc. (vi) The city should be surrounded by a permanent belt of agricultural land of three to five thousand acres. theatres.
Bristol etc.A community park : The park should be well balanced and spread throughout the town.e. (vi) Cul-de-sac streets. He is the planner of many cities like Greater London. He is the pioneer planner to advocate regional planning. These are loop streets of 'dead end' streets. (iv) Industries should be located on the outer areas of the town. He synthesised the theories of Sir Patrick Geddes and Sir Ebenezer Howard. (d) Sir Patrick Abercrombie : He is an eminent town planner and worked as Head of the Town Planning Department in London University. Instead the town shall be considered as a whole unit with respect to the entire region. diagnosis before treatment like the ‘Diagnostic Approach’ of Sir Patrick Geddes. (ii) Planning not to be done on piece-meal basis. . His town planning principles are : (i)‘Civic Survey’ to be carried out before planning i. (iii) Uncontrolled growth of cities should be stopped. The idea is not to allow through traffic to go to the houses.
(i) Core of the city should be decongested by removing the excess of population and should be inhabited at the outer countryside in satellite towns which are linked to the main city. He says. lungs and arteries. (ii) Provision of speedy transportation. Le Corbusier assisted by Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew of England. Secretariat. Raj Bhavan constitute the head . Industries and Educational institutions represent limbs. The master plan aimed to accommodate about 150000 persons with future expansion upto about 700000 persons. Roads. (iv) Population control. The capital has a planned landscape. limbs. “Towns are biological phenomena. According to him. parks etc. Govt. 6 EXAMPLE OF WELL PLANED CITY . The salient features of Chandigarh are : (i)Landscape : The town is bounded on the north by double rows of low picturesque Siwalik Hills and enclosed on either side by two river beds nearly 5 km apart. park. such as head. with the Himalayas as a permanent background. He advocated the following principles of town planning. round the tall buildings throughout the length and breadth of the city. Legislative Assembly. The landscape architect has determined what kind of trees should grow and where. The town is located some 8 km off Delhi-Kalka road. It has given Chandigarh distinctive character from architectural point of view. playfields. City centre with commercial buildidngs and shops represent heart.CHANDIGARH The master plan for the new town was prepared by the celebrated architect. All . green belt are the lungs. (iii) Provision of plenty of open spaces in the form of gardens. buildings like High Court. heart. a city is a living organism. footpaths are arteries”.(e) Le Corbusier: Another giant in the field of architecture and town planning was Charles-Edourd Jeanneret better known as Le Corbusier (1887-1965).
The town is divided into 47 sectors. (vii) Open Spaces : A greed band of open space runs from one sector to another through . with shops at various places which are within 10 to 15 minutes walkable distance. meeting places.The town is planned on the principle of super block or sector planning. 7 v) Town Centre : This is located in the central sector. (iii) Population : The area of the town is 9000 acres. Hence it has a salubrious climate. The soil is quite suitable to grow mango trees. Each sector is made virtually self-sufficient by providing all the daily needs like shopping centers. There are three to four neighbourhood units in each sector. Roads for fast moving traffic are located at the periphery of each sector.13 sector. nurseries. It includes civic and commercial buildings. hospitals. schools etc. Rainfall is 115-120 cm a year. (ii) Climate : The town is situated in a submountainous tract.25 km long and 0. (vi) Communication : Le Corbusier’s system of 7 types of roads (7 V’s) for different kinds of traffic is perhaps the first of its kind as applied to town planning in India. The master plan aimed to accommodate a population of 1.81 km wide accommodating population ranging from 10000 to 15000.open spaces along the roads are grassed. Water basins and fountains are laid at suitable places. there being no No. (iv) Sector Planning . each sector is 1.5 lakh only in its first phase of development but intends to provide accommodation for 5 lakh population in future. shrubs and plantations.
Assembly Hall.the residential units to the commercial centers. It is indeed an epitome of Town Planning. There is provision of large central park and sufficient open spaces in all the sectors. Secretariat (7 storeys high) and Raj Bhavan. (ix) Industries : About 600 acres of land have been set aside for factories and industrial centers situated near the Railway Station. playgrounds and swimming pools. (x) Capitol Complex : Le Corbusier designed the four Govt. with a view to provide community and health centers. All houses partake in the gardens and parks located at convenient places. These buildings have their monumerntal character to which he added a symbolic sculptural feature. buildings which he called as ‘Capitol’. (viii) Residential Unit : Housing accommodation is neatly planned. 8 . It is no doubt that Chandigarh symbolizes the heroic endeavour to rebuild the shattered social. The capitol includes High Court (9 storeys high with peculiar parasol roof). cultural life of the Punjab. in beautiful surrounding.
is emphasised by many town planners. The survey data .to draw a metal picture of region survey should be carried out.PLANNING PROCESS Surveys . It is the 'Diagnosis before Treatment' or 'Diagnostic Approach' without which no adequate planning scheme can be prepared for a town. Survey before Plan' the principle advocated by Sir Patrick Geddes.
Town Surveys . charts. Following surveys are conducted to collect the information and data necessary to prepare an up to date base map in the scheme of town planning : (i) Physical Survey (ii) Social Survey (iii) Economic Survey (1) Physical Survey. tables.so collected can be analysed and will be represented in the form of maps. history and growth of town. (a) Natural features (b) Land Use (c) Conditions of the buildings (d) Communication (2) Social Survey (b) Population (c) Housing (d) Community facilities 3) Economic Survey. Data collection. The basic data to be collected include 1) The present land use. (a) Occupational condition (b) Survey of Industries (c) Survey of Commerce (d) Financial position of local authority (e) Utility services ROAD PATTERN . 2) Population growth 3) Traffic system 4) Industrial position 5) Economic base. 6) Origin.Collection of information and data is necessary for framing the planning proposals. and models.
Here house to house survey is conducted. easy gradient. It should have straight alignment. 2. 4. traffic signs and proper lighting etc. As parks. As such as road or street plan is considered as the foundation of the town plan. Its layout is determined by the zones into which the city is divided. commercial zone. The importance of the city depends mainly on the methods of communication. 5. It should have smooth curves. sign boards etc. 3.For a rapid growth of city. open spaces are the 'lungs'. The other requirements are: 1. Requirements of Ideal City Road Haulage and speed are the most important requirements that the ideal road must cater to. 7. parking spaces. whereas the type of local roads or minor roads. gardens. It should have sufficient width to accommodate good traffic without congestion of traffic. Opinion of people about the zones such residential zones. sewage disposal for their healthy life and peaceful environment. good visibility and properly designed junctions. Zoning is an important adjunct of any town planning. determine the shape and size of the housing plots. and services like water drainage. 11 Peoples participation of planning process A separate survey should be carried out for people’s opinion. It is the basis of the existence of the city. satisfactorily. ZONNING Importance of Zoning. 6. It should afford maximum safety to the pedestrians and vehicles with the provision of footpath. It prevents encroachment of one . It should have good plantations on either side. It should have impervious wearing surface with required camber to keep the base coarse dry which further increases the life of the road. so also roads are the 'arteries' of the city. Zoning sets apart different areas in the town for specific purposes. It should rest on unyielding soil. a good net-work of roads is essential. so as to make the journey enjoyable.
beauty. etc. In fact it is the very life and soul of the successful town-planning. The main principle of use zoning is to divide the city into different sections or zones. Business or Commercial areas are also separately located with their garages and service stations at a distance from the residential areas. Classification of Zoning. drainage. smoke etc. theatres.zone upon another adjacent to it. Under use zoning the town is divided into various sections or zones for specific purposes as given below : (i) Residential zone (ii) Commercial zone (iii) Industrial zone . bustle of the road traffic. For instance. and utilising of each of the zone to the right purpose and in correct location with respect to others so as to avoid the encroachment of one zone upon another adjoining it. order. transport etc. air and breeze thereby making the life of the residents uncomfortable. It increases utility. stadiums. As such the residential areas are free from noise. Otherwise they cut off the sunshine. in pleasing surroundings. efficiency of the town in general. Generally zoning is classified as under : (i) Use Zoning (ii) Height Zoning and (iii) Density Zoning 12 (i) Use Zoning. The population is distributed throughout the town by zoning regulation so that there is no concentration of population in any one particular zone. parks. safety. the industrial area is located away from the residential area so it is not affected by dangerous gases. electricity. promotes health. Zoning helps proper co-ordination of various public amenities like water supply. In short zoning secures orderly growth of the town. Height zoning regulates the height of the buildings. Hence high rise buildings will not be allowed to construct near small houses. A land in the form of recreational area is also set aside providing therein the playgrounds.
shops. . volume of the building. Density Zoning. which need to be controlled. The population per unit area or acres is defined as density of population. In first method the height of the building is regulated according to the width of the abutting road. It is done by means of height zoning. This density may be either gross or net density. See fig. and area under non-residential use such as schools. and other public institutions. 13 Another method adapted here is called bulk volume method. The gross density is the average density of population per unit area of the residential zone. including open spaces. Generally 450 and 632 10 .(iv) Civic zone (v) Institutional zone (vi) Recreational zone (ii) height zoning : besides use of land. there are other factors such as height. There are various method used to control heights of high rise building. Air plane rules are adapted.
Such a plan is called as 'Master Plan'. and therefore. The development or expansion of a town takes a long time. (2) Its purpose is to place various functions the town has to perform in such physical relation to each other as to minimise the chances of mutual conflict. Chandigarh. the development is required to be controlled at any time on the basis of a plan. Such a plan must be realistic.The net density is the average density per unit of the housing area including local roads only. This is necessary to achieve overall development of the town in a coordinated manner. preserving the individuality of the town. ideal to be aimed at. Since the development of the town is a lengthy process. the plan must not be rigid but elastic at the same time so as to amend it from time to time to satisfy the changing needs in the new developments. The master plan is generally prepared to improve the old conditions of the town but it is also equally necessary for the new cities to be planned and built on virgin land. Objects of the Master Plan. PREPARATION OF MASTER PLAN Definition. etc. . For a successful town planning there must be a plan which envisages the entire town as a single unit. (3) It stimulates wider interest in community problems and brings a well coordinated development 4) It provides for intelligent and economic spending of the public funds as per the fixed programme for general welfare of the community. Following are the main objects of the master plan : (1) It serves an overall picture and programme for the future development of the town. A master plan or a development plan is thus a blue print of the various proposals that are intended to improve the existing conditions and to control the future growth of the town in a coordinated manner. New Delhi. Eg. Gandhinagar. Necessity of Development Plan Following are the reasons which have lead to the thinking of having a development plan for the town: (1) to control the development of various industries in a systematic way.
4) Important public buildings. (10) Open spaces. (9) Expansion. (2) Present and proposed open areas. intensity of wind. (4) Places of historical. (3) Mineral resources. (8) Water supply and drainage arrangement. (3) Residential areas. (5) Population .A master plan is only a key plan generally prepared on a small scale showing the broad zones and their relationship with one another.(2) to discourage the growth of town in an unplanned and unscientific way. parks and playgrounds. (10) Political position of the place with regard to its neighboring area. agricultural and industrial etc. rivers etc. (6) Economic conditions. Maps to be Prepared. As such a number of plans are to be prepared to its supports giving every aspect of planning on a large scale. (6) Public utility services. topographical survey and especially the civic-survey . temperature and rainfall. (12) Landscape features. cultural and scientific importance. (7) Boundary of the green belt surrounding the town. (8) Contour map of the whole town. (3) to give a perspective picture of a fully developed town Data to be Collected.The data and information is to be collected from various surveys such as land survey. (7) Trade and communication. civic and other centres. .present and its future growth. (5) Public amenities. (9) Positions of springs. (11) Types of land such as residential. (2) Geological data regarding soil condition. In general the data required for the preparation of master plan is as follows : (1) Meterological data regarding direction. Various maps are require for the preparation of the master plan showing the details for: (1) Present and proposed communication. development of environments.
insanitation. the work is tedious because the old town usually consists of narrow streets.16 Stages in the Preparation of Master Plan After taking the Government sanction to prepare the scheme. 3. But in the later case. next work is to collect the data and relevent information. Density : The next task is to fix the density of population as per the required standards. the town is divided into old town and new town. 2. In the former case. old or new alike in all aspect and finally blended skilfully so as to form inseparately interwoven structure. Requirement of Land : The next step is to work out the total land requirement for the anticipated population. For the collection of data for the planning scheme. Distribution of Land : The total land will have to be distributed for the different uses such as (i) Residential (ii) Commercial (iii) Industrial (iv) Public and Semi-public (v) Open-spaces . and un-healthy conditions etc. with the help of a comprehensive civic survey. and its rate of growth during the last three to four decades. Features of Master Plan. provision of all civic amenities etc. If the population is in surplus then it has to decant and provide for it in new layouts. 4. Population : The prospective population to be provided for the next thirty to fifty years should be calculated on the basis of the present population. the town-planner's work is more easy which offers him almost virgin land for the application of modern methods of development and control through the provision of new network of roads. From the data collected in the civic survey. he is in a position to make a correct diagnosis of the various ills of the town and suggest remedies for their cure. 1. congestion. zoned areas. However care should be taken to keep the whole town.
stadiums etc. (ii) Commercial use : The shopping facilities for the neighbourhoods will have to be provided. railways. availabilities of electric power. colleges. etc. Govt. railways etc. bus-stands.(vi) Communication (vii) Other special uses 17 (i) Residential use : The total population will have to be distributed in various zones. The industries should be planned leeward of the town so that the smoke. These include small shops for day-to-day purchases. (iv) Public and Semi Public uses : These include schools. which should be located in the convenient places to serve all the people in the unit. fixing the density which may vary from a minimum of 40-50 persons to a maximum of 100-200 persons per acre or even more. Officers. dust. come under this category. It depends upon nearness to roads. The standards for open spaces are given separately. (vii) Other Special uses : These include the refuse disposal. grave-yards. playgrounds. water supply etc. etc. based on Neighborhood planning. (v) Open Spaces : These include parks. dangerous gases will not travel over the town. (iii) Industrial use : The location of industry in the development plan is very important. (vi) Communication : The area occupied by roads. The general land use pattern for a town is given below : Land Use Pattern Percentage (a) Residential Use 50-55 (b) Commercial Use 2-5 (c) .
creations of open spaces. The land use plan. In the proposals.Industrial Use 10-12 (d) Public & Semi Public Uses 8-10 (e) Open Spaces . The improvement proposals are usually shown super-imposed on the existing land use map so as to clearly indicate which of the buildings are affected and proposed to be pulled down. community facilities are taken up.Railways 15-18 (g) Other Special Uses About 5 The percentages given above are average figures for guidance and may vary depending upon the town. Only buildings in bad or . playgrounds. Population Provision to be made Area Reasonable 18 When a Master Plan for the entire town is prepared it will be observed that certain parts of the city suffer from various problems. As such the improvement schemes will have to be proposed. The other facilities to be provided for different population and reasonable walking distances in the unit are as under : S.No. The living conditions may not be satisfactory. parks.Play grounds 10-15 (f) Communication . road system and proposals for civic amenities are prepared.Parks . playgrounds etc.Roads . The roads may be narrow. There may be haphazard development and may be found to be congested and lack of open spaces. works such as road widening or re-aligning. parks.
dilapidated conditions should be pulled down to make place for open spaces. Economics. which cannot be provided for at a later date. After the master plan is accepted and approved by the concerned authority. Alternate arrangement for accommodation for the dis. (4) to prepare a financial programme. Architecture. The implementation of master plan would be possible if it is made legally binding on all the concerned authorities. hence any new proposals benefiting the public are considered periodically.The execution of master plan is carried out either by municipality or corporation. The success of the Master Plan will be assessed by the functional qualities viz. Hence it should be made obligatory and give the plan the legal status to facilitate its implementation 20 Co-operation. (3) to prepare the detailed estimates of work of top priority. road widening etc. It .housed persons should be made in the nearby transit camps with least inconvenience. Once it is finalised.Master plan is an ideal never to be reached. but one to be aimed at. Implementation of Master Plan. usually at every period of five years. (2) to prepare the list of the urgent works according to their priorities. For execution a team of experts in Engineering. The works proposed in the plan are for the prosperity of the people. The most important part of master plan is the reservation of land for road system. Public health. open spaces. and public amenities. no building should be allowed to construct which will upset the street system. the steps to be taken will be (1) to fix the broad policies in connection with various proposals. Finance etc. public buildings. Sociology. Are the areas sufficient to the population? Are the housing layouts produce maximum utility. headed by a Town Planner is required. convenience and safety? Are the shopping facilities adequate? Are the schools properly distributed? Are the roads provide safety and convey traffic speedily and cheaply? Is the journey of the people from place of residence to the place of work convenient. Legal Status of Master Plan. safe and economic? Lastly a financial programme is prepared to devise the ways and means for the implementation of the Master Plan according to the Schedule.
'What makes our dreams so daring' Le Corbusier once said. 'is that they can be realised'. the planner has to get full support and whole-hearted co-operation from the public.takes one into dreamland and if the dream is to be a reality. 21 .