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Presented By:

Department of Electrical and Electronics





Deregulation and privatization are posing new challenges to high

voltage transmission and distributions systems. System components
are loaded up to their thermal limits, and power trading with fast
varying load patterns is leading to an increasing congestion. In addition
to this, the dramatic global climate developments call for changes in
the way electricity is supplied. Innovative solutions with HVDC (High
Voltage Direct Current) and FACTS (Flexible AC
Transmission Systems) have the potential to cope with the new
The vision and enhancement strategy for the future electricity
networks is depicted in the program of “Smart Grids”, which was
developed within the European Technology Platform (ETP) of the EU in
its preparation of the 7th Frame Work Program.

Features of a future “Smart Grid” of this kind can be outlined as


• Flexible: fulfilling customers’ needs whilst responding to the changes

and challenges ahead

• Reliable: assuring and improving security and quality of supply

• Economic: providing best value through innovation, efficient energy

management and ‘level playing field’ competition and regulation


On the one hand, a dramatic growth of population is to be seen in

developing and emerging countries. This increase in population (the
number of elderly people in particular) poses great challenges to the
worldwide infrastructure. This development goes hand in hand with a
continuous reduction in non-renewable energy resources.

The resources of conventional as well as non-conventional oil are

gradually coming to an end. Other energy sources are also running
short. So, the challenge is as follows: for the needs of a dramatically
growing world population, coupled with the simultaneous reduction in
fossil power resources, a proper way must be found to provide reliable
and clean power. This must be done in the most economical way, for a
lot of economies, in the emerging regions in particular, cannot afford
expensive environmentally compatible technologies.

In the view of the increasing demand for power and for security and
sustainability of power supply, high investments are required.
Moreover, higher voltage levels are called for, as well as long-distance
transmission by means of HVDC and FACTS. During the transition, the
newly industrialized countries require energy automation and life-time
extension of the system components, such as transformers and
substations. More investments in distribution systems are essential as
well. Decentralized power supplies, e.g. wind farms, are coming up.
The global industrialization with its ongoing CO2 production is causing
dramatic changes in the climate development; ref. to Fig. 1.There is no
ready-made solution to this problem. The situation in different
countries and regions is too complex. An appropriate approach is,
however, obvious: power generation, transmission, distribution and
consumption must be organized efficiently. The new transmission
technologies can effectively contribute to reduction in losses and CO2
Fig. 1: CO2 Increase due to Human Influence is much higher than
Natural Fluctuation


Due to an increased demand for energy and the construction of new

generation plants, first built close and then at remote locations from
the load centers, the size and complexity of power systems all over the
world have grown. Power systems have been extended by applying
interconnections to the neighboring systems in order to achieve
technical and economical advantages. Large systems, covering parts
of or even whole continents came into existence, to gain the following
advantages: the possibility to use larger and more economical power
plants, reduction in reserve capacity within the systems, utilization of
the most efficient energy resources, as well as an increase in the
system security.

3.1 Integration of Renewable Energy Sources – a Big


Environmental constraints will play an important role in the system

development. Specific problems are expected when renewable
energies, such as large wind farms, have to be integrated into the
system, particularly when the connecting AC links are weak and when
sufficient reserve capacity in the neighboring systems is not available.
In the future, an increasing part of the installed capacity will, however,
be connected to the distribution levels (dispersed generation), which
poses additional challenges to the planning and safe operation of the
systems. In these cases, power electronics can clearly enhance the
power systems and improve their performance. Power output of wind
generation can vary fast in a wide range , depending on the weather
conditions. Therefore, a sufficiently large amount of controlling power
from the network is required to substitute the positive or negative
deviation of actual wind power indeed to the scheduled wind power


4.1 HVDC and FACTS Converter Technologies

HVDC systems and FACTS controllers based on line-commutated

converter technology have a long and successful history. Thyristors
were the key components of this converter topology and have reached
a high degree of maturity due to their robust technology and their high

This development started with the transmission of power in a range of

a few hundred MW and was continuously increased. Transmission
distances over 1,000 to 2,000 km or even more are possible with
overhead lines. Transmission rating of 3 GW over large distances with
only one bipolar DC line is state-of-the-art in many grids today. World’s
first 800 kV DC project in China has a transmission capacity of 5 GW As
a multi terminal system; HVDC can also be connected at several points
with the surrounding AC networks. In general, for transmission
distances above 700 km, DC transmission is more economical than AC
transmission (≥ 1000 MW). Power transmission of up to 600 - 800 MW
over distances of about 300 km has already been achieved with
submarine cables, and cable transmission lengths of up to about 1,000
km are at the planning stage. Due to these developments, HVDC
became a mature and reliable technology.
Fig.2 indicates the typical losses depending on the switching

Fig.3. gives an Overview of today’s power electronic solutions with

HVDC in high voltage transmission systems
FACTS, based on power electronics, was developed to improve the
performance of weak AC Systems and to make long distance AC
transmission feasible. FACTS are applicable in a parallel connection
(SVC, Static VAR Compensator - STATCOM, Static Synchronous
Compensator), in a series connection (FSC, Fixed Series Compensation
- TCSC/TPSC, Thyristor Controlled/Protected Series Compensation, S³C -
Solid-State Series Compensator), or as a combination of both (UPFC,
Unified Power Flow Controller, CSC - Convertible Synchronous
Compensator ) to control load flow and to improve dynamic conditions.
GPFC is a special DC back-to-back link which is designed for fast power
and voltage control at both terminals. In this manner, GPFC is a “FACTS
B2B” which is less complex and less expensive than the UPFC.


Aspects of security of power supply are summarized in Fig. 2 Technical
benefits of each technology are depicted with regard to transmission
system performance, in both steady-state and transient network
conditions. Fig. 2 depicts the “stand-alone” features of each
application. As it can be seen in both figures, these evaluations are
thoroughly considered, based on a long experience of study and
project applications. All technology developments are focused on
reliability, synergies and modularity of the different applications with
regard to cost optimization and minimization of transmission losses.
The aspects of market and sustainability, which are the technology
drivers, are depicted in Fig. 3
Benefits of a “Global” Solution for System Interconnection:

• Solving local Problems of Energy Resources by worldwide

Energy Trading
• Improving Frequency Stability in weak Systems by Support
through strong Systems
• Chance to use remote Regenerative and clean Energy Sources:
• Solar Fields in Deserts


Environmental constraints, such as loss minimization and CO2

reduction, will play an increasingly important role. The loading of
existing power systems will further increase, leading to bottlenecks
and reliability problems. Advanced transmission technologies will be
essential to the system developments.

HVDC and FACTS provide the necessary features to avoid technical

problems in the power systems; they increase the transmission
capacity and system stability very efficiently, and they assist in
prevention of cascading disturbances. They effectively support the grid
access of renewable energy resources and they reduce the
transmission losses by optimization of power flows.


 N.G. Hingorani: “Flexible AC Transmission”; IEEE Spectrum, pp.

40-45, April 1993
 “FACTS Overview”; IEEE and CIGRE, Catalog Nr. 95 TP 108
 V. Ramaswami, D. Retzmann, K. Ücker: “Prospects of Bulk Power
Transmission” GRIDTECH 2007–New Technologies in
Transmission, Distribution, Load Dispatch & Communication, New
Dehli, INDIA