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Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development Vol . 30 No . 2 1993 Pages 210–223

A Technical Note

**Basic gait parameters : Reference data for normal subjects, 10-79 years of age
**

Tommy Oberg, MD, PhD ; Alek Karsznia, PT, PhD ; Kurt Oberg, PhD Department of Biomechanics and Orthopaedic Technology, University College of Health Sciences, S-551 11 Jonkoping, Sweden; Department of Agricultural Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden

Abstract —Basic gait parameters were extracted from 233 healthy subjects—116 men and 117 women, 10 to 79 years of age . The measurements were made in a gait laboratory on a 5 .5 m walkway . The results are presented in a series of reference tables for slow, normal, and fast gait . Mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, 95 010 confidence intervals, and 95% prediction intervals were calculated . Significant sex differences exist in all gait parameters . In a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) model, there was a statistically significant age-variability for gait speed and step length at normal and fast gait, but not for step frequency . In the step length parameter there was a significant interaction effect of age and sex at normal and fast gait . The reference data are considered valid in an indoor laboratory situation. Key words : gait, gait parameters, stride characteristics.

reference data to be interpretable . Published data are generally limited to specific groups, for example, normal men (1), normal women (2), and elderly women (3,4) . These reports are often based on relatively small numbers of subjects, spread over many age groups . Different investigators use varying units of measurement, further hampering comparisons. Reference data for outdoor walking, based on measurements from 260 subjects, men and women divided into four age groups, have been published (5). The aim of this study was to present reference data on basic gait parameters for normal subjects.

MATERIAL AND METHODS Subjects Two hundred and forty healthy subjects were examined . However, seven subjects were excluded from the original material, 3 girls and 3 boys aged 0-9 years, and one subject aged 80, because they were too few to represent an age group . Age and sex characteristics are shown in Table 1. Gait Analysis We have used the gait analysis method that was developed at the Biomechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California, and the

210

INTRODUCTION

The basic gait parameters most frequently used are velocity, step length, and step frequency . Many reports are concerned with pathological gait, but such data must be compared with valid normal

Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to : Tommy Oberg, MD, PhD, Director, Associate Professor, Department of Biomechanics and Orthopaedic Technology, University College of Health Sciences, S-551 11 Jonkoping, Sweden .

F = N/TN steps/s Average step length. Sweden . SYSTAT 5 . and fast gait .8) . Basic temporal gait parameters (gait speed.* cm Figure 1. and step frequency) were collected during slow. The method was later further developed at the Department of Biomechanics and Orthopaedic Technology. . Age and sex characteristics of the subjects . and a plotter constitute the equipment used (Figure 1) . Statistical Methods Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis were performed according to standard methods (7. self-aligning electrogoniometers. Schematic top view of the walkway showing the measured variables desired for analysis (after ()berg and Lamoreaux. Two photocells with 5 . Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Uppsala. years 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 Total Men 27 15 15 15 15 15 14 116 Women 27 15 15 15 15 15 15 117 Total 54 30 30 30 30 30 29 233 10 m long. The subject had to walk between the photocells 13 times—10 times without goniometers. step length.0.5 m intervals. 211 OBERG et al . All computations were made with a commercial statistics package for a personal computer. Heel strike was indicated by means of a manual switch. Sweden (6) . The mean of the 10 measurements without goniometers was calculated for each gait parameter. V = D/7D cm/s Average step frequency. The measurement was performed between the two photocells . and 3 times with goniometers . Basic Gait Parameters Table 1 . Number Age group. including acceleration and deceleration distances . a computer.0/SYGRAPH 1 . Goniometry was not used in the present study . The gait laboratory has a walkway about Distance between lights D Time = TD i 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 10 Number of steps = N Time for N steps = T N Average velocity. L r V. 1979). normal. Jonkoping.

and 1 .01 <0 .S .S . Test for significant slope of regression line. <0 .05 N .S . Gait parameters and age . N .and two-way ANOVA are presented in Table 2 and Table 3 .001 <0 .001 Fast gait N . N .01 <0 .3-1 .05 Women <0 . 65 m walking distance (Oberg U.33 m/s for men (10) . N .001 N . and 95 percent prediction interval. <0 .S .001 N . reference data are only valid for a test situation similar to the conditions of the original reference test situation . N . . normal. N . N . Gait parameters . In the present study. However.05) N . N .S . Gait parameters . N . and fast gait for different age groups and sexes are shown in the Appendix (see p.05 N . = Not significant (p>0 . N .001 <0 . N .05 N . DISCUSSION Methodological Considerations The results of all measurements.5 m . p-value Age group Gait speed Slow gait Normal gait Fast gait Step length Slow gait Normal gait Fast gait Step frequency Slow gait Normal gait Fast gait N .6 m/s for men and 1 .S . unpublished observations).S . we found mean normal self-selected gait speed to be 118-134 cm/s *Healthy subjects tested in a long basement corridor.001 <0. 212 Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development Vol .S . (5).S .001 <0 .05 <0 . using a 5 .05) Sex Age * Sex N .001 N .S . <0 .S . 2 1993 RESULTS Reference tables for slow.S .001 <0 . standard deviation.S. Two-way analysis of variance .S . 215). who examined 260 healthy subjects aged 6 to 80 years along a level outdoor track of 60 .S . = Not significant (p>0 .05 <0 .S . 30 No .001 <0 . <0 . N . Consequently.S . N .17 m/s for women.5 acceleration distance. <0 . Regression analysis . <0 .5 m walkway with a 2 .01 <0 .S.001 <0 .05 <0 . <0 . = Not significant (p>0 . N .S .S . The mean speed in shopping centers was 1 .05) Table 4. a 2 . including gait analysis.001 N .01 <0 .3-1 .001 N .S . 95 percent confidence interval. and include mean. The results of regression analysis are presented in Table 4. laboratory gait data cannot be considered valid for such walking situations .S. coefficient of variation.001 <0 .01 <0 .001 <0 . Sex <0 . Table 3 . <0 .5 m/s for women for normal self-selected gait .001 N .* These observations are supported by the results of a study by Waters et al . are dependent on the test conditions. He found values of 1 .01 <0 . The results of one.S .S .001 <0 . One-way analysis of variance. Gait analysis data should always be interpreted with regard to a thoroughly defined test situation. We have a general impression that gait velocity data reported from long walkways tend to be higher than data obtained from a short walkway .S .5 m retardation distance.S .S . Table 2. p-value Age group Gait speed Slow gait Normal gait Fast gait Step length Slow gait Normal gait Fast gait Step frequency Slow gait Normal gait Fast gait N . <0 .001 N .S . (*erg T. Dahlstedt (9) reviewed 15 articles with respect to walking speed .S .001 <0 .001 N .S. <0 . p-value Men Gait speed Slow gait Normal gait Fast gait Step length Slow gait Normal gait Fast gait Step frequency Slow gait Normal gait N .S . <0 . <0 . N .S .001 N .

and fast gait for healthy subjects aged 10-79 years to be applied on gait measurements on short walkways under laboratory conditions.9 m/s. 1991 . Walking patterns of normal women . Stockholm : The Swedish Council for Building Research. 8. Sex Differences Gait velocity and step length were lower. Statistical methods in medical research . Practical statistics for medical research. 1950. but only small changes of the step frequency (11) . Craik RL . Oberg K. 1977. 1950. London : Chapman and Hall. Finley FR. 2.1 percent/year and 0 .13.12. J Orthop Res 1988 :5 :215-22. Braun WI . and almost the same results were found in the two-way ANOVA (where also interaction effects were evaluated) . Gait assessment of total joint replacement patients by means of step parameters and hip-knee angle diagrams . 4.3 m/s . Lamoreux LW . London : McMillan. but at fast gait the results were equivalent in the two studies . for both healthy adults and those with neuromuscular or other pathology. Kory RC. study seem to indicate that there is a need for separate reference data for free gait outdoors or on a long walk-way. Lunsford BR. In the two-way ANOVA there were no age variations with respect to step frequency . Paul J.2). the influence of sex was highly statistically significant except for step frequency at slow gait. Murray MP. In the ANOVA. Energy-speed relationship of walking : standard tables . Dahlstedt (9) found slow pedestrians with a normal gait speed of only 0 . Waterloo: University of Waterloo Press. Waters RL. Comparison of free and fast speed walking patterns of normal men . and 130 mils for women (2) . In : Evans HK. Thus. 10. These results indicate that the gait pattern is different in indoor and outdoor gait . 11. 7. gait speed was lower in slow and normal gait in our study. Basic Gait Parameters for men and 110-129 cm/s for women . Clarkson BH. Sepic SB . ed . 5. Hughes J. REFERENCES 1. in our study. Byrd R . 2d ed . Compared with the results of Waters et al . In : Kenedi R. CONCLUSION We have presented reference data for basic gait parameters in slow. a high speed of 1 . Berry G . New Haven : ITE. eds . 2d ed . normal. Winter D . Slow pedestrians : walking speeds and walking habits of old-aged people . and very high speed of 1 . we had only few people of these old ages. Disabilities . 2d ed . Locomotion patterns in elderly women . However. Am J Phys Med 1966 :45 :8-24. Age Effects The changes of the basic gait parameters most frequently seen with advancing age are a reduction of gait speed and step length.7 percent/year (3. 9. the results of our study together with the Waters et al . Such differences between different studies may be due to differences between the examined groups and differences in technique as well .1 m/s. In the two-way ANOVA model. Dahlstedt S . 1991. The biomechanics and motor control of human gait : normal. Report R2 :1978.. The pedestrian .14) . collected in a laboratory situation comparable with that of ours. Traffic engineering handbook. Kory RC. we also found significant interaction effects of age and sex in the step length parameter. 213 OBERG et al . Finizie RV . and for short walkways in laboratory situations. We also found higher step frequencies and lower step lengths at all gait speeds in our study . Armitage P. Most gait analysis is performed on relatively short indoor walkways . In old age groups (over 70 years). 6. elderly and pathological . Murray et al . and none over the age of 80. In our study we found statistically significant age-related changes in gait speed at normal and fast gait and of step length at fast gait in the one-way ANOVA. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1969 :50 :140-7. . Altman DG . Sepic SB . Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1970 :51 :637-50. our values were slightly lower than those reported in the review of Dahlstedt . 3. Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications. Leiper CI. These findings are in general agreement with the findings reviewed by Winter (11) . These results are in accordance with the results reported in the literature (1. Murray MP. Practical Use of the Reference Data Our data may be used for the interpretation of gait analysis data. 1987. found the selfselected gait speed to be 151 cm/s for men (1). Cody KA. Relationships between physical activity and temporal-distance characteristics of walking in elderly women . The magnitude of age-related reduction of gait velocity reported in the literature varies between 0 . Perry J. Thus. and step frequency was higher for women than for men. Phys Ther 1991 :71 :791-803.

Bassey EJ. Age 1989 :18 :327-32 . Rechnitzer PA. Factors affecting Aging walking speed of elderly people . Blanke D. 30 No . Bendall MJ. Pearson MB . 13. Pearce ME. 2 1993 12. 14 . Comparison of gait of young and elderly men . J Gerontol 1982 :37 :560-4 . Cunningham DA. . Donner AP . Hageman P . Determinants of self-selected walking pace across ages 19 to 66 . 214 Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development Vol . Phys Ther 1989 :69 :144-8.

5 80 .7 83 . = confidence interval P . = prediction interval .3 Table lb.4 39 .0 71 .11 0.8 87 . Age years 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 N 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 Mean cm/s 88 . 0 . cm/s 12 .3-94 .2 79 .1 71 .6-128 .11 0.2 95 0 P .2-138 .1 53 .1 91 .17 95% C .D .4 42 .0-119 . Age years 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 N 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 Mean cm/s 70 .8 50 .7 C .8 21 . 215 OBERG et al .8 68 .1-96 . cm/s 41 .9-105 .2 15 .5-97 . Gait speed .0-102 .21 0 .3 44 .4 9 .I.5-112 .0 21 . Slow gait .3 93 .1 64 .D .I.1 18 .3 52 .7-115 .14 95% C .9-98 .9 73 .3 73 . 10 cm/s 62 .0-83 .1 13 .7 85 .23 0 .3-125 .2 48 .5 S . Men.I .9 78 .5 85 . cm/s 12 .D .0-94 .1 77 .0 95 07o P .I .0 78 . Women.14 0 . Basic Gait Parameters Appendix Basic Gait Parameters Tables Table la.0-117 .7 18 .22 0 .7 15 . cm/s 62 .0-78 .0-79 .4 78 . cm/s 81 .3 13 .8 64 .9 73 .18 0 .4 16 . = standard deviation C .7 79 .8-87 .2-95 .9 10 .7-108 .5 S .6-132 .0-115 . 0 .3 10 .3 83 .5 73 .9 79 .I .1-103 .1 38 .2 69 .1 88 .7-95 .7 18 .1 C . Slow gait .15 0.7 N = number of subjects S.V .4 19 .7-99 .7 86 .18 0 .2 72 .3-115 .V .V .23 0 .1-98 .25 0 .4-81 .9 35 .1-94 .6 60 .2-88 .7-119 .7 41 . Gait speed . = coefficient of variation C .25 0 .3-89 .24 0 .5 87 .I .4 64 .3 52 .19 0.

6 132 . Age years 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 N 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 Mean cm/s 132 .8 104 . = coefficient of variation C .2-115 .10 0 .I.1-130 .07 0 .4 99 .11 95 07o C .8-133 .1 128 .4 C .7-128 .8 114.V .7 110 .6-124 . Men.8 121 .7 12.5 Table 2b.3 135 . Gait speed .4 9 .8 125 . cm/s 89 .2 S . Women. 30 No .6-134 .0-133 .7 131 .7 127 . = standard deviation C .09 0 .4-146 .9-150 .7 85 .D .14 0 .4 88 . Gait speed .1-163 .15 0 . 0 .6 94 .9 90 .5-118 .14 0 . 2 1993 Table 2a.8 85 .5 105 .1 115 .D . 0 .5-142 .I . em/s 19 .7 123 .D.1 122 .3 11 .11 0 .7 111 . = confidence interval P .I.8 17 .2-153 .1-137 . 216 Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development Vol .0-133 .2 85 .5-138 .5 17 .0 88 .7 114.14 0 .2 127 .6 N = number of subjects S .1 15 .10 0 .5-139 . Normal gait .9 80 .6 95 010 P .5-154 .0 100 .8-126 . cm/s 119 .0 9 .7 16 .8-164 . cm/s 84.5 124 .5-115 .1 19 .4 101 . Age years 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 N 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 Mean cm/s 108 .8 106 .V .I .10 0 .15 0 .6 13 .9 124 .4-162 .4 105 .13 95 07o C .2-160 .7 12 .9-132 .V .6 123 .7 118 .0-134 .7 116 .I .12 0 . = prediction interval .4 118 .4 109 .3 S .4-168 .2 17 .1-138 .1 95 07o P .6-150 .1 112 . cm/s 11 .1 14 .4 88 .9 116 .0-162 .2-175 .14 0 .7 127 . Normal gait . cm/s 101 .5 C .5 115 .4 15 .7-153 .9-144 .09 0 .I .

9 144 .6 cm/s 97 .I .12 0 . cm/s 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 167 .12 cm/s 135 .7 163 . cm/s 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 146 .2 150 .3 106 .7-173 .D . 217 OBERG et al .6-172 .5-188 .3 0 .2 24 .2 105 .9-174 .9 158 .5 17 .9 150 . Basic Gait Parameters Table 3a. 95 07o C .4 121 .3-230 .2-181 .8-181 .I .1 155 .1-204 . = prediction interval . C .15 0 .3 156 . Age years N Mean S .9 184 .09 0 .I .15 0 .0-236 .12 0.5 146 .6 cm/s 32 .8 156 .4 115 . = standard deviation C .9 18 .7 120 .13 0.4 137 .3-156 .5 cm/s 108 .7 112 .1 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 N = number of subjects S .9 142 . Men.3-215 .1 132 .0 17 .8-204 .8-210 .9-187 .1 169 .9-175 .4-204 .3 162 .5 141 . C .6-194 .0 20 .14 0 .8 171 .3 109 .6 20 .3-238 .0-185 .12 0 .1-185 . = confidence interval P .3-210 .9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 Table 3b.5 161 .3 162 . 95% P . Gait speed .8 cm/s 17 .16 cm/s 147 .D .1 23 .1 166 .1 28 .9 0 .V .12 0 .I.5-206 . 95% C . Fast gait .0 28 .0 151 .0-217 .0-176 .7 147 .3 172 .1 17 .V .9 129 .16 0 .0 163 .3 157 .19 0 .2 17 . = coefficient of variation C . Fast gait .7-177 .8 117 .6 113 .3-192 .5 23 .6 176 .7 121 .7 164 .I. Women.I .D .11 0 .16 0.1 106 .9-168 .V .9-221 .5-178 .10 0 .3 174 .7-208 .6 24 .6 21 .5-157 . Age years N Mean S .3 152 .1-151 .7 134 . Gait speed . 95 07o P .

11 0 . 2 1993 Table 4a.632 1 . 30 No .88 1 .38-1 .D .56-1 .82 1 . steps/s 0 . steps/s 0 .45-1 .95 1 .78 Table 4b.55 1 .48-1 .09 1 .60 95 07o P .18 0 .15-1 .03-2 . Men Age years 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 N 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 Mean steps/s 1 .21 0 .45-1 .85 1 . Age years 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 N 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 Mean steps/s 1 .39-1 .V .55 1 . 0 .I .19 0 . steps/s 1 .08 95 07o C .10 0 . = prediction interval .25-2 .13 0 .35-1 .74 1 .19 0 .21 0 .53-1 .12 0 .68 1 .11 0 .V .28-1 . steps/s 1 . steps/s 1 . = confidence interval P .91-2 .70 1 .46-1 .19 0 .15 0 .68 1 .12 C .56-1 .91-2 .78 N = number of subjects S . Slow gait . Slow gait .53 S .29 0 .D .24 0 .14 1 .13 0 .80 1 .71 1 . Step frequency .14 C .02-1 .63 1 .08 0 .25 0 .14 0 .22-2 . 218 Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development Vol .I.26-2 .07 0 .19 1 .38-1 .20 0 .17-2 .70 1 .80 1 .61 1 .73 1 .10 0 .15 0.01 1 .53-1 .I .57 95 07o P .I .11-2 .28 0 . 0 .13 0 .48 1 .48-1 .I .01 1 .61 1 .65 1 .94 1 .08 1 .V .16 0 . = coefficient of variation C . Step frequency .57 1 . Women.93-2 .35-1 .69 1 .65 1 . steps/s 1 .29 0 .55 1 . = standard deviation C .53 1 .41-1 .11 0.15 0 .70 1 .49 S .28-1 .41-1 .22-1 .50 1 .61 1 .19 0 .D .19 0 .12 0 .I.20-1 .59 1 .09 95 07o C .56-1 .55 1 .54 1 .

68-2 .14 0 .78-2 .02-2 .02 1 .16 2 . = standard deviation C .46 1 .D .08 2 .25 1 .34 1 .11 95 07o P .76-2 .07 0 .06 0 .26 1 .07-2 .10 1 .09 0 . Age years 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 N 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 Mean steps/s 1 .06 1 .07 0 .00-2 .I .95-2 .13 0 .24 1 .69-2 .16 1 . 219 OBERG et al .71-2 .V .91 S .08 0 . = confidence interval P .15 0 .91-2 .30 1 .14 C .77-2 .07 0 .99-2 .08 1 .I.06 2 .19 2 . Women.07 0 .66-2 .60-2 .09 2 . steps/s 0 . steps/s 1 .05 1 .07 1 . Step frequency .16 2 .04-2 .83-1 .07 95 07o C .V .82-2 .14 2 .87-2 .I .91-2 . Normal gait .20 Table 5b.03 1 .18 0 .62-2 .96 1 .18 0 .32 N = number of subjects S .16 0 .13 1 .03 S . = coefficient of variation C . Men. 0 .10 0 .56 1 .40 1 .I.07 0 .50 1 .08 1 .58-2 .09 0 .34 1 .49 1 .72-2 .96-2 .09 0 .09 0 .86-2 .17 0 .09 0 .20 0 .25 1 .95-2 . = prediction interval .I . steps/s 1 .14 0 .99 95 07o P .74-2 . steps/s 0 .03 2 .I .07 95 07o C .V .77-2 .49 1 . steps/s 1 .95 1 .22 2 .11 0 .14 C .17 0 .01 1 .96-2 .98 2 .19 0 .18 0 . Age years 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 N 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 Mean steps/s 2 .58-2 . steps/s 2 .05 0 . Step frequency .29 1 . Basic Gait Parameters Table 5a.86-2 .13 2 .13 0 . 0 .D .24 1 .00 2 . Normal gait .92-2 .71-2 .44 1 .D .97 2 .

23 0 .13 0 .98 1 .D .11 2 . Step frequency .79-2 .40 S .D .33-2 .42 2 .10 0 .09 0 .24 0 .50 2 . Step frequency .31-2 .51 2 .09 0 . steps/s 2 .49 2 .09-3 .22-2 .55 2 . steps/s 0 .66 2 .29 0 .53 2 .09-3 . = standard deviation C .10 95 07o C .07 0 .03 1 .37-2 .14-2 .83 1 .70 2 .40 95 07o P .75 2 . Fast gait .88-2 . 220 Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development Vol .52 2 . = prediction interval .94 1 .87-2 . Men.41 2 .87-3 .51 95 07o P . Age years 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 N 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 Mean steps/s 2 .02-2 .23 C.10 0 . Fast gait . steps/s 2 .50 2 .33 2 .70 1 . steps/s 1 .89 1 .39 2 .09 0 . 0 .40-2 .07 0 .10 0 . Women.31 0 .17 0 .V .I .24 0 .97 2 .25-2 . 2 1993 Table 6a.69 2 .18 0 .95-2 .I . steps/s 2 .16-2 .71 Table 6b.27 S .11 0 .V .72 1 .46-2 .V .24 0 .28-2 . 30 No .12 0 .43 2 .09 2 .52 2 .68-2 .01-2 .37-2 .25 0 .32 2 .96-2 .67 2 .I .19 0 .42 2 .61 2 .53 2 .10 0 .21 C .21 0 .14 2 .47-2 . = confidence interval P .93-3 .08 0 .03-3 .I. Age years 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 N 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 Mean steps/s 2 .39 2 .84 N = number of subjects S . 0 .92-2 .I.09 0 .27 0 .24 0 .59 2 .29-2 .72 2 .04-3 .27-2 .61 2 . steps/s 0 .09 95 010 C .56 2 .42-2 .98-2 .82 1 .15 1 .26-2 .25 0 . = coefficient of variation C .09 2 .34 2 .D .I .

8 52 .5 46 .I .2 C .10 0 .13 0 .7 38 .7 51 .08 0 .5 47 .1-58 .3 45 .1 C .3-48 .V .7 55 .5 4 . Men.5 47 .V .8-63 . = confidence interval P .6 49 .06 0 .4 37 .7 S . cm 3 .10 95% C.06 0 .1-57 .3 95 07o P .06 0 .6 Table 7b.2 4 .7-63 .9 40 . = prediction interval .9-52 .1 S . cm 3 .09 0 .7 48 .9 48 .D .06 0 .4 41 .8 3 .06 0 .8-53 .2-59 .3-54 .4 40 .6-59 . cm 45 .3 45 . = standard deviation C .1 39 .1 5 . 221 OBERG et at .8 51 .8 47 .4 54 . 0 .4-58 .1-61 . cm 49.7 N = number of subjects S .6-53 .0 6 .8 51 .0 52 . 0 .2 55 .I .3 7 .8 46 . Slow gait .I.6 95°lo P .5 5 .6 51 . Age years 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 N 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 Mean cm 51 .09 95% C.D .9-55 .5-55 .9 44 .9-49 .8 49 .7 53 . Step length .V . Age years 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 N 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 Mean cm 46 .8 4 .7-51 .9-70 .14 0 . = coefficient of variation C .2 2 .5 48 .8-68 .7-66 .2 5 .07 0 .2 5 .1 3 .9 54.9-57 .6-62 . Slow gait .I .0-54 .3 45 . Women.D .9 49 .4 3 .1-57 .6-48 .4 7 . cm 44 .1-49 .7-54 .0 51 .3-63 .0 38 .6 42 .09 0 .I.6 49 .I .2 44 .3 36 .4-65 .13 0 .4 56 .4-59 .3-57 . Basic Gait Parameters Table 7a.1 56 .11 0 .3 38 . Step length . cm 39 .4 52 .8-55 .

8-72 .6 3 . = prediction interval .3 5 .3 59 .7 6 .D .6 55 .2-56 .2-66 .5 55 .8 49 .I .7 63 .1 C . = confidence interval P .1 55 .0 3 .0 63 . = standard deviation C .3-68 . cm 59 .0 46 .5 S .7 2 .4-76 .V . 222 Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development Vol .4 95% P .7-66 .6 49 .0-67 .8-68 .8 3 .3 54 . cm 2 .I .1-54 .05 0 .6 54.2 S .06 0 .9 53 .9 48 .6 5 .8-62 .9-72 .1-59 .0-57 .9-72 .0-64 .1 46 . Women.06 0 .I .6 56 .09 0 .5 66 .2 3 .06 0 .3-69 .5 50 .0 61 .9-76 .7 57 . = coefficient of variation C .4-72 .4-62 .7 60 .0 58 .I.07 95% C . cm 52 .9 4 . Normal gait .8-60 .V .07 0 .4-56 .7 55 .09 0 . Men.08 95% C . 0 . Age years 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 N 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 Mean cm 54 .06 0 .07 0 .5-64 .6-64 .6-70 .6 50 .8 45 .1 52 .06 0 .4-67 .3 48 .5 56 .05 0 .9-70 .I.2 59 . cm 52 .V .11 0 . cm 47 .7 59 .1 57 .6 52. Step length .8 63 .7-63 .D . cm 3 .07 0 .I.2-74 .9-61 . Age years 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 N 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 Mean cm 61 .0 56 .1 53 .3-64 .D .0 55 .1 59 .4 62 .5 65 .2 Table 8b. 30 No .2 95% P .3 3 .7-62 . Normal gait .0 N = number of subjects S .5 4 . Step length .6 64 .9 64 .08 0 .0-59 .0 61 .9 4 .7 C . 0 .5 62 .3 6 .6 4 . 2 1993 Table 8a.

I .1-75 .7 5 . Men.D .5 7 .6 65 .08 0 .D .I .0 5 .10 63 .06 0 .11 0 .7 72 .5 50 . Women.9 6 .0 73 .5 60 .3-62 .10 0 .D . cm 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 68 .5 58 .7-74 .4 5 .3-86 .8 50 . Step length .4 0 .V .09 0 . cm C .3-75 .07 0 .6-80.3 7 .4 71 .3 63 . 95% C .3 4 .5-65 .4 5 .2 76 . 223 OBERG et al .8 50 .6 67 .5 4 .1-72 .5 5 .3 70 .7 75 .9-79 .3 52 .6 N = number of subjects S .9 59 .2 58 . cm 95% cm 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 62 .2-84 .3-70 .9-72 .3 71 .1-74. Step length .5-91 .3 62 .2 64 .1-77 .7 56 .5-82 . cm 95% P .3-82 .1 58 .7 8 . Age years N Mean cm S .2-66 . Fast gait .6 71 .06 0 .7 78 .9 60 .5 67 .5 53 .05 0 .9-74 .3-76.5 54 .7 59 .08 0 .1 68 .7 51 .7-76.2-83 .8 66 .3 57 .V . Fast gait . = prediction interval .9 0 .2 4 .6 3 . = confidence interval Pd . = coefficient of variation C .0 Table 9b.2 73 .08 0 .11 0 .08 0 .I.7 71 .9 3 .3 63 .7-73 .8-69 .2-68 .1 6 .1-83 .1 69 .5-67 . cm C . = standard deviation C .4-70 .V .5-84 . 95% C .9-62 .I .07 0 .8-93 .0 64 .7 68 .09 0 .2 62 .4 6 . Basic Gait Parameters Table 9a.3 58 .1 65 . Age years N Mean cm S .0 65 .06 59 .0-87 .4 60 .