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What? Functions?

Nucleus- This is the most visible structure in


a non-dividing cell, and contains
most of the cell’s genetic material

Endoplasmic rectium- - Tubular network fused to nuclear


membrane
- Goes through cytoplasm onto cell
membrane
- Stores, separates, and serves as
cell's transport system
- Smooth type: lacks ribosomes
- Rough type (pictured): ribosomes
embedded in surface
Golgi Body- - Anything made the ER is
transported here in vesicles, where
it is modified and then sent on to
another destination.
- Protein 'packaging plant'
- A membrane structure found near
nucleus
- Composed of numerous layers
forming a sac
Ribosome’s- - Each cell contains thousands
- Miniature 'protein factories'
- Composes 25% of cell's mass
- Stationary type: embedded in
rough endoplasmic reticulum
- Mobile type: injects proteins
directly into cytoplasm
Lysosomes- - Digestive 'plant' for proteins,
lipids, and carbohydrates
- Transports undigested material to
cell membrane for removal
- Vary in shape depending on
process being carried out
- Cell breaks down if lysosome
explodes
Nucleolus- - Spherical shape
- Visible when cell is not dividing
- Contains RNA for protein
manufacture

Nucleus membrane and - Surrounds nucleus


pores.- - Composed of two layers
- Numerous openings for nuclear
traffic

Vacuoles- - Membrane-bound sacs for


storage, digestion, and waste
removal
- Contains water solution
- Contractile vacuoles for water
removal (in unicellular organisms)
Micochondria- - Second largest organelle with
unique genetic structure
- Double-layered outer membrane
with inner folds called cristae
- Energy-producing chemical
reactions take place on cristae
- Controls level of water and other
materials in cell
- Recycles and decomposes
proteins, fats, and carbohydrates,
and forms urea
Centrioles- - Paired cylindrical organelles near
nucleus
- Composed of nine tubes, each
with three tubules
- Involved in cellular division
- Lie at right angles to each other
Chromosomes- - Usually in the form of chromatin
- Contains genetic information
- Composed of DNA
- Thicken for cellular division
- Set number per species (i.e. 23
pairs for human)

Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes are unicellular organisms, found in all environments.


Prokaryotes are the largest group of organisms, mostly due to the vast
array of bacteria which comprise the bulk of the prokaryote classification.
Characteristics:
• No nuclear membrane (genetic material dispersed throughout
cytoplasm)
• No membrane-bound organelles
• Simple internal structure
• Most primitive type of cell (appeared about four billion years ago)
Examples:

• Staphylococcus
• E. coli
• Streptococcus

MITOSIS
INTERPHASE-

-Time between divisions


-Protein synthesis carried out
-Chromatin present
-Nucleolus present
-DNA replicated towards division time

PROPHASE-

- Chromatin thickens into chromosomes


- Nuclear membrane disintegrates
- Centriole pairs move to opposite ends of the cell
- Spindle fibers begin to form
METAPHASE-

- Guided by the spindle fibers, the chromosome pairs


line up along the center of the spindle structure

ANAPHASE-

- The chromosome pairs (sisters) begin to pull apart


- Once separated, they are called daughter chromosomes
- Due to pull, many chromosomes bend
- Groove in plasma membrane present

TELOPHASE-

- Chromosomes return to chromatin


- Spindle disintegrates
- Nuclear membrane takes shape again
- Centrioles replicate
- Membrane continues to pinch inward
(in plant cells a new cell wall is laid)
MEIOSIS
PHASE 1.

INTERPHASE I PROPHASE I METAPHASE I ANAPHASE I TELOPHASE I

In Phase I, all material makes a copy of itself. Spindle fibers develop as


the membrane disintegrates. Some crossing over may occur as the
chromosomes thicken. They line up and pull apart. Once the
chromosomes pairs are at opposite poles the cytoplasm material divides.
The two cells formed do not have the same genetic material, yet they
have the normal number of chromosomes.

PHASE 2.
INTERPHASE II PROPHASE II METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II TELOPHASE II

In Phase II, no duplication of genetic material occurs. As the chromatin


thicken to form chromosomes and group into pairs, the spindle forms and
the nuclear membrane disintegrates. As in mitosis, the pairs of
chromosomes line up at the centre and pull apart to opposite poles. They
then then divide. In male organisms the four new cells are all the same
size. In females one of the four cells receives the bulk of the material.
This becomes the functioning egg while the other three smaller cells
disintegrate.

INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT &


CROSSING OVER.
Independent assortment.
Independent assortment occurs during the first stage of meiosis as the
pairs line up and is a source of genetic variation. This is a random
process and either chromosome from each pair could be in any gamete.
An organism with six chromosomes (three homologous pairs- XX YY ZZ)
could form eight combinations. This ensures that in humans with our 23
chromosomes there are so many combinations that it would be rare to
get two alike (unless its identical twins).

Crossing over.

In prophase I of meiosis,
homologous chromosomes pair.
At points where they make
contact, called chiasmata, the
chromatids break and region. The
non-sister chromatids exchange
corresponding sections of DNA.
This is known as crossing over. It
produces chromosomes that
contain new combinations of
alleles from both parents.