# 30.1: a) V, 0.270 /s) A 830 ( H) 10 25 .

3 ( ) / (
4
1 2
· × · ·

dt di M ε and is constant.
b) If the second coil has the same changing current, then the induced voltage is the
same and V. 270 . 0
1
· ε

30.2: For a toroidal solenoid, . 2 / and , /
1 1 0 B 1 2
2 2
r A i N i N M
B
π µ · Φ Φ ·
So, . 2 /
2 1 0
r N AN M π µ ·

30.3: a) H. 1.96 A) (6.52 / Wb) 0320 . 0 ( ) 400 ( /
1 2
2
· · Φ · i N M
B

b) When Wb. 10 7.11 (700) / H) (1.96 A) 54 . 2 ( / A, 54 . 2
3
1 2 B 2
1

× · · · Φ · N M i i

30.4: a) H. 10 6.82 s) / A 0.242 ( / V 10 65 . 1 ) / ( /
3 3
2
− −
× · − × · · dt di M ε
b) A, 20 . 1 , 25
1 2
· · i N

Wb. 10 3.27
25 / H) 10 (6.82 A) 20 . 1 ( /
4
3
2 1
2

× ·
× · · Φ ⇒ N M i
B

c) mV. 2.45 s) / A (0.360 H) 10 82 . 6 ( / and s / A 360 . 0 /
3
2 1 2
· × · · ·

dt Mdi dt di ε

30.5: Ωs. 1 A)s / (V 1 AC)s / (J 1 A / J 1 A / Nm 1 A / Tm 1 A / Wb 1 H 1
2 2 2
· · · · · · ·

30.6: For a toroidal solenoid, ). / ( / / dt di i N L
B
ε · Φ · So solving for N we have:

turns. 238
s) / A (0.0260 Wb) (0.00285
A) (1.40 V) 10 6 . 12 (
) / ( /
3
·
×
· Φ ·

dt di i N
B
ε
30.7: a) V. 10 4.68 s) / A (0.0180 H) 260 . 0 ( ) / (
3
1

× · · · dt di L ε
b) Terminal a is at a higher potential since the coil pushes current through from b to
a and if replaced by a battery it would have the + terminal at . a

30.8: a) H. 130 . 0
m) 120 . 0 ( 2
) m 10 80 . 4 ( ) 1800 ( ) 500 (
2 /
2 5 2
0 2
0 m
m
·
×
· ·

π
μ
πr A N μ K
K
L
b) Without the material, H. 10 2.60 H) 130 . 0 (
500
1 1
4
m
m

× · · ·
K
L
K
L

30.9: For a long, straight solenoid:
. / / and /
2
0 0
l A N μ L l NiA μ i N L
B B
· ⇒ · Φ Φ ·

30.10: a) Note that points a and b are reversed from that of figure 30.6. Thus, according
to Equation 30.8, s. / A 00 . 4
H 0.260
V 04 . 1
− · · ·
− −
L
V V
dt
di a b
Thus, the current is decreasing.
b) From above we have that . ) s / A 00 . 4 ( dt di − · After integrating both sides of this
expression with respect to , t we obtain
A. 4.00 s) (2.00 A/s) (4.00 A) 0 . 12 ( s) / A 00 . 4 ( · − · ⇒ ∆ − · ∆ i t i

30.11: a) H. 0.250 A/s) (0.0640 / V) 0160 . 0 ( ) / ( / · · · dt di L ε
b) Wb. 10 4.50 (400) / H) (0.250 A) 720 . 0 ( /
4 −
× · · · Φ N iL
B

30.12: a) J. 540 . 0 2 / A) (0.300 H) 0 . 12 (
2
1
2 2
· · · LI U
b) W. 2 . 16 ) 180 ( A) 300 . 0 (
2 2
· Ω · · R I P
c) No. Magnetic energy and thermal energy are independent. As long as the current is
constant, constant. · U

30.13:
πr
Al N μ
LI U
4 2
1
2 2
0 2
· ·
turns. 2850
A) 0 . 12 ( ) m 10 00 . 5 (
J) (0.390 m) 150 . 0 ( 4 4
2 2 4
0
2
0
·
×
· · ⇒

μ
π
AI μ
πrU
N

30.14: a) J. 10 1.73 h) / s 3600 h/day (24 W) 200 (
7
× · × · · Pt U
b) H. 5406
A) (80.0
J) 10 73 . 1 ( 2 2
2
1
2
7
2
2
·
×
· · ⇒ ·
I
U
L LI U

30.15: Starting with Eq. (30.9), follow exactly the same steps as in the text except that
the magnetic permeability µ is used in place of .
0
µ

30.16: a) free space: J. 3619 ) m 0290 . 0 (
2
T) (0.560
V
2
V
3
0
2
0
2
· · · ·
µ µ
B
u U
b) material with J. 04 . 8 ) m 0290 . 0 (
) 450 ( 2
T) (0.560
V
2
V 450
3
0
2
0 m
2
m
· · · · ⇒ ·
µ µ K
B
u U K

30.17: a)
3
2
6
0
2
0
0
2
m 1 . 25
T) (0.600
J) 10 60 . 3 ( 2 2
Volume
2
·
×
· · ⇒ · ·
µ µ
µ B
U B
Vol
U
u .
b) T. 9 . 11 T 4 . 141
m) (0.400
J) 10 60 . 3 ( 2 2
2
3
6
0 0 2
· ⇒ ·
×
· · B
Vol
U
B
µ µ

30.18: a) . mT 35 . 4
) m 0690 . 0 ( 2
) A 50 . 2 ( ) 600 (
2
0 0
· · ·
π
µ
π
µ
r
NI
B
b) From Eq. (30.10), . m / J 53 . 7
2
) T 10 35 . 4 (
2
3
0
2 3
0
2
·
×
· ·

µ µ
B
u
c) Volume . m 10 52 . 1 ) m 10 50 . 3 ( ) m 0690 . 0 ( 2 2 V
3 6 2 6 − −
× · × · · π πrA
d) . J 10 14 . 1 ) m 10 52 . 1 ( ) m / J 53 . 7 (
5 3 6 3 − −
× · × · · uV U
e) . H 10 65 . 3
) m 0690 . 0 ( 2
) m 10 50 . 3 ( ) 600 (
2
6
2 6 2
0
2
0 −

× ·
×
· ·
π
µ
π
µ
r
A N
L
J 10 14 . 1 ) A 50 . 2 ( ) H 10 65 . 3 (
2
1
2
1
5 2 6 2 − −
× · × · · LI U same as (d).

30.19: a) . s / A 40 . 2
H 50 . 2
V 00 . 6
0 When . · · ⇒ ·

·
dt
di
i
L
iR
dt
di ε

b) When . A/s 800 . 0
H 50 . 2
) 00 . 8 ( ) A 500 . 0 ( V 00 . 6
A 00 . 1 ·
Ω −
· ⇒ ·
dt
di
i
c) At A. 413 . 0 ) 1 (
8.00
V 00 . 6
) 1 ( s 200 . 0
s) (0.250 H) 50 . 2 / 00 . 8 ( ) / (
· −

· − · ⇒ ·
Ω − −
e e
R
ε
i t
t L R

d) As A. 750 . 0
8.00
V 00 . 6
·

· → ⇒ ∞ →
R
i t
ε

30.20: (a) mA, 30 A 030 . 0
1000
V 30
max
· · ·

i long after closing the switch.
) b
V 4.0 V 26 V 30 ε
V 26 A) (0.0259 Ω) (1000
A 0.0259
e 1 A 0.030 ) e (1
R Battery L
R
) (
max
10
20
· − · − ·
· · ·
·

,
`

.
|
− · − ·

V V
Ri V
i i
μs
μs
R / L / t

(or, could use s) 20 at µ · · t L V
dt
di
L

c)

30.21: a) R L e R i
t
/ ), 1 ( /
/
· − ·

τ ε
τ

2
1
2
1
max max
and , ) (1 when 2 / so / · · − · ·
− − τ / t τ / t
e e i i R ε i
μs
L
t τ / t 3 . 17
50.0
H) 10 (1.25 2) ln (
R
ln2
and ) ( ln
3
2
1
·

×
· · · −

b) max
2
2
1
max
2
2
1
; Li U Li U · ·
2 / when
max max 2
1
i i U U · ·
2929 . 0 2 / 1 1 e so 2 1 1
/ /
· − · · −
− − τ t τ t
e
μs L t 30.7 R / ln(0.2929) · − ·

30.22: a) A 13 . 2
H 0.115
J) 260 . 0 ( 2 2
2
1
2
· · · ⇒ ·
L
U
I LI U
V. 256 ) (120 A) 13 . 2 ( · Ω · · ⇒ IR ε
b)
,
`

.
|
· · · · ·
− − 2
0
) / ( 2 2 2 ) / (
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
and LI U e Li Li U Ie i
t L R t L R

s. 10 32 . 3
2
1
ln
) 2(120
H 115 . 0
2
1
ln
2
2
1
4
) / ( 2

× ·
,
`

.
|

− ·
,
`

.
|
− · ⇒
· ⇒
R
L
t
e
t L R

30.23: a) A. 250 . 0
240
V 60
0
·

· ·
R
I
ε

b) A. 137 . 0 A) 250 . 0 (
) s 10 (4.00 H) 0.160 / (240 ) / (
0
4
· · ·

× Ω − −
e e I i
t L R

c) , V 9 . 32 ) 240 ( ) A 137 . 0 ( · Ω · · · iR V V
ab cb
and c is at the higher potential.
d) . s 10 62 . 4
2
1
ln
) 240 (
) H 160 . 0 (
2
1
ln
2
1
4
2 / 1
) / (
0
2 / 1
− −
× ·
,
`

.
|

− ·
,
`

.
|
− · ⇒ · ·
R
L
t e
I
i
t L R

30.24: a) . V 60 and 0 0 At · · ⇒ ·
bc ab
v v t
b) . 0 and V 60 As → → ⇒ ∞ →
bc ab
v v t
c) . V 0 . 24 V 0 . 36 V 0 . 60 and V 0 . 36 A 150 . 0 When · − · · · ⇒ ·
bc ab
v iR v i

30.25: a) ) 1 (
00 . 8
) V 00 . 6 (
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) H 50 . 2 / 00 . 8 (
2
) / (
2
) / (
0
t t L R t L R
e e
R
e I i P
Ω − − −

· − · − · ·
ε
ε ε
). 1 ( ) W 50 . 4 (
) s 20 . 3 (
1
t
e P

− · ⇒
b)
2 ) H 50 . 2 / 00 . 8 (
2
2 ) / (
2
2
) 1 (
00 . 8
) V 00 . 6 (
) 1 (
t t L R
R
e e
R
ε
R i P
Ω − −

· − · ·
. ) 1 ( ) W 50 . 4 (
2 ) s 20 . 3 (
1
t
R
e P

− · ⇒
c) ) ( ) 1 (
) / ( 2 ) / (
2
) / ( ) / ( t L R t L R t L R t L R
L
e e
R
ε
e
L
ε
L e
R
ε
dt
di
iL P
− − − −
− ·
,
`

.
|
− · ·
). ( ) W 50 . 4 (
) s 40 . 6 ( ) s 20 . 3 (
1 1
t t
L
e e P
− −
− −
− · ⇒

d) Note that if we expand the exponential in part (b), then parts (b) and (c) add to
give part (a), and the total power delivered is dissipated in the resistor and inductor.

30.26: When switch 1 is closed and switch 2 is open:

. ) / ( ln
0
) / (
0 0
0
0
L R t
i
I
t
e I i t
L
R
I i
t d
L
R
i
i d
L
R
i
dt
di
iR
dt
di
L

· ⇒ − · ⇒
′ − ·

⇒ − · ⇒ · +
∫ ∫

30.27: Units of · · Ω Ω · Ω · s / ) s ( / H / R L units of time.

30.28: a) πf
LC
ω 2
1
· ·
. H 10 37 . 2
) F 10 18 . 4 ( ) 10 6 . 1 ( 4
1
4
1
3
12 2 6 2 2 2

× ·
× ×
· · ⇒
π π C f
L
b) F. 10 67 . 3
) H 10 37 . 2 ( ) 10 40 . 5 ( 4
1
4
1
11
3 2 5 2
min
2 2
max

× ·
× ×
· ·
π π L f
C

30.29: a) ) F 10 00 . 6 ( ) H 50 . 1 ( 2 2
2
5 −
× · · · π LC π
ω
π
T
s. rad 105 , s 0596 . 0 · · ω
b) . C 10 20 . 7 ) V 0 . 12 )( F 10 00 . 6 (
4 5 − −
× · × · · CV Q
c) . J 10 32 . 4 ) V 0 . 12 )( F 10 00 . 6 (
2
1
2
1
3 2 5 2
0
− −
× · × · · CV U
d) . 0 ) cos( , 0 At · ⇒ + · · · φ φ ωt Q Q q t

,
`

.
|
×
× · · ·

) F 10 00 . 6 )( H 50 . 1 (
s 0230 . 0
cos ) C 10 20 . 7 ( ) cos( s, 0230 . 0
5
4
ωt Q q t
C. 10 43 . 5
4 −
× − · Signs on plates are opposite to those at . 0 · t
e) ) sin( , s 0230 . 0 ωt ωQ
dt
dq
i t − · · ·
A. 0.0499
H) 10 (6.00 H) (1.50
s 0.0230
sin
H) 10 H)(6.00 (1.50
C 10 7.20
5 5
4
− ·

,
`

.
|
× ×
×
− · ⇒
− −

i

Positive charge flowing away from plate which had positive charge at . 0 · t
f) Capacitor: . J 10 2.46
F) 10 2(6.00
C) 10 (5.43
2
3
5
2 4 2

× ·
×
×
· ·
C
q
U
C

Inductor: . J 10 1.87 A) (0.0499 H) 50 . 1 (
2
1
2
1
3 2 2 −
× · · · Li U
L

30.30: (a) Energy conservation says (max) = (max)
C L
U U

A 0.871
H 10 12
F 10 18
V) 22.5 (
CV
2
1
2
1
3
6
max
2 2
max
·
×
×
· ·
·

L C V i
Li

The charge on the capacitor is zero because all the energy is in the inductor.
(b)
LC T π
ω
π
2
2
· ·
at 4 1 period: F) 10 (18 H) 10 (12
2
) 2 (
4
1
4
1
6 3 − −
× × · ·
π
π LC T
s 10 30 . 7
4 −
× ·
at 4 3 period: s 10 19 . 2 ) s 10 30 . 7 ( 3
4
3
3 4 − −
× · × · T
(c) C CV q µ µ 405 ) V (22.5 F) 18 (
0
· · ·

30.31: F 0 . 30
V 10 29 . 4
C 10 150
3
9
µ ·
×
×
· ·

V
Q
C
For an L-C circuit, LC ω 1 · and LC ω π T π 2 2 · ·
mH 601 . 0
) 2 (
2
· ·
C
T
L
π

) F 10 20 . 3 ( ) H 0850 . 0 (
1
6
·
×
·

ω
a) C 10 43 . 4
A 10 50 . 8
7
4
max
max max max

× ·
×
· · ⇒ ·
ω
i
Q ωQ i
b) From Eq. 31.26
2
1
4
2 7 2 2
s 1917
A 10 00 . 5
) C 10 43 . 4 (

,
`

.
| ×
− × · − ·

LCi Q q
. C 10 58 . 3
7 −
× ·

30.33: a) ) s A 80 . 2 ( ) F 10 60 . 3 ( ) H 640 . 0 ( 0
1
6
2
2

× · · ⇒ · +
dt
di
LC q q
LC dt
q d

C. 10 45 . 6
6 −
× ·
b) . V 36 . 2
F 10 60 . 3
C 10 50 . 8
6
6
·
×
×
· ·

C
q
ε

30.34: a) .
max
max
max max max
LC i
ω
i
Q ωQ i · · ⇒ ·

J 450 . 0
) F 10 50 . 2 ( 2
) C 10 50 . 1 (
2
. C 10 50 . 1 ) F 10 50 . 2 ( ) H 400 . 0 ( ) A 50 . 1 (
10
2 5
max
2
max
5 10
max
·
×
×
· · ⇒
× · × · ⇒

− −
C
Q
U
Q

b)
1 4
10
s 10 18 . 3
) F 10 50 . 2 ( ) H 400 . 0 (
1 1
2
2
2

× ·
×
· · ·
π
π
π
ω
LC
f
(must double the frequency since it takes the required value twice per period).

30.35: [ ] . s s A
A
1
s
s
C
V
Ω
V
C
s Ω
V
C
H F H ] [
2 2 2
s LC LC · ⇒ · ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ · ⋅ ·

30.36: Equation (30.20) is . 0
1
2
2
· + q
LC dt
q d
We will solve the equation using:
.
1 1
0 ) cos( ) cos(
1
). cos( ) sin( ) ( cos
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
LC
ω
LC
ωt
LC
Q
ωt Q ω q
LC dt
q d
ωt Q ω
dt
q d
ωt ωQ
dt
dq
ωt Q q
· ⇒ · ⇒ · + + + − · + ⇒
+ − · ⇒ + − · ⇒ + ·
ω φ φ
φ φ φ

30.37: a) .
) ( cos
2
1
2
1
2 2 2
C
ωt Q
C
q
U
C
φ +
· ·
.
1
since ,
) ( sin
2
1
) ( sin
2
1
2
1
2
2 2
2 2 2 2
LC
ω
C
ωt Q
ωt Q Lω Li U
L
·
+
· + · ·
φ
φ
b) ) ( sin
2
1
) ( cos
2
1
2 2 2 2
2
Total
φ φ + + + · + · ωt Q Lω ωt
C
Q
U U U
L C

) ( sin
1
2
1
) ( cos
2
1
2 2 2
2
φ φ +

,
`

.
|
+ + · ωt Q
LC
L ωt
C
Q

)) ( sin ) ( (cos
2
1
2 2
2
φ φ + + + · ωt ωt
C
Q

Total
2
2
1
U
C
Q
⇒ · is a constant.

30.38: a) ) cos(
) 2 / (
φ + ′ ·

t ω Ae q
t L R

) sin(
2
2 ) cos(
2
). sin( ) cos(
2
) 2 / ( ) 2 / (
2
2
2
) 2 / ( ) 2 / (
φ φ
φ φ
+ ′ ′ + + ′

,
`

.
|
· ⇒
+ ′ ′ − + ′ − · ⇒
− −
− −
t ω e
L
R
A ω t ω e
L
R
A
dt
q d
t ω Ae ω t ω e
L
R
A
dt
dq
t L R t L R
t L R t L R

). cos(
) 2 / ( 2
φ + ′ ′ −

t ω Ae ω
t L R

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
1
0
1
2 2
L
R
LC
ω
LC L
R
L
R
q
LC
q
dt
dq
L
R
dt
q d
− · ′ ⇒
·

,
`

.
|
+ − ′ −

,
`

.
|
· + + ⇒ ω

b) : 0 , , 0 · · · ·
dt
dq
i Q q t At

.
4 / / 1 2
2
tan
2
and
cos
0 sin cos
2
and cos
2 2
L R LC L
R
ω L
R
Q ω
L
QR Q
A
A ω A
L
R
dt
dq
Q A q

− ·

− · ′ − − · ⇒
· ′ − − · · · ⇒
φ
φ
φ φ φ

30.39: Subbing ,
1
, , ,
C
k R b L m q x → → → → we find:
a) Eq. (13.41): . 0 : ) 27 . 30 .( Eq 0
2
2
2
2
· + + → · + +
LC
q
dt
dq
L
R
dt
q d
m
kx
dt
dx
m
b
dt
x d

b) Eq. (13.43): .
4
1
: ) 28 . 30 .( Eq
4
2
2
2
2
L
R
LC
ω
m
b
m
k
ω − · ′ → − · ′
c) Eq. (13.42): ). cos( : ) 28 . 30 .( Eq ) cos(
) 2 / ( ) 2 / (
φ φ + ′ · → + ′ ·
− −
t ω Ae q t ω Ae x
t L R t m b

30.40: .
A
V
V C
s
F
H
2
Ω ·
]
]
]

⇒ Ω ·
⋅ Ω
·
⋅ Ω
· ·
]
]
]

C
L
C
L

30.41:
LC LC
L R
LC LC
L R
LC L
R
LC 6
1 1
2
6
1 1
4
6
1
4
1
2 2
2
2
2
− · ⇒

,
`

.
|
− · ⇒ · − · ′ ω

. 4 . 45
F) 10 (4.60 H) 6(0.285
1
F) 10 (4.60 H) (0.285
1
) H 285 . 0 ( 2
4 4
Ω ·
×

×
· ⇒
− −
R

30.42: a) When s. rad 298
F) 10 (2.50 H) (0.450
1 1
, 0
5
0
·
×
· · ·

LC
ω R
b) We want
2
2 2 2
0
) 95 . 0 (
4
1
1
) 4 1 (
95 . 0 · − ·

⇒ ·
L
C R
LC
L R LC
ω
ω

. 8 . 83
F) 10 (2.50
(0.0975) H) 4(0.450
) ) 95 . 0 ( 1 (
4
5
2
Ω ·
×
· − · ⇒

C
L
R

30.43: a)

b) Since the voltage is determined by the derivative of the current, the V versus t graph
is indeed proportional to the derivative of the current graph.

30.44: a) ] s) 240 cos[( ) A 124 . 0 (( t π
dt
d
L
dt
di
L ε − · − ·
). ) s 240 (( sin ) V 4 . 23 ( ) ) s 240 sin(( ) 240 ( ) A 124 . 0 ( ) H 250 . 0 ( t π t ε + · + · ⇒ π π

b) , 0 ; V 4 . 23
max
· · i ε since the emf and current are ° 90 out of phase.
c) , 0 ; A 124 . 0
max
· · ε i since the emf and current are ° 90 out of phase.

30.45: a) ). ( ln
2 2
) (
2
) (
0 0 0
a b
Nih μ
r
dr Nih μ
hdr
r π
Ni μ
hdr B
b
a
b
a
b
a
B
π π
· ·

,
`

.
|
· · Φ
∫ ∫ ∫

b) ). ( ln
2
2
0
a b
π
h N μ
i
N
L
B
·
Φ
·
c) .
2
L
2
) (
) / ) ( 1 ( ln ) / ( ln
2
0
2
2

,
`

.
| −
≈ ⇒ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ +

+

≈ − − ·
a
a b
π
h N μ
a
a b
a
a b
a a b a b

30.46: a) .
1
2
2 2 1 0
1
2 2 1 0
1
1 1 0
1
2 2
1
2 2 2
1 2
l
r π N N μ
l
A N N μ
l
IA N μ
IA
A N
A
A
I
N
I
N
M
B B
· · · Φ · Φ ·
b) .
1
1
2
2 2 1 0 1
1
2 1 0
2 2 2
2
dt
di
l
r π N N μ
dt
di
l
A N μ
N
dt
d
N ε
B
· ·
Φ
·
c) .
2
1
2
2 2 1 0 2 2
12 1
dt
di
l
r π N N μ
dt
di
M
dt
di
M ε · · ·

30.47: a) . H 5 . 7 ) / A 00 . 4 /( ) V 0 . 30 ( ) / /( · · · ⇒ − · s dt di ε L
dt
di
L ε
b) . Wb 360 ) s 0 . 12 )( V 0 . 30 ( · · Φ ⇒ ∆ · Φ − Φ ⇒
Φ
·
f i f
t ε
dt
d
ε
c) W. 1440 /s) A 00 . 4 )( A 0 . 48 )( H 50 . 7 ( · · ·
dt
di
Li P
L

. 0104 . 0 W 138240 ) 0 . 60 ( ) A 0 . 48 (
2 2
R
· ⇒ · Ω · ·
R
L
P
P
R i P

30.48: a) )) s 0250 . 0 / cos( ) A 680 . 0 (( ) H 10 50 . 3 (
3
t
dt
d
dt
di
L π ε

× · ·
. V 299 . 0
s 0250 . 0
) A 680 . 0 )( H 10 50 . 3 (
3
max
· × · ⇒

π
ε
b) . Wb 10 95 . 5
400
) A 680 . 0 )( H 10 50 . 3 (
6
3
max
max −

× ·
×
· · Φ
N
Li
B

c) . ) s 0250 . 0 / ( sin ) s 0250 . 0 / )( A 680 . 0 )( H 10 50 . 3 ( ) (
3
t
dt
di
L t π π ε

× − · − ·

V 230 . 0 ) (
)) s 0180 . 0 )( s 6 . 125 (( sin ) V 299 . 0 ( s) 0180 . 0 (
) ) s 6 . 125 sin(( ) V 299 . 0 ( ) (
1
1
· ⇒
− · ⇒
− · ⇒

t
t t
ε
ε
ε

30.49: a) Series: ,
eq
2
2
1
1
dt
di
L
dt
di
L
dt
di
L · +
but i i i · ·
2 1
for series components so
eq 2 1
2 1
thus , L L L
dt
di
dt
di
dt
di
· + · ·
b) Parallel: Now . where ,
2 1 eq
2
2
1
1
i i i
dt
di
L
dt
di
L
dt
di
L + · · ·

.
1 1
and But . So
1
2 1
eq
2
eq
1
eq
2
eq
2
2
eq
1 2 1

,
`

.
|
+ · ⇒ + · ⇒
· · + ·
L L
L
dt
di
L
L
dt
di
L
L
dt
di
dt
di
L
L
dt
di
dt
di
L
L
dt
di
dt
di
dt
di
dt
di

30.50: a)

· ⇒ · ⇒ · ⋅ .
2
2
0
0 encl 0
πr
i μ
B i μ πr B I μ di B
 

b) .
2
0
ldr
πr
i μ
BdA d
B
· · Φ
c)
∫ ∫
· · Φ · Φ
b
a
b
a
B B
). a b (
π
il μ
r
dr
π
il μ
d ln
2 2
0 0

d) ). ln(
2
0
a b
π
μ
l
i
N
L
B
·
Φ
·
e) ). ln(
4
) ln(
2 2
1
2
1
2
0 2 0 2
a b
π
li μ
i a b
π
μ
l Li U · · ·

30.51: a) .
2
2
0
0 encl 0
πr
i μ
B i μ r π B I μ d · ⇒ · ⇒ · ⋅

l B
 

b) .
4
) 2 (
2 2
1
) 2 (
2
2
0
2
0
0 0
2
dr
r
l i
rdr l
r
i
rdr l u udV dU
B
u
π
µ
π
π
µ
µ
π
µ
·

,
`

.
|
· · · ⇒ ·
c) ). / ( ln
4 4
2
0
2
0
a b
π
l i μ
r
dr
π
l i μ
dU U
b
a
b
a
· · ·
∫ ∫

d) ), / ( ln
2
2
2
1
0
2
2
a b
π
μ
l
i
U
L Li U · · ⇒ · which is the same as in Problem 30.50.

30.52: a) ,
2 2
2
1 0 1 1 0
1
1
1
1
1
1
r π
A N μ
r π
i N μ
i
A N
i
N
L
B
·

,
`

.
|
·
Φ
·

r π
A N μ
r π
i N μ
i
A N
i
N
L
B
2 2
2
2 0 2 2 0
2
2
2
2
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
·
Φ
·
b) .
2 2 2
2 1
2
2 0
2
1 0
2
2 1 0 2
L L
r π
A N μ
r π
A N μ
r π
A N N μ
M · ·

,
`

.
|
·

30.53: E ε μ E μ ε B
μ
B E ε
u u
E B 0 0
2
0 0
0
2 2
0
2 2
· · ⇒ · ⇒ ·
T. 10 17 . 2 ) V/m 650 (
6
0 0

× · · μ ε

30.54: a) . 1860
A 10 45 . 6
0 . 12
3
Ω ·
×
· ·

V
i
V
R
f

b)
) / 1 ( ln
) / 1 ( ln ) 1 (
) / (
f
f
t L R
f
i i
Rt
L i i
L
Rt
e i i

· ⇒ − − · ⇒ − ·

H. 963 . 0
)) 45 . 6 / 86 . 4 ( 1 ( ln
) s 10 25 . 7 )( 1860 (
4
·

× Ω −
· ⇒

L

30.55: a) After one time constant has passed:

. J 281 . 0 ) A 474 . 0 )( H 50 . 2 (
2
1
2
1
A 474 . 0 ) 1 (
00 . 8
V 00 . 6
) 1 (
2 2
1 1
· · · ⇒
· −

· − ·
− −
Li U
e e
R
i
ε

Or, using Problem (30.25(c)):
∫ ∫
− −
− · · . ) ( ) 50 . 4 (
7 / 3
0
) 40 . 6 ( ) 20 . 3 (
dt e e W dt P U
t t
L

J 281 . 0
40 . 6
) 1 (
20 . 3
) 1 (
) W 50 . 4 (
2 1
·

,
`

.
| −

·
− −
e e

b)

,
`

.
|
− + · − ·
− −

) 1 ( ) W 50 . 4 ( ) 1 ( ) W 50 . 4 (
1
/
0
) / (
tot
e
R
L
R
L
dt e U
R L
t L R

J 517 . 0
00 . 8
H 50 . 2
) W 50 . 4 (
1
tot
·

· ⇒

e U
c) dt e e U
t L R
R L
t L R
R
) 2 1 ( ) W 50 . 4 (
) / ( 2
/
0
) / ( − −

+ − ·

,
`

.
|
− − − + ·
− −
) 1 (
2
) 1 (
2
) W 50 . 4 (
2 1
e
R
L
e
R
L
R
L

J. 236 . 0 ) 168 . 0 (
00 . 8
H 50 . 2
) W 50 . 4 ( ·

· ⇒
R
U
The energy dissipated over the inductor (part (a)), plus the energy lost over the resistor
(part (c)), sums to the total energy output (part (b)).

30.56: a) J. 10 00 . 5
240
V 60
) H 160 . 0 (
2
1
2
1
2
1
3
2
2
2
0

× ·

,
`

.
|

·
,
`

.
|
· ·
R
L Li U
ε

b)
t L R L t L R
e
R
Ri
dt
di
iL
dt
dU
i
L
R
dt
di
e
R
i
) / ( 2
2
2 ) / ( − −
· − · · ⇒ − · ⇒ ·
ε ε

W. 52 . 4
240
) 60 (
) 10 00 . 4 )( 160 . 0 / 240 ( 2
2
4
− ·

− · ⇒

× −
e
V
dt
dU
L

c) In the resistor:
. W 52 . 4
240
) V 60 (
. ) 10 00 . 4 )( 160 . 0 / 240 ( 2
2
) / ( 2
2
2
4
·

· · ·

× − −
e e
R
ε
R i
dt
dU
t L R R

d)
t L R
R
e
R
ε
R i t P
) / ( 2
2
2
) (

· ·
J, 10 00 . 5
) 240 ( 2
) H 160 . 0 ( ) V 60 (
2
3
2
2 2
0
) / ( 2
2

× ·

· · · ⇒

R
L
R
ε
e
R
ε
U
t L R
R

which is the same as part (a).

30.57: Multiplying Eq. (30.27) by i, yields:

. 0
2
1
2
1
R
2
2 2 2 2
· + + ·

,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
+ · + + · − +
C L R
P P P
C
q
dt
d
Li
dt
d
R i
dt
dq
C
q
dt
di
Li R i i
C
q
dt
di
Li i

That is, the rate of energy dissipation throughout the circuit must balance over all of the
circuit elements.

30.58: a) If
2
4
3
cos
8
3 2
cos ) cos(
8
3 Q
Q
T
T
Q t Q q
T
t ·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
· · ⇒ ·
π π
ω

.
2 2 2
1
2 2
1
2
1
2
) 2 (
1
) (
1
2 2 2
2
2
2 2 2 2
B E
U
C
q
C
Q
LC
Q
L Li U
LC
Q
Q Q
LC
q Q
LC
i
· · · · · ⇒
· − · − · ⇒

b) The two energies are next equal when .
8
5
8
5
2
T
t
π
ωt
Q
q · ⇒ · ⇒ ·

30.59: μF V U C CV U V
C C C C C
222 ) V 0 . 12 /( ) J 0160 . 0 ( 2 / 2 so ; V 0 . 12
2 2 2
2
1
· · · · ·

C πf
L
LC π
f
2
) 2 (
1
so
2
1
· ·
H 31 . 9 gives Hz 3500 μ L f · ·

30.60: a) . V 0240 . 0
F 10 50 . 2
C 10 00 . 6
4
6
max
·
×
×
· ·

C
Q
V
b) A 10 55 . 1
F) 10 50 . 2 )( H 0600 . 0 (
10 00 . 6
2 2
1
3
4
6
max
2
2
max

× ·
×
×
· · ⇒ ·
LC
Q
i
C
Q
Li
c) . J 10 21 . 7 ) A 10 55 . 1 )( H 0600 . 0 (
2
1
2
1
8 2 3 2
max max
− −
× · × · · Li U
d) If
C
q
C
Q
U U U U i i
C L
2 2
4
3
4
3
J 10 80 . 1
4
1
2
1
2
2
max
8
max max
·

,
`

.
|
· · ⇒ × · · ⇒ ·

times. all for
2
1
2
1
. C 10 5.20
4
3
2
2
max
6
C
q
Li U
Q q
+ ·
× · · ⇒

30.61: The energy density in the sunspot is . /m J 10 366 . 6 2 /
3 4
0
2
× · · μ B u
B

The total energy stored in the sunspot is . V u U
B B
·
The mass of the material in the sunspot is . ρV m ·
;
2
1
so
2
B B
U mv U K · · V u Vv ρ
B
·
2
2
1

The volume divides out, and /s m 10 2 / 2
4
× · · ρ u v
B

30.62: (a) The voltage behaves the same as the current. Since , i V
R
∝ the scope must be
across the Ω 150 resistor.
(b) From the graph, as , V 25 , → ∞ →
R
V t so there is no voltage drop across the
inductor, so its internal resistance must be zero.
) 1 (
/
max
r t
R
e V V

− ·
when . 63 . 0 ) 1 ( ,
max
1
max
V V V t
e R
≈ − · ·τ From the graph, when
τ t V V · ≈ · · ms 5 . 0 , V 16 63 . 0
max

H 075 . 0 ) 150 ( ) ms 5 . 0 ( ms 5 . 0 / · Ω · → · L R L
(c) Scope across the inductor:

30.63: a) In the R-L circuit the voltage across the resistor starts at zero and increases to
the battery voltage. The voltage across the solenoid (inductor) starts at the battery voltage
and decreases to zero. In the graph, the voltage drops, so the oscilloscope is across the
solenoid.
b) At ∞ → t the current in the circuit approaches its final, constant value. The voltage
doesn’t go to zero because the solenoid has some resistance .
L
R The final voltage across
the solenoid is ,
L
IR where I is the final current in the circuit.
c) The emf of the battery is the initial voltage across the inductor, 50 V. Just after the
switch is closed, the current is zero and there is no voltage drop across any of the
resistance in the circuit.
d) As 0 , · − − ∞ →
L
IR IR ε t
V 50 · ε and from the graph V 15 ·
L
R I (the final voltage across the inductor), so
A 3.5 /R V) 35 ( and V 35 · · · I R I
e) Ω · · · 4.3 A) (3.5 / V) 15 ( so V, 15
L
R R I
L

L L
V iR V ε where , 0 · − − includes the voltage across the resistance of the solenoid.
V 9 . 27 , when so , 3 . 14 , 10 V, 50
)] 1 ( 1 [ so ), 1 ( ,
tot
/
tot
/
tot
· · Ω · Ω · ·
− − · − · − ·
− −
l
τ t
L
t
L
V τ t R R ε
e
R
R
ε V e
R
ε
i iR ε V
τ

From the graph,
L
V has this value when t = 3.0 ms (read approximately from the
graph), so . mH 43 ) 3 . 14 ( ) ms 0 . 3 ( Then ms. 0 . 3 /
tot
· Ω · · · L R L τ

30.64: (a) Initially the inductor blocks current through it, so the simplified equivalent
circuit is
A 333 . 0
150
V 50
·

· ·
R
ε
i
0 , A 333 . 0
resistor) 50 with parallel in (inductor V 7 . 16
it. through flows current no since 0
V 16.7 A) 333 . 0 ( ) 50 (
V 33.3 A) 333 . 0 ( ) 100 (
2 3 1
4 2
3
4
1
· · ·
Ω · ·
·
· Ω ·
· Ω ·
A A A
V V
V
V
V

(b) Long after S is closed, steady state is reached, so the inductor has no potential
drop across it. Simplified circuit becomes

A 230 . 0
50
V 5 . 11
A 153 . 0
75
V 5 . 11
A, 385 . 0
V 11.5 V 38.5 V 50
0 ; V 5 . 38 ) A 385 . 0 ( ) 100 (
A 385 . 0
130
V 50
/
3
2 1
4 3
2 1
·

·
·

· ·
· − · ·
· · Ω ·
·

· ·
i
i i
V V
V V
R ε i

30.65: a) Just after the switch is closed the voltage
5
V across the capacitor is zero and there
is also no current through the inductor, so , . 0
5 4 3 2 3
V V V V V · · + · and since
2 4 3 5
and , 0 and 0 V V V V · · are also zero. 0
4
· V means
3

1
V then must equal 40.0 V, and this means the current read by
1
A is
A. 0.800 ) (50.0 / V) 0 . 40 ( · Ω
A. 800 . 0 so 0 but ,
1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2
· · · · · + + A A A A A A A A
A; 800 . 0
4 1
· · A A all other ammeters read zero.
V 0 . 40
1
· V and all other voltmeters read zero.
b) After a long time the capacitor is fully charged so . 0
4
· A The current through
the inductor isn’t changing, so . 0
2
· V The currents can be calculated from the equivalent
circuit that replaces the inductor by a short-circuit.:

V 0 . 24 ) 0 . 50 (
A 480 . 0 reads A; 480 . 0 ) 33 . 83 ( / V) 0 . 40 (
1
1
· Ω ·
· Ω ·
I V
A I

The voltage across each parallel branch is V 16.0 V 4.0 2 V 0 . 40 · −
V 0 . 16 , 0
5 4 3 2
· · · · V V V V
. that Note
zero. reads A. 320 . 0 reads means V 0 . 16 . A 160 . 0 reads means V 0 . 16
1 3 2
4 3 4 2 3
A A A
A A V A V
· +
· ·
C 192 ) V (16.0 F) 0 . 12 ( so V 0 . 16 ) c
5
µ µ · · · · CV Q V
d) At t = 0 and . 0 ,
2
· ∞ → V t As the current in this branch increases from zero to
0.160 A the voltage
2
V reflects the rate of change of current.
30.66: (a) Initially the capacitor behaves like a short circuit and the inductor like an open
circuit. The simplified circuit becomes
A 500 . 0
150
V 75
·

· ·
R
i
ε

0 A, 500 . 0
V 0 . 50 parallel) (in
V 50.0 A) 50 . 0 ( ) 100 ( , 0
V 25.0 A) 50 . 0 ( ) 50 (
2 3 1
4
4 3
1
· · ·
· ·
· Ω · ·
· Ω · ·
A A A
V V
V V
Ri V
2

(b) Long after S is closed, capacitor stops all current. Circuit becomes
V 0 . 75
3
· V and all other meters read zero.
(c) nC, 5630 V) (75 nF) 75 ( · · · CV q long after S is closed.

30.67: a) Just after the switch is closed there is no current through either inductor and
they act like breaks in the circuit. The current is the same through the Ω Ω 15.0 and 0 . 40
resistors and is equal to A; 455 . 0 A. 455 . 0 ) 0 . 15 0 . 40 ( V) 0 . 25 (
4 1
· · · Ω + Ω A A
. 0
3 2
· · A A
b) After a long time the currents are constant, there is no voltage across either inductor,
and each inductor can be treated as a short-circuit . The circuit is equivalent to:

A 585 . 0 ) 73 . 42 ( V) 0 . 25 ( · Ω · I
1
A The voltage across each parallel branch is · Ω − ) (40.0 A) (0.585 V 0 . 25
A. 107 . 0 ) 0 . 15 ( V) 60 . 1 ( reads
A. 160 . 0 ) 0 . 10 V) 60 . 1 ( reads A. 320 . 0 ) 0 . 5 ( V) 60 . 1 ( reads V. 1.60
4 3 2
· Ω
· Ω · Ω A A A

30.68: (a) , s 50 . 0 since ms 40 . 0
25
mH 10
τ R L τ >> · · ·

steady state has been reached, for
all practical purposes.
A 00 . 2 25 V 50 · Ω · · R i ε
The upper limit of the energy that the capacitor can get is the energy stored in the
inductor initially.
C 10 90 . 0 ) F 10 20 ( ) H 10 10 ( ) A 00 . 2 (
2
1
2
3 6 3
max
0 max
2
0
2
max
− − −
× · × × ·
· → · → ·
Q
LC i Q Li
C
Q
U U
L C

(b) Eventually all the energy in the inductor is dissipated as heat in the resistor.
J 10 0 . 2
) A 00 . 2 ( ) H 10 10 (
2
1
2
1
2
2 3 2
0

× ·
× · · · Li U U
L R

30.69: a) At , 0 · t all the current passes through the resistor ,
1
R so the voltage
ab
v is the
total voltage of 60.0 V.

b) Point a is at a higher potential than point . b c) V 0 . 60 ·
cd
v since there is no
current through .
2
R
d) Point c is at a higher potential than point . b
e) After a long time, the switch is opened, and the inductor initially maintains the
current of . A 40 . 2
25.0
V 0 . 60
2
2
·

· ·
R
i
R
ε
Therefore the potential between a and b is
. V 0 . 96 ) 0 . 40 ( ) A 40 . 2 ( R
1
− · Ω − · − · i v
ab

f) Point b is at a higher potential than point a.
g) V 156 ) 25 40 ( ) A 40 . 2 ( ) (
2 1
− · Ω + Ω − · + − · R R i v
cd

h) Point d is at a higher potential than point c.

30.70: a) Switch is closed, then at some later time:
. V 0 . 15 ) A/s 0 . 50 ( ) H 300 . 0 ( A/s 0 . 50 · · · ⇒ ·
dt
di
L v
dt
di
cd

The top circuit loop: 60.0 . A 50 . 1
0 . 40
V 0 . 60
V
1 1 1
·

· ⇒ · i R i
The bottom loop: A. 80 . 1
0 . 25
V 45.0
0 V 0 . 15 V 60
2 2 2
·

· ⇒ · − − i R i
b) After a long time: , A 40 . 2
0 . 25
V 0 . 60
2
·

· i and immediately when the switch is
opened, the inductor maintains this current, so . A 40 . 2
2 1
· · i i

30.71: a) Immediately after
1
S is closed, , V 0 . 36 and , 0 , 0
0
· · ·
cb ac
v v i since the
inductor stops the current flow.
b) After a long time, ·
0
i A 180 . 0
150 50
V 0 . 36
0
·
Ω + Ω
·
+ R R
ε
,
. V 0 . 27 V 00 . 9 V 0 . 36 and , V 00 . 9 ) 50 ( ) A 18 . 0 (
0 0
· − · · Ω · ·
cb ac
v R i v
c) ), 1 ( ) A 180 . 0 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
) s 50 (
) (
total
1
total t
t L R
e t i e
R
t i

− −
− · ⇒ − ·
ε

( )
( ) ( ) . 3 ) V 00 . 9 ( 1 ) V 00 . 9 ( V 0 . 36 ) ( ) ( v
and 1 ) V 00 . 9 ( ) ( ) (
) 50 ( ) 50 (
0
) s 50 (
0
1 1
1
t s t s
cb
t
ac
e e R t i ε t
e R t i t v
− −

− −

+ · − − · − ·
− · ·

Below are the graphs of current and voltage found above.

30.72: a) Immediately after
2
S is closed, the inductor maintains the current A 180 . 0 · i
through . R The Kirchoff’s Rules around the outside of the circuit yield:

. 0 and V 0 . 36 ) V 50 ( ) A 72 . 0 ( , A 0 72 . 0
Ω 50
V 36
0 ) 50 ( ) 150 ( ) 18 . 0 ( ) 150 ( ) 18 . 0 ( V 0 . 36
0
0 0 0
· · · · · ⇒
· − − + · − − +
cb ac
L
v v i
i R i iR ε ε

b) After a long time, , V 0 . 36 ·
ac
v and . 0 ·
cb
v Thus
, A 720 . 0
50
V 0 . 36
0
0
·

· ·
R
ε
i
A 720 . 0 and , 0
2
· ·
s R
i i
c) and , ) A 180 . 0 ( ) ( ) ( , A 720 . 0
) s 5 . 12 ( ) (
total
0
1
t
R
t L R
R
e t i e
R
ε
t i i

− −
· ⇒ · ·
( )
t t
s
e e A t i
) s 5 . 12 ( ) s 5 . 12 (
1 1
2
4 ) A 180 . 0 ( ) 180 . 0 ( ) A 720 . 0 ( ) (
− −
− −
− · − ·
Below are the graphs of currents found above.

30.73: a) Just after the switch is closed there is no current in the inductors. There is no
current in the resistors so there is no voltage drop across either resistor. A reads zero and
V reads 20.0 V.
b) After a long time the currents are no longer changing, there is no voltage across
the inductors, and the inductors can be replaced by short-circuits. The circuit becomes
equivalent to

A 267 . 0 ) 0 . 75 ( ) V 0 . 20 ( · Ω ·
a
I

The voltage between points a and b is zero, so the voltmeter reads zero.
c) Use the results of problem 30.49 to combine the inductor network into its
equivalent:

Ω · 0 . 75 R is the equivalent resistance.

V 0 . 9 V V 0 . 20 so 0 V 0 . 20
V 0 . 11 ) 0 . 75 )( A 147 . 0 (
A 147 . 0 so , ms 115 . 0 , 0 . 75 , 0 . 20
ms 144 . 0 ) (75.0 mH) 8 . 10 ( / with ), 1 )( ( says Eq.(30.14)
· − · · − −
· Ω · ·
· · Ω · ·
· Ω · · − ·

R L L R
R
τ t
V V V
iR V
i t R V ε
R L τ e R ε i

30.74: (a) Steady state: A 600 . 0
125
V 0 . 75
·

· ·
R
i
ε

(b) Equivalent circuit:

F 6 . 14
F 35
1
F 25
1 1
µ
µ µ
·
+ ·
s
s
C
C

Energy conservation:
2
0
2
2
1
2
Li
C
q
·
) F 10 6 . 14 ( ) H 10 20 ( ) A 600 . 0 (
6 3
0
− −
× × · · LC i q
C
4
10 24 . 3

× ·

s 10 49 . 8 ) F 10 6 . 14 ( ) H 10 20 (
2
2
) 2 (
4
1
4
1
4 6 3 − − −
× · × × ·
· · ·
π
π
π
t
LC LC T t

30.75: a) Using Kirchhoff’s Rules: and , 0
1
1 1 1
R
ε
i R i ε · ⇒ · −
). 1 ( 0
) (
2
2 2 2
2 2
t L R
e
R
i R i
dt
di
L

− · ⇒ · − −
ε
ε
b) After a long time, . and still,
2
2
1
1
R
ε
i
R
ε
i · ·
c) After the switch is opened, ,
) ) ((
2 1
2 1
2
t L R R
e
R
ε
i i
+ −
· · and the current drops off.
d) A 40-W light bulb implies . 360
W 40
V) (120
2 2
Ω · · ·
P
V
R If the switch is opened,
and the current is to fall from 0.600A to 0.150 A in 0.0800 s,
then:
) s 0800 . 0 )( H 0 . 22 ) 360 ( ( ) ) ( (
2
2 2 1
) A 600 . 0 ( A 150 . 0 ) A 600 . 0 (
R t L R R
e e i
+ Ω − + −
· ⇒ ·

. V 7 . 12 ) 2 . 21 )( A 600 . 0 (
0 . 21 360 ) 00 . 4 ln(
0800 . 0
H 0 . 22
2 2
2 2
· Ω · · ⇒
Ω · ⇒ + Ω · ⇒
R i ε
R R
s
e) Before the switch is opened, A 0354 . 0
360
V 7 . 12
1
0
·

· ·
R
i
ε

30.76: Series: .
eq
2
12
1
21
2
2
1
1
dt
di
L
dt
di
M
dt
di
M
dt
di
L
dt
di
L ≡ + + +
But . and
21 12
2 1
2 1
M M M
dt
di
dt
di
dt
di
i i i ≡ · + · ⇒ + ·
. and with
, and
have We : Parallel
. 2 or
, ) 2 ( So
21 12
2 1
1
21
2
2
eq
2
12
1
1
2 1 eq
eq 2 1
M M M
dt
di
dt
di
dt
di
dt
di
L
dt
di
M
dt
di
L
dt
di
L
dt
di
M
dt
di
L
M L L L
dt
di
L
dt
di
M L L
eq
≡ · · +
· +
· +
+ + ·
· + +

To simplify the algebra let . and , ,
2 1
dt
di
C
dt
di
B
dt
di
A · · ·
So . , ,
eq 2 eq 1
C B A C L MA B L C L MB A L · + · + · +
Now solve for . of terms in and C B A

.
) 2 (
) (
) ( ) 2 (
0 ) ( ) ( ) (
0 ) ( ) ( ) (
. using 0 ) ( ) (
2 1
1
1 2 1
2 1 1
2 1
2 1
C
L L M
L M
B C L M B L L M
B L M B M L C M L
B L M B C M L
B C A B L M A M L
− −

· ⇒ − · − − ⇒
· − + − − − ⇒
· − + − − ⇒
− · · − + − ⇒

But ,
) 2 (
) 2 (
) 2 (
) (
2 1
1 2 1
2 1
1
C
L L M
L M L L M
L L M
C L M
C B C A
− −
+ − − −
·
− −

− · − ·
or .
2
2 1
2
C
L L M
L M
A
− −

· Substitute Ain B back into original equation.
So C L C
L L M
L M M
L L M
C L M L
eq
2 1
1
2 1
2 1
) 2 (
) (
2
) (
·
− −

+
− −

.
2
eq
2 1
2 1
2
C L C
L L M
L L M
·
− −

Finally,
M L L
M L L
L
2
2 1
2
2 1
eq
− +

·

30.77: a) Using Kirchhoff’s Rules on the top and bottom branches of the circuit:
). 1 (
) 0 0
). 1 ( 0
) / 1 (
0
) / 1 (
2
2
0
2 2
) 1 (
2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
) (
1
1
1
1 1
2 2
2
1
t C R
t
t C R
t
t C R
t L R
e εC Ce R
R
ε
t d i q
e
R
ε
i
C
i
R
dt
di
C
q
R i ε
e
R
ε
i
dt
di
L R i ε
− ′ −

− · − · ′ · ⇒
· ⇒ · − − ⇒ · − −
− · ⇒ · − −

b) . A 10 60 . 9
5000
V 0 . 48
, 0 ) 1 ( ) 0 (
3 0
2
2
0
1
1

× ·

· · · − · e
R
ε
i e
R
ε
i
c) As . 0 , A 92 . 1
0 . 25
V 0 . 48
) 1 ( ) ( :
2
2
1 1
1
· · ·

· · − · ∞ ∞ →
∞ − ∞ −
e
R
ε
i
R
ε
e
R
ε
i t
A good definition of a “long time” is many time constants later.
d) . ) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 (
2
1 ) ( ) 1 (
2
) (
1
2 1
2 1 2 1 1
t C R t L R t C R t L R
e
R
R
e e
R
e
R
i i
− − − −
· − ⇒ · − ⇒ ·
ε ε

Expanding the exponentials like : find we ,
! 3 2
1
3 2
 + + + + ·
x x
x e
x

,
`

.
|
− + − · +
,
`

.
|
−  
2 2
2
2
1 2
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
C R
t
RC
t
R
R
t
L
R
t
L
R

, ) (
2
1 2
2
2
1 1
R
R
t O
C R
R
L
R
t · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + +

,
`

.
|
+ ⇒ if we have assumed that . 1 << t Therefore:

. s 10 6 . 1
) F 10 0 . 2 ( ) 5000 ( H 0 . 8
) F 10 0 . 2 )( 5000 )( H 0 . 8 (
) 1 ( ) 1 (
1 1
3
5 2
5
2
2
2
2
2 2

× ·

,
`

.
|
× Ω +
× Ω
· ⇒

,
`

.
|
+
·

,
`

.
|
+
≈ ⇒
t
C R L
C LR
C R L R
t

e) At . A 10 4 . 9 ) 1 (
25
V 48
) 1 ( : s 10 57 . 1
3 ) 8 25 ( ) (
1
1
3
1
− − − −
× · −

· − · × ·
t t L R
e e
R
i t
ε

f) We want to know when the current is half its final value. We note that the current
2
i is very small to begin with, and just gets smaller, so we ignore it and find:
). 1 )( A 92 . 1 ( ) 1 ( A 960 . 0
) ( ) (
1
1 2 1
1 1
t L R t L R
e e
R
i i
− −
− · − · · ·
ε

s 22 . 0 ) 5 . 0 ln(
25
H 0 . 8
) 5 . 0 ln( 500 . 0
1
) (
1
·

· · ⇒ · ⇒

R
L
t e
t L R

30.78: a) Using Kirchoff’s Rules on the left and right branches:
Left: . ) ( 0 ) (
1
2 1
1
2 1
ε
dt
di
L i i R
dt
di
L R i i ε · + + ⇒ · − + −
Right: . ) ( 0 ) (
2
2 1
2
2 1
ε
C
q
i i R
C
q
R i i ε · + + ⇒ · − + −
b) Initially, with the switch just closed, . 0 and , 0
2 2 1
· · · q
R
ε
i i
c) The substitution of the solutions into the circuit equations to show that they satisfy
the equations is a somewhat tedious exercise in bookkeeping that is left to the reader.
We will show that the initial conditions are satisfied:

. 0 )]) 0 [cos( 1 ( ) 0 ( )] cos( ) sin( ) 2 [( 1 ( ) (
0 ) 0 sin( ) sin( , 0 At
1
1
1
2
· − · ⇒ + − ·
· · · ·
− −

R
ε
i ωt ωt ωRC e
R
ε
t i
ωR
ε
ωt e
ωR
ε
q t
βt
βt

d) When does
2
i first equal zero? rad/s 625
) 2 (
1 1
2
· − ·
RC LC
ω

. s 10 256 . 1
785 . 0
0.785 1.00) arctan(
1.00. F) 10 00 . 2 )( 400 )( rad/s 625 ( 2 2 ) tan(
0 1 ) tan( ) 2 ( )] cos( ) sin( ) 2 ( [ 0 ) (
3
6
1 1
2

− − −
× · · ⇒ + · + · ⇒
+ · × Ω + · + · ⇒
· + − ⇒ + − · ·
t ωt
ωRC ωt
ωt ωRC ωt ωt ωRC e
R
t i
bt
ε

30.79: a) · + − · + · · Φ ) ( ) ) ((
0 0
Air Air
dW
W
Ni Kμ
W d D
W
Ni μ
A B A B BA
L L B

] ) [(
0
Kd d D Ni μ + −

. and , where ,
] ) [(
2
0
2
0 0
0
0
0
0 0 0
2
0
D N Kμ L D N μ L D
L L
L L
d
d
D
L L
L
D
d
L
D
d
L L Kd d D N μ
i
N
L
f
f
f
f
B
· ·

,
`

.
|

· ⇒

,
`

.
| −
+ · + − · + − ·
Φ
· ⇒

b) Using 1 + ·
m
K χ we can find the inductance for any height . 1
0

,
`

.
|
+ ·
D
d
L L
m
χ
__________________________________________________________________
Height of Fluid Inductance of Liquid Oxygen Inductance of Mercury
4 D d · 0.63024 H 0.63000 H
2 D d · 0.63048 H 0.62999 H
4 3D d · 0.63072 H 0.62999 H
D d · 0.63096 H 0.62998 H
__________________________________________________________________
Where are used the values
. 5
m
3
2
10 9 . 2 (Hg) and 10 52 . 1 ) O (
− −
× − · × · χ χ
m

d) The volume gauge is much better for the liquid oxygen than the mercury because
there is an easily detectable spread of values for the liquid oxygen, but not for the mercury.