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# 1.

2 Reflections
In the last section we looked at translations – in which the position of a graph is altered. Think – picking up a
graph and moving it left / right or up / down …. and then dropping it.
We’ll next consider reflections, which affects a graphs orientation. Think of – lifting the top or bottom (or left
side or right side) of a graph and flipping it over. (Vertically or horizontally)

Warm-up
Exploration #1 Vertical Reflections %

## 1 The graph on the function ( # # 3 2

is on the right. Sketch the mirror image of the
graph, reflected in the #-axis. Be sure to
indicate the placement of the 7 indicated points.
Label the new graph \$ < # .
2 Describe how the coordinates change from the graph
of \$ ( # to \$ < # .

## 4 Explain how to change the equation of a function,

such as \$ # 3 2, so that the graph is reflected
about the #-axis. Determine an equation of the
reflected graph, in terms of #.

Exploration #2
1 The graph of \$ ( # is on the right. Sketch the mirror
image graph, again reflected in the #-axis.
Label the new graph \$ < # , and label the new
coordinates of the five indicated points.

## 2 State the mapping rule that describes the change in

all coordinates from \$ ( # to \$ < # .

## 3 State the coordinates of the two points that are on %

both the graph of \$ ( # and \$ < # . What do
they have in common?

Exploration #3
1 Sketch function \$9 #2 4# 5 in your graphing calculator. State the coordinates of the vertex.

2 Sketch function \$2 # 2 4# 5 in your graphing calculator and state the coordinates of the
vertex. How do the two graphs compare?

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1.2 Reflections

## A function % , transformed to % , is vertically reflected in the -axis. We can

alternatively say “vertically reflected about the line \$ 0”
All points are transformed #, \$ → #, \$ . Points on the #-axis are invariant. (they don’t change)
To obtain the new equation of a graph vertically reflected about the #-axis, replace with .

Let’s dive in on that last note, to obtain the equation - replace “\$” with “ \$”.
We saw this in action in Warm-Up #3 where we graphed \$9 #2 4# 5
and \$2 # 2 4# 5 . Vertex is at 2, 1

After vertical
Replace with : \$ #2 4# 5 reflection it’s at
2, 1
Isolate : \$ #2 4# 5
Now simplify: \$ #2 4# 5

To obtain the equation of a graph that’s been vertically reflected about the line \$ 0, either
replace in the original equation with … OR (equivalently) make the entire original equation negative.
Same result – both simplify
to \$ # 2 4# 5
\$ #2 4# 5 \$ #2 4# 5

## Exploration #4 Horizontal Reflections

1 The graph on the function ( # # 2 is on the right.
Sketch the mirror image of the graph, reflected in the \$-axis.
Be sure to indicate the placement of the 4 indicated points.
Label the new graph \$ < # .
2 Describe how the coordinates change from the graph
of \$ ( # to \$ < # .

## 3 State the equation, in terms of #, of \$ < # .

Explain how to change the equation of a function so that the graph is reflected about the \$-axis.

Exploration #5
1 The graph of \$ ( # is on the right. Sketch the mirror
image graph, this time reflected in the \$-axis.
Label the new graph \$ ℎ # , and label the new
coordinates of the five indicated points.
2 State the mapping rule that describes the change in
all coordinates from \$ ( # to \$ ℎ # .

## 3 State the coordinates of the point that is on both the

graph of \$ ( # and \$ ℎ # . %

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Chapter 1 – Transformations

Exploration #6

1 Sketch function \$9 #2 4# 5 in your graphing calculator. State the coordinates of the vertex.

2 Sketch function \$2 # 2 4 # 5 in your graphing calculator and state the coordinates of the
vertex. How do the two graphs compare?

## A function % , transformed to % , is horizontally reflected in the -axis. We can

alternatively say “horizontally reflected about the line # 0”
All points are transformed #, \$ → #, \$ . Points on the \$-axis are invariant.
To obtain the new equation of a graph horizontally reflected about the \$-axis, replace with .

Let’s dive in on that last note, to obtain the equation - replace “#” with “ #”.
In Warm-Up #6 above we graphed \$9 #2 4# 5 and
\$2 # 2 4 # 5

## Which simplifies to: \$ #2 4# 5 After horizontal Vertex is at 2, 1

reflection it’s at
2, 1

## Exploration #7 Summary of Reflection Types

1 For each reflected graph below, where indicated (), state the function equation in terms of ( # , then
indicate the mapping rule and invariant points.
2 For each reflected graph where indicated (), state the function equation in terms of #.

## Vertical Reflection Horizontal Reflection

% %

Mapping Rule:
, All pts #, \$ →
Mapping Rule:
All pts #, \$ →
, ,
Any invariant point(s)
,
Any invariant point(s) are on the
are on the
 

 

\$ ( #
Math foreshadowing time: There’s actually a third type of reflection we consider
in this course – a reflection about the line \$ #. # ( \$
Here, for all points on the graph and the equation, ,
we switch and .
We’ll revisit this type of reflection at the end of the unit! ,

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1.2 Reflections
Visit math30-1edge.com for solutions
Class Example 1.21 Sketching a Reflected Graph to all warm-ups and class examples

Given the graph of \$ ( # below, i – describe the type of reflection, ii - sketch each indicated graph,
iii - provide a corresponding mapping rule, and iv - describe the location of any invariant point(s).
(a) Sketch the graph of \$ ( # (b) Sketch the graph of \$ ( #
i - Type of Reflection: i - Type of Reflection:
ii ii

% %

## Worked The graph of % is transformed by a vertical and horizontal reflection, as

Example described below. For each scenario, sketch the resulting graph and:
(i) State an equation for the reflected function in terms of ( # and in terms of #
(ii) Determine the new coordinates for the point B 5, 2 after the transformation
(iii) State the location of an coordinates of any invariant point(s)
(iv) State the domain and range of each transformed function
(a) The graph of \$ ( # is vertically (b) The graph of y ( # is horizontally
reflected about the line \$ 0. reflected about the line # 0.
Sol: (a) Vertical reflection involves making “\$”, (b) Horizontal reflection involves making only
that is the entire expression, negative. “#” negative.
i - Equation in terms of (: % i - Equation in terms of (: %
Equation in terms of #: \$ # 4 1 Equation in terms of #: \$ # 4 1
Simplifies to…. OPTION - Simplifies to….

## ii – New coordinates of B 5, 2 : &, ii – New coordinates of B 5, 2 : &,

iii – Invariant pts are on the #-axis: ,! iii – Invariant pts are on the \$-axis: !,
iv – Domain of ( # is No change in the domain iv – Domain of \$ ( # is | ≤ , ∈ℝ
#|# 4, # ∈ ℝ after vertical reflection
No change to the Range of \$ ( # , it is
Range of ( # is Range after vertical reflection still \$|\$ 1, \$ ∈ ℝ
\$|\$ 1, \$ ∈ ℝ is | ≤ , ∈ ℝ

\$ ( # \$ # 4 1 \$ ( #
4, 1

, 4, 1 4, 1
\$ # 4 1

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Chapter 1 – Transformations

## The graph of % G is transformed by a vertical and horizontal reflection, as described below.

(a) The graph of \$ ( # is vertically (b) The graph of \$ ( # is horizontally
reflected about the line \$ 0. reflected about the line # 0.

## i Equation of transformed function, i Equation of transformed function,

in terms of ( # : in terms of ( # :

Equation, in Equation, in
terms of #: terms of #:

ii Given the graph of \$ ( # , sketch the ii Given the graph of \$ ( # , sketch the
transformed function on the same grid: (Be sure transformed function on the same grid: (Be sure
to plot the new location of any indicated points) to plot the new location of any indicated points)

## iii Coordinates of invariant point(s): iii Coordinates of invariant point(s):

iv Domain of iv Domain of
transformed function: transformed function:

Range of Range of
transformed function: transformed function:

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1.2 Reflections

## When considering reflections of different types of functions,

we encounter some interesting cases!

 First, consider % . %
We can reflect this graph vertically, with the resulting equation .
What if we tried to reflect the graph of % horizontally?
Would this change the graph? How about the equation?
2
\$ #
simplifies to… (same function!)
\$ ( #

## 1 For both of these graphs - notice either a vertical

< # 
# or horizontal reflection gives the same graph!
 ℎ # #?

## 1, 1 Vertical reflection: … & Horizontal:

1 1
\$ \$
1, 1 # same! #

\$ #? \$ # ?
same!

Can you see visualize how the graphs would also be the same?

\$ # ?
Also note that applying both reflections
returns the original function: Vert. reflection Horizontal

## The graph of % 1, as shown on the right, is transformed

to ' by applying both a vertical and horizontal reflection.

## (a) Sketch the graph of \$ < # on the same grid.

Does the order in which the reflections are applied matter? %
(b) State an equation for \$ < # , both in terms of
( # and in terms of #.

## (c) State the domain and range for \$ < # .

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Chapter 1 – Transformations

## 1.2 Practice Questions

1. Each graph below, sketch the indicated function on the same grid, and provide the indicated characteristics.
(a) \$ ( # (b) \$ < # (c) \$ ℎ #

% .

'

## ii Invariant point(s): ii Invariant point(s):

2. For each function below, sketch the function as described, and provide the equations and invariant points.
(a) Sketch \$ < # , obtained by reflecting the (b) Sketch \$ 5 # , obtained by reflecting the
graph of \$ ( # in the line \$ 0 graph of \$ ℎ # about the \$-axis

## i Equation of < # i Equation of 5 #

in terms of ( # : in terms of ℎ # :

## ii Equation of < # ii Equation of 5 #

in terms of #: in terms of #:

## iii Coordinates of iii Coordinates of

Invariant point(s): Invariant point(s):

3. Determine the equation of each transformed function, obtained by reflecting the graph of :

## (a) About the line \$ 0 (b) About the line # 0

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1.2 Reflections

4. For each of the following, the thicker graph of is obtained by transforming the thinner graph. For (a)
and (b) a reflection is applied, (c) enjoys both a reflection and a translation.
Determine an equation representing each thicker graph, as prompted.
(a) (b) (c)
\$ ( #

\$ ℎ #
\$ H #
' /

5. Each graph of \$ < # below is obtained by reflecting the corresponding graph of \$ ( # . Determine an
equation representing \$ < # , in terms of #, for each.
(c) ( # # 3 2 1
(a) ( # # ? 6# 2 12# 8 (b) ( # # 3 2

## % ' ' ' %

Step-by-step solutions, along with videos and additional practice exams, can be found at math30-1edge.com
1. (a) %
(b) (c)

i #, \$ → #, \$ '
ii 0 , 3
.
on \$-axis
i #, \$ → #, \$
2. (a) i #, \$ → #, \$
' ii 5, 0 and 2, 0 , on #-axis

(b) i 5 # ℎ #

,, ii 5 # # 9 1
,
i < # ( # optional - simplify:
ii < # # 1 2 1 / ,
iii 2, 0 and 0, 0 ' iii 0, 2
on #-axis on \$-axis
2 2
3. (a) \$ 2# # 1 (b) \$ 2# # 1

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Chapter 1 – Transformations

## 6. Each graph of \$ 5 # below is obtained by reflecting the corresponding graph of \$ ℎ # . Determine an

equation representing \$ 5 # , in terms of #, for each case.
(a) ℎ # # 4 3 (b) ℎ # # 3 4

/
. /

## (c) ℎ # #? 2# 2 11# 12 (d) ℎ # #? 2# 2 11# 12

. / .

7. Each of \$ < # below is obtained by reflecting the corresponding graph of \$ ( # and applying a
translation. Determine an equation representing \$ < # , in terms of ( # , for each case.
(a) (b) (c)

% '

%
' % '

8. \$ ( # has a domain #|# 7 , # ∈ ℝ , a range \$|\$ ≤ 1 , \$ ∈ ℝ , and a graph that passes through B 6, 2 .
Determine the new domain and range, as well as the new coordinates of B when the graph of \$ ( # is:
line \$ 0 the \$-axis vertically translated 5 units down.

i D: i D: i D:
ii R: ii R: ii R:

## iii P iii P iii P

4. (a) < # ( # (b) 5 # ℎ # (c) 1 # H # 2
? 2
5. (a) < # # 6# 12# 8
Pretty neat how that
(b) < # # 3 2 Optional – simplify to…. worked out, no?
2 2 2 2
(c) < # # 3 1 < # 1 # 3 1 < # 1 # 3 1 '

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1.2 Reflections
2
9. A function ( # # 6 2 is reflected about the line # 0.
 Exam
Style
Use the codes below to complete the following statement.

0 Horizontally 2 18 6 left
1 Vertically 3 12 7 right NR This provides the same affect as ______ translating
4 6 8 up first digit of answer
the graph _____ units _____.
5 4 9 down
second digit third digit

10.
 Exam
Style
The point B 8, 2 lies on the graph of a function \$ ( # . Listed below are all possible
coordinates of the new point corresponding to B after ( # undergoes a transformation.
Point 1 8, 2 Point 2 8, 2 Point 3 24, 6
Point 4 2 8 Point 5 8, 2 Point 6 8, 6

## NR The corresponding point when the graph of \$ ( # is

Reflected in the line # 0 is _____. First digit of your answer
Reflected in the line \$ 0 is _____. First digit of your answer
Transformed to \$ 4 ( # 16 is ____. Third digit of your answer

## 11. The graph of a function 1 # # 2 10# 33 is horizontally reflected in the line # 0.

 Exam
Style An equation for the resulting function is:
A. \$ #2 10# 33
B. \$ #2 10# 33
C. \$ #2 10# 33
D. \$ #2 10# 33

## 12. A function \$ ( # has a range of ∞ , 11 . When the function is transformed

 Exam
Style to \$ 3 ( # , the resulting function has a range of:
A. ∞, 14
B. 14, ∞
C. ∞, 8
D. 8, ∞

6. (a) 5 # # 4 3 optionally simplify to / (b) 5 # # 3 4
(c) 5 # #? 2# 2 11# 12 (d) 5 # # ? 2# 2 11# 12
7. (a) < # ( # 3 (b) < # ( # 1 (c) < # ( # 3
Vertically reflect, Shift 3 up Horizontally reflect, Shift 1 unit left Horizontally reflect, Shift 3 units right
8. (a) i #|# 7,# ∈ ℝ ii \$|\$ 1 , \$ ∈ ℝ iii 6, 2 (b) i #|# ≤ 7 , # ∈ ℝ ii \$|\$ ≤ 1 , \$ ∈ ℝ iii 6, 2
(c) i #|# 7, # ∈ ℝ ii \$|\$ 6,\$ ∈ ℝ iii 6, 3

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