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# Chapter 1 – Transformations

## 1.5 Inverse of a Relation

You can think of the inverse as “undoing”, or more specifically – doing the opposite operations in the opposite
order.
For example, the inverse of walking into a room and turning on the lights is to turn off the lights and then leave
the room.

Warm-up
Sketching the Graph of an Inverse
Exploration #1
1
Consider the function ( # # 2
3
1 Complete the first column of the table below by substituting the given values of # into the equation for ( # .

% '
6 _1 (–6)–2 = –4 (–6,–4)
3
3
0
3
6
9 (– 6, – 4)

## 2 Plot each of the points on the grid on the right

to sketch the graph of ( # . The first point is
plotted for you.

## 3 Complete the < # column by interchanging all of the ( # coordinates.

Note that the first point in the column will be (–4,–6).

4 Plot each of the points in the < # column to sketch the graph of \$ < # on the same grid.

## 5 Sketch the graph of \$ #, also on the same grid.

6 Compare the distances from the line \$ # of points on the graph of ( # and corresponding points on
the graph of < # .

7 Use terminology from this unit to describe the transformation of the graph of \$ ( #
to the graph of \$ < # . Where are the invariant points in this transformation?

## 8 Are the graphs of \$ ( # and \$ < # functions? Explain.

9 Determine an equation for \$ < # . How does this equation relate to the equation
for \$ ( # ?

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1.5 Inverse of a Relation

## The inverse of a relation, designated as # ( \$ , or \$ ( ^9 # if the inverse is also a function, is

found by interchanging the # and \$ coordinates.
2, 6
The mapping rule for this transformation is: , → ,
0, 4
For example, given the graph of \$ ( # on the right…
% 6, 2
The inverse is found by interchanging all coordinates so that all
points #, \$ → \$, # . Note that the inverse is not a function.
For example, the point 5, 1 on the graph of \$ ( # 4, 0
5, 1
becomes 1, 5 on the graph of the inverse.
%
Note that the graph of \$ ( # is reflected in the line \$ #
to become the inverse, that is the graph # ( \$ . 1, 5

## So there is an invariant point on the line \$ #, at 3, 3 .

% %
The domain and range also interchange. D: 5, 6 R: 1, 4 D: 1, 4 R: 5, 6

## Note how this section is called “The Inverse of a Relation”.

For that you might ask, given your inquisitive nature - Why is that? What is the difference between a
Function and a Relation anyways?
Once again – great questions! Let’s do some review, because yes, you’ve encountered this before….
A relation is a very broad term that describes a set of inputs (think #-coordinates) and outputs (\$-coordinates).
So any set of ordered pairs, which can be described as an equation, a graph, a domain-range map, is a relation.

A function meanwhile is a special type of relation where each input (#-coordinate) has exactly one
output (\$-coordinate). That is, for each # in the domain, there corresponds one (and only one) \$.

## Relation A – Not a function

A: 2, 5 , 0, 4 , 1, 2 , 1, 3

2 5
4
0 3 Uh-oh! # 1 maps
1 2 to two different \$s.
Domain Range

## Note that when # 1 there are two

separate \$’s. (That’s a no-go for functions!)

Relation B – Function!
B: 2, 5 , 0, 4 , 1, 2 , 2, 2

2 5
0 4 Each # maps to
1 exactly one \$.
2
2
Domain Range
Note that it’s OK for two different # ’s to map to the same \$!
(As is the case with # 1 and # 2, which both map to \$ 2)

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Chapter 1 – Transformations

## The Vertical Line Test – Applying the Definition of Functions to Graphs

Given the graph of a relation, we know it’s a function if each # in the domain maps to one and only
one \$. And an easy way to visualize this is the vertical line test.

Given the graph of \$ ( # , ( # is a function if (and only if) any vertical line touches at most once.

## Function  ( # NOT a Function  Inverse, # ( \$

Any vertical line Vertical line
intersects the intersects graph in
graph once more than one place! Note that as the inverse is
not a function, we should
not use notation ( ^9 #

## Note that the first graph on the left is the function ( # # 2 # 1 # 3 .

Whereas the graph on the right is the inverse, which has the equation # \$ 2 \$ 1 \$ 3 .
We’d next express the inverse equation in terms of , which is
challenging in this case! We’ll come back to this concept. Switch and in the equation

The also illustrates, that, given a function \$ ( # , its inverse, # ( # need not be a function.

## So while the inverse can be expressed as either # ( \$ or, *equivalently, \$ ( ^9 # …

We should not use\$ ( ^9 # when the inverse is not a function. *Avoid this notation when the
inverse is not a function
The “ ” here should not be confused with an
Also be careful to note: \$ ( ^9 # exponent, which would represent the reciprocal
1
( ^9 # "
( #

## The Horizontal Line Test

We saw that the vertical line test can be used to determine if the graph of a relation is a function.
Similarly, we can use the horizontal line test to determine if, given the graph of \$ ( # , its INVERSE
# ( \$ or \$ ( ^9 # will be a function.

Given the graph of \$ ( # , its inverse # ( \$ will be a function if (and only if) any horizontal line
touches at most once.

Example 1 Example 2
Passes H.L.T. Fails H.L.T.
% %
Any horizontal line will Horizontal line intersects
only intersect curve once curve more than once
 Inverse will pass V.L.T.  Inverse will not be
and will be a function: a function:

Inverse
Inverse
%
%

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1.5 Inverse of a Relation

## The Inverse as a Reflection

Since the graph of \$ ( ^9 # is a reflection (in the line \$ #) of the graph of \$ ( # , we can now complete
our list of the three types of reflections we consider in this course.

##  Vertical Reflection in  Horizontal Reflection in  (Inverse) Reflection in

the line \$ 0 the line # 0 the line \$ # %

\$ ( # % \$ ( # \$ ( #

Mapping Rule: , → , , → , , → ,

## Worked Given the graph of \$ < #

Example (a) Sketch the graph of # ( \$ on the same grid
Is the inverse a function?
(b) State the location and coordinates of any invariant point %
(c) State the domain and range of # ( \$

Solution: (a) To sketch the graph of the inverse, transform all points by: 2, 6
#, \$ → \$, #
2, 4
Procced left to right on all points on ( # …
6, 0
7, 0 → !, + Plot points and sketch
0, 6 → C, ! \$ ( #
4, 2 → ,
0, 7
%
6, 2 → ,C
(b) The invariant point occurs where the graph of \$ ( # intersects the line \$ #. Invariant point is at ,
(That is, where the # and \$ coordinates are the same, and interchanging has no effect) on the line
(c) D: #| 2 ≤ # ≤ 6, # ∈ ℝ R: \$| 7 ≤ # ≤ 6, \$ ∈ ℝ

## The graph of \$ ( # is shown on the right.

(a) Make a prediction on whether the graph of # ( \$
will be a function.

## (d) State the domain and range of both \$ ( # and # ( \$

\$ ( # D: # ( \$ D:

R: R:

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Chapter 1 – Transformations

Exploration #2 Sketching an Inverse Function using the online graphing calculator DESMOS

## Objective: To analyze the graphs of ( # #2 4 and the inverse, \$ ( ^9 #

Desmos offers some functionality lacking on your graphing calculator, such as graphing in “ ” form

1 Graph the function and its inverse, 2 Analyze the graphs, shown below.
obtained by switching # and \$ in the equation.
 Do the domain and
range switch?
Note: For exponents, use
shift + 4 to access ^  Can we confirm the
graphs are reflections?

## 3 Describe the shape of the graphs  Is the inverse a

of % and its inverse. function?

We can determine “\$ ” form equation of the inverse to the function \$ #2 4 in one of two ways:
Method 1 Method 2
By isolating “\$” in the inverse shown above. (Where we By examining the graph of the inverse, and
switched # and \$ in the equation, to obtain # \$ 2 4 expressing as two radical functions. (One
representing the “top” branch, one the bottom)

## 5 Use Desmos to graph the function & and its

inverse, &.
Sketch here. Describe the shape of each graph.
Can you confirm they are reflections?
Is the inverse a function?

## 6 Determine the “\$ ” form equation of the inverse of the function \$ # 5.

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1.5 Inverse of a Relation

## Worked Given the function ( # # 2, graphed on the right,

Example (a) Sketch the graph of \$ ( ^9
# on the same grid \$ ( #
Transform all indicated points (). Is the inverse a function?
(b) State the domain and range of \$ ( ^9 #
(c) Determine an equation, in terms of #, for \$ ( ^9 #

Solution: (a) To sketch the graph of the inverse, transform all points by: %^
#, \$ → \$, #
3, 7
Procced left to right on all points on ( # …
2, 0 → !, Plot points and sketch
1, 1 → , 2, 2 invariant
2, 2 → , 1, 1
3, 7 → +, 0, 2

(b) For \$ ( ^9 # , D: 2, ∞ R: 0, ∞

## The range of ( # The domain of ( #  Domain and Range interchange!

(c) For the equation, start with \$ # 2 (use “\$ ” instead of “( # ”) and interchange # and \$.
# \$ 2 Square both sides to isolate \$
# \$ 2
 We must restrict the domain, which is the
\$ 2 #2 %^ ;# 0 range of \$ ( # .

## The graph of ( # #2 9 is shown on the right.

(a) Sketch the graph of # ( \$ on the same grid by
transforming each indicated () point.
(b) Describe the transformation from the graph of \$ ( # to
that of # ( \$ .

(c) Describe where any invariant points can be found, and how
many there are.

## (d) State the domain and range of both \$ ( # and # ( \$ .

\$ ( # D: # ( \$ D:

R: R:

## (e) Determine an equation for # ( \$ , in terms of #.

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Chapter 1 – Transformations

Let’s revisit the worked example on the previous page. A common mistake is to forget to restrict the
domain, and stating the equation of the inverse as just ( ^9 # # 2 2. (graphed below)
\$ #2 2 / %^ ?
 But it’s important to see how – this graph makes no sense!

##  The graph of ( # is a half-parabola (sideways)

( # # 2
 So graph of inverse, which recall is a reflection about \$ #,
must also be a half-parabola!
 Therefore we must restrict the domain of the inverse!
Domain of \$ ( ^9 # is equal to the range of \$ ( #

## You can sketch the graph of %^ on your graphing calculator!

(But it’s a bit cumbersome. Ready? Let’s go!)
Suppose we wish to sketch the inverse of ( # #2 4.
 Input the equation for \$ ( # into \$9 and graph.

##  Access the draw inverse function in your calculator

by keying in “2nd” + “Program”

##  Select #8, “DrawInv” 

 We want to instruct the calculator to draw the inverse of what we inputted into \$9 .
With your cursor set after “DrawInv”, key in “VARS”, then scroll to “Y-VARS”, then
“Function”, finally select “Y1”. Once you have this on your screen, hit ENTER!

## The graph of ( # 4# 3 is shown on the right.

(a) Sketch the graph of the reflection of ( # in the line
\$ # by transforming the four indicated () points.
(b) State the coordinates of any invariant points.

## (c) Determine an equation for the reflected graph, in terms of #.

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1.5 Inverse of a Relation

## Equations of Inverses – Opposite Operations in the Opposite Order!

Consider the following pairs of function and inverse:
( # 2# 6  Multiply # by 2, then add 6
# 6
( ^9 #  Subtract 6 from #, then divide by 2
2
Can you see the pattern?
( # #2 4  Square #, then subtract 4
For each pair the equation of the
\$ ± # 4 (inverse)  Add 4 to #, then square root inverse represents the opposite
operations in the opposite order!
( # # 4 1  Add 4 to #, then square root, then subtract 1

## ( ^9 # # 1 2 4  Add 1 to #, then square, then subtract 4

In previous examples we’ve practiced a method for obtaining the equation of an inverse to a function.
However it could be useful to remember this pattern as a double-check of our results.

## The graph of ( # # 4 1 is shown on the right.

(a) Sketch the graph of \$ ( ^9 # on the same grid by
transforming each of the four indicated () points.
(b) Describe where any invariant points can be found, and how
many there are.

## (c) State the domain and range of both \$ ( # and \$ ( ^9 # .

\$ ( # D: \$ ( ^9 # D:

R: R:

## (d) Determine an equation for \$ ( ^9 # , in terms of #.

Class Example 1.55 Restricting the Domain so that the Inverse is a Function

For each of the functions below, provide a restriction on the domain so that the inverse would be a function.
(a) % (b)
%

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1.5 Practice Questions

## (c) State the domain and range of both \$ ( # and # ( \$

\$ ( # D: # ( \$ D:

R: R:

## (c) State the domain and range of both \$ ( # and # ( \$

\$ ( # D: # ( \$ D:

R: R:

## (c) State the domain and range of both \$ ( # and \$ ( ^9 #

\$ ( # D: \$ ( ^9 # D:

R: R:
(d) State whether the inverse is a function

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1.5 Inverse of a Relation
1
4. The graph of ( # # 2 is shown on the right.
3
(a) Sketch the graph of the reflection of ( # in the line
\$ # by transforming the three indicated () points.
(b) State the coordinates of any invariant point(s).

## 5. The graph of ( # 2# 6 is shown on the right.

(a) Sketch the graph of the inverse of ( # by
transforming all points with integer coordinates.
(b) State the coordinates of any invariant point(s).

## (c) Determine an equation for the reflected graph, in terms of #.

1. (a) To sketch, transform all points #, \$ → \$, # 0, 7
3, 7 → +, Plot all points to sketch # ( \$ 
6, 4 → , C … and so on
(b) Invariant point is on the line \$ #, so , 6, 1
(c) \$ ( # , D: +, + R: ,C Domain and Range (d) NO
3, 7 6, 4
# ( \$ , D: ,C R: +, + interchange %

2. (a) To sketch, transform all points #, \$ → \$, # 3. (a) To sketch, transform all points #, \$ → \$, #
5, 1 → , & … and so on, 6, 1 → , C … and so on,
1, 7 → +, graph isn’t shown 2, 2 → , graph isn’t shown

## Invariant points at , and &, & Invariant point at ,

(c) \$ ( # , D: &, & R: +, & (d) NO (c) \$ ( # , D: C, + R: ,C (d) YES!
# ( \$ , D: +, & R: &, & # ( \$ , D: ,C R: C, +

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Chapter 1 – Transformations

## 6. The graph of ( # # 4 is shown on the right.

(a) Sketch the graph of the reflection of ( # in the line \$ #
by transforming all points with integer coordinates.
(b) State location and number of any invariant point(s).

## (c) State the domain and range of both \$ ( # and \$ ( ^9 # .

\$ ( # D: \$ ( ^9 # D:

R: R:

## 7. The graph of ( # 2 # 8 2 is shown on the right.

(a) Sketch the graph of the inverse of ( # by
transforming the three indicated () points.
(b) State the domain and range of both \$ ( # and \$ ( ^9 # .
\$ ( # D: \$ ( ^9 # D:

R: R:

## (d) Determine an equation for the inverse, in terms of #.

4. (a) To sketch, transform all points #, \$ → \$, # Plot all points to sketch %^
3, 7 → +, … 6, 4 → , C … and so on \$ ( ^9 # 
2, 0
(b) Invariant point is on the line \$ #, so ,
1 1 3, 3
(c) # \$ 2  # 2 \$  3# 6 \$  %^ C
3 3

## 5. (a) To sketch, transform all points #, \$ → \$, # Plot all points to

0, 6 → C, ! … 3, 0 → !, … and so on sketch inverse 
%^ 2, 2
(b) Invariant point is on the line \$ #, so ,

(c) # 2\$ 6  # 6 2\$  # 6 L 2 \$  %^

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1.5 Inverse of a Relation

## 8. The graph of ( # #2 1 is shown on the right.

(a) Sketch the graph of the inverse of ( # by
transforming all points with integer coordinates.
(b) State location and number of any invariant point(s).

## (c) State the domain and range of both \$ ( # and # ( \$ .

\$ ( # D: # ( \$ D:

R: R:
(d) State whether the inverse is a function, and provide reasoning.

## 9. The graph of ( # # 1 2 9 is shown on the right.

(a) Sketch the graph of the inverse of ( # by
transforming all points with integer coordinates.
(b) State location and number of any invariant point(s).
(c) State whether the inverse is a function.
(d) State the domain and range of both \$ ( # and # ( \$ .
\$ ( # D: # ( \$ D:

R: R:

## (e) Determine an equation for the inverse, in terms of #.

6. (a) To sketch, transform all points #, \$ → \$, # Plot all points to %^
4, 0 → !, … 0, 2 → ,! … and so on sketch inverse 
(b) Invariant point is on the line \$ #, there is one.
(c) \$ ( # , D: ,∞ R: !, ∞ \$ ( ^9 # , D: !, ∞ R: ,∞

(d) # \$ 4  #2 \$ 4  %^ ;# 0
0, 4

## 7. (a) To sketch, transform all points #, \$ → \$, # Plot all points to sketch %^

8, 2 → , G 6, 0 → !, C … and so on \$ ( ^9 # 

## (b) \$ ( # , D: ,∞ R: G, ∞ \$ ( ^9 # , D: G, ∞ R: ,∞ (c) YES!

2
(d) # 2\$ 16 2  # 2 2\$ 16  %^ G; # 2
2, 8

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Chapter 1 – Transformations

## 10. The graph of ( # 9

# 3 2 12 is shown on the right.
?
(a) Sketch the graph of the reflection of ( # in the line
\$ # by transforming the five indicated () points.
(b) State location and number of any invariant point(s).
(c) State whether the inverse is a function.
(d) State the domain and range of both \$ ( # and # ( \$ .
\$ ( # D: # ( \$ D:

R: R:

## 11. The graph of ( # #2 4 is shown on the right.

Provide two possible restrictions on the domain of
\$ ( # so that # ( \$ is a function.

Step-by-step solutions, along with videos and additional practice exams, can be found at math30-1edge.com
8. (a) To sketch, transform all points #, \$ → \$, # Plot all points to
0, 1 → ,! … 1, 2 → , … 1, 2 → , and so on… sketch inverse 
(b) On the line \$ # … no invariant points here (d) NO by Horiz. Line Test
(c) \$ ( # , D: ∞, ∞ R: ,∞ # ( \$ , D: , ∞ R: ∞, ∞ 1, 0
2 2
(e) # \$ 1  # 1 \$  # 1 \$2  Inverse: ± %

## 9. (a) To sketch, transform all points #, \$ → \$, # Plot all points to sketch

1, 9 → ,, … 2, 0 → !, … and so on \$ ( ^9 # 
9, 1
(b) On the \$ #, two invariant points (c) NO
(d) \$ ( # , D: ∈ℝ R: | ,, ∈ℝ # ( \$ , D: | ,, ∈ ℝ R: ∈ℝ

(e) # \$ 1 2
9  # 2 Inverse: ± , %
9 \$ 1 

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1.5 Inverse of a Relation

2
12. The graph of ( # # 4 2 is shown on the left.
(a) Determine an equation for the inverse.

## (b) Provide two possible restrictions on the

domain of \$ ( # so that a ( \$ is
a function.

13. Given each function below, provide a restriction on the domain so that the inverse is a function.
For (b) only, provide three different domain restrictions that would work.

(a) (b)

%
'

10. (a) To sketch, transform all points #, \$ → \$, # Plot all points to sketch
%
3 , 12 → , … 0, 9 → , , ! … and so on inverse 
(b) On the \$ #, two invariant points ( ) (c) NO 12, 3

(d) \$ ( # , D: ∈ℝ R: | ≤ , ∈ℝ # ( \$ , D: | ≤ , ∈ ℝ R: ∈ℝ
1 2 2
(e) # \$ 3 12  3 # 12 \$ 3  Inverse: ±
3
11. There are two “largest domain” options, either !, ∈ ℝ or ≤!, ∈ℝ < need to create a “half-parabola”
However there are many other options, including # 1 , # ∈ ℝ or # ≤ 3 , # ∈ ℝ and so on! (infinite options)

Page |78
Chapter 1 – Transformations

## 14. The graph of \$ ( # is shown on the right.

When the graph of \$ ( # is reflected in the line \$ #, the
number of invariant points is:
A. one
 Exam
Style
B. two
C. three
D. four

## 15. A function ( # 5# 6 is reflected in the line \$ #.

^9
0 \
The resulting equation can be written in the form ( # #
I b
NR The values of 0, I, \, and b are, respectively, ____ ,
 Exam
Style
____, _____, and ____.
Codes can be used more than once

## 16. The graph of ( # 2 # 4 2 shown on the right.

Graphically determine the approximate coordinates (nearest
hundredth) of the invariant points.
Sketch \$ ( ^9 # , and plot / label the coordinates of the
invariant point on same graph.

## 17. A function \$ ( # has a domain ∞, 1 and a range 2, ∞ .

 Exam
Style A function \$ < # is obtained by transforming the graph of ( # so that < # 4( # 1.
The domain of \$ <^9 # is:
A. 9, ∞
B. 1 ,∞
C. ∞, 1
D. ∞, 9

12. (a) Inverse: \$ ± # 2 4
(b) There are two “largest domain” options, either ≤RTD
, Learning
∈ ℝ or PowerMath
, ∈ ℝ < create that “half-parabola”!
13. (a) Largest domain is | ≤ , ∈ℝ
(b) Largest domain is | ≤ , ∈ℝ another option: c| , ∈ ℝ and another: ≤ ≤ , ∈ℝ

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1.5 Inverse of a Relation

2
18. A restriction on the domain of a function ( # 0 # ℎ 5, so that # ( \$ is always a function is:

A. #|# ≤ 0 , # ∈ ℝ
 Exam
Style
B. #|# ≤ ℎ , # ∈ ℝ
C. #|# b ,# ∈ ℝ
D. #|# 0 ,# ∈ ℝ

19. 0 # ℎ

A. \$ ± 1/0 # 5 ℎ
 Exam
Style
B. \$ ± 0# 5 ℎ
C. \$ ± 1/0 # ℎ 5
D. \$ ± 0# ℎ 5

## 20. The graphs of four relations are given below:

1 2 3 4

Assuming no additional restrictions are given, which of the two above graphs will have an inverse that
 Exam
Style is a function?

## A. Graph 1 and Graph 4

B. Graph 2 and Graph 3
C. Graph 1 and Graph 2
D. Graph 3 and Graph 4

14. C 15. 1565
1 2
16. Graph \$9 2 # 4 2 and \$2 # 2 4 . C, . C
4
(Restrict domain, # 2)
17. A

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