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# 1.

3 Stretches
Once again – let’s first look back where we’ve been….
\$ #2
First, we saw how translations occur when we add (or subtract) numbers.

## For example, a function \$ # 2 can be

transformed to \$ # 3 2 2

## 2 units Graph horizontally And vertically

translates 3 units right translates 2 units up
3 units (opposite direction of the sign) (same direction* of the sign)

##  To horizontally translate the graph 3  To vertically translate the graph 2

units right, replace “#” with “# 3” units up, replace “\$” with “\$ 2”
2
So, becomes \$ 2 # 3 Simplifies to

When we think of vertical translations this way, we can treat it “the same” as horizontal!
*That is, the opposite direction of the sign in the equation: \$ ( # → / % .

## We can similarly think of reflections with replacements.

2 horiz. reflection \$ # 4 2
For example, given the graph of \$ # 4 …

##  To horizontally reflect,  To vertically reflect,

replace “#” with “ #” replace“\$” with “ \$” vertical
reflection

## We can optionally simplify to: Now divide both sides by 1

2 to isolate “\$”!
\$ 1 # 4
2 2 2
\$ 1 # 4  \$ # 4
2
 \$ # 4

%
Replacing “\$” with “ \$” is identical to “making the entire right side negative”
\$ ( # \$ ( #

\$ 5 ( # \$ ( # 5

##  Vertical translation 5 units 5 units

- up, if 5 6 0 - down, if 5 7 0
/ %

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1.3 Stretches

Exploration #1
The graph of ( # # 4 1 is on the right

## 1 On the same grid, construct a new graph of \$ < #

by multiplying all of the \$-coordinates by 2.
\$ ( #
Be sure to transform all points indicated () 
2 Is the resulting stretch
horizontal or vertical?
3 How could this transformation be
described with a mapping rule?

## 4 Describe the location and coordinates of any

invariant point(s). (Points that don’t change)

5 Use your graphing calculator to confirm the equation of < # is: < # 2 # 4 1

Exploration #2
The graph of ( # # 4 1 is again on the right

## 1 On the same grid, construct a new graph of \$ 5 #

\$ ( #
by multiplying all #-coordinates by 2.
2 Is the resulting stretch
horizontal or vertical?
3 How could this transformation be
described with a mapping rule?
4 Describe the location and coordinates
of any invariant point(s).
5 Use your graphing calculator to confirm the equation of 5 # is: 5 # 1⁄2 # 4 1

Exploration #3 

## 1 Use your graphing calculator to help sketch the graphs

of  \$ 2 # 2 4 and  \$ 0.5 # 2 4 on the same grid.
Graph  and  together to compare, then graph  and .
Be sure to indicate the points corresponding to those indicated () 

## 2 Explain the effect of the “2” and “0.5”

in terms of stretching.

## 3 Describe the location and coordinates of

any invariant point(s).

Page |28
Chapter 1 – Transformations

Exploration #4 

## 1 Use your graphing calculator to help sketch the graphs

of  \$ 2# 2 4 and  \$ 0.5# 2 4 on the same grid.
Be sure to indicate the points corresponding to those indicated () 

## 2 Explain the effect of the “2” and “0.5”

in terms of stretching.

## The graph of a function % , transformed to -% , -%

is vertically stretched about the #-axis by a factor of -. %

!, -

## All points on the graph of \$ 0( # !,

are “-” times further from the #-axis

#-intercepts
% are invariant
%
Invariant Point
is on #-axis  For example, the graph of a function ( # # 4 1
can be vertically stretched by a factor of 2,
4, 1
4, 2 Giving an equation \$ # 4 1
All pts move 2 times
Which can be simplified to: \$ 2 # 4 2
further from #-axis

% % J
The graph of a function % , transformed to % J ,
is horizontally stretched about the #-axis by a factor of /J.
1
All points are transformed #, \$ → #, \$
I Reciprocal

## All points on the graph of \$ ( I# ,! ,!

J
are “ /J” times further from the \$-axis

\$-intercept is
invariant

## For example, the graph of a function ( # # 4 1

Invariant Point %
is on \$-axis can be horizontally stretched by a factor of 2,

% Giving an equation ⁄

## 8, 1 4, 1 Which can be simplified to: \$ 1/2 # 8 2

All pts move 2 times
further from \$-axis

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1.3 Stretches

In the transformation \$ ( # →\$ 0( I#

## The vertical stretch is “-” The horizontal stretch is “ /J”

(straightforward!) (reciprocal!)
Another way to look at this is to treat both the vertical and horizontal stretches the same.
So if, for example, a function \$ ( # is horizontally stretched by a factor of 3 and vertically
stretched as a factor of 4, we “could” ....

1
 Replace # with #
3
\$ ( # So here both the horizontal and vertical
1 stretches are reciprocals in the equation
and, similarly…  Replace \$ with \$
4
Note that this can be simplified to:
Which is how we would
\$ ( #
“normally” view this!

## Given the graph of \$ ( # on the right,

1
(a) Construct a mapping rule to sketch the graph of < # ( #
2
%

## (c) Compare the domain and range of \$ ( # and \$ < # .

Describe which is affected, and how.

\$ ( # D: \$ < # D:

R: R:

## Given the graph of \$ ( # on the right,

(a) Construct a mapping rule to sketch the graph
of < # ( 3#

## (b) State the location of any invariant points.

%
(c) Compare the domain and range of \$ ( #
and \$ < # . Describe which is affected, and
how.
\$ ( # D: \$ < # D:

R: R:

Page |30
Chapter 1 – Transformations

## Worked The graph of % C & is shown on the right. %

Example  \$ < # is obtained by vertically stretching the graph of ( # about the
line \$ 0, by a factor of 3, and reflecting the graph about the #-axis.
 \$ ℎ # is obtained by horizontally stretching the graph of
( # about the line # 0, by a factor of 2.

(a) State an equation for and sketch the graph of \$ < # , on the same
grid. Be sure to indicate the new location of all indicated points. ()
(b) State an equation and sketch the graph of \$ ℎ # , on the same grid.

## Sol: (a) Equation in terms of ( # : ' %

,
%
Vertical reflection Vertical stretch

Equation in terms of #: \$ 3 #2 6# 5
Simplifies to: G &
For the equation, multiply all \$-coordinates by 3. Invariant points are on the
Mapping rule: All points , → , #-axis, at 1, 0 and 5, 0 . ,

3, 4 → 3, 12
%
2, 3 → 2, 9 and so on…

## (b) Equation in terms of ( # : . %

Horizontal stretch (reciprocal) %
1 2
1
Equation in terms of #: \$ # 6 # 5
2 2
%
Simplifies to: &
For the equation, multiply all #-coordinates by 2. Invariant point is on
Mapping rule: All points , → , the \$-axis, at 0, 5 .
, C,
3, 4 → 6, 4
2, 3 → 4, 3 and so on…

## A function ( # # 5 8 has a range of \$ 8, \$ ∈ ℝ . A function \$ < # is obtained by reflecting the

graph of \$ ( # about the line \$ 0, and applying a vertical stretch by a factor of 1/4.
(a) Determine an equation for \$ < # , both in terms of ( # and in terms of #.

## (b) State the range of < # .

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1.3 Stretches

## The graph of % , is shown. The graph of \$ < # is

obtained by vertically stretching the graph of ( # about the line \$ 0 by a
factor of 3, and reflecting it about the line \$ 0.

## (a) Sketch the graph of \$ < # . Be sure to indicate

the new location of the vertex, any # and
\$-intercepts, and any other key points. Mapping Rule:

## (b) Determine an equation for \$ < # ,

In terms In terms
of % : of :

## (c) State the location and coordinates

of any invariant point(s).

## (d) State the range of both \$ ( # and \$ < # .

\$ ( # R: \$ < # R: %

## The graph of % , is again shown below.

The graph of \$ ℎ # is obtained by horizontally stretching
the graph of ( # about the line # 0 by a factor of 3.

## (e) Sketch the graph of \$ ℎ # . Be sure to indicate the

new location of the vertex, and any # and \$-intercepts.
Mapping Rule:

## (f) Determine an equation for \$ ℎ # ,

In terms In terms
of % : of :

## (g) State the location and coordinates

of any invariant point(s).
%

## The graph of % C is shown on the right.

A new function < # is defined < # ( 3# . %
(a) Sketch the graph of \$ < # , on the same grid.
Mapping Rule:

## (b) Determine an equation for

\$ < # , in terms of # .

Page |32
Chapter 1 – Transformations

Worked For each pair of graphs below, the graph of \$ < # is obtained by stretching the graph of ( # .
Example For each, determine an equation for \$ < # .
'
'
(a) (b)
!, C
% G
!,

## Sol: (a) (b)

“start” point for ( # Then on < # it’s at
is at # 8 !, C \$ 36

## …and for < # it’s # 2 !,

\$-intercept for ( # is \$ 12
The start point (as with all other points) is stretched
horizontally, as it moves closer to the \$-axis.
Also note that the invariant point is on the \$-axis The \$-intercept (as with all other points) is stretched
vertically, as it moves further from the \$-axis.
 8 K horiz. stretch 2  horiz. stretch 2L8 Also note that the invariant points are on the #-axis
 12 K vert. stretch 36
horizontal stretch factor
 vert. stretch 36 L 12
So, equation is: ' %
vertical stretch factor

## Class Example 1.36 Determining the Stretch from a Graph

For each pair of graphs below, the graph of \$ < # is obtained by stretching the graph of ( # .
Determine an equation for \$ < # , in terms of ( # .

(a) (b)

%
% '
'

## Mapping Rule: Mapping Rule:

Equation: Equation:

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1.3 Stretches

## Class Example 1.37 Determining the Stretch from a Graph

For each graph below, the graph of \$ < # is obtained by stretching the graph of ( # . Points indicated ()
have integer coordinates. Determine an equation for < # for each, and identify all indicated characteristics.

(a)

'

% G

Equation in terms of % :

Equation in terms of :

-intercept of ' :

(b)
% C

'

Equation in terms of % :

Equation in terms of :

-intercept of % :
(use an algebraic process)

Page |34
1.3 Practice Questions

1. Given each graph of \$ ( # below, sketch each transformed function, and provide all indicated characteristics.
1
(a) \$ ( # (b) \$ 4( #
3 i Transformation
% in Words:

ii Mapping Rule:

%
i Transformation iii Range of ( # :
in Words:

ii Mapping Rule:
… of transformed
function:
iii Domain of ( # :
… Domain of iv Coordinates of
transformed invariant point(s):
function:

iv Coordinates of
invariant point(s):

1
(c) \$ ( 3#
2
i Mapping Rule:

ii Domain of ( # :

Range of ( # :

## iii Domain of transformed function:

%
Range of transformed function:

## 2. Determine an equation, as specified, when the function ( # 2# 2 4# 12 is:

(a) Vertically stretched by a factor of 2 (b) Horizontally stretched by a factor of 2
i Equation in i Equation in
terms of ( # : terms of ( # :

ii Equation in ii Equation in
terms of #: terms of #:

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1.3 Stretches

## 3. The graph of % G is shown below.

The graph of \$ < # is obtained by stretching the graph of ( # about the line \$ 0 by a factor of 2.

(a) Sketch the graph of \$ < # . Be sure to indicate the new location of the
vertex, any # and \$-intercepts, and any other key points.

Mapping Rule:

## (b) Determine an equation for \$ < # ,

i In terms of % : ii In terms of :

## (c) State the location and coordinates

of any invariant point(s).
%

## 4. A function \$ ( # has a range of 8, ∞ , a domain of ∞, 4 , an #-intercept 3, 0 and a

\$-intercept 0, 5 . Determine these characteristics for the following transformed functions.
1
(a) \$ 5( # i Domain: (b) \$ ( # i Domain:
4
ii Range: ii Range:

## iii #-intercept: iii #-intercept:

iv \$-intercept: iv \$-intercept:

1. (a) i Horiz. str, factor of 3 (b) i Vertical stretch
%
ii #, \$ → 3#, \$ factor of 4

iii ( # : 3, 4 ii #, \$ → #, 4\$
transformed:
9, 4 % iii ( # : 3, 4
transformed:
iv 0, 2 on \$-axis 12, 16
1 1
(c) i #, \$ → #, \$ iv 1, 0 and 5, 0
3 2 on #-axis
ii Domain: 9, 12
Range: 6, 6
2. (a) i % ii G
iii Domain: 3, 4 %
(b) i % ii
Range: 3, 3

Page |36
Chapter 1 – Transformations

## 5. The graph of % G is shown below.

The graph of \$ < # is obtained by stretching the graph of ( # about the line # 0 by a factor of 1/4.
(a) Sketch the graph of \$ < # . Indicate the new location of key points.
Mapping Rule:

## (b) Determine an equation for \$ < # ;

%
i In terms of ( # : ii In terms of #:

## (c) State the location and coordinates

of any invariant point(s).
(d) State the domain of: i \$ ( # ii \$ < #

## (f) The point B 10, 4 is on the graph of \$ ( # . Determine the coordinates

of the corresponding point to B on the graph of \$ < # .

6. Below is the graph of * C . The #-intercepts have integer coordinates, and the
\$-intercept is 0, 48 . The two points indicated on the graph have coordinates rounded to the nearest tenth.
The graph of \$ < # is obtained by stretching the graph of 1 # about the line # 0 by a factor of 1/2.
(a) Sketch the graph of \$ < # . Mapping *
Rule:
(b) Determine an equation for \$ < # ; . C, C&. +

i In terms of p # : ii In terms of #:

## (c) State the location and coordinates of any invariant point(s).

. , .&

3. (a) #, \$ → #, 2\$ , C 4. (a) i ∞, 4 (b) i ∞, 16
(b) i < # 2( #
2
ii ∞, 40 ii 8, ∞
ii < # # 3 16 !, +
(c) On the #-axis; 7, 0 include all iii 3, 0 iii 12, 0
and 1, 0 indicated ()
iv 0, 25 iv 0, 5
(d) i ∞, 8 ii ∞, 16 points!

(e) i 0, 3.5 ii 0, 7

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1.3 Stretches

## 7. The graph of % is shown on the right.

C
1
The graph of \$ < # is defined as < # ( #
6
(a) Sketch the graph of \$ < # . Be sure to indicate the new location
Mapping of the vertex and intercepts.
Rule:

## (c) State the location and coordinates

of any invariant point(s).
(d) State the range of:
i \$ ( # ii \$ < #

## 8. The graph of % is shown on the right.

1
The graph of \$ < # is defined as < # ( #
3
(a) Sketch the graph of \$ < # .
Be sure to indicate the new location of the vertex and intercepts.

Mapping Rule:

## (d) The point B 4, 5 is on the graph of \$ ( # .

Determine the coordinates of the corresponding
point to B on the graph of \$ < # .

1 '
5. (a) #, \$ → #, \$ (c) On the \$-axis; 0, 2 . &,
4
(b) i < # ( 4# (d) i 8, ∞ ii 2, ∞

## ii < # 2 4# 8 2 (e) i 6, 0 ii 3/2, 0

Optionally simplify: ' G (f) E becomes: 2.5, 4 ,

1 !. G, C&. +
6. (a) #, \$ → #, \$ ' (b) i < # 1 2#
2
Mult all #-coords by 1/2 …. ii < # 2# 4 2# 2 2# 6
New #-intercepts are …. Optionally simplify: < # 2 # 2 2 # 1 2 # 3
2, 0 , 1, 0 , and 3, 0 ' G

## (c) On the \$-axis…. 0, 48

. , .&

Page |38
Chapter 1 – Transformations

## 9. The graph of % G is shown on the right.

The graph of < # is obtained by reflecting the graph of ( #
about the #-axis, and vertically stretching by a factor of 2.
(a) Sketch the graph of \$ < # .
Mapping Rule:

## (d) State the range of:

i \$ ( # ii \$ < # Be sure to indicate the new location of all key points.

## 10. The graph of % is shown on the right.

The graph of \$ < # is obtained by reflecting the
graph of ( # about the \$-axis, and horizontally
stretching the graph by a factor of 1/2.

Mapping Rule:

i \$ ( # ii \$ < #

## (e) The point B 14, 1 is on the graph of \$ ( # . Determine the

coordinates of the corresponding point to B on the graph of \$ < # .

Step-by-step solutions, along with videos and additional practice exams, can be found at math30-1edge.com
1
7. (a) #, \$ → #, \$ 8. (a) #, \$ → 3#, \$ '
6
1 ' 1 2
1
(b) < # # 6 2 (b) < # # 2 # 3
2 3 3
simplify to…
(c) on #-axis… 2, 0 and 6, 2 1 2 2
10, 0 < # # # 3
9 3
(d) i 12, ∞ ii 2, ∞ Vertex: 3, 4
(c) on \$-axis… 0, 3 (d) 12, 5

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1.3 Stretches

11. For each pair of graphs below, the graph of \$ < # is obtained by stretching the graph of ( # . For
each, (i) determine a mapping rule, (ii) an equation for \$ < # , in terms of ( # .
(a) (b)

%
'

'
i Mapping Rule:
i Mapping Rule:
ii Equation:
ii Equation:

(c)
i Mapping Rule:

% ii Equation:

## iii ALSO: #-intercepts

of \$ < # :
(exact rational values)

## Note: Both a horizontal and

' vertical stretch have been applied:

12. The graph of \$ < # is obtained by stretching the graph of ( # . The domain of ( # is ∞, 5 and the
range is 20, 15 . The domain of \$ < # is ∞, 5 and the range is 16, 12 .
Determine an equation for \$ < # , in terms of ( # .

9. (a) #, \$ → #, 2\$ 2, 16 1
10. (a) #, \$ → #, \$
2
2
(b) < # # 2 16 ' 0, 2 3
(b) < # 2# 2 3
(c) on #-axis… 6, 0 and simplify to…
2, 0 3.5, 0
< # 2 # 1 3
1, 3
(d) i 8, ∞ ii ∞, 16 (c) on \$-axis… 0, 2
' 3
(d) i 2, ∞ ii ∞, 1 (e) 7, 1

Page |40
Chapter 1 – Transformations

13. The graph of \$ < # is obtained by stretching the graph of ( # . The domain of ( # is 8, ∞ and the
range is 9, 6 . The domain of \$ < # is 2, ∞ and the range is 6, 4 .
Determine an equation for \$ < # , in terms of ( # .

## 14. The graph of \$ < # is obtained by stretching the graph

1 % '
of ( # # 2 2 # 4
4
(a) State the mapping rule that describes the
transformation from \$ ( # to \$ < #

## (b) Determine an equation for \$ < #

i In terms ii In terms
of % : of

## (c) The point B 6, 32 is on the graph of \$ ( # . Determine the

coordinates of the corresponding point to B on the graph of \$ < # .

2 3 3 4
11. (a) i #, \$ → #, 2\$ (b) i #, \$ → #, \$ (c) i #, \$ → #, \$ 12. < # ( #
3 4 2 5
ii \$ 2( # 3 3 4
ii \$ ( # ii \$ ( # iii 5.25, 0 , 1.5, 0 and 6, 0
2 2 3
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1.3 Stretches

## 15. The graph of \$ < # is obtained by stretching the graph

2
of ( # 2# 12# 10 The vertices and intercepts of both
graphs all have integer coordinates.
(a) State the mapping rule that describes the
transformation from \$ ( # to \$ < #

## (b) Determine an equation for \$ < #

i In terms ii In terms
of % : of
%

'

## 16. The graph of \$ < # is obtained by stretching the graph

of ( # # 9 2
(a) State the mapping rule that describes the
transformation from \$ ( # to \$ < #
'
%
(b) Determine an equation for \$ < #
i In terms ii In terms
of % : of

## (c) Determine the #-intercept of \$ < #

2 3 2
13. < # ( 4# 14. (a) #, \$ → #, 3\$ (b) i < # 3( # ii < # # 2 # 4 (c) 6, 96
3 4

Page |42
Chapter 1 – Transformations

## 17. The graph of \$ < # is obtained by stretching and reflecting the

%
graph of ( # # 2 8# 12
The vertices and intercepts of both graphs all have integer coordinates.
(a) State the mapping rule that describes the
transformation from \$ ( # to \$ < #

## (b) Determine an equation for \$ < #

i In terms ii In terms
of % : of
'

## 18. The graph of \$ < # on the right is obtained by horizontally

and vertically stretching the graph of \$ ( # .
(a) State the mapping rule that describes the
transformation from \$ ( # to \$ < #

%
'

## (c) Determine the domain of \$ ( # , if the domain of

\$ < # is 3.12, 3.12 .

1 1 2
1
15. (a) #, \$ → 2#, \$ (b) i < # ( # ii < # 2 # 12 # 10 Simplify to: ' C !
2 2 2

2 3 3
16. (a) #, \$ → #, \$ (b) i < # ( # ii < # # 9 2 Simplify to: ' C
3 2 2
(c) 10/3,0

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1.3 Stretches

19. For each of the following, the graph of \$ < # is obtained by stretching and / or reflecting the
graph of \$ ( # . Provide a mapping rule to describe the transformations for each.
(a) ( # 6 # 5 2 8 (b) ( # 16# 2 8# 4 (c) ( # 2 # 3 ? 4
< # 1.5 # 5 2 2 < # # 2 2# 4 < # 2 3# 3 ? 4

## (d) ( # 3# 5 6 (e) ( # 6# 8 (f) ( # 2# 2 3# 5

< # 9 # 5 18 < # 2# 8 < # 8# 2 6# 5

20. Describe what happens to the graph of \$ ( # when the following changes are made to its equation,
and provide a mapping rule.
1
(a) Replace # with 5# (b) Replace \$ with \$ (c) Replace \$ with 3\$
2

2
(d) Replace # with # and replace \$ with \$ (e) Replace # with # 1 and replace \$ with \$
3

1
(f) Replace # with # and replace \$ with \$ 4 (g) Replace \$ with 5\$ and replace # with # 2
5

3 3 3 2
17. (a) #, \$ → #, \$ (b) i < # ( # ii < # # 6# 9
4 4 4
3 3 3 5
18. (a) #, \$ → #, \$ (b) < # ( # (c) 5.2, 5.2
5 2 2 3

Page |44
Chapter 1 – Transformations

## 21. Given the function ( # 3 # 4 # 2 ,

(a) State the zeros of \$ ( # (b) State the zeros of \$ 4( #

## (c) State the zeros of \$ ( 2# (d) State the zeros of \$ ( #

1
(e) State the zeros of \$ ( # (f) State the zeros of \$ ( #
3

## 22. The graph of \$ < # on the right is obtained by applying one

stretch and one reflection to the graph of ( # # 2 4# 5.
The vertices of both graphs have integer coordinates.
(a) Describe the transformation from \$ ( # to \$ < # ,
(i) in words and (ii) with a mapping rule.

'

%
(b) Determine an equation for \$ < # , (i) in terms of ( #
and (ii) in terms of #.
(c) Determine the \$-intercept
of \$ < # .

1 1
19. (a) #, \$ → #, \$ (b) #, \$ → 4#, \$ (c) #, \$ →
#, \$
4 3
1
(d) #, \$ → #, 3\$ (e) #, \$ → 3#, \$ (f) #, \$ → #, \$
2
1
20. (a) Horizontal stretch about the \$-axis (or line # 0 , factor of 1/5 #, \$ → #, \$
5
(b) Vertical stretch about the #-axis (or line \$ 0), factor of 2 #, \$ → #, 2\$
1
(c) Vertical stretch about \$ 0, factor of 1/3, and reflection about \$ 0
#, \$ → #, \$
3
3
(d) Horiz. stretch about # 0, factor of 3/2, and reflection about #-axis #, \$ → #, \$
2
(e) Vert. reflection about \$ 0, horizontal translation 1 unit right #, \$ → # 1, \$
(f) Horiz. stretch about # 0, factor of 5, vertical translation 4 units down #, \$ → 5#, \$ 4
1
(g) Vert. stretch about #-axis, factor of 1/5, refl. about #-axis, horiz. translation 2 units right #, \$ → # 2, \$
5
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1.3 Stretches

23. The graph of \$ ( # is reflected in the line # 0, stretched about the line \$ 0 by a factor
 Exam
Style of 1⁄4, and stretched about the \$-axis by a factor of 3 to create the graph of \$ < # .
Point B 3, 12 on the graph of \$ ( # is transformed to which point on the graph of < # ?
A. 1, 3
B. 1, 3
C. 9, 3
D. 9, 3

## 24. The graph of \$ ( # is shown on the right.

 Exam
Style W
The graphs of \$ ( # and \$ 2( # Y
intersect at: %
V X Z [
A. Point R
B. Point S U

C. Points P and Q
D. Points R and T

## 25. The graph of \$ ( # is shown on the right.

 Exam
Style 1
The graph of \$ < # is defined as \$ ( # .
2
The graph of \$ < # will contain the point:
A. 4, 2
B. 1, 2
C. 3, 4 %
D. 3, 4

21. (a) 4 and 2 (b) 4 and 2 (c) 2 and 1 (d) 4 and 2 (e) 2 and 4 (f) 12 and 6
1
22. (a) i vertical stretch about the #-axis, factor of 1/3, plus a horiz. reflection about the \$-axis. ii #, \$ → #, \$
9 2 N O 3
1 5
(b) i < # ( # ii < # ?
#
?
#
? (c) 0,
3 3

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