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A) PIC Microcontroller
B) LCD Display
C) Relay Driver
D) Relay
E) Float Sensor
F) DC Motor Pump
G) Power Supply



The aim of the project is to construct the

microcontroller based automatic water level ctrl.The project consists of a transparent
process tank, in which we will be maintaining the required water level. One float
sensor is mounted in the process tank to view the level of water. The setup has a
reservoir with pump to fill the process tank. The pump is controlled by
microcontroller. The ON/OFF control is implemented, which means when the water
level reaches the maximum level then the pump will be turned OFF & when the water
level goes lower than the minimum level then the pump will be turned ON. The user
can set their required level using keypad and the level is displayed in the LCD
For sensing the water level float sensor is used. The first rod carries +5V
supply and passes to the water. That supply is passed to the movable floating arm.
Depending upon the level float sensor output voltage gets varied. These signals are
applied to the PIC microcontroller, to sense the water level. The internal adc process
the input voltage and display the waterlevel on the display. The output port line of
Micro controller has to be connected to drive the relay. The relay is used to control
the supply voltage of the pump. So the user has to write the controlling program to
sense the level and control the pump. The low signal becomes logic 1, when the
liquid reaches low level. The HI signal becomes logic 1, when the liquid reaches the
high level. When logic 1 is set on CTRL line, then the pump will be ON.

The basic firmware for the microcontroller is written in ‘C’ language and
cross-complied using C Cross complier. The cross compiler generates the
machine code for the microcontroller and the machine code is stored in flash memory
of micro controller.

An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system, which is

completely encapsulated by the device it controls. An embedded system has
specific requirements and performs pre-defined tasks, unlike a general-
purpose personal computer.

An embedded system is a programmed hardware device. A programmable hardware

chip is the 'raw material' and it is programmed with particular applications.
This is to be understood in comparison to older systems with full functional
hardware or systems with general purpose hardware and externally loaded
software. Embedded systems are a combination of hardware and software
which facilitates mass production and variety of application

A combination of computer hardware and software, and perhaps additional

mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a dedicated function.

In some cases, embedded systems are part of a larger system or product, as in the
case of an antilock braking system in a car.

 EMBEDDED SYSTEM is a combination of SOFTWARE and


 A

 n Embedded system is a system, in which software is embedded into


 These are the controllers, processors, arrays or other hardware using

dedicated (embedded) logic or programming (code) called “firmware” or a

 Embedded systems are designed around a µC which integrates Memory &



12v Dc
SEN 2003 Relay


PIC stands for Peripheral Interface Controller as coined by Microchip
Technology Inc., USA.

• PIC is a very popular Micro controller worldwide.
• Microchip is the first Manufacturer of 8 pin RISC MCU.
• Microchip is the world’s second largest chip Manufacturer.
• Focus on high performance cost-effective, field-programmable embedded
control solutions.
• Variety of end-user Application-Specific Standard Products (ASSP) and
Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC)
• Global network of manufacturing and customer support facilities.
• Only 35 single-word instructions to learn.
• All single-cycle instructions except for program branches, which are two-
• Operating speed: DC – 20 MHz clock input DC – 200 ns instruction cycle.
• Up to 8K x 14 words of Flash Program Memory, Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data
• Memory (RAM), Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM Data Memory.

Peripheral Features:
• Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler.
• Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler can be incremented during
Sleep via external crystal/clock.
• Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register, prescaler and
• Two Capture, Compare, PWM modules
- Capture is 16-bit, max. Resolution is 12.5 ns
- Compare is 16-bit, max. Resolution is 200 ns
- PWM max. Resolution is 10-bit
• Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI™ (Master mode) and I2C™ (Master/Slave)
• Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART/SCI)
with 9-bit address detection.
• Parallel Slave Port (PSP) – 8 bits wide with external RD, WR and CS controls
(40/44-pin only)
• Brown-out detection circuitry for Brown-out Reset (BOR)

Analog Features:
• 10-bit, up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter (A/D)
• Brown-out Reset (BOR)
• Analog Comparator module with:
- Two analog comparators
- Programmable on-chip voltage reference (VREF) module
- Programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal
Voltage reference.
- Comparator outputs are externally accessible.

Special PIC Features:

• 100,000 erase/write cycle Enhanced Flash program memory typical
• 1,000,000 erase/write cycle Data EEPROM memory typical
• Data EEPROM Retention > 40 years
• Self-reprogram able under software control.
• In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (ICSP™) via two pins.
• Single-supply 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming.
• Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation.
• Programmable code protection.
• Power saving Sleep mode.
• Selectable oscillator options.
• In-Circuit Debug (ICD) via two pins.

Single Word Instructions:

Single Word Instruction opcodes are 14-bits wide making it possible to have
all single word instructions. A 14-bit wide program memory access bus fetches a 14-
bit instruction in a single cycle. With single word instructions, the number of words of
program memory locations equals the number of instructions for device. This means
that all locations are valid instructions. Typically in the Von-Neumann architecture,
most instructions are multi-byte. In general, a device with 4-Kbytes of program
memory would allow approximately 2K of instructions. This 2:1 ratio is generalized
and dependent on the application code. Since each instruction may take multiple
bytes, there is no assurance that each location is a valid instruction.

Instruction Pipeline:
The instruction pipeline is a two-stage pipeline, which overlaps the fetch and
execution of instructions. While the execution of one instruction is in progress, it
fetches the next instructions to be executed.

Single Cycle Instructions:

With the Program Memory bus being 14-bits wide, the entire instruction is
fetched in a single machine cycle (Tcy). The instruction contains all the information
required and is executed in a single cycle. There may be a one-cycle delay in
execution if the result of the instruction modified the contents of the Program
Counter. This requires the pipeline to be flushed and a new instruction to be fetched.

Reduced Instruction Set:

When an instruction set is well designed and highly orthogonal (symmetric),
fewer instructions are required to perform all needed tasks. With fewer instructions,
the whole set can be more rapidly learned and programmed.

Orthogonal (Symmetric) Instructions:

Orthogonal instructions make it possible to carry out any operation on any
register using any addressing mode. This symmetrical nature and lack of “special
instructions” make programming simple yet efficient.

In addition, the learning curve is reduced significantly. The mid-range instruction set
uses only two non-register oriented instructions, which are used for two of the cores
features. One is the SLEEP instruction, which places the device into the lowest power
use mode. The other is the CLRWDT instruction, which verifies the chip is operating
properly by preventing the on-chip Watchdog Timer (WDT) from overflowing and
resetting the device.

CMOS Technology:
• Low-power, high-speed Flash/EEPROM technology
• Fully static design
• Wide operating voltage range (2.0V to 5.5V)

• Commercial and Industrial temperature ranges

• Low-power consumption
PIC16F873A/876A devices are available only in 28-pin packages, while
PIC16F874A/877A devices are available in 40-pin and 44-pin packages. All devices
in the PIC16F87XA family share common architecture with the following differences:

• The PIC16F873A and PIC16F874A have one-half of the total on-chip

Memory of the PIC16F876A and PIC16F877A.
• The 28-pin devices have three I/O ports, while the 40/44-pin devices have
Five ports.
• The 28-pin devices have fourteen interrupts, while the 40/44-pin devices
have fifteen.
• The 28-pin devices have five A/D input channels, while the 40/44-pin
devices have eight.
• The Parallel Slave Port is implemented only on the 40/44-pin devices.

The PIC16F87XA differentiates between various kinds of Reset
• Power-on Reset (POR)
• MCLR Reset
• WDT Reset
• Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Power-on Reset (POR):
A Power-on Reset pulse is generated on-chip when VDD rise is detected (in the range
of 1.2V-1.7V). To take advantage of the POR, tie the MCLR pin to VDD through an
RC network.
When the device starts normal operation (exits the Reset
condition), device-operating parameters (voltage, frequency, temperature, etc.) must
be met to ensure operation. If these conditions are not met, the device must be held in
Reset until the operating conditions are met.

Brown-out Reset:
Brown-out Reset may be used to meet the start-up conditions. If VDD falls
below VBOR (about 4V) for longer than TBOR the brown-out situation will reset the
device. If VDD falls below VBOR for less than TBOR, a Reset may not occur. Once
the brown-out occurs, the device will remain in Brown-out Reset until VDD rises
above VBOR. The Power-up Timer then keeps the device in Reset for about 72 mS.

PIC16F87XA devices have a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path. The filter
will detect and ignore small pulses. It should be noted that a WDT Reset does not
drive MCLR pin low.

Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in
both Resets and current consumption outside of device specification during the Reset
event. For this reason, Microchip recommends that the MCLR pin longer be tied
directly to VDD.

Watchdog Timer (WDT):

The Watchdog Timer is a free running, on-chip RC oscillator, which does not
require any external components. This RC oscillator is separate from the RC oscillator
of the OSC1/CLKI pin. That means that the WDT will run even if the clock on the
OSC1/CLKI and OSC2/CLKO pins of the device has been stopped, for example, by
execution of a SLEEP instruction. During normal operation, a WDT time-out
generates a device Reset (Watchdog Timer Reset). If the device is in Sleep mode, a
WDT time-out causes the device to wake-up and continue with normal operation
(Watchdog Timer Wake-up).
In-Circuit Debugger:
This function allows simple debugging functions when used with MPLAB®
ICD. When the micro controller has this feature enabled, some of the resources are
not available for general use.

To use the in-circuit debugger function of the micro controller, the design must
implement In-Circuit Serial Programming connections to MCLR/VPP, VDD, GND,
RB7 and RB6. This will interface to the in-circuit debugger module available from
Microchip or one of the third party development tool companies.


Standard HD44780 LCDs are useful for creating standalone projects.

• 16 characters wide, 2 rows

• White text on blue background
• Connection port is 0.1" pitch, single row for easy bread boarding and
• Pins are documented on the back of the LCD to assist in wiring it up
• Single LED backlight included can be dimmed easily with a resistor or
PWM and uses much less power than LCD with EL
(electroluminescent) backlights
• Can be fully controlled with only 6 digital lines! (Any analog/digital
pins can be used)
• Built in character set supports most English/European/Japanese text,
see the HD44780 datasheet for the full character set
• Up to 8 extra characters can be created for custom glyphs or 'foreign'
language support

A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines. In
this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. This LCD has two registers.

1. Command/Instruction Register- stores the command instructions given to the

LCD. A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like

initializing, clearing the screen, setting the cursor position, controlling display etc.

2. Data Register- stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII

value of the character to be displayed on the LCD.

Commonly used LCD Command codes:

Hex Code Command to LCD Instruction Register

1 Clear screen display
2 Return home
4 Decrement cursor
6 Increment cursor
E Display ON, cursor blinking
80 Force the cursor to the beginning of the 1st line
C0 Force cursor to the beginning of the 2nd line
38 Use 2 lines and 5x7 matrix
Pin configuration:

Pin Symbol Description

1 VSS Ground 0V
2 VCC Main power supply +5 V
3 VEE Power supply to controlContrast adjustment by providing a variable resistor
contrast through VCC
4 RS Register Select RS=0 to select Command Register
RS=1 to select Data Register

5 R/W Read/write R/W=0 to write to the register

R/W=1 to read from the register

6 EN Enable A high to low pulse (minimum 450ns wide) is given when

data is sent to data pins

7 DB0
8 DB1
9 DB2 To display letters or
numbers, their ASCII
10 DB3 codes are sent to data 8-bit data pins
pins (with RS=1). Also
11 DB4
instruction command
12 DB5 codes are sent to these
13 DB6
14 DB7
15 Led+ Backlight VCC +5 V
16 Led- Backlight Ground 0V
Programming the LCD:

• Data pin8 (DB7) of the LCD is busy flag and is read when R/W = 1 & RS = 0.

When busy flag=1, it means that LCD is not ready to accept data since it is busy

with the internal operations. Therefore before passing any data to LCD, its

command register should be read and busy flag should be checked.

• To send data on the LCD, data is first written to the data pins with R/W = 0 (to

specify the write operation) and RS = 1 (to select the data register). A high to low

pulse is given at EN pin when data is sent. Each write operation is performed on

the positive edge of the Enable signal.

• To send a command on the LCD, a particular command is first specified to the

data pins with R/W = 0 (to specify the write operation) and RS = 0 (to select the

command register). A high to low pulse is given at EN pin when data is sent.

Displaying single character ‘A’ on LCD:

The LCD is interfaced with microcontroller (AT89C55WD). This microcontroller has

40 pins with four 8-bit ports (P0, P1, P2, and P3). Here P1 is used as output port which

is connected to data pins of the LCD. The control pins (pin 4-6) are controlled by pins

2-4 of P0 port. Pin 3 is connected to a preset of 10k? to adjust the contrast on LCD
screen. This program uses the above concepts of interfacing the LCD with controller

by displaying the character ‘A’ on it.


These demonstrate how to read a HEX keypad, these are a standard device
with 16 keys connected in a 4x4 matrix, giving the characters 0-9 and A-F. You can
also use a 4x3 keypad, which gives the numbers 0-9, * and #.

This is how the HEX keypad is connected, each square

with a number or letter in it is a push to make switch, which
connects the horizontal wires (rows) with the vertical wires
(columns). So if you press button 'A' it will connect COL1
with ROW4, or pressing button '6' will connect COL3 with
ROW2. For a numeric (4x3) keypad COL4 will be missing,
and 'A' and 'B' replaced with '*' and '#' but is otherwise the
same. The sample programs use a lookup table for the keys,
this would need to be changed to insert the correct values
for the non-numeric characters.

As the switches are all interconnected, we need a way to differentiate between the
different ones - the four resistors on the interface board pull lines COL1 to COL4
high, these four lines are the ones which are read in the program. So in the absence of
any switch been pressed these lines will all read high. The four ROW connections are
connected to output pins, and if these are set high the switches will effectively do
nothing - connecting a high level to a high level, results in a high level.

In order to detect a switch we need to take the ROW lines low, so if we take all the
ROW lines low - what happens?. Assuming we press button 1, this joins COL1 with
ROW1, as ROW1 is now at a low level, this will pull COL1 down resulting in a low
reading on COL1. Unfortunately if we press button 4, this joins COL1 with ROW2, as
ROW2 is at a low level this also results in a low reading at COL1. This would only
give us four possible choices, where each four buttons in a COL do exactly the same
(e.g. 1, 4, 7, and A are the same).

The way round this is to only switch one ROW at a time low, so assuming we set
ROW1 low we can then read just the top row of buttons, button 1 will take COL1 low,
button2 will take COL2 low, and the same for buttons '3' and 'F' in COL3 and COL4.
The twelve lower buttons won't have any effect as their respective ROW lines are still
high. So to read the other buttons we need to take their respective ROW lines low,
taking ROW2 low will allow us to read the second row of buttons (4, 5, 6, and E),
again as the other three ROW lines are now high the other 12 buttons have no effect.
We can then repeat this for the last two ROW's using ROW3 and ROW4, so we read
four buttons at a time, taking a total of four readings to read the entire keypad - this is
a common technique for reading keyboards, and is called 'Keyboard Scanning'.

One obvious problem is what happens if you press more than one key at a time,
there are a number of ways to deal with this, one way would be to check for multiple
key presses and ignore them, a simpler way (and that used in the examples) is to
accept the first key you find which is pressed. We will find that various commercial
products deal with this situation in similar ways, some reject multiple key presses, and
some just accept the first one.
A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes
under control of another electrical circuit. In the original form, the switch is operated
by an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts. It was invented by
Joseph Henry in 1835. Because a relay is able to control an output circuit of higher
power than the input circuit, it can be considered, in a broad sense, to be a form of
electrical amplifier.

These contacts can be either Normally Open (NO), Normally Closed (NC), or change-
over contacts.
•Normally-open contacts connect the circuit when the
relay is activated; the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. It is also
called Form A contact or "make" contact. Form A contact is ideal for applications that
require to switch a high-current power source from a remote device.
•Normally-closed contacts disconnect the circuit
when the relay is activated; the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive. It is
also called Form B contact or "break" contact. Form B contact is ideal for applications
that require the circuit to remain closed until the relay is activated.
•Change-over contacts control two circuits: one
normally-open contact and one normally-closed contact. It is also called Form C
When a current flows through the coil, the resulting
magnetic field attracts an armature that is mechanically linked to a moving contact.
The movement either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact. When the
current is switched off, the armature is usually returned by a spring to its resting
position. Latching relays exist that require operation of a second coil to reset the
contact position.
By analogy with the functions of the original
electromagnetic device, a solid-state relay operates a thyristor or other solid-state
switching device with a transformer or light-emitting diode to trigger it.

Small relay as used in electronics
A solid state relay, which has no moving parts
• A latching relay is mechanically arranged so that the
armature can rest in either of two positions. There are two coils that pull the armature
in opposite directions, so the relay can be switched to one position or the other and
then left in that state indefinitely. This type of relay has the advantage that it
consumes power only for an instant, while it is being switched, and it retains its last
setting across a power outage. Some common relays may be wired to electrically
latch, which offers no power saving but does ensure that the relay returns to a known
state during and after a power outage.
• A reed relay has two, usually normally open,
contacts inside a vacuum or inert gas filled glass tube. This protects the contacts
against atmospheric corrosion. The two contacts are closed by magnetism from a coil
around the glass tube, or a permanent magnet moved towards it. See also: reed switch.
• A mercury wetted relay is a form of reed relay in
which the contacts are wetted with mercury. Such relays are used to switch low-
voltage signals (one volt or less), or for high-speed counting and timing applications
where the mercury eliminated contact bounce. Mercury wetted relays are position-
sensitive and must be mounted vertically to work properly. Because of the toxicity
and expense of liquid mercury, these relays are rarely specified for new equipment.
See also mercury switch.
• A machine tool relay is a type standardized for
industrial control of machine tools, transfer machines, and other seqential control.
They are characterized by a large number of contacts (sometimes extendable in the
field) which are easily converted from normally-open to normally-closed status, easily
replaceable coils, and a form factor that allows compactly installing many relays in a
control panel. Although such relays once were the backbone of automation in such
industries as automobile assembly, the programmable logic controller mostly
displaced the machine tool relay from sequential control applications.
• A contactor is a very heavy-duty relay used for
switching electric motors and lighting loads. Such devices are often used for motor
starters, and may be built up with overload protection devices attached. The overload
sensing devices are a form of heat operated relay where a coil heats a bi-metal strip to
open contacts, or where a solder pot melts, releasing a spring to operate contacts.
• A Buchholz relay is a safety device sensing the
accumulation of gas in large oil-filled transformers, which will alarm on slow
accumulation of gas or shut down the transformer if gas is produced rapidly in the
transformer oil.
• A Solid State Relay (SSR) is a solid state
electronic component that provides a similar function to an electromechanical relay
but does not have any moving components, increasing long-term reliability.

Relays are used:
• to control a high-voltage circuit with a low-
voltage signal, as in some types of modems,
• to control a high-current circuit with a low-
current signal, as in the starter solenoid of an automobile,
• to detect and isolate faults on transmission and
distribution lines by opening and closing circuit breakers (protection relays),
• to isolate the controlling circuit from the
controlled circuit when the two are at different potentials, for example when
controlling a mains-powered device from a low-voltage switch. The latter is often
applied to control office lighting as the low voltage wires are easily installed in
partitions, which may be often moved as needs change. They may also be controlled
by room occupancy detectors in an effort to conserve energy,
• to perform logic functions. For example, the
boolean AND function is realised by connecting relay contacts in series, the OR
function by connecting contacts in parallel. Due to the failure modes of a relay
compared with a semiconductor, they are widely used in safety critical logic, such as
the control panels of radioactive waste handling machinery.
• as oscillators, also called vibrators. The coil is
wired in series with the normally-closed contacts. When a current is passed through
the relay coil, the relay operates and opens the contacts that carry the supply current.
This stops the current and causes the contacts to close again. The cycle repeats
continuously, causing the relay to open and close rapidly. Vibrators are used to
generate pulsed current.
• to generate sound. A vibrator, described above,
creates a buzzing sound because of the rapid oscillation of the armature. This is the
basis of the electric bell, which consists of a vibrator with a hammer attached to the
armature so it can repeatedly strike a bell.
• to perform time delay functions. Relays can be
used to act as an mechanical time delay device by controling the release time by using
the effect of residual magnetism by means of a inserting copper disk between the
armature and moving blade assembly.

The ULN2003 is a monolithic high voltage and high

current Darlington transistor arrays. It consists of seven NPN darlington pairs that
features high-voltage outputs with common-cathode clamp diode for switching
inductive loads. High voltage and high current darlington transistor array
description .The collector-current rating of a single darlington pair is 500mA. The
darlington pairs may be paralleled for higher current capability. Applications include
relay drivers, hammer drivers, lamp drivers, display drivers(LED gas discharge),line
drivers, and logic buffers. The ULN2003 has a 2.7kW series base resistor for each
darling ton pair for operation directly with TTL or 5V CMOS
Ideally suited for interfacing between low-level logic circuitry and multiple
peripheral power loads, the Series ULN20xxA/L high-voltage,high-current Darlington
arrays feature continuous load current ratings to 500 mA for each of the seven drivers.
At an appropriate duty cycle depending on ambient temperature and number of
drivers turned ON simultaneously, typical power loads totaling over 230 W (350 mA
x 7, 95 V) can be controlled. Typical loads include relays, solenoids, stepping motors,
magnetic print hammers, multiplexed LED and incandescent displays, and heaters. All
devices feature open-collector outputs with integral clamp diodes. The ULN2003A/L
and ULN2023A/L have series input resistors selected for operation directly with 5 V
TTL or CMOS. These devices will handle numerous interface needs — particularly
those beyond the capabilities of standard logic buffers.The ULN2004A/L and
ULN2024A/L have series input resistors for operation directly from 6 to 15 V CMOS
or PMOS logic outputs.
The ULN2003A/L and ULN2004A/L are the standard
Darlington arrays. The outputs are capable of sinking 500 mA and will withstand at
least 50 V in the OFF state. Outputs may be paralleled for higher load current
capability. The ULN2023A/L and ULN2024A/L will withstand 95 V in the OFF state.
These Darlington arrays are furnished in 16-pin dual in-line plastic packages (suffix
“A”) and 16-lead surface-mountable SOICs (suffix “L”). All devices are pinned with
outputs opposite inputs to facilitate ease of circuit board layout. All devices are rated
for operation over the temperature range of -20°C to +85°C. Most (see matrix, next
page) are also available for operation to -40°C; to order, change the prefix from
_ TTL, DTL, PMOS, or CMOS-Compatible Inputs
_ Output Current to 500 mA
_ Output Voltage to 95 V
_ Transient-Protected Outputs
_ Dual In-Line Plastic Package or Small-Outline IC Package

· Ability to activate and control switching up to nine switching points.
· Hermetically sealed.
· Ability to work under very hot and cold temperatures as normal
· Ability to withstand very toxic chemical atmosphere without any material
· Dynamically tested contacts.
· Reliable switching.
· Designed to handle high shock environments.
· Millions of reliable switching operations.
· Water level monitoring systems
· Ability to monitor any liquid level particularly when multiple point monitoring is

At OKENSEIKO, we call the diaphragm-driven compact pumps with a

generic name of rolling pumps.
The rolling pumps include three types of products including air pumps, vacuum
pumps and liquid pumps.
Each of these types includes a versatile line of pumps.

Air pumps / Vacuum pumps / Liquid pumps

Mechanism of rolling pump:

Each pump contains multiple diaphragm-driven

cylinders to
minimize the pulsation
and implement a pump featuring a silent
operation, long life
and high discharge pressure.
This mechanism is a result of OKENSEIKO's
unique design
and development technology.

The rolling pump mechanism is simple and easy to implement using multiple
cylinders per motor .
This is the reason that our rolling pumps feature space saving and high flow .
In addition, this structure also reduces the motor torque variation and thereby
minimizes pulsation.

Line of rolling pump products:


• Compact size / Compact size and light weight. The most compact product is
as thin as 8 mm and weighs only 10 grams (5cc/min).
• Low nois / Silent pumps with minimum noise of 40 dB.
• Low discharge pulsation / the multi-cylinder design help maintain the
pressure constant.
• Self-priming capability / Suction is possible without restriction of the pump
installation position with respect to the liquid level.
• High discharge pressure / Max. 120 kPa.
• Wide storage temperatures / Normal operation are possible under
temperatures from -30℃ to +80℃.
• Long life / More than 3000 hours (actual achievement).

Most of the electronic equipments and devices require a DC source for their
operation. We can get this DC power from storage batteries. But they are costly and
require frequent maintenance and replacement. The easily available power is AC.
There are circuits which can easily convert the AC into DC. Such electronic circuit is
called as power supply. A typical DC power supply consists of five stages.






Figure gives the block diagram of power supply.

This block diagram consists of the following blocks:







This block is used to give the ac supply to the transformer. Here we use the
available main AC power.


Its job is either to step up or (mostly) step down the AC supply voltage to suit
the requirement of the solid state electronic devices and circuits fed by the
DC power supply. It also covers isolation from the supply line an important
safety consideration.

It is a circuit in which employs one or more diodes to convert AC voltage
into pulsating DC voltage.

The function of this circuit element is to remove the fluctuations or pulsation
(called ripples) present in the output voltage supplied by the rectifier. Of course, no
filter can, in practice, give an output voltage as ripple-free as that of a DC battery but
it approaches it so closely that the power supply performs as well.

Its main function is to keep the terminal voltage of the DC supply constant
even when
• AC input voltage to the transformer varies (deviations from 220V are
common); or
The load varies
Usually, zener diodes and transistors are used for voltage regulation purposes.
Again, it is impossible to get 100% constant voltage but minor variations are
acceptable for most of the jobs.

Its function is to provide different DC voltages needed by different
electronic circuits. It consists of a number of resistors connected in series across the
output terminals of the voltage regulator. Obviously, it eliminates the necessity of
providing separate DC power supplies to different electronic circuits working on
different DC levels.

The required DC output voltage is obtained from this block.



The transformer works on the principle of faradays law of electro magnetic
inductions. A transformer in its simplest form.
The core is built up of thin laminations insulated from each other in order to
reduce eddy current loss in the more. The winding are unguarded from each other
and also from the care. The winding connected to the load is called the secondary
winding for samplings they are shown on the opposite side of core but in practice
they are distributed owner broth sides of the cores. The high voltage winding
encloses the low voltage.

Let us say that transformer has N1 turns in its primary winding and N2 turns in
its secondary winding. The primary winding is connected to a sinusoidal voltage
of magnitude V1 at a frequency FH2. A working flux is set up in magnetic core.
The working flux is alternating and sinunsocial as the applied voltage is
alternating and sinusoidal. When these flux link the primary and the secondary
winding emf are induced in them. The emf induced in this is called the self-
induced emf and that induced in the secondary is the mutually induced emf.
These voltages will have sinusoidal waveform and the same frequency as that of
the applied voltage. The currents, which flow in the close primary and secondary
circuits, are respectively I1 and I2.

A resistor is an electric component. It has a known value of resistance. It is
especially designed to introduce a desired amount of resistance in a circuit. A resistor
is used either to control the flow of current or to produce a voltage drop. It is the most
commonly used component in electrical and electronic circuits.

1. Carbon resistor
2. Metal oxide resistor
3. Metal film resistor
4. Wire wound resistor
5. Variable resistor-carbon resistor

Capacitor is an electrical device used for storing electrical energy. The stored
electrical energy is the form of a current in to the circuits which the capacitor form a
part. Capacitor is one of the important components used in Radio, TV and other
electronic circuits.

1. Paper Capacitor
2. Mica Capacitor
3. Ceramic Capacitor
4. Electrolytic Capacitor
5. Variable Capacitor

A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit that provides a stable DC voltage
independent of the load current, temperature and AC line voltage variations.
Although Voltage regulators can be designed using op-amps it is quicker and easier to
use IC voltage regulator. The IC voltage regulators are inscribe and inexpensive and
are available with features such as programmable, output, current voltage, boosting
and floating operation for high voltage application.

Voltage Regulator
Un regu- Regulated
-lated GND O/p voltage
I/P voltage

78XX series are three terminal positive fixed voltage regulators. There are seven
output voltage option available such as 5,6,8,12,15,18 and 24V in 78XX the two
number (XX) indicate the output voltage.
In 7805 the output voltage is 5 volts
The connection of a 7805-voltage regulator is show infix. The AC line
voltage is stepped down a cross each half of the center tapped transformers. If full
wane rectifier and capacitors filter then provides an unregulated DC voltage with AC
ripple of a few volts as a input to the voltage regulator. The 7805 of IC provides an
output of +5 Volt D.C.

During positive half cycle of input signal, anode of diode 1 becomes positive
and at the some time due anode of diode D2 becomes negative. Hence D1 conducts
and D2 does not conduct. The load currier flow through D1 and the voltage drop
across RL will be equal to the in put voltage.
During the negative half cycle of the input the anode of D1 becomes negative
and the anode of D2 becomes positive. Hence D1 does not conduct and D2 conducts.
The load current flow through D2 and the voltage drop across RC will be equal to the
input voltage.
The maximum efficiency of a full wane rectifier is 81.2% and ripple factor is
0.48 peak inverses voltage for full ware rectifies is 2VM because the entire secondary
voltage appears across the non-conducting diode.

static bit rl @ ((unsigned)& PORTD*8+4);
static bit dw @ ((unsigned)& PORTD*8+1);
static bit up @ ((unsigned)& PORTD*8+2);
static bit set @ ((unsigned)& PORTD*8+3);
static bit RS @ ((unsigned)& PORTD*8+7); // Register select
static bit EN @ ((unsigned)& PORTD*8+6); // Enable
static bit ss;
unsigned char dr[16];
unsigned int I,u,ik,ik1,v,high,low,mask,d,t1,t2,t3;
unsigned int adcl,adch,adc,l,t4,temp1,temp,ts2,ch,chc;
unsigned char num[10]={"0123456789"};
void write1(int dat,int op)
void init(void)
write1(0x01,0);//clear LCD & memory cursor is placed in
home position
write1(0x3c,0);//data length=8bit no of rows 2 5*10 matrix
write1(0x0e,0);//screen is ON cursor is ON cursor no blink
write1(0x14,0);//Cursor shift right
void tep(void)//lm35 display
write1(' ',1);
// write1(num[t4],1);
void display1(int xx)//initial display
strcpy(dr,"LEVEL :");
strcpy(dr,"SET lev :");
void main(void)//main function
t1=adc/0x03E8; temp=adc%0x03e8;
t2=temp/0x0064; temp1=temp%0x0064;
high=d&0xf0; high=high>>4;
ch=(t2<<8)+t3; chc=(high<<8)+low;