A manual for students, teachers, professionals, and clients

for almost three decades. design firm that has been my .This book is dedicated the extraordinary home and inspiration to Two Twelve Associates.

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I • THE WAYFINDING HANDBOOK Information Design for Public Places DAVID GIBSON Foreword by Christopher Pullman Princeton Architectural New York Press .



lndustrlal-deslgn employing firms and internet studios began and psychologists.. of his design practice. Although the concept has part of the design process for ages. This scanning in a magazine or perusing the home page of a website to figure out how it is organized specific section. and intuitive and spaces Gibson. the first bunch of cave men got lost trying to find their way home from a wooly mammoth only became a profession in the twentieth 6 . term user interface recently. of course. or regard for the direction of products humane. he made wayfinding puzzle of orientation.. and industrial designer book The Design public attention products: light switches doors oriented of Everyday Things (1988) raised to figure out. applied to spaces. with too little with the rise of the signals have become while most often Donald Norman's designed soup of too much information you are and find clues that will lead you where you want to go. mental and a the underlying he argues.:! first met the author. All these reflex actions are about wayfinding. process of initiating The Wayfinding Wayfinding. As David's career developed. obvious. has been around ever since hunt. where clear orientation The principles Psychologist of way finding. The idea that the designer should be the advocate of the end user took hold in the 1990s in both product design and website development. a specialty in the Yale swing. Handbook is a good place to start. but it is often not the case. the design has come into common use He learned to think through Norman's common sense about design proved to be a bellwether sophisticated codify the steps to planning and successfully concluding a design solution. implementing project. anthropologists. This book de mystifies providing information intuitively the fascinating process of and David the necessary clues and environmental that help people orient themselves find their way. student context. but it century. they may seem (and ire) about inadequately that are impossible appliances without placed where you least expect them. FOREWORD Exiting the subway in the middle of a city or stepping off the elevator disorientating: onto a strange floor is momentarily you scan the space to figure out where is similar to searching for an article and how to reach a A specialized wayfinding internet's essential. and navigate the public been an intrinsic relatively For anyone curious about this line of work. subset of environmental matured concurrently graphic design. of a new era of consumer advocacy and product testing. also pertain to other situations. when he was a graduate graphic design program. That the operation should be self-evident.

ethnographers-all human behavior-to rapid prototyping professionals trained to understand predict how help designers (make something practice. and later with a now you're in a new section). or footnote) number. as a canoe guide in Canada. It is all about users underin wayfinding developed parts of structures predictable kinds of information and navigation and hierarchical (this is the title. In graphic with how In way· clues My own career has always reflected this spatial As an undergraduate can-or courses and became sensitive other structures do not-provide form would be under-stood and used. I these strategies in exhibition project: signage for the huge a warren of me with and decision During a stint as graphics of architect deployed because my father was in the map business. The house with maps showing various the world. I relied on 7 . signals that aid orientation. legible. a given maps to navigate from lake to lake. anywhere gadgets. give it to the target users. in a book or multipage other underlying for different finding. that improve both comprehension byline. awareness. User testing and quickly. (here is the page in the office design. on signal trees to mark a portage. I took pre-architecture to how buildings and in many cases. location the end user will find it obvious too. unable to locate the target content or misunderstanding the behavior of a button. They basically wouldn't weird precursor to today's the tricky problem of providing point in this maze. watch to see what they make of it. Gui. But as test subjects on the design team thinks is airtight. standing I think my early interest was always littered where they are and what they need to do. I loved to look at them because they encapsulated so much information distant place. coordinator and designer George Nelson in New York. and repeat) became typical It is easy to assume that because the placement or content of a sign is obvious to the designer-or button on a computer be here-that I have watched page everybody the screen looks like that or should fumble through a home unfortunately. signs at every conceivable Later. and on blazes to follow the trail.) they couldn't that made it possible to and the look of some go imagine the feeling.ding patients of English through multifloor spaces confronted when I got married I discovered get to with verbal directions-a in-dash GPS voice navigation my in-laws never used maps. the terrain. revise. these structures subtle grids and the content. in my first real wayfinding limited understanding uncoordinated easy-to-maintain Lincoln Hospital in the Bronx. economical. (Ironically. I became fascinated communication support provldea design graduate school.

both as a designer and as a client.J was asked to be on the management for the fiscal management with the general contractor (its formal appearance. Because you are reading it right now. select the architect. and and test the logic of Only recently. This also included (responsible relationships subspecialties). Interactive have yet other special conventions. you are already a step ahead! And soon you will have a more holistic view about how to help people understand enjoy the spaces they visit. I began to understand applied to time-based how ideas of orientation media. Video basic organization consulted code requirements of experience and the logic of its circulation. team. where he as design client. I would have been better prepared. however. The process resulted that works very well for us. for managing and all the but many of the easy to update. principles immersed are the same. in architectural wayfinding. of design. in its this book. critical in with a form that expresses . effort made me fully appreciate nature of the processes outlined This five-year managed design from 1973 to 2008. manager (responsible Christopher Christopher medalist. who understood We with specialists the technical and of public signing and had the depth has its own set of conventions that orient the viewer to media to propose systems both economical of the graphics in a facility physical space (point of view). visual and aural focus (what we see and hear). of the new facility feel. have I become really because WGBH had to move from its home of forty years and build a whole new headquarters. and time. but had I been able to read this book first. and senior School of Art. The architects the building were. and we worked with our own staff to define the character our decisions. and functional wayfinding the essential supplying and the construction the president. the public broadcasting station in Boston. That came about as vice president the treasurer of the project). An AlGA fellow and of Branding and at WGBH Boston. Pullman is a design consultant he is the former vice president critic at Yale University Visual Communications Pullman My role was to help define the character cultural serve and needs). of course.It Then in 1973 when I joined WGBH. and oversee the informational graphic program for the project.

a design resource interested and mature designers managers. and signage enthusiasts. the summation I have had as a principal these projects. designer's work lies at the intersection good is more important typography. nor only by the people I work for The book explains what wayfinding from. As a baby boomer who came of age in Canada in the 1960s and '70s. complete design to practical successfully featured The photographs/images include documentation as contributions in this book industry ofTwo Twelve's work as well designers. past thirty years. This book is a record of what I have learned about wayfinding many rich experiences Twelve Associates the country. In undertaking because they guide to the art and science of the specialized that has occupied me for the better part of the of ofTwo this book. seeking to make extraordinary. and be inspiredand wellwill become battered of people and places. It is a collective interesting. enterprise. In comseem rather projects described about fascinating and use design to transform David Gibson parison. and a project. and owners. I have always believed that we should work together The wayfinding to make a better world. of our process. other types of design problems narrowly focused. is. and colleagues guide to the discipline for design professors for recent graduates in wayfinding. from considerations In undertaking inspired and educated alongside me. from respected leaders. This color. I wanted to create a handy that will serve as a textbook and students. that the common than individual experience. public spaces.It PREFACE The Wayfinding discipline Handbook is intended to be a user's design here are often complex and influential affect large populations. The wayfinding 9 . working design. intellectually and accessible with and for people. for practicing for all kinds of clients across I've been who work and a source of ideas and inspiration professionals. who needs it. done is people. This discipline meet interesting engaging because it allows one to learn institutions. places. where it came unfold. and how projects primer delivers a concise overview planning and strategy three-dlrnenslonal that help designers through but also by fellow designers This creative design work has been a joyful endeavor and reflects my generally optimistic view of the world. I hope you'll learn something and that the handbook handled in the process.



Wayfinding design provides quidance and the means to help people feel at ease in their surroundings. Crowded into bustling spaces. you have to acknowledge confusion. shop. sometimes confusing.. their order is organic. perform. worship. they share the richness and diversity of human experience as well as its challenges. Sometimes just the opposite is true . INFORMATION ANXIETY The heart of a civilization throbs wherever people come together to work..1 PEOPLE AND PLAC 5 Order is no guarantee of understanding. To really experience a city fully. In these spaces people may "find their way" in the existential sense.. RICHARD SAUL WURMAN. or just interact. but they also become overwhelmed OJ disoriented if they physically lose their way. 1. study. play.. never alphabetic. ? • LEARN ABOUT The emergence of the wayfinding discipline 12 . Cities don't come in chapters with restaurants in one section and museums in another.

or the Grand Bazaar in Istanbul. libraries. People will always need to know how to reach their where they are. is appealing. spaces. and wayfinding. The design that evolved in response has been called graphics. signage or sign-system design. that together This handbook systems employ symbols with accuracy centers. As the iconoclastic cities correspond their inhabitants. John Follis of Pasadena. sought sanctuary. I THE ORIGIN OF WAYFINDING Many wayfinding political designers are baby boomers whose consciousness was inand subsequent by a sense of and environmental organic. commercial. Over graphic design. commercial residential neighborhood explores the purpose and scope of way finding systems for spaces where people convene and how they are planned. formed by the futile Vietnam conflict social ferment imentation. like Greenwich Village in New York. and symbols. what is happening 13 . War-World talented providing including War II. felt an urgent need to humanize increa- can also be ugly or chaotic. fill up with information.. or lack of spirit. complexes. and vibrant Rockefeller Center. the hutongs of Beijing. to North America where opportunity results emerge. either by forcing nation's spirit. or private-is destroying During the 1960s Cold War period. designed. such as New York City's Milan. or planned in the spirit of new urbanism. as depicted signs. architectural environmental by finding order in chaos without destination. California. market squares. but the effect how a spaceexperienced character. worship once set apart from the fray. foundation of the 1970s. critics. spaces. de. complexes. closely to the ideas and ideals of They are the tangible expression of a pioneers over the course of the previous century. such as Alvin Lustig. Motivated public communal mission and zeal for creative expermoved the wayfinding century. times charming books on vernacular. The real fabric of human existence in settings routine. Great wayfinding explicit signs and information and landmarks and immediacy. Any lively its evolution was and cultural whether centers. there. People throughout history have gravitated to town and how to exit. Galleria Vittorio public spaces Emanuele in Houses of as well as implicit communicate filled with global wares. that is-had an inadvertently itive impact on their careers as well. building upon the established by earlier design pos- where people go about their daily writer Bernard Rudofsky they gradually of experience field into the twenty-first points out in Streets for People (1969): "Altogether. to emigrate awaited or by art and design training to many a veteran."? Over time cities. and designers discipline singly complex modern urban spaces. or both. together like Disney's Celebration community is woven in Florida. "undesigned" for enhancing Europeans.. scholars. and produced. restaurants. The wayfinding public. the medinas in Fez.igne'r whether is responsible and buildings Somein popular markers. where people now often sit side by side with busy schools.

Arthur also Rudolph de Harak. the latter the The long and notable list of principals American firr~s includes Ivan Chermayeff. and in the United Kingdom included founding as well as the venerable Wayfinding particularly design has always attracted in the early years when the field offered for career advancement For example.VI II> E: "1:1 II> '" c: v 0. Lynch explains that "way-finding" based on sensation relates Wyman. and interior design who practice Over time. K. H. Signs. precursor and corporate-identity of branding services. of pioneering Tom Geismar. and the sense of anxiety and even terror that it reveals to us how closely it is linked to our sense of balance and well-being.. lost is perhaps a rather rare c. The Image became the preferred communications term to describe any intended for spatial application. a Canadian professor-cumdesigner who made a personal mission of advancing the field by reigniting In addition developed innovative interest in Lynch's observations. o II> '" time. wayfinding. and Architecture with Paul Arthur. than more established disciplines of Ray and a much better platform business ownership such as architecture. tually became a fellow of the Society for Environmental Graphic Design (SEGD). SEGD today serves many professionals planning. once But let the mishap of disorientation design. product design. designer F. which seems to have stuck as the both the process and profession In 1960. wayfinding projects and evenassociation founded by a to coining the term signage. accompanies "To become completely a mental picture of one's and memory. Originally Lustig Cohen and Jane Davis Doggett made early inroads on the East Coast and were later followed and Ann Dudrow. Their to the process of forming surroundings experience supported way-finding bus placards. design. street numbers. urban to helping people navigate. began to specialize exhibition. route signs. In 1992 he coauthored Wayfinding: People. now a global collaborative. contemporaries partners occur."? Twenty years later Romedi Passini wrote Wayfinding in Architecture and probed the subject in greater depth. for most people in the modern city. such as Lance in sign system design in tandem product. who wished to share their expertise graphic design. firms and individuals. of the City. and Lelia and Massimo Vignelli. enterprising Olympics symbols. Three writers are largely responsible best name to describe dedicated the term waYfinding. who won early acclaim for his Mexico '68 design. We are by the presence of others and by special devices: maps. . of Pentagram. including interior. environmental umbrella graphic design planner and teacher Kevin Lynch coined the term in his landmark book about urban spaces. the international dedicated in different handful of designers from architecture. exhibition fields. Barbara Stauffacher while Elaine by Sue Gould for popularizing Solomon and Deborah Sussman (a protegee Charles Eames) flourished in California. Henrion. to advancing the field. Some firms offered wayfinding with other services. women.

SEGD's annual time the assertion that more information better understanding and the general public. books. two of Information" of the American on the need for experienced has in turn validated consistently information the profession practitioners. Visual Display of Quantitative and soon join SEGD to stay abreast of professional Information information emphasis designers (1983). and the growing demand for good design in the public realm have all had a effect on wayfinding. but at the does not equal and even public art. for instance. Existing since the whether intellectual. notably forum for new work to be shared and discussed global community wayfinding of practitioners. kinds of human pursuits. this realization seems obvious. sign programs to branded and publications provide a lively by the hindsight. exhibitions. and ideas. symbols. extraordinary Information at a time Map design is an important with its own fascinating dawn of language. Wurman's had a major impact on designers books by author-publisher of data. website. position designers Most successful in a major firm. or political. endorsements who often work in anonymity. cleverly revealed in a simple. that had been maturing One of his most popular examples turns a map of the Napoleonic radical reduction to and from Russia into a dramatic century without a name until Wurman coined in troops due to illness and death. disturbing maps represent when people were captivated sonal computing The most iconic examples 15 . for arcane content expressed army's doomed march graph depicting chart.. the grams. from mainstream and researched books. and beautifully setting the precedent decades later entitled Individually.. Anxiety (1989). of all of information architecture. but also satisfy an communication as a collection. appealing Information Architects (1996). Wurman warned of the emotionally effects of information technologies. economic. overload by the novelty of perWith twenty years' history. sign systems. conventional but presented specialization twentieth for a book he produced discussed New York Times Scientific American. In one of his most popular books. in the book are diaa design and websitesfor much of the vehicles-maps. they represent works are carefully apparent the projects they are not just visually public appetite diagrammatically. receive enthusiastic press such as the While his crafted. brilliant start with a solid design education Edward Tufte about the visualization his much-heralded that leads to an entry-level technical developments. ranging from wayfinding spaces. all subset of way finding a chronology cultural. competitions. Greater of the Tufte's I positive trickle-down THE AGE OF INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE In 1976 architect Architecture convention Richard Saul Wurman chose "The as the theme for an annual Institute of Architects.

field is very competitive.. The expanding built environment portion . communications. NY:Doubleday.love remains an open-ended young practitioners profession opportunities field with a promising and have a knack for communicating. off sign panels and into cars or handheld mapping remains at the forefront Symbols provide a shortcut Symbol design is equally important way for large groups of who manage transportation to Tom study project he of Graphic Arts. Geismar. seems to be growing in direct pro- to the demise of the natural one.:: cu cu people who may not share a common language to communicate.III cu '" c:: cu cu u c "" '" c. for use in parks and other to secure a client contract. invention. it offers. for in fact. with a number social upheaval. facilities directed started Authorities and other public places are indebted symbol-sign Institute for the American up each year and more than however. The Image of the City (Cambridge. Streets for People: A Primer for Americans (Garden City. need to recognize the fascinating. to wayfinding. organized a coherent family of developments. o c. 16 . that the wayfinding which puts pressure on firms enough work to go around to sustain them. 4. For the wayfinding to remain healthy and prosper. Though global positioning devices. good employee and keep talented staff on board. wayfinding networks maps were designed to help the public systems such as railway and and subways.. MA: MIT Press. 'u . complicated. As predicted century prophet. to produce outstanding technological procedures to attract deals with a handshake must negotiate demonstrate c. These young professionals of technological creativity. 17. before. students multidisciplinary place to place and orienting options now available-from to Segway.!!! o s: I- .4). Bernard Rudofsky. 2 Kevin lynch. of the twenty-first renaissance.. become wayfinding's of capable firms springing There is no question. The landmark work and stay current with Designers who once sealed and principals packages must now follow bureaucratic compensation in the 1970s. 1960). them in complex spaces especially complexity moment too soon. Sophisticated by the internet generation international explosion. 1969). These trends wayfinding future for to travel. infrastructures is increasingly transportation the health of the profession: who think spatially. The beginning have moved spatial diagrams of the field today. fueled navigate early transportation other digital technologies have accelerated concern about the pace of global change and inspired the newest of designers to mobilize for action like never face an exciting era and radical century may. fifty symbols that today serves as a foundation many symbol sets developed venues (see chapter 3. TODAY AND TOMORROW Wayfinding design has finally come of age and not a by many a twentiethGetting people from with all the highway of the world's our cities continue to sprawl as their grow unwieldy.

1. DESIGN-VIGNELLI During the past forty years. as the environmental graphic design profession matured. LEARN ABOUT Different types of clients who hire wayfinding designers and the kinds of projects they commission 17 . creative industry. the only things that change are the specifics. "from spoon to the city" because the basic discipline of design is one. Today almost every type of public space and most private complexes require a wayfinding scheme. Inthe 1970s the early professional practice of architectural graphics mainly entailed designing signs for architects' and developers' buildings. The clients who commission signage systems for these venues-together with the designers and to a fabricators who create them-belong ? • dynamic. the range of wayfinding projects rapidly expanded. LELLA AND MASSIMO VIGNELLI.2 THE SPECTRUM OF PROJECTS We believe that the designer should be able to design anything.

or to signal a change of corporate ownership by rebranding signage at multiple branch locations (see chapter 3. the development office may be obligated to name the new building after a major donor. the facilities department may issue a Request for Proposal (RFP)for wayfinding sign age to connect a new building to a larger campus. In addition. Other private institutions have their own particular signage specifications. Operators of the hospital cafeteria or gift shop may have requirements or even lease agreements that need to be considered regarding the scope of their signage. The communications department may decide to use the opportunity to roll out a new institutional identity. It is important to research and define all three of these variables clearly at the outset of a project. such as a project-management consultant or company. and healthcare. A typical client could be the owner of a single property or developer of a large complex. for example. to represent them at various 18 . What Do Wayfinding Clients Need?on pages 22-23·provides a typology. treatment centers. The institution interacts with a diverse community-locals and tourists-all coming to visit city centers. supporting and enabling a positive experience. the designer will have to create a family of sign types that not only addresses primary information and wayfinding needs but also recognizes secondary issues and audiences with an appropriate information hierarchy and sign-messaging protocols. That same corporation may also wish to use branded signage to advertise and attract customers.. On one hand are large centers for transportation. education.1).. s: I- WHO IS THE CLIENT? The client is either an individual or a large team of people that provides direction and supervision and sets project parameters. In urban areas wayfinding systems become a part of the civic infrastructure and the public narrative of the city. The wayfinding requirements of a municipal client must often address different user groups in various settings. and other destinations quickly. and mixed-use developments. on the other are sports arenas. These can vary from a sign age system for an individual building..!!J u '0' CI> s: . or a facility manager of a hospital. 'u . city parks. and maintenance and service people. nursing staff. the operator of a transit line. the environmental graphics need to attract commercial developers in urban-development opportunities. the hospital sign system affects many departments and personnel. For example. The architect of the new building will be concerned that signage is integrated effectively with the architectural design intent. Within various business sectors there are many different kinds of projects.!!! Cl CI> E CI> WHY PEOPLE NEED WAYFI NDI NG SYSTEMS Successful wayfinding design depends on understanding three variables: the nature of the client organization. Who Hires a Wayfinding Designer?on pages 20-21 presents the different industries and market sectors that require wayfinding systems. Clients often act on their own behalf but can also enlist people. . Secondary audiences include internal groups like doctors. where effective and efficient sign age is crucial.WAYFIN DI NG MARKETS AN D PROJECT TYPES Visual surveys on the following two spreads give an overview of the diversity of client and project types. and the type of environment in which the system will be installed. where good wayfinding can support a rich customer experience. As in most multidepartmental organizations. These two visual surveys offer a framework for understanding the scope of wayfinding design. the people with whom the organization communicates. In the case of a hospital. An effective wayfinding program can easily balance the needs of the different constituencies. hotels. A corporate client. In developing the wayfinding strategy and designing the sign system. In their view the primary audience for the sign age consists of the patients and visitors who need to find physicians. for instance. or other public spaces. or for a whole campus or building complex. o CI> E ~ u 0VI s: I- CI> 0. may need to complete interior signage for a new office building to obtain a legal certificate of occupancy and set up the building for tenants.

and that complex. Isit emphasizing a desirable address with a striking stages in the process. Project objectives can be that simple. Whether your client for a wayfinding project is a corporation or an institution. Loyalfans. designers should look for unique ways to add value to the project or product. this means paying attention to the bottom line: understanding the budget and managing it all the way through the project. add value to the home-team franchise. Many wayfinding managed by architects interpretation supervise who represent projects are the interests or of their clients and also strive to ensure the holistic of their design vision for the building and installation complex. so the designer needs to figure out where value can be built into every aspect ofthe solution. for example. The builder of a stadium delivers value by giving home-team fans a good wayfinding experience via festive. it soon won bigger contracts that demanded a higher level of supervisory responsibility. seeks the highest rents possible. both explicit and inherent. principal ofTwo TwelveAssociates and a YaleUniversity graduate. a construction the fabrication manager may be hired to of wayfinding elements along with the rest of the architecture. The designer's job is to do the necessary homework: researching and understanding the client's business goals well enough to add significant value through the signage and wayfinding program. team-branded signage that adds to the excitement of game day and makes it easy to get from street to seat and back again. ~ ~~ The Design Principal identification sign? Highlighting world-class architecture with special details? Or maybe it's just helping to get the building to market faster by getting the code-required signage installed within two months. has over twenty-five years' experience working In the design Industry. in turn. Our company. Often. Adeveloper of a new building. The core lesson we've learned over time is that designing a great product goes hand in hand with delivering value for the money. TwoTwelveAssociates. season after season. Youneed to understand your client's business objectives. Other kinds of projects have other objectives. letting the client know when requests for changes will push fees over estimate and offering solutions to cut production costs or streamline the work process. Ann Harakawa. has always been dedicated to creating designs and public information systems that improve the dynamics between people and the places they visit.. game after game. AsTwoTwelveevolved from a small studio to a planning consultancy. and that value enables the stadium owner to charge a premium for sponsors and concessionaires to promote their brands and products within the stadium environment. Beyondmeeting these basic expectations. and ensure that your design solutions meet them. This is a form of brand extension that gives the fans subtle incentive to come back.. 19 .

c:: I- HOSPITALITY Hotels and resorts. the diversity of clients who they systems and the kinds of facilities challenges. zoos. sports complexes. Even though every space is unique. planned communities. convention centers C1I i5. C1I Colleges and universities. museums. venues in each category share typical wayfinding ~ u EDUCATION AND CULTURE ~ e E u VI '0' C1I E C1I Q. hospitality. and retail spaces 20 . theme parks. and aquariums . 'v 1/1 Q s: C1I '" I- SPORTS AND ENTERTAINMENT Arenas and stadiums. performance spaces COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE Buildings. mixed-use developments with residential.. visitor centers. cultural centers." Who Hires a Wayfinding Designer? These images illustrate need wayfinding operate.

department stores. streetscapes. ferry services. building complexes. corporate campuses. CORPORATIONS Private office interiors. ship terminals and ports 21 .. hospital complexes. research campuses FRNMENT Municipal centers.. downtowns. state and federal complexes.TD CENTRAL MARKET GRM'i RETAIL Individual stores. urban spaces and plazas.. interctty trains. bus. public parks. shopping centers HEALTH CARE Hospitals. public transportation: subway.. playgrounds TRANSPORTATION Airports. branch or franchise location . commuter rail..

c.c: o '" I- SYSTEM SIGNAGE BUILDING COMPLEXES Signage for multiple locations. '" c 'c III . . ranging from park systems to consumer banks Exterior and interior signage for a group of buildings. INDIVIDUAL SIGN .c: I- C.5 o E Asingle landmark orfeature sign u C. or franchises operated by one owner or manager.. public or private 22 . III '" '" . branches.. a rail system might .. grows in direct of the client's of the assignment to the scale and challenges Developing a signage program for a single can take a few months.~ '" !u !l take years..What Do Wayfinding Clients Need? These images illustrate The complexity proportion property.. building the range of design projects.

and for urban downtowns Signage for an individual structure. often institutional NETWORK SIGNAGE Wayfinding design for multiple stops along a route including bus.AMPUS WAYFINDING Wayfinding system for a group of buildings operating together on one site. or plazas. or subway lines. exterior and/or interior . for trails and greenways. streets. and highways BUILDING OPEN SPACE SIGNAGE SIGNAGE Exterior signage for individual parks. rail.

and where do they work? It helps to understand is a subset of environmental that wayfinding graphic design. and large projects show different combinations of players.. Another way to understand the profession is by analyzing project structures and how designers fit tnto them.. a question and a reply. an action in which he lives. and interiors. maps. and a reaction between an individual and the environment FABRE. to be active.. a larger discipline that embraces many specializations including architecture and the design of graphic communications. A HISTORY OF COMMUNiCATIONS Before we dive into the specifics of planning and design. The charts in this chapter of small. medium. exhibitions. products. ? • LEARN ABOUT Environmental graphic design as a career path and how designers work in teams . 13 THE WAYFINDING • DESIGNER To communicate communication MAURICE is to be alive.. For is essentially an interchange. in relation with others . it is useful to step back and ask: Who designs the projects described in the previous section? How does someone become a successful wayfinding designer? How are they trained.

. It took years more schools and them every year before academic courses on signage and wayfinding design became common. Work experience such as at a printing proteges of an established design team. Company. For instance. sometimes Pentagram. unique experience. talents. Even established record jackets and now creates idiosyncratic in. designing can also be invaluable. obvious for becoming a wayfinding interests. typography. And as each new staff member brings collaborators. understanding. offer students challenges of wayfinding such as Wayne Hunt. layout. What has gradually curricula young designers evolved in lieu of organized skill sets become is an ad hoc apprenticeship with suitable wayfinding established design. courses and the need Chris Calori. serve as the vanguard While individual insight into the profession design ultimately grows more from experience or career path. training. colorful. designer. Alternatively. design. identified graphic design became a designers from a variety of the demand for architectural systems. to supplement educational their knowledge before entering the position. on. design. a familiarity offered embrace environmental is a gifted typographer graphic design later who started out in their careers. of way finding education. communications these design services as specializations design. with decades of experience. and around buildings. and Lance Wyman. although universities commit to establishing (see Other Voices page 29). principal to wayfinding new technologies. and fabricators. A solid balances good basic training in and in field or joining a firm at an entry-level foundation in wayfinding design-with communications three-dimensional an understanding in industrial the industry. but rather an indirect journey that combines obsessions. graphic designers or just embarking By tackling wayfinding do clients. and information design for the built environment of the materials and processes used or an internship or fabrication company. principal program can be greatly advantageous. most students 25 . that an ideal model for an environmental Before environmental profession. or product design. Paula Scher. so are the backgrounds of the people who are today. it follows graphic design the master practitioners does not yet exist. BECOMING A WAYFINDING DESIGNER In general there is no single. enough to establish diversity of subjects advanced-degree management approach working If a young designer is ambitious with the education or by a university a company. challenging ever-larger Ray Eames and soon became one of the West Coast's wayfinding programs. than from a specific education design. wayfinding firms can become more the core skills of good and ideas to bear. programs. exuberant Several dedicated recognized environmental in new parts of the world with different on increasingly projects. signage and wayfinding more general practice. and rnentorshlp. career path graphic expeis or environmental ideas. of Sussman/Prezja & with Charles and especially for her type compositions Deborah Sussman. system. began her career working best known designers. as are post-graduate skills. They began to offer within a interiors. where designer or designers of skills-graphic usually architecture. considered education recognized disciplines Just as the profession eclectic. so Expertise in adept at planning and strategizing. or continuing-education design firms constantly by researching courses in refine their cultures.. rience.

'c I- cu .or large-sized consulting firms in which creative work consumes a majority of the energies of the staff. such as strategists to help analyze a situation. c: 'Vi cu t>Il C t>Il :c c: cu .s:: I- c: THE CLIENT TEAM Theater Founder and President Project Manager . and the designers maintain close contact with the client without intermediaries. they are members of medium.:: >- 3: '" THE BUILDING ARCHITECT cu c: 0. often in partnership with other firms. fostering an "all hands on deck" culture where everyone shares responsibilities.cu . developing signage systems for the parent firm and for outside clients as a separate profit center..s:: . either from inside the firm or outside experts hired for specific tasks. client. Some designers work in small firms with only two or three employees. The client group is also small and functions as an advisory review committee for the project manager. Architecture Firm THE SIGNAGE DESIGN TEAM Creative Designer 26 . The consulting architect.WORKING AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL GRAPHIC DESIGNER Wayfinding designers organize themselves in several different ways depending on scale of operation.~ c Straightforward projects can be handled by a small studio with just a few people involved.. map makers and illustrators to create special pieces of artwork. Large projects requiring more complex teams are usually undertaken by bigger design companies. There are also environmental graphic design departments within architectural firms that function almost like independent contractors. Typically. Executing these complex projects may require collaborators. Small Project Regional theater company's new home This design team is small and streamlined. who may be a collaborator. or just an advisor. Responsibilities are shared. reviews the signage program during development to see that it conforms to the design intent of the building. and traffic engineers and technical specialists to create design documentation. .

" Medium Project Urban biotechnology research campus The design team is larger and more formalized in a medium-sized project. in-Charge SIGN FABRICATOR/ CONSUlTA'NT Sign Fabrication Company Design Team Coordinator Production Designer 27 . the client and design team ultimately report to this department. Because this is an urban project sponsored by an economic-development department that represents the city's interests. and lines of communication are more clearly drawn. THE CITY City Art Review Commission Civic Development Corporation THE CLIENT TEAM Owner Vice President of Marketing Project Manager Creative Consultant THE BUILDING ARCHITECT Architecture Firm THE SITE ARCHITECT THE SIGNAGE DESiGN TEAM Principal. such as a creative consultant who is responsible for ensuring that his corporate client's design standards are followed. And for special landmark signs-a feature element of the site designa signage fabrication company has been retained to serve as a deslgn-build consultant. Architects and landscape architects work on major aspects of the project's design. The city art review commission has a stake in safeguarding the design integrity of the civic streetscape. Eachteam member has a specific role. but there are other players at the table. The client group may still be small.

The buildingdesign team ensures that the stadium's architecture. each with multiple owners and the executives who report to them. As this top-heavy chart shows. specialists. QJ Byvirtue of their complexity. and wayfinding program are all carefully planned and integrated. AND IMPLEMENTATION TEAM Principalin-Charge Project Manager Design Team Coordinator Junior Designer '28 . ·iii Cl t>Il t: "'C t: QJ t: t>Il THE STATE State Sports Authority TEAM 1 ---THE FOOTBALLTEAMS ---TEAM Owner Finance Director Construction Director THE BUILDING DESIGN TEAM Design Architects Sponsorship and Wayfinding Planner Interior Designer Construction Director 2 . and designers.. A large environmental graphic design team. the new stadium will be home to two sports teams. large-scale projects often have many participants at the client level who need to provide input and approvals... executes the wayfinding strategy by developing final designs and supervising their implementation. oversees the design and construction of the new stadium. A regulatory commission.. ·u s 111 . interior design.II' Large Project Professional football stadium . >'" 3: . in this case a state development agency. SIGNAGE. with its own hierarchy of managers.s:: IQJ t: QJ President Finance Director Marketing Director C..s:: I- QJ THE WAYFINDING. sponsorship signage.

as well as three-dimensional design. and put a design brief together as much as how to develop technical drawings or plan complex systems. The programs will offer EGDcourses in the third and fourth years of a student's studies or at the graduate level alongside more standard concentrations such as illustration. industrial desiqn. The type of programs offered by Kent State and Drexel University are successful models because they attract many EGDpractitioners to teach on a rotating basis. conferences. year out. SEGD'sultimate academic mission is to develop fullfledged partnerships with university design departments in order to build environmental graphic design (EGD)courses into their curricula. Craig M. Our goal is to develop integrated programs with dedicated. Berger is director of education and professional training for SEGD and editor of the book WayJindlng: Navigational Systems (2005). After developing proficiency in foundational skills. Designing and Implementing Graphic The environmental graphic design profession is such a vibrant. students can explore specialized subjects that may vary depending on the institution but will likelyinclude wayfinding. and publications.1). research papers. con-duct research. than on becoming strong conceptual thinkers and communicatorsbefore joining a firm.~ ~ The Design Educator still learn drawing for concept development purposes to be able to explore ideas in a fluid and expedient way. full-time professors who hire experienced professionals as visiting or adjunct lecturers. ultimately making it a concentration. We aim to help our membership achieve both of these goals by building better academic programs and by fostering design leadership throug h increasing ly sophisticated educational offerings. students should 29' . growing field that there is a much greater demand for young designers than the marketplace can supply. Firms compete for the limited number of design school graduates who have the necessary wayfinding or signage background and often have to spend several years training in-house staff before they can manage teams or work on complex projects. the Society for Environmental Graphic Design (SEGD) as addressed this problem in part by h connecting professionals with teachers and students and by producing workshops.and exhibition design. Before focusing on a subject as specific as wayfinding. students need to learn fundamentals of communication desiqn. We also encourage collaboration with architecture or planning departments to fully round out an EGDeducation. University programs encourage students to concentrate less on learning technical skills. branded environments or placemaking (see chapter 3.such as developing a sign message schedule. or package design. which is more powerful than having one person repeat a subject year in. particularly typography and branding identity. Firms today compete in two ways: by offering either a higher level of design or more efficient services. Since its founding. graduates need to know how to write a concept statement. And while the ascendancy of computers has rendered the technical drawing skills previously taught in trade schools obsolete.





Function isfine but designers as the artists of our system must, as it were, provide the spice as well as the nutrition.

Each design project is a unique assignment with desigI.

nated team members, special logistical and technical requirements, and distinct design goals. There are, however, predictable steps that define the process of wayfinding design. Understanding this procedure helps the designer-and the client, for that matter-succeed. As the designer gains experience, he or she will be able to complete more projects efficiently and profitably.



LEARN ABOUT Each phase in the design process and the products delivered


The process chart on the following general template In smaller projects or even eliminated. schedule. pages provides projects combined a rush a steps in the design process and the usual order in which they are undertaken. Each phase in this chart is addressed in greater appear at the and on detail later in the book; chapter references designer's products project. typical deliverables-the for how most wayfinding phases are sometimes

proceed once the design firm is awarded a contract. At times several phases of a job to accommodate projects, there may be pauses or project planners before wayfinding the typical

the bottom of each column. It also briefly describes presentations that designers process. create throughout

may have to run concurrently For long-term

the life of the

between stages when the architects execute work that must be completed design can continue.

Unusual or special projects follow variations

the standard

The chart describes

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The Wayfinding Designer
virtual environments that simulate the walk-through experience-animation and 3-0 rendering may provide the new best way to demonstrate wayfinding. Growing demand for sustainable design solutions (see chapter 3.6) influences materials selection and even the scale of a sign program. While it's often best to minimize the number of signs in a program, specifying too few may require building staff to implement wasteful quick-fix solutions and actually add more signs in the long run. Asa mature EGOfirm we work on large, complex way-findjng projects that require design solutions with timeless appeal and long-term durability. Ateam might be involved in a sports-stadium project for several years after the de-sign strategy has been established. These types of projects offer the opportunity to affect thousands if not millions of people. The work is rewarding, but it requires time and patience to collaborate with the client's team until consensus is reached. When a number ofthese long-term engagements are running simultaneously, the ability to keep track of concurrent assignments at different phases is essential. Aninterest in graphic desiqn, architecture, sci-ence, branding, and materials is also indispensablenot to mention the ability to read a scale rulerl
Anthony Ferrara Is the creative director at TwoTwelve Associates.

When Ibecame an environmental graphic designer about twenty years ago, designers still wrote out type specifications for outside typesetting services and produced technical drawings by hand. The standardized process we follow for wayfinding design, however, has changed very little because our work phasing follows the time-tested process established by architects (see chart on pages 34-35). We now spend more time at the front end of a new project on planning, which requires understanding the client's goals and the needs ofthe end-user, and studying the unique wayfinding challenges presented by a specific site or building. Thisplanning work involves research, meetings, site visits, and analysis of information such as circulation patterns. Our firm focuses on the strategic aspect of planning: confirming a clear set of the design goals and recommending what types of signs will be necessary for better navigation. We act as the users' representative and try to understand a space or building from their point of view. Other factors affecting the way we work today are the changing market environment and client expectations. State-of-the-art computer capabilities and competition for projects are forcing wayfinding designers to produce increasingly sophisticated presentations in addition to the standard realistic renderings, models, and prototypes. Architects have raised client expectations by presenting


The Design Process
Hold project kickoff meeting, conduct user interviews, focus-group meetings, and site surveys to understand operational requirements and other demands the wayfinding system must address. For any new construction, review architectural plans and analyze anticipated circulation patterns. Identify exterior vehicular and pedestrian traffic flows and interior pedestrian patterns for key user groups. Determine user patterns and needs to establish the basis for the design program. Describe the problem to be solved. Based on results from the research-and-analysis phase, propose a strategy for the wayfinding system. This strategy will be the functional framework for the system, explaining how it will provide information and directions for a place and how it will address user requirements. Develop an outline of the types of signs that will be needed. Establish the design goals for the signage system. A clear and effective strategy will provide the basis for successful signage. With sign-type strategy established and circulation paths antlctpated, consider critical decision points and other key locations requiring signage. Plot each sign location on a plan. Create a draft of the messageschedule database with all sign texts entered. Use this database to calculate and budget preliminary sign fabrication costs. Bythe end of the project-during design development or documentation-complete messages can be recorded and final sign locations noted. Select key sign types and explore design alternatives, varyil)g the forms, materials palettes, color, typography, and content. All options should conform to the wayfinding strategy but investigate different approaches to content and visual vocabulary. Identity and branding design may occur at the beginning of schematic design. By the end of this phase, the design vocabulary should be established, and design direction approved.






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• Project schedule • Research report and site observations • Problem statement • Wayfinding strategy • Design goals • Outline of sign types • Draft sign location plans • Draft sign message schedules • Preliminary sign fabrication budget • Identity or branding design recommendations • Approved approach to the design vocabulary using selected sign types

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2.2 Planning and Strategy 2.2 Planning and Strategy 2.3 The Categories of Signs 2.4 Sign Content and locations 3 Wayfinding Design


structural issues. elevations.4 Documentation Fabrication and 4. Throughout the bidding process. Hold a prebid meeting or conference call to explain the project. 3 Wayfinding Design 4. assist the client with their evaluation and the selection of a bidder based on qualifications and price quotation. colors. Create final sign layouts. Finalize designs for each sign type and get client approvals. Make site visits to the chosen fabricator's workshop to review materials. materials. Coordinate with the architect and engineer about power requirements.• Implementation DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Develop the approved schematic design scheme to resolve details of typography. and mounting for the wayfinding program.3 Code Requirements 4. etc. samples. finishes. Inspect final installation and create punch list of necessary corrections and modifications. CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATION Create design-intent drawings for all of the approved sign types. CONSTRUCTION ADMINISTRATION Attend a preconstruction meeting to clarify the design-intent documents for prospective bidders. and answer any questions. Once the fabricators have submitted bids. Assemble or complete the final sign location plans and sign message schedules. I DELIVERABLES • Developed details of all sign types • Refined fabrication budget estimate • Design-intent documents • Final sign location plan • Final sign message schedule • Sign specifications • Bidders list • Review services • Clarification sketches • Review services • Punch list TO LEARN MORE SEE. and fabrication details to define design intent. Throughout the process. discuss the design-intent documents. provide supervisory assistance on site during installation. review fabricator submissions and answer any related questions. and architectural integration. color.4 Documentation Fabrication and 35 . Revise the sign-fabrication budget now that the sign quantities are fixed and the details resolved. After fabrication is complete.4 Documentation Fabrication and 4. BID SUPPORT Identify and contact qualified sign fabricators. Write sign specifications to describe the deSign-intent standards and all special requirements. provide clarification of the design-intent documents as necessary.

and apply it in the planning phase. THE IMAGE OF THE CITY When people attempt to navigate a place for the first time. KEVIN LYNCH. understand that logic. There is a sequential pattern to this wayfinding process-in effect. the wayfinding consultant must anticipate visitor patterns. can be visually grasped as a related pattern of recognizable symbols. a series of questions that people ask themselves along the way.. ? • 36 LEARN ABOUT The development of effective wayfindlng strategies . Before starting the design process.I 2. they face a series of decisions as they follow a path to their destination. if it is legible.. so a legible city would be one whose districts or landmarks or pathways are easily identifiable and are easily grouped into an overall pattern .2 PLANNING AND STRATEGY Just as this printed page. Then work can begin on a framework for the wayfinding design program.

of a city. urban history to see the inspiration to the parking lot? And once inside: How do I find the Renaissance painting make decisions HISTORIC URBAN MODELS Cities are by their very nature complex places. feeling a mixture of hesitance Am I going in the right direction? direct people to major nodes. In the process of tracing the visitor's path.. For of districts. FIND Imagine you are a visitor looking for a museum in the cultural district approach excitement: of a large city where many buildings style and look alike. instance. or the precincts wayfinding connectors. metaphor. divided the neighborhoods of an academic campus. imposing The form and layout of the palace complex was rigidly walls. facilitate effortless The job of the wavftndlng is to present information in public spaces that helps In other words. challenge The designer's message. These strategies or landmarks can all be used to help a place is within make places easier to understand district into meaningful systems are pervasive: zones for use on signs and are clustered corridors maps. City in Beijing exemplifies carefully planned to convey a specific court. and simplified the necessary sequence of movement for instance. as a century-old hospital campus or a huge urban to uncover the hidden logic system. the wings of a building. as possible so that ten steps. There are four types of strategies after urban planning: the concepts systems. the museum I want to visit? If the old main door looks closed. In order to understand wayfinding concepts. and navigate. might help define the lines of a transportation work. like elevators points. such 37 .. subway system. information. Built in the early decades of the fifteenth century. ENTER. the designer attempts a strategic framework of the place. one. the designer can develop for the wayfinding FOUR WAYFINDING STRATEGIES The wayfinding underlies strategy is the idea or system that A strategy netthe design of a signage program. you might be confused building: about how to enter the Should I enter by that new side door next exhibit? and readily designer it is useful to look at for these ideas. dense with people and the different neighborhoods where they reside and work. locate signs. the visitor must based on the available. Where streets provide the wayfinding and pathways network across a space. and specific destinations APPROACH. the palace housed the Chinese imperial axial and highly symbolic: its high. and how they should say it. Thoughtful the designer understand research and analysis help a complex public place. Once that is clear. is to determine where to The Forbidden seem to require only two or three. Conthat connect all of the Landmark strategies or primary these con- easily recognizable form a comprehensible destinations destination temporary nectors are simple bold pathways within one location. a seamless visitor experience. that organize most are modeled streets. An understanding and geographic wayfinding microcosm structures is essential of how cities for effective an urban At each stage in this sequence. visible. what they should say. You and Is this have the same architectural those districts. should feel as evolved systems that organize or define their social practice.

These to Sixtus's for future a distinct pattern survive in situ today. For those outside the Forbidden walls. China (Connector model) concentric materials. urban development University of Cambridge. succession to important of courtyards and the urban design symbolized For those allowed entrance. the pope confocal points structured future In some a grander setting for the seat of the modern Catholic empire. names.. This system of residential and specific gateways. in others. United Kingdom (District model) Examining a medieval cityscape different kind of spatial organization. university framework. system of gateways and courtyards. Beijing. cases Egyptian and Roman monuments churches were remodeled landmarks innovations to these places to define them. a testimonial that established of this great city. extant ancient in the baroque style. a mechanism and was of academic colleges. each with distinct arms. His system of The center point of each axis were relocated axis through the palace complex was a connector of Beijing is being torn apart today to accommodate extraordinary growth. the integrity the world outside to the emperor. evolved into a network of colleges within the larger 38 . from Roman outpost town. organizing a kind of early campus wayfinding. Cambridge. coats of the puzzle of Gothic buildings into coherent The Forbidden City. In order to create find their way. The strong central linking and palaces clearly led the way Rome. city northeast of Cambridge and university of meandering university reveals a very The University century in the of London. and place names all communicated colors. Though the fabric of the Forbidden City's plan survives. the result of the city's evolution to Norman settlement like its great rival in Oxford. the architecture power and dominance. and help pilgrims axial roads and landmark growth indicated and development. the location ceived an urban master plan for the city. Pope Sixtus V had a vision for recapturing Rome's ancient glory. defined precincts.. New York (Streets model) streets. Italy (Landmarks model) central destinations. Town grew during the thirteenth mingled together heart of a then-small into a complex thicket to medieval New York. of a major civic landmark. understandable entities. During the baroque period. the City's the court's power.

wayfinding in New York are dramatic. centric city zones that a shorthand for Parisians and visitors to dissect the city into areas they could remember these districts developed meanings. for example. likewise. Civic planner Baron Haussmann in mid-nineteenth-century the city by introducing a system of radial boulevards. or districts: provided cenHe also spiraling conway Paris street sign Paris when he modernized helped to define the imperial were reserved for the emperor's arms represent Starting for tourists' created arrondissements. over time. Plan of 1811 for New York City. While urban layout: the grid of numbered The result is that contrasts the footprint confusing. Over time specific social and cultural artful signs. a grid of numbered the intersection streets and avenues takes over. Andre Michelin's that travelers routes. of boundaries was super- to the Parisian streetscape zip codes. These guides and their 39 . and becomes clear and understandable. another pattern imposed facilitate When the United States Post Office established over New York's street grid. show the street name number and are as fundamental as the Eiffel Tower. of Nassau and Pine streets down in most out-ofThe arrondissements of Paris the Financial District sounds mysterious. majesty of his Forbidden City. a remarkable that shaped the city's growth. that inherited have a Further north. In Cambridge. for attractions. on a trip to Rome. These codes mail and parcel delivery. Additionally. owners. as cities became larger planners proposed new systems of document the The Commissioners' to cope with growth. devices that Red and yellow the coats of to take a closer look at some of the communication precinct. University of Cambridge filled with notes about destinations. In Beijing. settlements for example. towners are able to find Fifth Avenue and Fifty-fourth imitators have provided a worldwide reference for finding destinations and landmarks within the tangle and used bold strokes EARLY MODERN URBAN WAYFINDING With these systems for organizing it is instructive visual and conceptual cities have adopted urban space in mind. organization century. specific colors use and signified mystery of foreign cities. in the second quarter of the nineteenth travel guides with his authoritative tury. intro- Coats of Arms. destinations economic status-l0021 neighborhood would encounter East Side imply wealth and social distinction-as names such as Carnegie Hill. duced in the nineteenth and the arrondissement century. German publisher Karl Baedeker set the standard books and find easily. but they also convey Having a specific zip code indicates or 10065 on the Upper do Shortly after the widespread provided social information. Street very easily. hand for identifying different each of the colleges. tangle of streets. simple wayfinding mechanism relied upon a deceptively for understanding streets and avenues.By the nineteenth and more complex. creating a shortparts of the university. areas of Lower Manhattan of its colonial-era if charming. and ratings availability guides for the new a narrative • •• of the distinctive. automobile important of the automobile.

As these systems grew after the turn of the century and the public needed III managers. He organized the typography spatial wayfinding details and the peculiarities >bJ) 0:: and opportunities map design for the London Underground.transit systems. map makers began to color lines. on the nature of the place-be building. 1933. Harry Beck's precedent-setting issued in the over maps forever. curiously. came together of a building or complex-and Depending By the early on the time and budget available interview operators. the designer observes characteristics typical London Underground Map. century. when the way· that inhabit the place.4). This may include studying circulation complete populations need. "'C 0:: bJ) 0:: 0:: a grid and noted the station interchanges map codified and abstracted foreshadowing contemporary surveys and plan reviews. cbanged transit spaghetti are not visible from mere observation. observation pathways. of the Forbidden also recalling the rigid geometry and image are also revealed. metto to reviews-a detailed and whatklnd research also requires plan drawings for subjects constituent interviews. become obvious Depending tutional Pathways and decision points in the process. uncovers additional place-problems form mass. This process that may exist but It is important E Vl E III help deciphering code the different routes. a new corporate City (see chapter 3. points. path- ways that they follow. 3: co conslstent. the designer then diagrams people's movements. where the problems are.: >co of routes into a system of lines all drawn at He structured symbolically. The site investigation streets or corridors. finding team studies a site in detail to identify the populations wayfinding. the research reveals how the place will appear to the user and how it is expected to function.Most large environmental projects graphic design begin with research.angles. and gathering promote it. may include facility senior executives. In addition.. For existing spaces being re-signed. and security program century. to good that might involves walking the and looking at landmarks. as well as project priorities. insti- THE RESEARCH ously described PROCESS previ- campus-the focus and depth of way finding The historic examples of urban coding methods ners created to organize and communicate urban infrastructure. This brilliant information. and issues of identity it a city 'i': c::: co systems and. or an existing center. that the designer understands or are expected to experience gathered during interviews. While exploring its physical a space. how it works. These wayfinding approach coding systems are applied only after initial planning to the most appropriate project. sign age programs determine These methods for the modern wayfinding research will vary. typify systems that early city planaspects of provide models designer to use to organize for various types of spaces. for a particular 40 . "'C 0:: how people experience a place. For new facilities. In the second half of the nineteenth ropolitan workplaces twentieth railroads and recreational study of the architectural began to connect city dwellers destinations. and what changes need to be implemented. 1933 and the human dynamics that patterns for different of information they take place there. Using data as well as notes from site . these railroads research. any obstacles and opportunities and documentation. the study focuses on what is already in place. of a guards.

contradictions between the different shows the designer visitor information wayfinding strategy.regulatory signage is present. noting the number on the entrance sign and the hours of operation signs to the final destination. overlaps. which is marked with building name. User Circulation: Corporate Technical Center Key. Employee drives on Loop Road and follows vehicular directional at each step in the process are described. in this center. and €» Employee This scenario is one of several done for different user groups. 41 . technical analysis of circulation Interactions case staff coming to the corporate o e '" o Employee enters at a gate. on the regulatory sign. and row markers.. Upon entering that building. and column identification. • "'" • • Steps in circulation Sample route Sample destination Gates open to staff Connector routes from gates Loop Road Connector from Loop Road to parking Staff parking • Buildings process - The circulation diagram shown above shows the by a particular user group. signs. user pathways destination Employee enters assigned parking lot.. the employee sees and follows building directories appropriate and/or interior directionals. sees the appropriate parking-lot directional for the building and turns off of Loop Road. room. A review of the parallels. lot identification how to assess the need for at the center and how to develop a o o Employee enters building at card-key staff entrance where minor building identification and door. Employee proceeds to the workspace that is signed with the floor.

New public buildings and structures were sited to function as arrival landmarks and gateways. our team works independently of the many architects hired by the admin-istration to design buildinqs. Because of this structure. new buildings will be better sited and more accessible from key circulation routes. while the campus landscape was refined to open up and highlight Princeton's system of walks. Since the wayfinding program needed an organizing principle. and administrators would probably do away with signs completely I But after an unembellished presentation proved just how hard it is for visitors to find the admission's office. AlA. and pedestrian movement Princeton University campus by showing the movement of arrival places recommendations and content of signs. architects. the are of people and cars and the location grams to create a set of wayfindlng and a strategy The pedestrian vehicular directed for the placement and decision points. planners. Our end product is the Princeton Campus Plan. topography. our wayfinding team identified different features about Princeton's landscape that particularly help people find their way around. While eliminating signs entirely was unrealistic. Is partner and director of planning design for Beyer Blinder Belle Architects & Planners LLP.SITE ANALYSIS Having looked separately their pathways. the designer can system as a full-fledged a family of sign types and devise a site-specific on the facing page describe the wayfinding systems for the drawing depicts a system in which visitors and visitor parking along the central roadway and then separated The two drawings into east and west circulation and vehicular systems. and urban . We had interesting debates-everyone has a different idea about how the campus should be organized. each one of them grapples with a unique set of constraints." as the framework upon which to organize all future development. With this information strategy. Given a choice. at different constituencies summary might be and the designer next develops patterns. We prefer the idea of a framework-an armature upon which everything hangs-to describe planning guidelines based more on a philosophy than on hard-and-fast rules. This approach serves a major institution much longer and more effectively than a traditional master plan. whether by neighborhood. ~ ~ The Campus Planner As campus planners for Princeton University. a report that will guide development for at least ten years. or historic period-but in the end we came to consensus about what works. The designer examines these dia- maps of the overall circulation campus. Using the term master plan tends to be problematic today because it suggests that everything has already been worked out. we kept signage to a minimum by introducing visual prompts into the landscape to make movement more intuitive. vehicular mapped separately establish wayfinding pedestrian On an outdoor experiences to show the different drawing shows the east-west campus circulation each entails. the administration appreciated the need to improve campus wayfinding. Nell Kittredge. which serve as important pathways for pedestrian movement. or "walks. AICP. we chose Princeton's beloved system of established circulation pathways. without flexibility for unanticipated changes. A picture begins to emerge. walkway network. After interviews and visits to the campus. The same principle holds true for working with a wayfinding team. Our job is to provide objectivity and continuity and to make sure that every building fits into the campus as a whole. While Princeton selects world-class architects who do innovative work. The ideal campus wayfinding consultant works collaboratively and designs with a very light touch.

. - Primary roads Campus driveways Restricted-use campus roads iii Secondary ® Campus guard booth Pay-to-park 43 .. .. fi I: Pedestrian and Vehicular Strategies: Princeton University * • Pedestrian Wayfinding Diagram Major campus destination Visitor information Campus map case Pedestrian pathway directional Primary pedestrian route route kiosk m iii - Secondary pedestrian Vehicular Wayfinding Diagram iii Major • Primary campus destinations directional directional IICampus identification G Restricted access sign iii Visitor iii parking (off-campus) ..

elevators basic strategic wayfinding signage program. a connector and corridors of the Johns Hopkins Medical Campus a large. and used these historic districts as the cornerstones of a pedestrian signage program. These strategies mental maps. The diagrams for using different hospital highlights together. buildings. to district. on signs. and streets. geographic color-coded. This hidden logic is the pattern organization framework the beginning of wayfinding landmarks. urban academic (opposite) strategies show options to organize the the four Option 1 complex These demonstrate previously. simple diagrammatic and easily. concepts described that ties the hospital and visitors leading patients to the different into districts. depending places that people grasp and understand use these maps or frameworks on the strategy. based on the streets model. These examples (see also Children's demonstrate Boston case how these strategies environments actually work in contemporary Hospital study on pages 60-62 in chapter 2. The strategy through is revealed both graphically. there are four main types based on connectors. design. are. FINDING THE HIDDEN LOGIC Synthesizing research ts critical architectural for effective pages-site wayfinding such observations. different types of views of complex quickly of movement or spatial at a place and serves as a system.. As discussed of the chapter.4). By reviewing interview plan information studies-the as that shown on the previous data. districts. in essence. <I • CD APPLYING THESE STRATEGIES TO A HOSPITAL CAMPUS The map (right) shows the buildings medical center. designer seeks to uncover "the hidden logic" of a place. landmarks. from district or between to a system of signs that will help people along streets or corridors. 44 . the designer embraced Penn's four quadrants and the adjacent area. with named c-orridors. and user circulation (I A Historic City (Districts model) City Founder William Penn laid out the city of Philadelphia When creating a pedestrian wayfinding system for the historic city center more than three hundred years later. building Option 2 divides the hospital clusters of buildings as destinations that are named and Option 4 is Option 3 treats the individual or landmarks. created names and symbols for them. historic waterfront on a rational grid in the late 1600s. the architecture.. that characterizes for the wayfinding strategies. The system then leads people on to further decision points. Designers to structure navigate. people where they enter the system at one or more arrival points. and spatially.

Access points to buildings "exits" became numbered on the Pike.j''ihii·poI''i. a spin on the Massachusetts Turnpike. Strategy Option 1 (Connector model) Strategy Option 2 (Districts mC?del) I ''!'iiR.(2nd Floor) ~ Hospital (Connector model) At Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital.j.j Strategy Option 3 (Landmarks model) Strategy Option 4 (Streets model) 45 . familiar to most state residents. the main connector was named the Pike.

images. SIGN LANGUAGE FOR BUILDINGS AND LANDSCAPE I A wayfinding system links different people together. The unifying language of a wayfinding system creates a public narrative of how people witness. i. which might include nonverbal graphic symbols. Their mission is either one of social function or of economic necessity . each separate voice. even if they do not share a common language or destination. read.. 2.. by guiding all of them through the same space with a single system of communication.3 THE CATEGORIES OF SIGNS Signs are necessary in innumerable ways. Each sign in a system. The general arrangement of both public and private signs should have a character and an expression that is congenial to and beneficial for the individual and the community. and words.. MILDRED CONSTANTINE. and experience a space. LEARN ABOUT Different types of signs most wayfinding programs require 46 .. serves a particular function and displays a specific kind of content called a message.

The narrative is the voice of the building and that of its of the Sign Types List For an indoor retail center with on-site parking owner. Vernacular professional Interior - signs that are not "designed" sense are often very effective context but are not included in these visual surveys. often included are employed need to acknowledge In the interest the individuals have made it possible to build and fit out a new institutional facility. the rules that govern how to use it. in many large who where there is a designer to weave Exterior IDENTIFICATION Site monument identification Site entry identification Building mounted identification Entrance identification Parking area identification Accessible parking identification DIRECTIONAL Off-site trailblazers On-site vehicular directional signs Pedestrian directional signs REGULATORY Parking regulations Entrance information - into a single eloquent and regulatory. the variety of signs used in wayfinding how they can accentuate Donor recognition wayfinding compelling programs. as people navigate the space. revealing the pathways and essential information and destinations building or space. and because function program. about activities happening statement within. directional. pages offer a in the of sign types found around the in a local The pictoral essays on the following glimpse of the diversity world. than the other that category is donor signs serve a different elements of the wayfinding not presented in this chapter. impressions signs. systems can be broken down into of signs: identification. of brevity. IDENTIFICATION Store identification Area/Level identification Public amenity identification Service and maintenance identification Office identification Elevator and stair identification DIRECTIONAL Directional signs ORIENTATION Mall directory Elevator/Floor directory REGULATORY Fireegress maps Lifesafety signs 47 . It is the job of the wayfinding these voices together Most wayfinding several categories orientation. This section will explore design and about a place.

whether building..~ ::.... South Korea Walt Disney Concert Hall Los Angeles. Paul. historic context.s c:: c:: '" bII c:: '" a:: Incheon International Airport Incheon. character. an individual indicate III Minnesota Children's Museum 51. they also and even its a place's c:: iii .. their purpose is express a place's personality.c: . identification of a destination. III ~ ~ !t:i (. o III bII '" . Identification Signs The building blocks of way finding. identity generally explicitly and exits to primary and secondary signs clearly mark transitions Styled appropriately. room... California 48 . California c:: c:: i "0 . it is a signs often provide the first impression and function These signs are visual markers that display the name of a place or space. s bII U from one type of space to another. Minnesota or a campus gateway. While identification not purely functional.: E III bII LAX Airport Los Angeles.. and end of routes and They appear at the beginning entrances destinations. by presenting These signs can communicate an actual logo or more by evoking an image. <II .

City Museum Heimbold Visual Arts Center sarah Lawrence College Bronxville. New York Melbourne. Australia HP Pavilion at San Jose San Jose. France 49 . Hungary Metro Paris. California Budapest.

and an entire strategy. Streetscape Norfolk. or vehicular traffic between main and such as key decision points. and arrows. symbols. Australia 50 .E ·c c:: '" c:: c:: bO '" a:: Roppongl Hills Tokyo. This sign type routes pedestrian entrances.~ ~ 'bO " c:: typography. with the surrounding signs also need to be obvious for easy navigation through Message content should be simple. destinations. v ~ '" QI and based on a specific wayfinding s: I- . should harmonize recognizable. directional coordinated facility.• Directional Signs Directional signs constitute program the circulatory system of a wayfinding because they provide the necessary cues that users need to keep on the move once they have entered a space. Japan Melbourne Docklands Melbourne.. QI E '" c:: ~ bO >'" :it "C :g .. England exit points by displaying Vi Q .. While their design architecture. graphic prompts.

. 8rltlsh Museum London.. England ritl [8-J' + 1" •• DUsseldorf International Airport Germany Blblloteca Ant6nio Quadros lADE S1 .


Orientation Signs
To make a complicated signs offer visitors space less baffling, orientation an overview of their surroundings site maps and directories. with signs in a system. visitors are able to with a or in the form of comprehensive The design of orientation other identification

Information kiosk
Toronto, Canada

signs needs to coordinate

and directional

When all these signs work together, move easily along circulation You Are Here indicator. structure routes.

Most site maps show people their location Orientation often display a plan map (axonometric

signs in a multilevel floor. Outdoor of the space.

flat, see chapter 3.4) of the pertinent maps show the boundaries

of a campus, entryways, are usually listed in either order. Other methods of cateIn the same orientation In buildings sign techto be to units returning

major buildings,
On directories, alphabetical gorization, throughout designers

or other components occupants

or numerical

such as by use or tenancy, can be helpful. a facility to avoid confusion.

most cases, maps should maintain where occupancy

changes are likely to be frequent, or digital

often utilize electronic

nologies that allow names and other information easily and economically the sign fabricator. Orientation mounted signs are usually large freestanding readily visible to many people simultaneously, if space does not allow. An exterior or district context. updated without

or wallorientation

map can also show how an entire site fits into the neighborhood

Airport directory
Ottawa. Canada

Park map
Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

Downtown map
San Antonio, Texas

Exhibition hall directories
Yokohama, Japan

City orientation kiosk
tondon, England

Campus map
Austin, Texas


Regulatory Signs
A regulatory sign describes the do's and don'ts of a how place. It can be as simple as a No Smoking sign or a more complex display with rules indicating Some regulatory messages, particularly citizens should enjoy and respect their public park. those that to describe egress from a building, another, it is important regulations Regulatory to communicate immediately. carefully, need to comply with

Thornhill, Ontario

legal codes. As codes vary from one jurisdiction

to become familiar with local and

Vi .... o

that apply to the site under consideration. signs should be unobtrusive instructions or warning of a place but large enough information making signs

.tteJ TOUeH
NEALTH RECU LAT10H •••.•...••


:5 ~

enhance the experience

!:::~ 101fT BUV f you




The writer needs to craft the language When the regulatory

clearly stating the intent without

the visitor feel unwelcome. are well integrated essential

into a sign system, they seem an of place and

part of the overall experience

not just a necessary evil.

41 !II




.5: ~ .5:


'" ~ ~ c


'" '"



Chicago Park District
Chicago, illinois

Dlemerpark IJburg
Amsterdam, Netherlands


England London. England Restaurants New York.. New York 55 . London Underground London.. New York Queens West Development Corporation Parks Long Island City.

entails generating a database of messages (actual text on signs) and the specific locations of all signs necessary for a particular building. which determines the functional elements of a building-a related but different activity. complex. or campus. This process. called sign programming. the designer then determines how to fit signs into a total system. and through the site. Sign programming is not to be confused with architectural programming. the designer establishes the specific sign types the project requires and analyzes circulation patterns into.• 2 4 SIGN CONTENT AND • LOCATIONS MCLUHAN. MARSHAll GALAXY Once analysis and strategy phases are complete. the designer drafts the actual message copy. This chapter covers the task of locating signs and developing a message schedule and contains a more general discussion of sign content. Having established sign locations and functions. THf GUTfNBfRG The new time sense of typographic man is cinematic and sequential and pictorial. ? 56 LEARN ABOUT Creating sign content and choosing installation locations . To program messages and locations. around.

of sign types. circulation Depending pathways. plans with or to help the programming make it easier to explain to a group how the signage system process: the list plan. can (lD=ldentification • • signage) Exterior building entrance lOs Interior building & level IDs • Room & space IDs .. final programming. and then creates a database will work. and a sign-message a sign-location of signs. some Escalators up to Orchestra level Coat Check Phones West Plaza Circulation Analysis This diagram shows the circulation ground-floor delineates different analysis for the entry of a large projected circusymbols indicate and concert hall.. begins with an analysis of arrival. sign elevations. but it is safer to overestimate The designer marks up architectural possible sign locations to each location. message-either and edit later. the first pass at programming before any signs have been designed. The red line lation pathways.PLANNING SIGN LOCATIONS Sign programming departure. when the is or a final location may also be approximate and signing opportunities. established This early work is called preliminary the designer either proceeds with a list of sign types by the client or uses the analysis process to later.. and actual signage programming commence. it is essential The that or a space exhaustively with the territory. and decision messages are just placeholders Sign locations building still in question. These diagrams client or stakeholders elements occurs but sometimes of the sign types for initial list may contain more signs than are ultimately necessary. Interior directional signs Pedestrian circulation Escalators up to Orchestra level • Restroom 57 . it is necessary to create diagrams presentation purposes process. on the project. points. In the early stages of data entry. The case study on pages 58-59 shows the in the signage programming schedule. while the the kind of information sign type required at each point. Once all floors have been surveyed. when messages and locations are all confirmed. is not yet fully detailed until copy is finalized. the later work. To avoid problems the designer survey a building to become completely familiar programming. Using a coding system to assign a sign type the designer also enters the actual a word or a phrase-associated with each sign. generate one. the requirements of the sign system come into focus. Typically.

sign elevations.SIGN-PROGRAMMING These examples typify types... Al A2. Red and blue highlights two signs in the group are represented in the different :8 u "' o c " -' 111 C Sign Elevations These are elevation drawings of selected sign types in the program (lD=ldentification): . "' c o u c s c i.. CASE STUDY documents a list of sign schedule. and track how List of Sign Types This list is broken down into the categories of signs: identification (lD). directional.1 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 AB A9 A10 All Bl B2 B3 B4 B5 Cl C2 C3 C4 C5 Primary station ID-facade mount Primary station entrance ID-overhead wall mount Station arrivallD-post mount Location ID-post mount Bus berth ID-canopy mount Window ID-overhead wall mount RoomID-wall mount Closet ID-wall mount Egressstair ID-door and wall mount RestroomID-wall mount Amenity ID-flag mount Directional-wall mount Directional-overhead wall mount Directional-overhead ceiling mount Directional-canopy mount Directional-strap mount Station regulatory-silk screen Regulatory-door mount Regulatory-post mount Regulatory-strap mount Regulatory-wall mount sign-programming a sign-message created for a small urban bus terminal: plan.II) C C >- "' c:: I' A6 WindowlD A9 Egressstair ID A10 Restroom ID All Amenity10 / \ / \ \ / \ Bl Directional / B4 Directional B5 Directional B2 Directional 58 ..II) c " ~ '" c " "' c 3: i. and regulatory.II) Vi 111 E Vi Vl OJ A3 Station arrivallD A4 Location ID >i. a slgn-location contexts.

~~"~_~.962 Sign-location Plan Below is the ground-floor of the bus terminal. S2-Pl C5 A7 112 si-sr . 'wailmount" Small entrance ID Overhead wall mount Regulatory SeeA1..!. Sign-message Schedule To the left is an excerpt of the sign-message schedule. number (actual sign location).' . Wollmount SeeAl.._ See Al. messages (actual sign text).·...~~~?~~. .L overhead ceiling mount Directional SeeAl.r.I..C.~~h~a. S9 . remarks (sign type and mounting information).~~ ."'.~'iima~'nT .i···'·········. and reference (page number in drawing package of sign 51 Sl-Pl _~!.962 It shows several records in a SeeAl.~~~~~~.Tc. _..962 82 C5 A2.~~~_~~ .~.sign type number side/panel arraw messages remarks Directional reference See Al.:erheadwaii.2 Cl 82 83 105 106 107 108 109 110 si-si Sl-Pl Sl-Pl 1- Exit to Water Street Passenger Pick-up Area (Regulator Message TBD) "o. 113 si-si (Room numberTBD) (Identification Message TBD) [Braille) See At.962 . and a line connects that box to the sign's location on the plan... These are the headings and descriptions of the data fields used to record information: sign type (reference code of actual sign type).~~. side/panel (side or panel with message).····. plan Each sign type and number is noted in a box..~!~~_~.._ Screen printed 111- Exit to Water Street Passenger Pick-up Area Ticketing/Information Waiting Hall Elevator to Train & Ferry Exit to Water Street Stair to Train & Ferry (Regulatory Message TBD) O:.962 1- Bridgeport Bus Station Connector Entrance (Station Open Hours Message TBD) database format.'. ..962 si-si ~~...962 illustration).~}!~5!!~~.

directions to the primary the districts. and the three lower floors that function as connectors.: "0 :. . signs pointing ro provide elevator to upper- "0 floor destinations mark the individual and directional within the district . and other visitors navigate the horizontal connectors of the hospital. On the connector. exam rooms) floors.. names. This case study shows on key sign types in the medical center. RntThre. and colors that are used to code the different buildings depicted in the hospital is below. the color codes. Connector Roo. • Other rooms (offices) telephones) to hold a different Each sign type has been designed oJ> E oJ> Vl E category of message in specific places. all destinations plaques..: >- . I = Fegan = Teal concurrently. Wayfinding with Districts and Connectors The experienced wayfinding designer plans the sequence messages find the of signs in a space and crafts understandable for these signs so that visitors destinations oJ> can successfully they are seeking. • Primary destinations destinations blood donor) rooms. (meeting as follows: is organized The Hospital Buildings The diagram above shows the five principal hospital buildings. the number of • The five buildings • Secondary Coding the Buildings The system of symbols. hierarchically Wayfinding (districts) (admitting.. signs help patients.~ Vl 'E E e c: employs their three lower floors as connectors all these buildings. • Public services (restrooms. direct people along the connectors to one of the districts.s c: a: ro til) floor. e ro as color-coded information o u . how the messages are displayed c: ~ u "0 o signage program for a complex academic The system for Children's wayfinding principal strategy hospital buildings Hospital that designates Boston is based on a the five interconnected districts and to link o ..: ro c: c: . hospital destinations. ~ I Fish . staff.it I Boat = Bader = Green ~'I Moon rooms with a system of identification = Main = Purple Overhead Directional Signs To Bader elevators Floor level To main elevators To Farley/ Pavilion elevators To Fegan elevators To Hunnewell elevators The three connector floors of the hospital have overhead directional signs that guide people to individual buildings and their elevators as well as to primary destinations and services. 60 . Teal background color informs that "Outpatient Blood Drawing" is in Fegan All service symbols are on silver background color families.. directories on that provide Within to Finally. "Lobby/Exit" for Exit to street ~ I Hat = Hunnewell = Red >til) c: ..Children's Hospital Boston. This flow of information on signs will help to guide people's wayfinding process into stages: First.

_ - _.. Princlpl'" Epllapsy and Clinical Nauraphyalology 1 Radiology Radlologl. 0=__ =. . -.... there are wall-mounted signs that list and building names.0=__ =.. FarfIYV Pavilion FarlayJPavlllon Elovatoll Outpatlant Cardiology Progra ..._ -_ _ . Clttllr'.... -+ Alc.co -+ Alc.... public services..mo Cudl... primary and secondary destinations.torfe is located appears at the top along with its symbol and floor number." ___ ===...-. 0 .... ._..I. c-.. • "'- 0=::=.alora Bada.nlorll d. 0 __ ..EI. ... o=-_ -.... PV 605 FE 605 HU 605 MA 605 FA= Farley PV= Pavilion or room number in Braille.. . .__..mal de C...:._ .~~:... Building abbreviation Room number SA 605 BA= Bader Braille Room-identification Plaques The top portion of all room plaques is color coded according to the building's designated color and indicates the name of the department FA 605 .r ~::. EI.. M.d~II~I:PII' v Alclnlor .'k.......-.. =:. visitors consult the elevator directory to locate 0=::... MA= Main 61 .. Royal blue is the Dr.Floor level Building name Destinations Wall-mounted Directionals Throughout Elevator symbol the hospital at and decision major intersections directional points....m Brldgato Brigham & 0=__ =.. & Women'........ a.. Cardiac Calbarizatlon Lab Laboratorio d. When they reach that floor..... o=--_ Fegan Elevator Elevator Directories Once they arrive at a desired elevator bank.. .. The two-letter abbreviation is a special code that refers FE= Fegan to the building where the sign is located. =--.d.. Heveran HU= Hunnewell standard base color for all sign plaques... The name of the building where the sign -+ AsClnSOtll d. .- the level they need.. alora Hunnawall Hunnewell g:~~!lr.. the secondary wall directionals will lead them to their final destination.~.... Ambul..........rdlologl... _ ...... Progt.·:':o~p:r~:'h.nlorll d.

"0 .l Overhead Sign on the Connector (above) This simplified overhead sign displays just the building symbols and colors as well as major nearby services. along the connector. building names. 62 . Signage Lobby Sign (left) The letter G at either end of this large overhead sign in the main lobby indicate the ground-floor location. Identification Sign (right) X-ray An overhead sign identifies the outpatient department in primary Purple (English) and secondary (Spanish) languages. indicates the department's location in the Main building. A large 1 indicates the first· floor location. and arrows in colorcoded boxes direct visitors to III ~ ...l >c: "0 <0= c: >c: '" 3: "0 '" c: '" 0: c: c: I>I. Symbols. '" o _. c: the actual building locations. '" ~ c: c: c: I>I. wall directionals found guide visitors to buildings and major destinations directional location.. A wall header indicates Farley/Pavilion the flrst-floor o u Vi III ~ E III U'l I>I..Children's Hospital Boston.l c: Directlonals on the Connector (below) Overhead signs direct visitors to buildings.

the signs Act federal court system to which he or she belongs. it is Yale University building identification as a guide to creating messages for is the best approach.. way to communicate and make everyone feel welcome. with Disabilities the name of the university. to more complex situations ficationand directional-sign and then move in the identi- case studies that follow. and school shield. for quick messaging. and the room name and number.UNDERSTANDING SIGN CONTENT The programming requires answering of sign locations and messages Where are How process? In many name. specific questions: people going? Where do they need information? can verbal signs help the wayfinding cases drafting recording a room's function the sign message is simply a matter of or its occupant's In others. it is a more complex matter of anticipating needs and interpreting For complicated finding strategy signs. ~ . situations the designer uses the waysymbols are cities.. the judge's name and title.3). Planning sign is critical when there are several that require a number of inforgives treatment often critical that signs be bilingual.. name (primary . Interior information must also conform to the Americans (ADA) requirements (see chapter 4. The location mation on the sign and its typographic hierarchy to the message. message.-b' - . The large exterior sign for a museum usually displays just the name of the institution-MoMA for example. (below) in a federal courthouse. multicultural American Selective transto minority In truly to this the address. signs have to be designed side by side.a1~ I . MESSAGES ON IDENTIFICATION Identification signs are the simplest SIGNS such as for an office-identification and most obvious QNS. environments. ~ _" .- ~j. I Courthouse MoMA QNS site identification identification room United States District Court 4B office Courthouse identification 63 . of layers of information: sign type. The courthouse roorn-ldentificatlon plaque (below) is a simple interior sign stating just the room name and number and a simple regulatory information hierarchies levels of content. first look at simple examples. To understand as illustrated carry the two languages process. A building University the building identification campus indicates or department sign for the Yale message). Simplicity great shorthand In increasingly lation is a powerful populations bilingual communication requirements.

-I"_ I~ "0 '" ~ c: >- -1f~l~ GnIrIk:IIGnoo\ow._'ri~I-~ ... The sixth-floor (left) lists the clinics on that floor and cross-references them to the address codes. and so on. S for the different sometimes combining quite complex. Seating in large stadiums and performance odd and even seats.= c: bI) """... .. More detailed naming and patient appears on the on pages 50-51. (Gates range from A through Orienting communicate seating sections to the bases is an easy way to in the language of baseball: venues is often divided Gate B falls near Third Base. Bold perpendicular flag signs (above left) at each clinic's door display its address. codes were developed the individual ten-floor HI General Hospital's Vi bI) clinics in the The names clinics are building. . "0 '" s c: t: MESSAGES ON DIRECTIONAL SIGNS Other identification outpatient Massachusetts General Hospital suite ID o u c: c: signs rely on different address for strategies to define their content..J c: Are Here indicator ballpark conventions points out the location of Gate B.. is color coded to indicate the levels of seating. 6A. .:: E III >- cialty with the donor name.) for instance. As Massachusetts General Hospital floor directory guide people to specific destinations destinations. signage needs to help people find their seat among the thousands conventions in the stadium quickly.= '" a: c: c: '" bI) glass next to the door. Montgomery park. 6C. The the familiar u '" o signage engages fans by referencing of baseball parks to help them find their way. The orange and E in this stadium. into sections of a plan blue are the team colors that appear on the sign for Gate B. the medical spedirectory III ~ Vl "0 <.....r.. A number of that define ballpark seating determined top) shows how a simple Shea Stadium gate identification 64 . signs primarily or clusters of An example from College (opposite information discussed directional """""'H~ . An identification necessarily sign for Shea Stadium (right) is In a large baseball very different. The You ·3 ...--.. At Massachusetts building. ..• the elements of the Shea Stadium sign.. 6B... To further III clarify the location..

CJ) Metro 1 Block 10 Chicago Park District pedestrian directional 65 .Baltimore Arena Convention Center Hopkins Plaza Inner Harbor Mechanic Theatre l' G Light Rail 3 Blocks t. Handstand l' West Side Center Plaza t.exterior sign can direct vehicular buildings on campus. Pedestrian (bottom Park District destinations: locations. Baltimore The area is a symbol and message point the way to the different No strategies The wayfinding divided system for downtown (below) has several layers of information. Context often offers cues to the right method. a distinctive each named and assigned A symbol is color: The area markers for the Mount District are burgundy-colored. traffic to different signs for the Chicago to various right) provide directions sign panels shaped as long arrows with here. cal strategies understandable solution logiclear and usually presents itself. into several districts. to nearby publicand divided into two sections: destinations facilities. The panel with directions and to other districts. and with some reflection. For complex environments. the blue area has directions the green area gives directions is the best approach to planning the appropriate messages Montgomery College vehicular directional for signs. just directions. wayfinding system is mounted to Vernon Cultural for the downtown the district-marker to individual transportation Simplicity panel. provide a guide to designing messages when the task of wayfinding ~ ~ Fieldhouse Conservatory : : rvllnlature Athletic Coif Hclds seems overwhelming.



This above all: to thine own self be true, And it must follow, as the night the day, Thou canst not then befalse to any man.

Strong brands drive today's consumer economy. Companies routinely invest huge amounts of time and creative resources to develop a vocabulary that familiarizes consumers with their products and services. Branding fosters awareness, enthusiasm, loyalty, and participation. In recent years branding has also been embraced by cities, cultural organizations, and institutions not traditionally associated with this kind of marketing approach. As brand concepts become richer, complex, and more broadly applied, designers' skills and strategies require greater sophistication. Environmental graphics and wayfinding design have become powerful tools to help build or enhance both public and private brands, from universities and oil companies to civic downtowns and modern Olympiads.
LEARN ABOUT How environmental graphic systems can build brands, create identities, and establish a sense of place


Before branding strategies became ubiquitous, a memorable most marketing logotype as the Even today a logo of a corporate emphasized

mainstay of an identity-design is often the most important or product identity. for instance,

project. expression

One glance at the Coca-Cola logo, of a cold drink after a hot day. campaigns have reinforced

is enough to evoke the brown soda's fizz

and bite or the sensation Decades of advertising curvaceous

iconic images of the classic bottle and the signature graphic swash. Color conveys equally powerful and specific The rich the ring or associations. & Co. suggests imminent were so influential transcended that the Burma-Shave trademark its association with men's brushless

shaving cream and became a code word in the sign trade for an installation in sequence. of signs or messages that run

robin's egg blue of Tiffany presentation

of an engagement

some other precious object. A bag, box, or catalog in this signature automatically prospect billboard color raises the

of a luxury gift. Do It-

There was a time in the late 1990s when an ad or needed just three simple words-Just to mean Nike. The campaign of other futuristic essential that enthusiasts for Air Jordans and scores

running shoes made them seem so flocked to the bright new Nike of the chain

stores in droves, driving a rapid expansion throbbing destinations marketplaces

Environmental with wayfinding an existing graphic designers for a client's face different scenarios when they consider how to integrate project. brand strategy or identity branding

in cities across the United States and abroad. These quickly became exciting urban where fans grooved on images of their

In some cases must be applied fonts, colors, or "signature"

heroes while trying on the latest sportswear. Consumers in a simpler era needed only a painted sign on the side of a barn describing to prompt a visit to the country Pouch tobacco. of Burma-Shave white-on-red Families traveling their favorite brand the store for a tin of Mail by car through

to a new sign program. The client provides guidelines for using an existing symbols, brand elements, logo, verbiage, and any other proprietary and the designer

must determine to apply these to for adjustments or three-

United States in the 1930s enjoyed the "experience" signs along their route. These familiar as a procession of signs were installed

when and where it is appropriate or substitutions. dimensional

signage and make recommendations layout schemes are not suitable applications, argue for changes or additions

If certain messages, fonts, colors, or for large-scale the designer may need to to the brand strategy

four, five, or six messages. One would appear, then another, playfully was rough/His leading to the punch line: "His cheek now she won't/ These campaigns chick vamoosed/And

Come home to roost/Burma-Shave."

and palette to keep signage in compliance.


bO The stores mirror the project would. Apple stores have become a remarkable enduring products: large-scale popularity and entertainment phenomenon. support Shoppers '" c landscape This broader involvement. involves a more diverse client team than a discrete signage-design marketing. usually starts Though building as environmental for a place or newly of a place an identity at the Genius Bar or consult with a Creative at but the overall effect is one of effortless bO -c '" c the Studio for help. This process usually management. shapes. the neutral white interiors tech gallery setting for a product message and the medium.• in other cases the designer creates a new brand identity in tandem with a new wayfinding situation elements program. al e with a logo. inside. either preexisting wayfinding branding minted. contributing to the line of computer Featuring a without signage and allows the designer to create a more holis- tic brand experience. 70 .: <II c tion to people representing architecture. a complete more substance. materials. also demonstrate how a place or experience orable. E harder and more expensive more widely adopted to manage. Apple Stores the This clean-slate is optimal because it ensures that all branding will be coordinated rebranding with Architecture and attitude express the brand Since they first opened in 2001. and programs and not Comprehensive in messages. Representing envia brand and a variety of mem- clients and settings. folds c program offers much forms. simplicity and minimalism. of the company's products. Well-conceived only define a space but also make coherent for customers or visitors.. While subsequent explain specific wayfinding can be made uniquely this section will in greater design elements detail. the stores boldly announce themselves words. and communications design. including facilities. these studies show how all the parts fit together. smart.. facade. Each gesture is carefully and executed. in either case the designer should think of the merger of way finding and branding placemaking. can result in a as well as a more line that is both the can seek technical designed -c '" c:: c u brand strategy coherent and unified public image. elegant. and user friendly. it appealing bO ~ '" 3: >- HOW DOES BRANDING WORK? The case studies that follow show how effective ronmental establishing graphics can be in supporting these strategies chapters in a sense of place. wayfinding media as well as human factors like staff presence or 'iii <II o -c c bO appearance.. departments in addiand while Apple logo simply placed at the center of the present a high- :.

a quicker fix with huge publicity Express. certification starts with the logo-a sunflower-and extends to the company's and dollars to African AIDS victims. identity the that for oil. This notion of branding with a conscience and-yellow public-relations and sustainability. In a matter of months. of rock star Bono and his partners on their products (RED) is the brainchild The purpose of the licensed. the list of partners Gap." Product red-color to attract policies. and one of the largest gas retailers Though still primarily highlights its support (RED) Campaign Global branding for a cause celebre An offshoot Americans colleagues.6). such as a free concert in London's Trafalgar Square celebrating a new Motorola phone product. and message about environmental company advertising. business. for LEED gas station in Los Angeles made of recycled the first ever to be to be submitted in the United States (see chapter 3. a striking. stations "green" commissioned aluminum. and selling it in the oil-and-gas of the environment. value. PROOUCT(REO) 71 . and green living. logo-used of the ONE Campaign that hopes to unite "to help make poverty history. advertising. by corporate company has created a complementary alternative greenvalues BP also in exchange for 50 percent of the profits-is consumer attention (RED) is intentionally included While ONE focuses on influencing long-term energy sources. refining it. American permeating and Emporio Armani. Apple Computer. events. products.BP The oil company with a different voice BP is the world's second-largest business of drilling company in the in the United States. People began to see (RED) everywhere. These colors pervade the gas and dominate the design of Helios House.

of course. on Collegiate branding Brooklyn 0: ""0 u to prestige.Yale University Campus wayfinding and brand expression Yale University relies on simple yet powerful graphic Yale devices to express its prestigous brand." CII to welcome visitors. identity. one for signage applications program. becomes a multipurpose and fosters goodwill and folded sign profile. a striking and informative presents a more maps express the brand.:: ""0 Cl bIl c: . center surrounded destination. So-called Downtown Brooklyn Pedestrian wayfinding and borough branding Brooklyn used to be one of the largest cities in the a remarkable transformation in the The by United States. c: 'iii CII bIl .: >- 3: to 72 . As part of a campaign Matthew :.< to to unify all university communications. . the borough has undergone old Brooklyn residential called past decade since its downtown was a commercial neighborhoods.. the family of coats of arms is another.. urban center while Brooklyn. Now part of New York City. the architectural buildings. The Downtown wayfinding directly program "Yale Street. and. with several developed take Carter created a typeface including The wayfinding further Today. supports the image of is coming to be known as a significant where some twelve neighborhoods and commerce. The signpost Yale's important design is a contemporary unites these neighborhoods of Downtown c: Gothic. c: to A cheeky abbreviated directions. was revitalized. Downtown intermix Brooklyn c: E bIl variations. the famous name itself. tool through a into a cohesive and walkable the identity logotype. bent useful to bIl Sign panels present the main also enhancing c: ""0 devices: name. institutional campus. business more pedestrian Blue is one of these tools. an idiosyncratic color palette. color.:I:i In this case wayfinding that reinforces welcoming more accessible environment. style of many of and shield. typeface.

graphic prompts and other signals can confirm that they've actually arrived. This concept applies to wayfinding because environments and signage must be designed with the user in mind. That's why branding today is a multidisciplinary pursuit that goes much deeper than just creating an effective logotype and a memorable tag line. The practice of branding an environment to feel distinctive is also known as placemaking.---------------------------------------------------------. and who have better first and last impressions.that matters.Presbyterlan Hospital. Apple's popular iPod and iPhone are good examples of experience design because they invite the user to listen. and landscaping together reinforce the institutional identity and express a specific sense of place. When they approach the site. including the public face presented by staff and their working environment. Coordinated symbols. For instance. Today. particularly universities and hospitals here in the east. the American Civil Uberties Union. Just as the discipline of branding supplanted identity design some time ago. and Columbia University. an expert In publtc-tnterest branding and Information design. otherwise the visitor experience is just about getting lostl Some institutions. names.------------------------------------------~ ~ ~ The Design Strategist Branding is all about the ability of an enterprise to successfully deliver on promises made to the public. Anyenterprise that pays careful attention to every detail ofthe customer experience will have visitors who are happier. from the native food served in the cafeteria to the stone selected for the building. Ihelp institutions communicate with constituents who come to their campus or facility by developing comprehensive visitor-service programs. communicate. mission. The best branding programs take advantage of every opportunity to identify the enterprise represented and articulate its core values. Effective branding addresses all aspects of corporate or institutional culture. and interact with them. How does wayfinding relate to branding? As a design strategist. Sylvia Harris. These clients need to understand that anything visitors experience or encounter should express their brand. where everything a visitor encounters is appropriate and coordinated. Is well-known for her leadership of the 2000 Census redesign and cornmunications strategies for NewYork. a website is a particularly important branding tool because it helps people form an impression about a place before they actually visit it. architecture. Cultural venues are way ahead ofthe curve-a perfect example is the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of the American Indian (left). signage. of being somewhere in particular. experience design is the next important professional specialization that has evolved to help enterprises differentiate themselves. and offerings. 73 . colors. are a little reticent about embracing contemporary strategies such as branding and experience design. whether they come in the form of a guarantee of a high-quality product or a first-class education. but most appreciate the need to emulate practices that are standard in the commercial world.

also beautiful and memorable. A HISTORY OF LETTERING Looking at the evolution of environmental graphic design over the past four decades. presents complex transit information with precise.2 AND LAYOUT TYPOGRAPHY 3• A letter has no fixed shape. the simplest and boldest of typographic statements. LEARN ABOUT ? The elements of good typography • 74 for wayfinding . it becomes obvious that great typography dominates many successful projects. and this exists in the mind. Signage for the Berlin subway system. elegant clarity. The monumental sign for the Talleyrand Office Park is iconic. NICOLETE GRAY. it does not even have a skeleton shape. it has identity. Equally dramatic is the innovative facade of the Lucent Technologies Center for Arts Education at the New Jersey Performing Arts Center-the transformation of a conventional early-twentiethcentury school building into one gigantic mural of text.

accent marks and characters on the language. all of these considerations the foundation statement. strong. still visible on thousands monuments. Excelling at type layout for signage requires the ability to prioritize hierarchies based on time-tested Experience and training a good eye for proportion information into logical Roman inscription rules of typography. Carefulletterform typography can make all the or Egyptian hieroglyphics design and expressive between one. having an innate talent for evaluating ARCHITECTURAL LETTERING EVOLVES that land- The earliest evidence of way finding design survives today in the form of architectural identify buildings and monuments marks or destinations. pictographs. and panel layout. Romans created the forerunner A Roman inscription mark intended using a unique written Europe. a journey through produced religious teachings. fact. A skilled typographertypesetter-weaves all today the term refers to a designer who works with type rather than an independent these elements process involving a place more accessible. bet. ten numbers. The excellence- scale.six letterforms. These "signs" The ancient Egyptian by artisans to communicate civic messages or ruling classes Mayan glyphs to celebrate the accomplishments During the classical of our alphaand of public buildings of royalty and their dynasties. color. in English. preted in context. graphics so appealIn or also how it is intercome into play. and to rally the subjects narratives the detailed and mirrors the curvilinear sacred knowledge of a vast empire. the lettering complements recording is bold. Mayans illustrated 75 . an outstanding delivering a mediocre solution The designer's punctuation depending basic typographic tool kit consists and necessary of twenty. In on tombs inside Gothic cathedrals tracery of the architecture calligraphy of the monks in the Middle Ages. into a tapestry typeface of messages that make letterform scaling. Likewise. or materials? designer who strives for typographic can elevate otherwise something ly associated difference of a classic graphic design educationmundane signing into an iconic instantly recognizable and close- with a specific place.What makes these environmental ing? Just the choice of typeface. period. clear-an indelible of conquest and power on their temples and stelae language and number system. form. used hieroglyphics inscriptions as important The legacy of carved letterand imagery is a story unto itself. He or she follows a multistep selection. were time and space. letterforms or help build these skills. but does not hurt. forms.

It type was often integrated the building intended fabric. when tall increasingly cacophony it was audience. the sign of a mer- shaped early skyscrapers.. facilities By the late twentieth rapidly and demand for comprehensive increasingly systems grew. sprawled directional Sign and extraordinary century. cities became an extraordinary within. Today. them from scratch to reflect the style of the decade and tastes of the owner.. with the rise of the era in Europe and North for The teeming midand civic signs competed public spaces. distinguishes programs to communicate public events. clearly 'Vi b/) modern capitalist attention industrial systems not only need wayfinding public information o b/) America. for wayfinding This chapter guides the typefaces designer through the process of selecting signage and using them successfully. During the first half of the twentieth corporate buildings moguls commissioned and architects century. an eyesore at the time. often forcing the designs to fit a given space. now typographic century urban streetscape American signs plastered of New York and other large catalog of offering ing creative opportunities. commercial c: " . across the facades of buildings Their letterforms letterers drew instead commercial advertisi ng the enterprises were rarely uniform. . complemented architectural style of the often with powerful results. directly onto facades or incorporated and other on This the detailing and interiors. corporations. or transportation and directly. Visitors required sophisticated ever graphic Signals and prompts to find their way through larger and more complex By the nineteenth c: <1> century. Though this typographic may seem a visual feast to today's considered cantile society run amok.. "" 3: ttl c: in the public landscape. cities. but also to express a brand image that them from the competition. options are limitless. Signage but excit- demands may have become more complicated. Names for permanence into were either inscribed into metalwork decorative exteriors lettering buildings.

fonts now numbering for most sign otherwise trained graphic designers COURTHOUSE Bembo of about a dozen "acceptable" of cultural loaded With type eye to and personal computers Evolving tastes. Helvetica. students a university. in the thousands. Museum Avenir 1053 Valuta font that is both appropriate & Caston y'. RESTAURANT Apex New Hoefler the wayfinding designer has to develop an even more discerning balance issues of form versus function. designer or diners to a restaurant? instinctively understands experienced typographic requirements of a project and selects a and communicative.eat Ziggurat it will be used: Will it appear on a carved inscription. Ziggurat the designer and suggest Meta When Bembo seems traditional. Classically relied on a vocabulary typefaces. is playful. was used almost exclusively systems.CHOOSING A TYPEFACE The beginning of the design process is the time to expand select the appropriate It is difficult typeface to imaglore type families to suit a specific site and context. ine today that in the 1960s and '70s a single typeface. must consider how board. or on The the A_usem. appears crisp and modern. the broadening with digital type soon changed everything. Typefaces have specific personalities certain associations: selecting a typeface. on an illuminated a map? Will it guide drivers on a highway.~iversity Freeway Highway Gothic Requiem INSTITUTE Bell Gothic BOTANICAL GARDEN Transportation Meta BALLPARK Fairplex Via log 77 . as dimensional through letters. and social perspectives.

" LETTERFORMS ON SIGNS Individualletterforms are the basic units of the wayfinding equation... it is useful to identify the key elements of letterforms. Before diving into the discussion of typography for wayfinding signage. >- 3: n! 78 . Serif letterforms 'S o n! Sans serif letterforms Ascender Cap height Counter space ><:: n! " J:: 0n! -' >- X·height bo o ~ 0- Baseline ·iii <:: bO OJ o bO <:: "C Descender <:: ..

and backlighting a sign can play havoc with the interior spaces of letterforms. and even the spacing between punctuation marks.--------------------------------------~ r-=!J ~ The Type Designer Legibility relies as much on the application of a typeface as it does on the design of the individual letters. In the case of Radio City. where environmental factors come into play. Contemporary fonts must be meticulously designed if they are to reproduce this level of craftsmanship without active involvement from a designer. Although creating a custom font for a signage program can be impractical. we ask for two types of feedback from the client or designer who represents them. an upper.~--~----~------------~----~--------------------------------. numbers. one very narrow and the other very wide. or better yet. as if capital letters are somehow sturdier or saferl The reality is that lowercase letters are essential for text readability because they produce more distinctive word shapes. Letterspacing was more of an art thirty years ago. which addresses all the practical aspects ofthe project. It was a true restoration project. Almost every signage project starts with the client. Before designing a typeface for wayfinding purposes. more importantly. A single sans serif may be useful for a handsome sign prototype for which you can cherry-pick the copy. but it's difficult to measure Scientifically. they actually rely on subtle variations of it in order to present a unified typographic voice for different contexts and sign material choices. Although many sign systems appear to use only a single font. color (varying tones of gray formed by the texture of the type). Is best known for the Hoefler Text family oftypefaces. indoor public spaces often need illuminated signs. We test our designs in a variety of situations in order to examine mechanics-consistency. The second.and lowercase highway sign can often be read even when a bridge or other obstacle obscures the top half of the line. president of Hoefler & Frere·Jones. even obscure pairs. systematic typeface that meets Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)requirements. and then caps to lowercase. ourtypeface design for Radio City Music Hall was inspired by the art deco signage that is unique to this site. The first is emotional or psychological. The challenge was to capture the spirit of the original lettering in a contemporary. which is especially important in signage. In 2002 he received the prestiqtous Prix Charles Pelgnot award from the Assoctatton Typographlque Internatlonale (ATypl). pick a typeface that plans ahead. often an architect. In the end we drew two fonts. but the original artists never designed a full alphabet. lowercase to lowercase. and other missing characters. we take pride in figuring out every possible letter combination in advance. requesting an all-uppercase solution. Legibility is certainly paramount. For instance. such as photostats pasted on cardboard or letters mounted on walls. Ilove handmade letters in part because good artisans have always understood both the micro perspective of lettering and the macroperspective of words. as do less glamorous signs like elevator indicators. some projects still demand it. A signage program that's mated to printed communications requires even more typographic versatility. This historic precedent was very helpful. when the alphabets used by designers existed solely as physical artifacts that had to be carefully applied to specific media. nothing surpasses the envisioning of a holistic typographic concept for a specific situation where lettering is totally integrated with a design. A well-designed typographic system lets the font do the heavy lifting: any need for manual intervention points to a problem with the font itself. but it doesn't anticipate a later need to introduce secondary text or distinguish one type of sign from another. This can add up to an extraordinary number of possible combinations: 676 for capital letters alone. double-blind legibility study. I have yet to see a really scientific. What wayfinding designers ignore at their own peril is considering the breadth of a type family. in order to allow for words of different lengths to be set on signs of a given size. My advice in picking a typeface for wayfinding is to try to plan ahead. For instance. r rJ" 79 . to make sure they will mesh properly. which designers tend to ignore. For the type destqner. peer-reviewed. As a response we created a font based on these handmade fragments and added punctuation. the extant letters were so marvelous that building upon them was too good an opportunity to pass up. such as what qualities characterize the client's organization. Kerning is a good case in potnt. is technical. designed for Apple. like y and q. Jonathan Hoefler. and fit.

The most basic differentiation is serif versus sans serif letterforms...... . The ADA regulations require letters and numbers on signs to have a width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke width-to-height between 1:10 and 1:5._.. Jenson Serif Frutiger Sans Serif Slab Serif r n 1f.consciously illustrative or eclectic.. Slab serif fonts are a subset of serif types distinguished by bold. Two characteristics of affect the legibility I:. Serif extensions at the end of a stroke are the legacy of the chisel mark and the swash of the calligraphic brush.CATEGORIES OF TYPEFACES The inventory of typefaces is now so large that it is difficult to even categorize all the fonts available.. ~ >- of messages: the height of the lowercase letterforms._ 'iIi or passengers in moving cars. geometric endings on the letterforms-an evolution of popular nineteenth-century letterforms. Geometric Jcripb Snell Roundhand 7}p Raceway Legibility Issues Because sign age must often be read at a distance by c:: pedestrians walking quickly legibility is b/) ::Eltgfi~x~lj"e iytlt Dax .. letterform wayfinding important letterforms o '" c:: =:. Decorative letterforms are self.. or x-height. which have unembellished stroke endings. and the openness of the voids inside the letters.... ratio width hI 80 . Sans serif letterforms. b/) critical to the success of a program. or counter spaces. Script typefaces mimic hand-drawn cursive letters.. P_. matured in the early modern era in reaction to traditional styles...OW::=X~:_:eTg _t-·-==::::=::::::=:=~:: :0 c:: Futura b ·b .. . Open counter space Akzidenz Tight counter space Via log Americans with Disabilities Act Compliance The ADA defines parameters for selecting typefaces to ensure that they are readable for people with compromised vision.D_~t I"·_'I1I.

_._=t:".. """~"" ".. The is just that.~. UPPERCASE Title Case SMALL CAPS Caslon HTF30 HTF33 HTF50 HTF53 HTF68 HTF70 HTF73 Knockout 81 . countless subtle of stroke weight and width make it perfect for a type message into place or setting. Univers is a good example of a welldesigned typeface that offers many different contemporary variations fitting individual font Knockout weights and letter types.~. ._ .. _.~2_. _.... _'m~'" Aligning: Frutiger _ '"'' . weight.. ".. .. Both serif and sans serif fonts sometimes variations.y"U"y. making them excellent choices for designs that need a classical or traditional look._~ The Numerals There are two basic kinds of numerals: aligning and old style. such as Cas lon. .~. where messages often appear in different settings and scales...~. This is particularly important for wayfinding sign age.. but old-style figures can add a lyrical quality to a design as the numbers move above and below the x-height datum lines. and width. offer these Old-style: Garamond.. have a short lowercase xheight and offer small caps and old-style numerals..." ..' ...~ ]-2'-3--Jr-5]6-'1'--S' __ __~ __ . Old Style Old-style: Scala Sans Aligning: Jenson ···1···· ···_··-2······-3-·/I·-S····_L_··Z···-g-n-o·· "_ Choosing a Versatile Type Family Examine a type family to see how much variation it offers in terms of slant. ~. a particular 55 Roman 65 Bold 75 Black 55 Oblique 57 Condensed 53 Extended Univers Certain faces..~ '-"'9""--0" .. Aligning numbers are the norm.

th bI) designer must then deside its size r::: . for narrative the relative sizes of letterforms driving. walking. Driving letters are large enough to be 2-3" minimum seen by drivers looking for directions Several factors affecting vehicular signage.. and tested letterforms effect in busy urban 82 . for from distance public spaces. Walking messages on city streets or in interior or information.. must be studied during the design process.:: >- '" 3: 4-5" minimum understand environment. such as the viewer's Read 1/2" Letters appear at 50 percent of actual size these scale decisions the sign and driving speed. Environment are superscaled streetscapes for maximum or on highways.. --' -0 '" >'" o r::: 12" and up '" >-g_ '" ~ o ~ Co TYPE· SIZE AND ARRANGEMENT Establishing lettering r::: tHe correct scale and arrangement of design.. flexible enough to accommodate without looking confusing a ypeface.. used for text and captions paragraphs letters are of a size suitable that guide pedestrians Reading letters are small enough to be on orlentatlon-rnap on interpretive for directional signs. for messages is key to good wayfinding The designer's 'iii CII o r::: -0 bI) goal is to make a sign system legib e and a series of messages Having selected or chaotic. and and kiosks or how they are used: reading.

. SPACING I SPACING Type with Symbols and Arrows Typographic messages either a or an arrow signage. what line breaks are necessary. helps to establish what size Is appropriate panels of a particular ·Engineerhlg_and=S~cJence. It is good between often incorporate symbol modifier for wayfinding important to establish scale relationships these elements to ensure that the graphic mark and type read as a seamless unit and convey Line Spacing or Leading Careful line spacing.:sl-'m--R' EST R ~--'_. raft & Design __C _me_erformingArts the intended message. _C_enter __ ~__Mint Museum of . ensures that a series of messages can be easily read and understood without wasting or compromising important appropriately. Greenleaf Hall I I ! longest message ~niversity Art Museum Smith Campus Center I Letter Spacing or rracklng __ ..-.. ~ .B_Johnson & Wales A_Uniyersity 111:lEVATO . a narrow stack of names. or distance between lines. the designer can Inventory all of the destination names and determine how the names will work on the signs. It is particularly in to group text ~. space. and where messages will need to be abbreviated. In this case two-line names are tightly line spaced (A) while the spaces between names (B) are just generous enough to differentiate entries without making the overall list too long. ~_.Line Length and Type Size The line length of messages can also Influence type size.Main Library . lettering This process for sign scale. 83 . For directional signs on a university campus or an urban wayflndlng program.

J. bIl <:: -0 <:: '" ~ >- University Signs This example shows two sign types within one wayfinding particular system. scaled appropriately for drivers. and the architectural Concert Hall Signs These nickel-plated signs with ~. The hall sign is modified identification FOUNJ)EIl~ .. guides visitors to major destinations. Hall identification Gallery directory .. TYPE DESIGN FOR SIGN PANELS Looking at actual examples stand the rationale is the best way to undera variety of Their typobranding for type layout on slgnage..- C. more modestly. viewing conditions... The Founders Box <:: bIl identification plaque provides 'Vi <II Q a large box number and... The layout of the sign is Univers typeface are both the university typographic building identification simple: the building name is flush left.l FOUNDERS BOX 24 Mr..JR<':1... elegant design to match the neoclassicism of the music hall. considerations. provide directions of destinations. They feature centered messages set in the typeface Requiem.. GALLERY graphic styling takes into account legibility. The gallery directory lists seating and services found on each level. Hairline rules with a decorative a distinct flourish separate the messages into hierarchy..-- 0. The and audiences. the donor's name in italics.. context panels shown on this spread represent venues.nJloJnl'8JJGtfIY LAURA TURNER CONCERT HALL FOUNDERS CIRCLE 'Mr. The blue color and the standards. Arrows to clusters Building identification and L-shaped rules. glass panels have a simple. Founders Box identification by the name of the seating level in all capital letters. The vehicular directional sign.. 84 .:. or lines. with the university symbol in the lower right....

Color banding and material changes differentiate fordifferent identification the backgrounds messages set in On the sign the park The bottom the Whitney typeface. Appropriate ballpark setting.B"LE~~~339 ~~~. sign highlights seating sections and + ~. either pedestrians destination or drivers. and information with an Park identification Pedestrian directional Vehicular directional the main panel area shows accompanying symbol-green symbols for parking and blue symbols for all others.~. The level· directional amenities. an advisory about closing time. part ofa large wayfinding with information. and amenities. Stadium Signs These sign panels.Park Signs These signs belong to a city. and the slogan. A color highlight and a baseball signal You Are Here.E 201-238 ~"L.~"E"N:~1~538 ---- + Ramp directional Level directional 85 . Each bottom band reinforces the park brand or identity.:~.~:~. of information: band presents four types symbols for available services. numbered seating. The rarnp-directional sign indicates the level and amenities ahead plus the way to the exit. The directional signs are similarly banded: The top displays an icon to indicate the audience. is a matrix Stair directory The stair directory that cues a level name to seating sections and amenities found there.~. they also display team branding and sponsorship identification. name is prominent.park sign system. city and park-system logotypes. program for including to the a baseball stadium.. are dense levels.

:~o ~.~. Just follow the Yellow Brick Road and you'll get to Emerald City! When environmental graphic design was an emerging discipline. LEARN ABOUT Using color as a powerful wayfinding tool . the color-coded pathways proved inadequate over time. In those days hospitals delineated colored paths on the floors of medical centers to define important routes around their facility. OF COLOR to ~mg"""hQt JOSEF ALBERS. designers must understand how to work with color on a case-by-case basis rather than relying on formulas. as a solution to the daunting challenge of hospital wayfinding. even misleading.~. Just as the wizard proved to be unimpressive. To produce effective wayfinding solutions. This chapter is not a primer about color theory or systems.3. the wayfinding strategy usually sold to hospitals was only slightly more sophisticated than the road so familiar to fans of The Wizard of Oz.tJ"'Y INTERACT/ON IU< "'~""Y color deceives continually. it simply addresses essential information about using color as a wayfinding tool.3 .

dedicated ice or a clear sky. for wayfinding Union Jack. chaotic vehicular green (go). sums up political color. greeting card pubDay (red (green and roll out a color calendar in sync St. but it can also be divisive. or a signal for the and medical aid. through. with seasons and holidays such as Valentine's and pink). and Christmas for the Empire State Building into the urban sky. Specific colors found the natural world have obvious symbolic bright red. the color of and interpretations of red and blue. color has come to be associated closely with politics. all kinds of problem solving and often choose color as the central organizing program. on the flag layout.• COLOR MEANING Colors are a fundamental greatly influence almost impossible designers part of everyday life and is withways for Switzerland Denmark our experience of the world-it to imagine visual perception evocative out them. cold. can change The red. complicated. This color shorthand Since the early twentieth Communist movement affiliation. yellow (caution/yield). for instance. Easter (pastels). and blue of our Stars and Stripes symbolize that glows with iconic colors to celebrate and special events-everything (lavender) Super Bowl victory the twentieth developed (sapphire but in the context of the ally. To make matters more of the Swiss century when American traffic color-signal vocabulary red cross on a white field turns it either into the flag of St. and red (stop). beacon holidays 2008 early in engineers to roadways. have taken this concept even further. century. George American Red Cross Nature is the source of some of our most primal relationships throughout associations: suggests with More recently. and even connect emotionally the latter idea seems abstract. people. impose order on increasingly The basic palette. Although there are association. elegant spire is an eye-catching white. from Gay Pride Day blue). cycles. Halloween Colors also signal cultural or patriotic nationalism. Color changes can also mark the passage of time. tant to realize that colors can mean different demographics. represents. suggests infinite variations temperature giances and rallies people. heat. Lighting designers The landmark's (black and orange). In the North American lishers and retailers marketplace. Americans mostly conservative) In the past few election and blue (Democratic. the color of fire and lava. minor layout variations what a color or color combination United States. Depending Canada. red has denoted While an actual Green political to environmental awareness and is an obvious and universal party now exists. on circumstances St. these colors stand for the United Kingdom. red). our former ruler and now longtime Switzerland. the term also stands for a global climate concern. depending navigate it is importhings or to a place. Although to different element of a wayfinding design Colors can help people identify. red and white can identify minor layout modifications to the New York Giants' spectacular Colors became fundamental a standardized or Denmark. the In the case of flags. is now used around the world for traffic 87 . Patrick's Day (green). while a pure light blue. representing arrival of humanitarian England. mostly allehave heard a lot about red states (Republican. George. Because people closely identify exploit them in powerful. ilberal). with colors.

these color standards form the basis for the American traffic signage system. Understanding these properties enables the designer to control a palette for legibility and to project the desired meaning. the primary color palette changes to red. indigo. green. when assembling an appropriate set of colors for coding purposes. Yellow Primary Green Secondary Or. Hue refers to color variation. The bottom set of three is not as successful. Overlapping these three primaries results in either natural or synthesized white light. violet-and that pairs of primary colors (red. orange. and value. For instance. it is helpful to pick colors of similar value so they fit together well as a set. the darker top band dominates the panel design. Value refers to its relative lightness or darkness. second. intensity.nge Red Tertiary ~SLOW ~ o Purple Secondary The Spectrum In this color spectrum. Hue selection usually three primary colors. while all three primaries together make black. Universally understood and applied. and yellow) produce secondary colors (purple.EXIT 88 . Colors are also distinguished by three properties: hue. the solid triangle points to the u COLOR TECHNOLOGY While color meaning informs wayfinding.REST ROOMS The three colors of the top sign are of similar value and work well together as a color set. as in any figure/field relationship. green. First. contrasting intensities differentiate between the type and panel colors. it is essential for designers to have a working knowledge of color mechanics beyond the basics. yellow. Color Values CONCOUR -7 SECTIONS f. blue. defined in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. In the case of projected rather than reflected light. Everyone is familiar with the classic rainbow spectrum defined by Sir Isaac Newton-red. White type sits 1 comfortably and legibly on all three.. Color intensity affects legibility: on a sign. green. and the dashed one marks the secondary colors. f. the overlay type does not read equally well on all three colors. blue.lights. such as pure redness or greenness. and orange). and blue. Intensity is the saturation or density of a color.nge Secondary o "0 CD STOP II CiO Blue Green Tertiary O. and influence safety by instantly conveying vital information to pedestrians and drivers alike.

(cyan.. test. specify exact colors for signage and other applications. magenta. and for other media. The most legible examples are those where there is more variation the intensity of the two colors between text and background. These color selections altered by tinting shades or tones) or by changing proportions in order to identify. and for print. The computer offers amazing ways to explore the riches such as instant access to color swatch of the spectrum. designers industry As a practical with lighting computer software and meaning or site's libraries and sophisticated color selection software. yellow. to use the computer's be further technology. and intensity. 89 . A designer familiar with these color and achieve the must be conversant color standards. and present. value. in PARKING NTRANCE affects a design's overall appropriateness for a given context-it function preferred is important choose colors that best represent will be able to fluidly manipulate results.. wayfinding organized System (PMS) is the most pertool for identifying vasive and comprehensive designers and context. Contrast -7 VALET MAIN E These examples show the irnpact of color intensity on legibility and contrast. matter. colors that a designer a building The Pantone Matching on the computer. Most are familiar with PMS numbers. choose special spot colors. black) process colors. It is also possible window to can creating lighter of CMYK color-spectrum (digitally by hue.

with translucent light during paint systems such as DuPont's for special outdoor applications. The Americans that there be a 70 percent contrast the designer needs to understand different materials and surfaces. To avoid any it is essential to get chips and color samples to ensure a perfect match. The designer must guarantee presented.Williams.:: ctJ btl -c c >- with vast color libraries 3': research and testing in actual or equivalent is essential to assess how proposed work. COLOR SELECTION How does a designer choose a single color when faced with all these choices? First. I ·iii cu btl What is the average day like at the project The sunny Once colors have been selected or created on the it is necessary to specify them for actual to signage. crisp day in San Francisco. tested. application way. recommends and field must contrast treatment the panels should be apparent from a distance. to fade more quickly. like red and black. also comes into play. later. colors will look and qualities. the designer moves to on site. narrow down hue combinations important essential that are appropriate context. The colors in each of these by a unique number system There are also specialized Imron line. the characteristics whether of designs. consider two other and legibility. Generally signs for successful wayfinding. or recycled paper.. problems.s <. sufficiently the message to be read easily. but using the PMS color swatch book. commonly Moore and Sherwin. system's fabrication purposes. An internally sign looks very different glowing the day. phase from the sign fabricator materials are often chosen for their own unique These days. creating mockups and color studies to check the color's functionality Light conditions perception. plastic. and often the richest color palette combines material and paint finishes in a distinctive computer. Artificial are additional interior and nighttime conditions illumination conditions llght-source to consider. Harsh bright sunlight with strong UV rays can cause certain colors. than when it is reflecting illuminated at night. contrast for the architectural both a site: and for or environmental criteria: Next. Material selection because surfaces have different also because certain lighting Paint Company. Again. and approved durable and glossy autornotlve-tvpe that a color specified. paint-matchlng systems like Benjamin large all-purpose that are widely most c cloudy gray light of the rainy Northwest? co haze of an August day in New York casts quite different light than the sunshine on a clear. Specifying about selecting surface: varieties color for fabrication purposes is not just to cover a paints or other substances panels. careful consideration will ensure appropriate with Disabilities backgrounds. Matthews . All have specific color ranges. of materials 90 . a division and AkzoNobel paint libraries for specification especially are the paint manufacturers are identified purposes. for maintenance color and surface qualities.. with countless to choose from (see chapter 3. Another to commercial companies available. One method is to find a match is to refer paint of PPG. not only reflection conditions can damage the used for signage. site? Is it the brilliant have a major impact on color sunshine of the Southwest or the metal. surface _g between type and sign-panel developed conceptual o u real space. must be highly visible to people approaching the lettering typographic and legibility. by the client will be the actual color that appears on final signs. which offers paints colored surfaces of sign panels. Assuming of color combinations a message's contrast Act Having Daytime and nightime views of an illuminated sign is sound. These samples should then be archived to serve as color control during a wayfinding and. glass.5).

MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS Materials dictated specified for signage vary enormously and offer limitless color effects. ihe choices are usually integrity.5). aluminum. Metals are and in white and by the setting. such as brass and bronze. and yellow metals. nickel. The natural colors of stone specified materials and wood have a fundamental among the most commonly metals. Dramatically illuminated rods enliven a parking garage. transforming it into a civic landmark Inscribed lettering at a university Stainless steel and glass Petri dishes with colored plastic inserts for research center donor sign age on a stone plaque Bronze plaque for theater interior 91 . such as plastics offer unlimited Painted wall in a medical center serves as area identification color ranges (see chapter 3. including stainless their natural form fall into two broad families: steel. Finishing techniques aluminum Manmade materials for materials like anodizing broadens the color range even further.

has advanced far floor. by using numbers. such as urban in a large medical center. of the system. These signs reinforce the You Are Here quality of a given neighborhood. In reality there are no hard break rules all system is a collaaway the time. Other systems help people visualize larger or more complicated districts instance. the better. work together set of school a university and safety dictate signage In retail design the will not the more colors. for memorable project. Colors that make good sense in Miami Beach probably and fast rules. or surprising color cornScience way· Art is the creative spark that inspires the designer to comfortable. helping Signage for JFK International and Newark International airports and sense the boundaries 92 . binations project how to balance art and science.. As it usually involves many players it is best to steer the conversation like red"-to With experience. Today most color-coding areas within a space the organization wayfinding systems beyond the Yellow Brick Road or those ineffective ways on the hospital strategies either define distinct or provide a basis for understanding of a complex facility. ensures that those colors will physically for a particular finding system often employs a cherished colors. choices. What are tangible The most obvious. differentiate The simplest zones. For instance. learns how to work with clients to arrive why color choices and the were made. whereas practicality color for hospitals sky's the limit-often and subways. how they work in their context. objective a complex wayfinding process. For pedestrian wayfinding the Baltimore's system uses Signs with colored panels to identify seven districts visitors identify of the downtown their location area. and symbols. or the buildings Downtown spaces. explaining the designer at successful desired effect. and the best designers seem right in New York City.. uses of color for wayfinding? path- color coding. -0 o u from matters of personal taste-"we matters of color function. Developing borative and interests. design solutions. COLOR AS A WAYFINDING TOOL Choosing the right colors for a wayfinding results from knowing find interesting. how to navigate parking garage. such as the levels of a multistory colors.

IIIII 93 . gates. They are mounted adjacent to a main directional panel that guides people to destinations. Color coding can also designate signage system developed Jersey airports different way. and green signs Signal the way to ground transportation services like taxis. final color selection up to each designer's the range of colors available at first. For uses color fields to code messages in a related to air example. might seem and options offer unlimited choices. rental cars. and public transit. Today's surface methods and sophisticated best judgment. black fields mark airport or information. such as restrooms Sydney Exhibition and Convention Centre Color is used to mark the numbered entrances of the Sydney Exhibition totems with numbered color beacons point the way to the different center. somewhat function. Large them where they are going. but it can also breathe life into an otherwise digltal-reproductlon is ultimately Although daunting design. The for the New York and New akin to highway signing. and baggage claim areas. terminals.Downtown Baltimore These color-coded identification district panels mark the seven areas of Downtown Baltimore. be confident that careful planning testing will help identify ones that are exactly right. halls that make up the convention and Convention Centre. yellow signs present directions travel. Color is not only a means to simplify perception users' to guide of a place and provide prompts purely utilitarian amenities.

and place recognition.. branding orange. red (Avis). these easily distinguished the various rental counters quickly from long distances. and makes a coherent statement . have elevated fairly ordinary c: ·iii ee colors-turquoise. colors create have for people and help build brand Luxury retailers Tiffany. a small botanic garden in New York City. consumers exploit color to and car... use a strong olive green for the sign panels. yellow (Hertz).. identify entire color spectrum: at an airport. the signs recede somewhat. Set against the stone piers of the entry. differentiate competitive companies. this concept brilliantly. . (National).. and Fauchon. green Lined up side by side colors help A strong color choice can also help create a signature identity for a public institution. Color often proves useful for wayfinding and retail designers brands or products. and pink-to mythic status in busy in highly c <II by imbuing them with their brand's cachet. green ties the wayfinding for visitors.COLOR AS IDENTITY In addition immediate aware-ness understood to their usefulness associations for wayfinding. The signs at Wave Hill. Located amidst the lush system together of the gardens... AVIS Hertz 94 ~National ". Signature colors can also create a brand or identity.. Hermes.rental almost the . these green signs signal arrival and make a statement landscape The striking about place.: ~ -c t>O . 1 ..: '" >- arenas such as gas stations The latter has appropriated and blue (Thrifty)... particularly environments.. for example.

Colors can or urban districts Finally. location. complex environmental basic color application site by associating institutional. you would inevitably we have what I call the Starbucks Phenomenon: refer to brown as "rich. how people feel about colors and their emotional what draws their attention. they still regard to colors evolve. they often adapt in the way they perceive color. color is all about context." "aromatic. and why. Twice a year I the time. about a specific cultural or ethnic based on acknowledged As a part of my research. networking we're able to agree on a color forecast together. a colorthat fits it with one or more specific hues. or mid-blue. they may in tandem. People perceive navy blue differently and although black as the most powerful Popular reactions color of an. French. The power of a it's used for signage from black. and brown is a perfect hear "earthy" or "dirty. and wonder what planet they're on. will bear more weight than a soft blue. some cases the colors support or civic branding often choose colors purely for their Experiencing people and enhances qualities. then explaining challenges. If you truly believe in your color choice for it becomes one of your most do with chocolate or coffee. Statements such as red says this or blue colors can range from making it along these lines are published because When people move to a new country or culture. what type of lighting It very dangerous precepts. tiestqners need what does not. is likely. shade of dark blue. important or fashion." Today crossover. and Hermes has used Leatrice Eiseman heads the Eiseman Center for Color Information and Training and Is executive director of the Pantone Color Institute. More technical with its context uplifts events such as Olympic Games or large applications ~ information . context. corporate. Yet I still hear people say that orange cheapens or declasses a desiqn. says that. For graphic systems. whether seem more assertive and also more credible. location. At one time if you showed someone of brown. and Dutch citizens to discuss color trends. What I've learned is that people feel an sense of power when a color is darkened. and place. Just as real estate is about location." "robust. We try to avoid all to consider where a color will be used." I encounter-it honestly doesn't understand a design. In an existing program.Wayfinding designers employ color in four ways. I show people samples of color families in order to gauge their reactions. context. and how recently their family immigrated. Vogue magazine Porsche helicopter a downscale recently showed a black with orange trim and a model with an around her. drawing Simplistic conclusions. pathways. at temporary are fundamental to differentiate wayfinding. Their sensibilities depend on socioeconomic factors. and appropriate to make assumptions group's color preferences color mixtures. also have to deal with clients with or aversions. Years ago orange was a hard sell in this country because it was always considered fast-food color. tion and how it affects consumer through or user preferences. also subtly evoke a special sense oftime urban festivals. gray blue. use several of these strategies color coding it would be nearly impossible lines. English. orange ribbon wrapped 95 . a sample chip people now something to the colors seem very close. The Color Expert My work embraces the psychological word-association aspect of color percepI glean studies that reveal valueorange for years. For instance. so there's a huge cultural as ifby and osmosis because everyone is using the web for research Design professionals strong color preferences the biggest problems to accomplish. their educational level. The latter is one of means that the client what the design is trying example. The most a location or simply identifies especially without ones that code categories to effective transit of information. pedestrian graphically on maps and signage. which is ludicrous inherent particular pastels to dark tones. designers inspirational perfectly their journey. as of color. meet with Italian. Although everyone comes from a different background.

and help people orient themselves. maps are more complex visual images that tell stories about a place. show Graphics that support the verbal messages on signs 96 . LEARN ABOUT of spaces. They are essential for the wayfinding toolbox. PAUL RAND.• realizes his perceptions and experiences. THOUGHTS ON DESIGN In most cases the primary conveyors of wayfinding information are the words we place on signs to identify destinations or to describe the path to a place. primarily because they can say so much so concisely. While wayfinding symbols deliver information at a glance. Symbols communicate visually rather than verbally and to people who may not speak the native language of a place. and it is in a world of symbols that the average man lives. However. describe the arrangement where things are located. Maps provide specific orientation diagrams to explain public places to visitors. symbols and maps are powerful graphic tools that support the work done by those words. The symbol thus becomes a common language between artist and spectator.

In a large of the service or stand alone to act as a beacon.. In a large teaching _ . symbols can eliminate Symbols provide a shorthand icons for public bathrooms pervasive artistic public symbols. like No Smoking. The man and woman are probably Regional. for the (DOT) has design association. a service. hospitals. cultural. Now nearly and escalators here and abroad. office buildings. and effective... symbols aid different distressed international English speakers. places and headed destinations. regularly pass through. they since its completion in public facilities booth or the food services. customers diverse populations groups of people: the increasingly cities. ofTransportation There are some classic examples of public places where people of many languages symbols help guide people to directing people In or symbol family for wayfinding in 1981.THE POWER OF SYMBOLS Wayfinding systems are often created for large. The set or pharmacy. but the basic message is the same. or organizations. confusing environments. or an action. where visitors come from many countries hospital symbols are the common language that speaks in the United to everyone. These symbols the verbal description communication. but also services. such as Since area. is to identify shopping services malls. and other public places either accompany make for a wide spectrum symbols where people gather. and across that inhabit American who have traveled People may be coming from different looking for multiple the globe to get health care at these great institutions can all decipher the language of these symbols.. refers to these but refer iconic graphic devices. several additional symbol sets have been created for areas of public 97 . The set of fifty pictograms a leading professional United States Department become the standard purposes universal for those icons. Symbols at the Olympics. While hundreds directions States. the information to different locations cultures. --1-~ AlGA/DOT symbols to ferry terminals. These are not to be confused with logos. in such environments. complex. In either case they strengthen developed by the AlGA. train stations. For the purposes of this discussion. which can often look like symbols instead to business entities where symbols are essential European train station. address everything from restrooms are used everywhere sport venues and to public services. like a stairwell The symbols mostly define places. currency exchanges or a checked-baggage also includes some prohibitions the debut of the AlGA/DOT symbols. of signs may be necessary to provide a few well-chosen pictorial representation the most and of images the unnecessary. variations THE VOCABULARY OF WAYFINDING SYMBOLS The most basic role of symbols available in airports. of a place. and sometimes in many directions.

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