Surface Preparation

• Bhupendra Singh

Work of adhesion
• The work of adhesion (WA) • WA = γl (1+cosθ) • Where γl = surface tension of the liquid, measured in energy units; dynes/cm • θ = Contact angle of the liquid on the surface • The contact angle of a droplet of liquid on a flat surface is a function of the energy levels of the liquid and the solid.

Contact Angle Diagram

Various methods are used for the surface modification such as • • • • • • • Solvent cleaning and etching Mechanical abrasion Additives Flame treatment Corona discharge Plasma treatment Ultra violet irradiation

Solvent cleaning and etching
• Most common technique of surface treatment. • Grease and dust comes from various sources such as mold release agent, rust preventives, lubricants, dust etc • Solvents used: Isopropyl alcohol (IPA), Acetone, Methanol, Hexane, Ethyl Acetate, Toluene and other organic solvents. • Limitations of Solvent Cleaning Method:
• Many organic solvents are toxic • Most of the solvents are flammable • Some organic solvents can dissolve the plastic

Corona discharge
• The most widely used method for improving the adhesion properties of the plastic films prior to lamination. • This treatment is used for various polymers such as polyolefins, polyesters, polyvinylchloride, nylon and others • A corona discharge system consists of
• Generator:Amplifies the frequency to higher value of 25-30 kHz. • Transformer:Transformer increases the voltage to the required

voltage in the range of 15000-30000V
• Treater

Corona discharge Treater

Corona discharge Treater

Corona discharge Treater

Corona discharge Treater

Flame treatment
• Heat can be applied by means of
– Hot air – Infra red radiation – Flaming

Flame treatment
• Initiation • RH R· + H· • R· + O2 ROO· • ROOH RO· + OH· • • • • • • • • • • • • Propagation ROO· +RH ROOH + R· RO· +RH ROH + R· OH· + RH H2O + R· R’· + O2 R’OO· ROOH RO· + OH· 2 ROOH RO· + ROO· + H2O Termination Termination takes place by a) Action of Antioxidant HA + ROO· ROOH + A· A· is inactive

Flame treatment
Flame nozzle or bar

Idler roller

Plastic sheeting

Gas / Air mixture manifold

Flame treatment
• • • • • • a) Flame Intensity b) Air to gas ratio c) Wall thickness d) The design of the part e) The type of flame used and f) The distance of the burner from the article for flame treatment

Flame treatment
• • • • Benefits of the flame treatment Higher treatment levels Low treatment decay rates Suitable for various product shapes and sizes

Flame treatment
• Limitations of the flame treatment • 1) Flame treatment is not suitable for moulded three dimensional. • 2) Sheets having thickness less than 0.6mm are not suitable for flame treatment. • 3) Melting occurs if the flame is too close. • 4) Open flame, particularly in or near a painting operation is usually forbidden for safety reasons.

Flame treatment
• Applications • 1) Flame treatment is most often used to improve ink adhesion to molded PE and PP surfaces. • 2) Flame treatment is also used for acetal, acetal copolymers and for polyethylene terephthalate. • 3) Round containers can be treated on all sides by rotating the container by dropping it through a ring burner.