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Dr. Serkan Aksoy - 2009

Microwaves

Lecture Notes

Dr. Serkan Aksoy

v.1.3.4

2009

These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M. Pozar. For future versions or any proposals, please contact with Dr. Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte.edu.tr).

Dynamic Range & Intermodulation Distortion---------------------------------------------------13 6. 5. IMPEDANCE MATCHING ------------------------------------------8 4.1.1.2. Smith Chart-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.16 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M.8 4.8 4. 5. Lossless Transmission Lines -----------------------------------------------------------------------------.3 2. Four Port Networks (Directional Coupler) ---------------------------------------------------------10 5. Single Stub Tuning---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. L Networks Matching------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 5. Large Signal Characterization -------------------------------------------------------------------------. Single Stage Amplifier Design ------------------------------------------------------------------------16 7.1.1. MICROWAVE NETWORKS -----------------------------------------5 3. 5.3. Wave Propagation along the Line --------------------------------------------------------------------.2.15 7.4. Scattering Matrix -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.1. MICROWAVE AMPLIFIER DESIGN --------------------------. Double Stub Tuning -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.3.6 3.4 2.v. Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte. Impedance & Admittance Matrices ------------------------------------------------------------------.2.4. Two-Port Power Gains ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 7. 5.6 3.9 4. Power Amplifiers -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 7.4 3.11 Hybrid Coupler -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Other Couplers --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 6.1.10 5.tr).1.8 4.2 Lossy Transmission Lines --------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Slotted Line-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Quarter Wave Transformer -----------------------------------------------------------------------------.2.5 Transmission (ABCD) Matrix ---------------------------------------------------------------------------.2.1. T Junction Power Divider ------------------------------------------------------------------------------.6. NOISE & ACTIVE COMPONENTS ----------------------------.3.2.2.2.9 5.1. FIELD ANALYSIS of LINES -----------------------------------------1 2. Current and Impedance ---------------------------------------------------------------------. Serkan Aksoy – 2009 Content 1. Noise Figure.3. Signal Flow Graphs --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Stability -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 7.5.5.2.2.3. POWER DIVIDERS & COUPLERS -----------------------------. 2.1. Equivalent Circuits for 2 Port Networks ------------------------------------------------------------.12 6.5. For future versions or any proposals.11 Hybrid -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Voltage.2.5.1.4. Pozar.2.3 2.Microwaves . please contact with Dr. . Three Port Networks (T Junction) --------------------------------------------------------------------10 5.5 3. Tapered Lines ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.1.11 Coupled Line Directional Coupler -------------------------------------------------------------------.3.1 2.2.edu.2.4. LUMPED CIRCUIT MODEL -----------------------------------------1 2.1. 5. Generator & Load Mismatches ------------------------------------------------------------------------. Broadband Amplifier Design--------------------------------------------------------------------------16 7.3.5 3.2.11 5.11 Lange Coupler --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.4.10 Waveguide Directional Coupler ----------------------------------------------------------------------. RF Diode Characteristics --------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 7.1.4 Dr.3.6 4.2.2.1. 3. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12 6.10 Wilkinson Power Divider ------------------------------------------------------------------------------.Lecture Notes .

Circuit Transmission Line and will vary in magnitude and phase over its length. Circuits : Wavelength 2. .4 Dr. please contact with Dr. ): Proximity conductors The solution of Telegrapher equation ): Dielectric losses Kirchoff' Voltage Law Then.tr). . Wave Propagation along the Line Using the frequency domain Telegrapher equation : Resistance per unit length ( : Inductance per unit length ( : Capacitance per unit length ( : Conductance per unit length ( ): Finite conductivity ): Self inductance of two wires where is propagation constant. length line and are timeis the line 2. LUMPED CIRCUIT MODEL Fields : Real size of the circuit.edu. and .1. . 1 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M.Lecture Notes . For future versions or any proposals.3. .v. averaged values calculated for cross-sectional area. FIELD ANALYSIS of LINES The idea is to find relations between and with .1. the calculation of Kirchoff' Current Law Taking the limit as .Microwaves . Telegraph equations Then Time domain Converting to time domain by using Frequency domain where . taking the derivation of . is the phase. where . Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte. Pozar. Serkan Aksoy – 2009 1.

Lecture Notes . increases as a measure of mismatch.tr). Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte. When the line is matched is constant. Lossless Transmission Lines Dr.1. When increases. Serkan Aksoy – 2009 The maximum value occurs when .3. maximum power is delivered). Total reflection. . more useful form known as Transmission Line Impedance Equation as Reflection coefficient at the load. Time Average Power Flow: Insertion Loss: Short Circuit: Open Circuit: This shows is constant at anywhere on the line. please contact with Dr. (Quarter Wave Open circuit Short circuit is not constant. The proper length of open or short circuited transmission line Return can provide any desired reactance or susceptance.v. In that case at reflection coefficient and input impedance .Microwaves . Using the definition of . Pozar. 2 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M. For future versions or any proposals. Then Standing Wave Ratio ( ) is When the lossless line is terminated by a load when means matched line. When the line is mismatched ( Loss (No regard to impedance is observed at the input. .Transmission Coefficient:Some part of EM wave is also transmitted to second region as where and consists of a superposition of an incident and reflected waves called Standing Waves ( ).edu. Transform) (Short circuit) (Open circuit) ): The same Matched load (No reflected power.4 2.1.1. The minimum value occurs when . (All power reflected). the Reflected waves occur.

1. mean that the lossy line 2. Terminated Lossy Line: Loss is assumed small that where is Resistance. then . please contact with Dr.1. Then : Incremental inductance : Loss per unit length : Power at the Then. Attenuation constant: .v. But specifically if the following condition holds Taylor series Inductance Rule: where . in fact the exact is not a linear function of frequency means dispersive. lossless line. Smith Chart behaves as lossless (distortionless) line.tr).2.2. .3. & can be approximated to where is skin depth and . finite conductivity (or lossy dielectrics) lines can be evaluated as a Lossy Line.edu. . is Conductance and is Susceptance.Microwaves . In the lossy line. Serkan Aksoy – 2009 Wheeler Incremental Inductance Rule: Low-loss line ignoring the last term of . Pozar. For future versions or any proposals.4 2. . Lossy Transmission Lines Power flow along lossy line: In practice. Whenever is normalized impedance The apsis and ordinate of Smith chart are and .Lecture Notes . Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte. Power loss per unit length: Attenuation constant: Dr. is Reactance. Distortionless Line: For the lossy line. Power lost in the line: Rearranging them Perturbation Method for Calculating Attenuation 3 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M.

.Measurement of . Generally is Load Matched to Line: Then .Lecture Notes .v. on the distance from the line. 2.3. Maximum power transfer . Generator Matched to Line: .4. Superposition of Smith Chart and its 180o ( ) rotated version is known as Combined Impedance-Admittance Smith Chart. using this where and .Using and . Slotted Line This device is used to find . Dr. If one directly chose .tr). 4 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M.3. Serkan Aksoy – 2009 where and fixed and three cases are considered as . For future versions or any proposals. it does not mean that the best efficiency due to the phase differences. Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte. Generator & Load Mismatches Then. The images of is in Smith chart. 2. . .Calculate . is the half of Smith chart (180o). Pozar. Conjugate Latching: is the complete revolution of Smith chart. The efficiency can be improved only by making as small as possible.1.4 These are two families of circles as and . as first . .edu.Calculate . . please contact with Dr.Microwaves . write at .

TEM Any element of the scattering matrix types are present which may depend on type of guide.tr). 3. but difficult. but the imaginery parts of them are odd in . and then after application to transmission lines. but for TE and TM. Current and Impedance The measurements of and at microwave frequencies are difficult due to not easily defined terminals for non-TEM waves. Pozar.1. Easy to modify and combine different problems. the impedance can be defined as . the impedance Intrinsic Impedance. : It depends on only the material parameters. : TM.4 Dr. Because the Impedance. Because of that the fields are measured and used as Clear that . Characteristic Impedance. Voltage. not unique because and can not be determined. although the definition of the terminal pairs for line is relatively easy. For future versions or any proposals. please contact with Dr. and are the right relations. the terminal pair for line does not strictly exist.v.edu. . Moreover fields are considered as TEM type. Serkan Aksoy – 2009 3. It can be shown that Then and are known as Input Impedance and Transfer than. In this manner. At low frequencies for electrically small circuits. uniquely.Microwaves . The impedance concept first used by O. 3. Calculations are performed at terminals. Heaviside. imaginary. The way is If the network is reciprocal (no ferrites. At microwave frequencies. types of it then. Impedance & Admittance Matrices negligible phase change in any where of the circuit) of Maxwell's equations and to Kirchoff Current and Voltage Laws The and of a port microwave network having 'th terminal with impedance concept.1.2. not everywhere. MICROWAVE NETWORKS It can be shown that the real parts of . Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte. material and frequency. plasmas and to do that active devices inside). respectively. lumped active and and passive circuit elements are enough for analyzing the circuit leading a type of a Quasi-Static solution (assumption of 3. it is unique. 5 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M.2. : For TEM.Lecture Notes . But this way is not possible to analyze microwave circuits. are the even function in . special attenuation should be given for extraction of and . Wave Impedance. The The impedance matrix is in the form of reasons of using it are as follow Much easier than field theory. to electromagnetics by Schelkunoff. TE. and are even in . The field solution of Maxwell's equation gives more Similarly the admittance matrix is in the form of information at the every time and place of the network. The circuit concept should modify and apply to microwave network theory developed in MIT in 1940. fields depend on the coordinates (like in waveguide).3. Scattering Matrix and are purely The form of the scattering matrix gives the port networks with the incident can be defined as complete description of the and reflected waves as .1. If the network is lossless.

direction is also specially designed for ABCD matrix. 6 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M. Signal Flow Graphs Signal flow graph is an additional technique to analyse microwave networks in terms of reflected and transmitted where port 1 and port 2 are completely isolated in the equation waves.2. If network is reciprocal. If the network is reciprocal (there are six degrees of freedom.Microwaves . If network is lossless. but choosing matrix equivalence). respectively. If the reference point is shifted. to satisfy this as 3. The relation between and matrix parameters are as If the network is reciprocal ( ). Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte. Transmission (ABCD) Matrix freedom reduces to three and the elements of and Many microwave networks consisting cascade connection and equivalent circuits should be constructed from purely need building block fashion in practice. Because of discontinuity in the transition region.1. the degrees of 3. all the and are defined as a reference point at the end of every lines.Lecture Notes .1. then .v. the impedance and admittance matrix elements are purely imaginary. Generally for not same impedance for all ports. 3.1. Pozar. then In the . six independent parameters).In reciprocal networks.In lossless networks. is symmetric.tr). EM energy is stored in the vicinity of the transition leading to reactive effects mean that the transition region should be modeled as black box (There is an unlimited way of equivalent circuits.3. ABCD matrix is defined reactive elements.4 and are Reflection and Transmission Coefficient (from port to port ). . For future versions or any proposals. The current and branches. Network analyzer is used to measure parameters of a network. Equivalent Circuits for 2 Port Networks Transition between a coaxial line and microstrip line can be chosen as an example of two port networks. is unitary means that . is defined for networks with same characteristic impedance for all ports.edu. . a new set of wave amplitudes as . is symmetric. then where is the electrical length of the outward shift.2.2. Three different forms of it are given below with nodes means that cascade multiplication is possible. Using the relations as and with between and matrixes Dr. generalized matrix A nonreciprocal network can not be represented by passive equivalent circuit using reciprocal elements.3. the presentations lead naturally to and equivalent circuits as . Serkan Aksoy – 2009 3. please contact with Dr. Generalized Scattering Matrix In the previous chapter.4. Then. is unitary and satisfies the equation If the network is lossless.

Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte.v. For future versions or any proposals.1.3. Pozar.tr). .Microwaves .Lecture Notes .4 Dr.edu. Serkan Aksoy – 2009 The decomposition rules are also given below 7 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M. please contact with Dr.

impedance matching is possible with the factors such as . .edu. Whenever has nonzero real part.Maximum power is delivered when load is matched to line (assuming the generator is matched) . please contact with Dr.3. ratio of receiver components is increased. .Adjustability: Adjust to match a variable load impedance.2. Pozar.tr). Single Stub Tuning where A single open-circuited (or short-circuited) transmission line is connected either in parallel or series with the feed line at a certain distance from the load.Lecture Notes . Serkan Aksoy – 2009 4. The normalized should be converted to with adding that can be tolerated. Quarter Wave Transformer This shows that as becomes closer to .v.1. but suffer from disadvantage of requiring a variable length between the load and stub. Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte.Implementation: Easier one is prefable .4 Dr. . Complex load impedance can always be transformed to real impedance by appropriate length of transmission line. IMPEDANCE MATCHING Impedance matching (or tuning) is an important issue for . . Thus fixed line Bandwidth performance of QWT for wide band matching: If one set the maximum value of reflection coefficient. But this generally alters the frequency dependency of the equivalent load reducing the bandwidth of the matching. the bandwidth increases. Single Sub Tuning can match any load impedance to line. L Networks Matching For each frequency.1. satisfied as 4.Wide Bandwidth: Match a load over a band. For multiple reflection. . Approximate behavior of reflection coefficients is shown at below. The following relation has to be The QWT can be extended as a multisection form for matching of broader bandwidth. For future versions or any proposals.3. 8 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M.Power loss is minimized. If and .Microwaves . It is used for only real load impedance. 4. then and .Complexity: Simpler one is prefable. The step changes of reactance effect can be compensated by making a small adjustment in the length of the matching section. has to be equal to length is possible only for one frequency. total is The condition of enough to make total reflection (multiple) is zero. This result is valid only for TEM lines. then adding – the impedance matching will be successful.Amplitude and phase errors are reduced. then the fractional bandwidth is impedance. is also 4.

4 Dr.Lecture Notes . 4. Triangular. resulting for matching condition. Chancing type of taper (Exponential.Microwaves . please contact with Dr.v. the difference in lengths of open and short-circuited stub is . Single Section Transformer: The reflection coefficient of single section transformer can be written when discontinuities between the impedances are small as This shows that is dominated by and . but shortest matching section. The reflection coefficient can be written as The importance of this result is that the desired reflection coefficients response as a function of frequency can be synthesized by proper choosing of . where from can be found. Serkan Aksoy – 2009 ripple) multisection matching transformers can be used. multisection transformers consists of equal length sections of the lines can be used. Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte.5. . .edu. If the impedance has the form of at the distance .3. by using theory of by stub. For future versions or any proposals. Tapered Lines The line can be continuously tapered for decreasing the effect of the step changes in characteristic impedance between the discrete sections. Klopfenstein yields the The double stub tuner can not match all load impedances. For a given susceptance or reactance. The incremental reflection coefficient Since lumped elements are not required. single stub is convenient and easy to fabricate in microstrip form. different 4. Double Stub Tuning band pass characteristic may be applied.4.tr). in second one: is equated to Chebyshev polynomial. Two adjustable parameters and susceptance or reactance provided . To obtain passband responses. for coax or waveguide short circuit is preferred since open circuit line may be large for radiation. Klopfenstein). binominal (maximally flat) and Chebysev (equal 9 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M. theoretical limit on the minimum reflection with the upper limit of matching performance and provide a benchmark against which a practical design can be compared. Then stub reactance can be chosen as – . Distance between the stubs should be generally chosen as or to reduce the frequency sensitivity. In first one: the derivatives of is settled to zero. Multisection Transformer: If the applications require more bandwidth.1. Although for microstrip lines open circuit is easy to Since small reflections fabricate since a via-hole is enough. The Bode-Fano criterion for certain type of canonical load impedances will help us to define load may be arbitrary distance from the first stub. Pozar.

Ferrite Isolators are two-port device having unidirectional transmission characteristics. 5. such a device is known as Circulator relies on anisotropic materials. Using different phase references.1. POWER DIVIDERS & COUPLERS between two output ports.4 Dr.v. For future versions or any proposals. considering lossless one Symmetrical or Anti-symmetrical Directional Coupler may be defined. The output line and can be selected to provide various power combining.tr). which add in phase at the coupled port. 5. Lossless Divider: This suffers from the problem of not being matched at all ports and in addition does not have any isolation 10 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M.2. different responses are possible. In power division.Microwaves . Because is not unitary. The coupling factor shows the fraction of input power to the output. the possible solutions are means is reciprocal and when all ports are also matched Directional Coupler. The directivity is a measure of isolation ability for forward and backward waves. lossless and matched all ports.1. maximally flat response can be obtained.1. Serkan Aksoy – 2009 5. the resistive (lossy) divider is used. . Pozar.Lecture Notes . an input signal is divided by impedances decision. If the network is being lossy.2. The fringing fields and higher order modes at the discontinuity leading stored energy can be These are passive components used for power division or power accounted by a lumped susceptance. the isolator must be lossy. and cancel in phase at the isolated port. Types of the parallel guides and skewed guides work properly only at the design if only two ports of the network are matched.3. 5. above equation at least two parameters have to be zero means that three port network can not be reciprocal. As an example. terms of its directivity). matched and lossless If component is passive (no anisotropic material). Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte.edu. Making coupling coefficients proportional to binominal coefficients. Using Chebysev polynomial. . but no isolation between two output ports due to being not lossless. Four Port Networks (Directional Coupler) It has two inputs and two outputs. Resistive Divider: Possible to match all ports simultaneously. If the network is nonreciprocal with matching all port and satisfaction of energy conservation. The ideal coupler has infinite directivity and isolation and also lossless. After considering using the matrix for reciprocal. Three Port Networks (T Junction) It has two inputs with one output. The directional property of the all directional coupler is produced through the use of two separate waves or wave components. Half of the supplied power is dissipated in resistors. network can be reciprocal and matched at all ports (Resistive Divider or Isolator). Waveguide Directional Coupler Bethe Hole Coupler: Couple one waveguide to another through a single small hole in the common wall. Multi Hole Coupler: Series of coupling holes are used to increase bandwidth as similar design to multi section transformer.1. coupler in two (or more) signals. please contact with Dr. The isolators can be used between a high-power source and load to prevent possible reflections from damaging the source by absorbing reflected power. 5. equally or not. . T Junction Power Divider This can be used for power division (or combining).1. a lossless and frequency (narrow bandwidth in reciprocal network can be physically realizable. the network features of network. The design parameters of directional coupler are Using the features of for lossless and reciprocal network To satisfy.

3. Quadrature Hybrid ( Hybrid) multisection case and degrades coupler directivity.tr). This gives poor directivity. The main disadvantage of it (a type of quadrature hybrid) is difficult to 5. . generally not satisfied for a coupled 5. Folded Lange two outputs (also may be in phase). Wilkinson Power Divider Dr. please contact with Dr. Hybrid Coupler microstrip or non TEM lines.Microwaves .2. Increasing This is a directional coupler (knows as Branch Line bandwidth can be obtained with low coupling limits. Wilkinson Power Divider can be made in due to multiple sections coupled line having close relations to microstrip or stripline form with arbitrary power division of way Divider or Combiner. Pozar. It is known that a lossy three port network can be made having all ports are matched with isolation between the . for even mode. .Lecture Notes . This also produces problems as the mismatching phase velocities for 5.4 5. By using more effective dielectric constant (smaller phase velocity) It has having types of the following. the bandwidth can be increased using output ports.1.2. Hybrid) with a phase difference in outputs (2 3). matrix has a 5.5.2.v. Hybrid fabricate due to very It is a four port network with a phase shift (2 3) between narrow lines.3. phase differences should be minimized.2.3. the output ports are matched.6. The even-odd mode technique is used multisection QWT.4.2. Coupled Line Theory is based on types of excitations as even mode (strip currents are equal in amplitude with same directions) and odd mode (strip currents are equal in amplitude with opposite directions).The assumption of the same velocity of propagation for even and odd modes in design. for analysis. Arbitrary excitation can be treated as a superposition of appropriate even and odd modes amplitudes. means any port can be used Lange Coupler (several for input as given below lines) with phase difference between outputs is used as a 3 dB coupling ratio in an octave or more bandwidth can be achieved. that is. Moreover design It is a network with the useful property of being lossless when graphs are present for coupled lines. 5. For future versions or any proposals.Although a single section coupled line has limited bandwidth requirement. 5. (Rate Race)) in which symmetrically (or antisymmetrical) placed tuning ports (or irises) can be used for matching. Generally TEM mode is assumed rigorously valid for striplines.edu. Lange Coupler high degree of symmetry To increase coupling factor. Other Couplers Moreno Crossed Guide Coupler Schwinger Reversed Phase Coupler Riblet Short Slot Coupler Symmetric Tapered Coupled Line Coupler Coupler with Apertures in Planar Lines As an example of a device uses a directional coupler is Reflectometer isolate and sample the incident and reflected powers from a mismatch load as a heart of a scalar (or vectorial) network analyzer. Evenodd mode technique can be applied for analysis. tapered matching lines and hybrid waveguide junction (Magic T.2. It may be produces as the form of ring hybrid (rate race). Serkan Aksoy – 2009 Coupled lines of two (or more) transmission lines are closed together. only reflected power is Design Considerations: dissipated. but approximately valid for microstrips. Coupled Line Directional Coupler 11 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M.1.3.2. It can be used as a combiner coupler is also used for more easily analysis to model equivalent and has unitary symmetric scattering matrix as circuit. power can be coupled between the lines. Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte.

Noise level defining the system performance determines for minimum signal reliability detected by a receiver. the output noise power and the output noise signal . : Smaller bandwidth. Noise Power and Equivalent Noise Temperature: Rayleigh. an Equivalent Noise Temperature is defined as Noise Figure of a Two-Port Passive and Lossy Network: Having such as attenuator (or lossy line) with a matched source resistor at .It is a measure of the degration in Jeans approximation results Voltage Fluctuations as and output as ratio between the input where is Boltzmann’s constant. Because of frequency is defined for a matched input source and for a noise source independency. Such motions can be caused by the mechanism of Thermal Noise: Thermal vibrations of bound charges. Compression where & are temperature of hot & cold load. Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) is also used to characterize Noise Power of Noise is usually generated by random motions of charges (or active noise generator consisting of a diode or a tube as charge carriers in devices and materials). is bandwidth and is resistance. Then Noise Figure is then then then : Cooler device. For future versions or any proposals.3. Quantum Noise: Quantized nature of charge carriers. If the network is noiseless .edu. are Noise Power & Equivalent Temperature of Measurement of Noise Power: factor method is applied as where should be determined via power measurement.tr). . less noise power. please contact with Dr. Shot Noise: Random fluctuations of charge carriers. noise factor where is Noise Power delivered to load . The floor level of noise dominates the output power at very low frequencies. A noisy resistor can be replaced with a noiseless resistor and a voltage source of RMS .1. Then connecting a load resistor Noise Figure of a Noisy Network: Having the parameters of results in maximum power transfer called Noise Power as with input noise and signal power . overall system temperature also at . Noise is a random process and can be passed into a system from external sources or generated within the system itself. The equivalent noise 12 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M. 6. NOISE & ACTIVE COMPONENTS where is output noise power and is amplifier gain. where & generator.4 Dr. this is known as White Noise Source can be treated as Gaussian distributed variables. Point is defined as the input power for which the output is below that of an ideal amplifier.Lecture Notes . Then Dynamic Range and Compression Point: The linearity and deterministic features of all components can be satisfied in a range called Dynamic Range. Serkan Aksoy – 2009 6. If is not strong function of frequency (White Noise).1. consist of a resistor temperature . respectively.v. : Use the exact definition of for . Plasma Noise: Random motions of charges. less noise power. Flicker Noise: noise. . Pozar. Noise Figure.Microwaves . is temperature. Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte. A noisy amplifier with a source of resistor at a temperature of can be replaced with a noiseless amplifier and a resistor having Equivalent Noise Temperature as where temperature is lossy factor.

then gain tends to decrease is named Gain Compression or Saturation. Different output response can be obtained relating to coefficients as Only Noise Figure of a Passive Two Port Network: Available Power Only Gain does not depend on . .Microwaves . Noise Figure of Cascaded System: A cascaded system of two components ( ). is Lineer output. others are Nonlinear outputs. cables. Dynamic Range & Intermodulation Distortion All realistic devices are nonlinear at very low power levels due to noise effects and also practical components became nonlinear at high power levels. In the sense of and . antennas. and every metal-metal contact can cause passive intermodulation due to poor mechanical contact.4 Dr. Attenuator or Amplifier . This has Figure of a lossy line is calculated under assumptions of line is generally lower power levels. The first stage is intermodulation distortion. . Consider that line is mismatched to input circuit as If the line is at the temperature . Generally Dynamic Range. Intermodulation Distortion: 2 the output is the combination of two input frequencies are called Intermodulation Products. please contact with Dr. The output response of a nonlinear device (diode.edu. then In most practical system. same as 6. then Passive Intermodulation: Connectors. . Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte.v. A given component (or network) can operate as desired between minimum and maximum realistic power ranges known as Dynamic Range. When the . Only .tr). transistor) by using a Taylor series expansion where dominant due to where is DC output. For future versions or any proposals. Pozar. it is called as Spurious Free reduces to second stage.. 13 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M. oxidation.2. Mixing or Frequency Conversion Gain Compression: where as .1.3. ( ) and Then The output of first stage : The output of second stage: When the line is matched the matched lossy line. contamination etc. Serkan Aksoy – 2009 matched to its input and output circuits. Noise and also thermal effects of high power source. Noise Figure of a Mismatched Lossy Line: Previously.Lecture Notes . The definitions of and network is matched are close as lossy lines. Rectifier .

mixing).3. . RF Diode Characteristics Shottky Barrier Diode Detectors: This is a nonlinear device consisting of semiconductor-metal junction resulting lower junction capacitance can be used frequency conversion (rectification. detectors and demodulation of an AM modulated RF carrier.tr). These are preferable because of small size.Lecture Notes . but based on avalanche effects exhibiting negative resistance over a broad frequency range. Impatt Diode: Similar to PIN diode. high speed and inerrability with planar circuits. please contact with Dr.edu.3. Pozar. Especially single-pole PIN diode switches can be used in either a series or a shunt configuration to form a single pole RF switch.Microwaves .v. For future versions or any proposals.4 Dr. Insertion Loss of switches where is diode impedance as Varactor Diode: Junction capacitance varies with bias voltage used for electronically frequency tuning. Gunn Diode: It exhibits a negative differential resistance based on Gunn effect and used to generate RF power to DC. therefore used to directly convert DC to RF power. PIN Diode: This is used to construct an electronic switching for control circuits such as phase shifters and attenuators.1. It has a with a Small Signal Model These diodes are used as rectifiers. 14 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M. Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte. Baritt Diode: Similar to junction transistor without a base contact and useful for detector and mixer applications with advantages of lower AM noise. Serkan Aksoy – 2009 6. detection.

. Three types of power gain can be derived as .tr). more simply results and are enough for stability.4 Dr. For future versions or any proposals. network is stable for a range of passive source and load impedance. Unilateral Transducer Power Gain. please contact with Dr. . then . plotting the input and output Stability Circles are defined as loci in the (or ) plane for which (or ). Stability output are both conjugately matched. following conditions have to be satisfied Then. The power delivered to load . Two-Port Power Gains The gain and stability of a general two-port amplifier in terms of parameters of transistor will be investigated for amplifier and where oscillator design. gain is maximized and .1. most useful power definition is Transducer Power Gain account for both source and load mismatch 7. . Rigorous treatment of stability requires parameters of network have no poles in the right-half complex plane in addition to and . where is independent of . then define boundaries between stable and unstable regions.Microwaves . then . Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte. Serkan Aksoy – 2009 More generally.Conditional Stability: If and . . There are necessary conditions for a transistor amplifier to be stable based on the possible oscillation for input and output The average power delivered to network impedance has a negative real part as a two-sub group: . .1.edu.3. . These conditions define a range for and where amplifier will be stable. . then . The equations for input and output stability conditions can be extracted as 15 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M.v. is defined with an assumption Similar relation can be obtained by Equivalent circuit parameter. If transistor is unilateral. the power gain where If If . The stability condition is usually frequency dependent since matchings generally depend on frequency (stability may be possible for a frequency but not possible for others).2. Pozar. Whenever input and 7.Lecture Notes . that conjugate matching of both source and load depend on but not . If device is unilateral . Stability Circles: Applying the above requirement for unconditional stability. Finding this range by using Smith chart. network is unconditionally stable. MICROWAVE AMPLIFIER DESIGN 7.Unconditional Stability: If and for all passive sources and loads. depends on both and .

Distributed Amplifiers.3. first of all . the Noise Figure of the amplifier should be minimized by using Constant Noise Figure Circles. For future versions or any proposals. Besides stability and gain. the amplifier can not be unconditionally stable because a source (or load impedance) leading to (or ) can cause (or ).Measure the output power as a function of source and load impedances and produce tables. Power Added Efficiency. load impedance.1. intermodulation and thermal effect. parameter is independent from input power and linear small signal model is suitable for modeling. F and S are also used with high output sections provide a conjugate match between source and efficiency. But for high input powers.v. but generally as a narrowband.1. .5.edu.5. Pozar. Class B amplifiers with theoretically maximum efficiency are biased to conduct only during one-half of input signal cycle (Push-Pull amplifier). Class C amplifiers with efficiency near are operated with transistor near cut-off for more than half of the input signal 7. It is also preferable to design for less than the maximum obtainable gain. E.Compensated Matching Network. Constant Gain Circles on the Smith chart to represent loci of and that give fixed values of gain are used. please contact with Dr. to improve bandwidth (or to obtain a specific amplifier gain). . This can be stated mathematically as for for If or .4 Dr. To perform this where is power gain. constant envelope modulation). the stability circles must be completely outside (or totally enclose) the Smith chart. but the input and conjugately matching at input and design for a specified gain. PAE drops quickly with frequency. then determine large signal source and load reflection coefficients to maximize power gain for a particular output power. Broadband Amplifier Design .Use nonlinear equivalent of the transistor circuit. Maximum gain with stability can be realized when input and Higher classes such as D. Serkan Aksoy (saksoy@gyte. Amplifier Efficiency is defined as with the effect of input power.Balanced Amplifiers. Serkan Aksoy – 2009 7. Specially unconditionally stability can be tested with the methods of Rollet’s Condition or Parameter. and must be chosen in stable regions. 16 These lecture notes are heavily based on the book of Microwave Engineering by David M. solve this problem are listed below . then should be solved by considering stability conditions. Class A amplifiers with theoretically maximum efficiency are inherently linear that transistor is biased to conduct over entire range of input signal cycle (low-noise amplifier). . PAE If device is unconditionally stable. If input power is small enough. transistor behaves as a nonlinear device (Large-Signal Characterization) and more difficult to design.Lecture Notes . . output ports will be poorly matched.Resistive Matching Network. Single Stage Amplifier Design cycle (in a resonant circuit.4. .Microwaves . The following methods are possible for Large Signal Characterization . gain. Common approaches to . Large Signal Characterization conditions simultaneously have to be satisfied means that also by maximizing the transducer gain. If transistor is only conditionally stable.3. Another parameter is Compressed Gain defined as the gain of amplifier at 1 dB compression gain as 7. Power Amplifiers This is used to increase power level with consideration of efficiency.Negative Feedback. 7. Especially for designing Class A amplifiers. To do that. where is small signal (linear) power gain.tr). the stability can be checked by using small signal model because instabilities begin at low signal levels.Plot contours (Load-Pull Contours) of constant power output The bandwidth can be improved with designing for less than on a Smith chart as a function of load reflection coefficient with maximum gain will improve bandwidth.

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