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Chapter V 1 EGGS EGGS Eggs are round or oval reproductive body laid by the female of any animals or birds

, containing the developing embryo and its food reserves and protected by a shell or skin. Although eggs of many birds, fish and even reptiles can be used as food, the word egg often applies exclusively to hen’s eggs. Other types of eggs used for culinary uses include quails egg, duck eggs, plovers’ eggs etc. Eggs are an extremely versatile food commodity suitable for inclusion in a wide range of products and dishes. Eggs may be used as a complete dish, to enrich other dishes, to provide aeration, for binding, or to encourage emulsification of fats and oils and may occur in many of the courses in a menu from hors-d’oeuvre to sweets. Composition and structure The average weight of a hens’ egg is 60 gm. The shell weighs about 12% of the total weight of the egg. The porous shell is composed largely of sodium carbonate and it is pervious to air, water and smell. It is lined with a delicate pellucid membrane which separates itself from the shell at the larger end of the egg to form an air chamber. The size of the air chamber is in inverse proportion to the freshness of egg –fresher the egg, smaller the chamber.

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which gives its colour. As the size of the air cell increases. lecithins. Air cell The larger end of the egg contains the air cell that forms when the contents of the egg cool down and contract after it is laid. which constitutes of 30% of the total weight. fats. Albumen is soluble in cold water. the grade moves from AA to A to B. the egg becomes less dense and the larger end of the egg will rise to increasingly shallower depths when the egg is placed in a bowl of water. together with iron. Points to be noted Clean.  Fresh egg when broken stands in a rounded form with a compact yolk and a thick viscous white. fresh egg sinks because it has a smaller air space. remaining proteins and all fats. undamaged and slightly rough A large proportion of thick white to thin Firm. A very old egg will actually float in the water and should not be eaten. congeals at 70°C and remains from then on insoluble. nucleins.  Candling: process by which the freshness of an egg is tested.Chapter V 2 EGGS Egg white The albumen or the egg white is a thick viscous transparent liquid containing half the 14% protein content of the egg. it also has a high percentage of water and some minerals. Egg yolk The yolk of the egg. No movement in very fresh egg  Floatation or buoyancy test in water. D and E.bad eggs smell of hydrogen sulphide Compiled by ANEESH R PILLAI . and the quality of the egg decreases. chlorestins. good yellow color Pleasant. measured during candling. round or domed shape. by placing the egg in a dark area and passing light from behind so that it shows clearly the size of air cell. It forms about 58% of the total weight of the egg. is an opaque soft substance which congeals in heat. B. Selection of egg Part Shell White Yolk Smell Testing of egg  Shake it slightly. A very fresh egg has a small air cell and receives a grade of AA. and minerals substances including a ferruginous pigment called haematgogen. The yolk is composed of albumins. sulphur and vitamins A. This provides a way of testing the age of an egg: as the air cell increases in size. presence of any blood clots and cracked shells. It contains the germ. the position of yolk. Chicken eggs are graded according to the size of this air cell.

The air cell is comparatively small.At least 70 grams Extra Large . b. Here the amount of thick white is large and yolk is well formed and centralized.At least 56 grams Medium. they lose more quality in 1 day than in a week in the refrigerator. e. The airspace will be larger and yolk has moved from its normal position to the extent of touching the shell. tightly covered. They can be frozen only with the addition of 1/8 teaspoon salt or 1 ½ teaspoons sugar or corn syrup per 1/4 cup egg yolks. transferring them to the egg container in the refrigerator door exposes them to odours and damage. be refrigerated up to a month. The best flavour and cooking quality will be realized in eggs used within a week.Chapter V 3 EGGS Grades of eggs Jumbo . with white and yolk beginning to lose their shape when the egg is broken. They can be frozen as is up to 6 months. The whole egg shows a larger air space and yolk starts losing its central position. providing the shells are intact. Leftover yolks can be covered with cold water and refrigerated.At least 64 grams Large. however. Tightly covered egg whites can be refrigerated up to 4 days. Eggs should be stored in the carton in which they came. • Second quality egg (class B): this grade of eggs shows some deterioration. Eggs must always be refrigerated. Compiled by ANEESH R PILLAI . They should always be stored large-end-up and should never be placed near odoriferous foods (such as onions) because they easily absorb odours. f. Stale egg (class C): the characteristic appearance of a stale egg is that the egg yolk and white lose their shape when the egg is broken. c. for up to 3 days.At least 42 grams Pee Wee . d.At least 49 grams Small . They can. • Storage of Eggs a.Less than 42 grams Quality of an egg The age of an egg can affect the quality and appearance in the following ways • Fresh egg ( class A): this represents the first quality or fresh egg. When stored at room temperature. An easy way to freeze whites is to place one in each section of an ice cube tray.

3. or turning the eggs to cook both sides. COOKED IN THE SHELL . STEAM-BASTED VARIATION (a lower-fat version of fried eggs) Use just enough butter to grease a 7" to 8" omelette pan or skillet or substitute a light coating of vegetable pan spray and/or a non-stick pan. heat 1 to 2 tablespoons butter until just hot enough to sizzle a drop of water. other than hard-cooked. Turn off heat. 4. break and slip 2 eggs into a greased ramekin. in the hot water. Break and slip 2 eggs into the pan. should be cooked until the whites are completely coagulated and the yolks begin to thicken. oven until whites are completely set and yolks begin to thicken but are not hard. The following are the basic methods for cooking eggs: 1. HARD-COOKED – Boil the eggs in water for about 15 minutes (for large eggs). scoop the egg out of each shell half into a serving dish.to 8-inch omelette pan or skillet over medium-high heat. FRIED – Egg cooked in a small amount of fat in a pan. Bake in preheated 325 degrees F. Cook slowly until whites are completely set and yolks begin to thicken but are not hard. Eggs are available in other forms including powdered and frozen (whole or separated). Egg cookery The basic principle of egg cooking is to use a medium to low temperature and time carefully. Hard-cooked eggs should be refrigerated no more than a week. covering with lid. Spoon 1 tablespoon half and half. covered. shallow baking dish or 10-ounce custard cup.Place eggs in single layer in a saucepan and add enough water to come at least 1 inch above eggs. 6. spooning butter over the eggs to baste them. Adjust the time up or down by about 3 minutes for each size larger or smaller. break the shell through the middle with a knife. If necessary. Eggs. In a 7. the proper amount of time. Immediately run cold water over the eggs or place them in ice water until cool enough to handle. depending on number of servings being baked. yolks become tough and their surface may turn gray-green. Over medium-high heat. Compiled by ANEESH R PILLAI . To serve out of the shell. Immediately reduce the heat to low. To help prevent a dark surface on the yolks.Chapter V 4 EGGS g.For each serving. SOFT-COOKED – Boil the eggs for about 4 to 5 minutes depending on desired doneness. Cover and quickly bring just to boiling. whites shrink and become tough and rubbery. 2. light cream or milk over eggs. Let the eggs stand. When eggs are cooked at too high a temperature or for too long at a low temperature. about 12 to 18 minutes. remove the pan from the burner to prevent further boiling. BAKED (also known as shirred) . immediately run cold water over the eggs or place them in ice water until completely cooled. With a teaspoon. 5.

meringues. For each serving. 7. if desired. 3) Leavening . milk. bring 1 to 3 inches of water or other liquid to boiling. this helps stick together the ingredients they are mixed with. Cook until the edges turn white. Pour in the egg mixture. SCRAMBLED (yolks and whites beaten together before cooking in a greased pan). soufflés etc increases the volume and the egg white film hardens. 2 tablespoons milk and salt and pepper to taste until blended. Eggs are also used for preparing pancake batters (eggs. Continue until the eggs are thickened and no visible liquid egg remains. They are briefly discussed below: 1) Binding . 8.) Cover the pan tightly to hold in steam. broth or other liquid) In a saucepan or deep omelette pan. Do not stir constantly. When eggs are heated they coagulate. one at a time. lift out the eggs. Eggs are used to help bind together meatballs. about 1 minute.By beating the egg whites a foam is made up of air bubbles. Cook until the whites are completely set and the yolks begin to thicken but are not hard. Many of the food items. Immediately reduce the heat to low. into the water. slip the eggs. Compiled by ANEESH R PILLAI . Holding the dish close to the water's surface. 2) Coating . forming large soft curds. gently draw an inverted pancake turner completely across the bottom and sides of the pan. beat together 2 eggs. flour and milk). With a slotted spoon. heat 2 teaspoons butter until just hot enough to sizzle a drop of water. such as fish fillets. Cook until the whites are completely set and the yolks begin to thicken but are not hard. Uses of Eggs The eggs are used in various forms while preparing food.Chapter V 5 EGGS heat the butter or the coated pan until just hot enough to sizzle a drop of water. 1 by 1. This mixture. meatloaf and flour mixtures. As the mixture begins to set. (Decrease the proportion slightly for each additional egg being fried. Break cold eggs. about 3 to 5 minutes. POACHED (eggs cooked out of the shell in hot water. Drain them in a spoon or on paper towels and trim any rough edges. are dipped into the batter before crumbing and then fried. Reduce the heat to keep the water gently simmering. cutlets etc.A binder helps other ingredients bind together. In a 7" to 8" omelette pan or skillet over medium heat. Break and slip the eggs into the pan. surrounded by a thin elastic film of egg white. into a custard cup or saucer or break several into a bowl. Add about 1 teaspoon water for each 2 eggs. when added to products such as sponge cakes.The eggs or egg batter help to give a coat to the food items and prevent them from disintegrating and gives them a protective coating.

sieved or quarters of boiled eggs are used to decorate or garnish dishes such as: salads. the heat coagulated the eggs and makes the custard firm. Vienna steaks etc. briyanis. 7) Clarifying – Consommés are clarified with egg whites. Compiled by ANEESH R PILLAI . 6) Decoration and Garnishing – Slices. 5) Thickening – Eggs help to improve the consistency of gravies. sauces and soups. curries. curries. cakes. Egg liaisons used in soups and sauces help to thicken and improve the consistency. When used in custards.Chapter V 6 EGGS 4) Emulsifying – Eggs are the emulsifiers that give a smooth mayonnaise sauce. It is also used as an emulsifier in ice-cream. cream puffs etc.