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How to Do PASW (SPSS) for Descriptive Lab
SECTION A: ENTER DATA Please see the practice exercises for details on how to enter data. Remember, you must name your variables and make sure to label all nominal variables so you know which group is which! Here is what the first five rows should look like.

SECTION B: DETAILED HOW-TO INSTRUCTIONS FOR EXPLORE To open the Explore subprogram, choose the menu option Analyze, then Descriptive Statistics, then Explore.

The Explore dialog box appears. To run Explore for each group separately (returning students, continuing students), you set it up as follows: the Scores variable is the dependent variable (this is what we are measuring) and so goes in the Dependent List. The School variable is the independent variable (it is the variable with groups) and goes in the Factor List (later in the course we will get used to using the term Factor for independent variable).

a histogram. click on the Plots button. . SECTION C: DETAILED HOW-TO INSTRUCTIONS FOR BAR GRAPHS Your goal is to create a graph with the independent variable (School) on the X-axis and the dependent variable (scores) on the Y-axis. School is a nominal variable so you need to use a bar graph! In addition. The following message box appears. Remember. the message box reminds you to be sure to have value labels for School. Click Continue and then OK. Scores should be interval or ratio (SPSS calls that Scale) and School should be nominal. then ChartBuilder. The following dialog box will appear. Your variable view should look like this: When you are sure that your data are as needed. You should now compare your output to the values that you calculated by hand. Select the boxes indicated in the diagram (the Boxplots Factor levels together will already be selected). choose Graphs from menu on top of SPSS window. SPSS will automatically produce a table of descriptive statistics. and a boxplot.2 Before you click OK you want to get a stem-and-leaf diagram. To do this.

Click APPLY.3 You want a simple bar graph so DOUBLE-CLICK on the one in the upper left in the window with the pictures of different types of graphs. You should get a box like this: Plus a second dialog box that shows up to the right that looks like the screenshot below. . Make sure to check Display error bars.

Click on the OK button and the graph will appear in the output: SECTION D: LOOKING FOR OUTLIERS If you look at the data you might notice that there are some extremely low scores from students in inner-city schools. drag and drop the variable names on the left to the appropriate boxes on the right .4 Next. This means that outliers might be affecting our results. . To do this. we are going to tell SPSS to ignore those three people with extreme scores. we need to click Data  Select Cases (see next page). See the instructions for details regarding identifying outliers. Because we never delete data.

Then." then click the IF button. first click on Scores to highlight it. This is telling SPSS to only pay attention to scores over 35. . then on the arrow to move it over to the box on the right. Click on the Score variable on the left.5 You should get a dialogue box. You should then type "> 35" (you can also use the keypad on the screen). Another box should come up. then click on the circle next to "If condition is satisfied. To tell SPSS what to pay attention to. click Continue to return to the previous dialogue box and then click OK.

and the whiskers (lines at right angles) mark the highest and lowest expected scores (what we would expect the range to be based on the interquartile range. you should go back to your data and look to make sure that there are three rows with a slash through the number in the column to the far right. This means that SPSS is going to ignore them.. repeat the same steps as before to get descriptive statistics and bar graphs).6 After you do this. the line inside the box is the median.e. APPENDIX: Explanation of Boxplots The EXPLORE procedure gives you boxplots.5 IQR’s but less than 3 IQR’s from the end of the box are labeled as outliers (o). The box represents the interquartile range (from Q1 to Q3). go to the Data Editor window and find the row with those numbers in the leftmost column (the column that is normally blue). Values more than 1. . Values more than three IQR’s from the end of a box are labeled as extreme. denoted with an asterisk (*). you are ready to complete the same analyses with a sample without any outliers (i. Here is a picture of two of them: Now. You are then ready to answer the questions on the Instructions sheet. Here is how to interpret a boxplot. The numbers next to the outliers (o and *) are the case numbers—to find the individuals who had extreme scores.