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VECTOR CONTROL DRIVE OF PERMANENT

MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR USING
MATLAB/SIMULINK
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BACHELOR OF 1ECHAOLOCY
IA
ELEC1RICAL AAD ELEC1ROAICS EACIAEERIAC
BY
Ms. R. RADHIKA (07BE1A0213)
Ms. B. USHA RANI (07BE1A0220)

')n«) !h« «:!««)«n nu1nn)r« o]
Mr. H. SUDHEER
Associate Professor.
KITE
GHATKESAR

Department oI Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Krishna Murthy Institute oI Technologies and Engineering
(AIIiliated to J.N.T.U.H, approved by AICTE)
Edulabad (v), Ghatkesar (M), RR dist- 501301
2010-2011

KRISHNA MURTHY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

#%%
This is to certiIy that the proiect entitled VECTOR CONTROL
DRIVE OF PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
USING MATLAB/SIMULINK¨ that is being submitted by
Ms. R. Radhika (07BE1A0213) Ms. B. Usha Rani (07BE1A0220) in
partial IulIillment oI the requirement Ior the award oI Degree oI Bachelor
oI Technology in Electrical and Electronics Engineering¨ to
AWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY is a
record oI bonaIide work carried out by them under the guidance and
supervision. The results embodied in this proiect have not been submitted
to any other university or institute Ior the award oI any degree or
diploma.

Internal Cuide Head Of 1he Department
Mr. H. SUDHEER Mr. B. SRINIVAS
Associate Professor. K.I.T.E


EX1ERAAL EXAMIAER

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It gives immense pleasure to acknowledge the perennial inspiration oI
principal DR. S. F. KODAD oI KRISHAA MUR1HY IAS1I1U1E OF
1ECHAOLOCY AAD EACIAEERIAC and ProI. B.SRIAIJAS. Head oI
department oI Electrical and Electronics Ior the kind co-operation and
encouragement in bringing out this task. This rightIully belonged to him to Iacilitate
the completion oI this academic task.
I am grateIul to H.SUDHEER, Associate proIessor, Department oI Electrical
and Electronics Engineering, Ior taking me as his student and providing me the
opportunity to work in the area oI Power electronics. I am eternally indebted to him
Ior the Iacilities oI learning that he has provided to me. I am also thankIul to him Ior
his valuable guidance during the course oI my research work. I have learnt a lot oI
lessons in work ethics, proIessional behavior and meticulous approach to problem
solving Irom him which will inspire me Ior the rest oI my liIe.
One oI the reasons Ior the time I spent in the power electronics lab as a
student being enioyable is the people. The technical and non-technical discussions I
had with my Iriends here will be cherished by me Ior a very long time.
Lastly, I thank my parents Ior having given me the strength and moral
support during the course oI my stay here. I am indebted to them eternally Ior all
that they have done Ior me.

R.RADHIKA
B.USHARANI

ABSTRACT

Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has been widely used in high
perIormance drive applications Ior its advantages such as compactness, high
eIIiciency, reliability and suitability to environment. Due to its high power density
and smaller size, PMSM has evolved as the preIerred solution Ior speed and position
control drives on machine tools and robots. A Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
(PMSM) is a motor that uses permanent magnets to produce the air gap magnetic Iield
rather than using electromagnets. These motors have signiIicant advantages, attracting
the interest oI researchers and industry Ior use in many applications. Permanent
magnet synchronous motors are widely used in low and mid power applications such
as computer peripheral equipments, robotics, adiustable speed drives and electric
vehicles.
In order to overcome the inherent coupling eIIect and the sluggish response oI
scalar control the vector control is employed. By using the vector control, the
perIormance oI the AC machine can be made similar to that oI a DC machine. In this
work to achieve high perIormance the vector control oI the Permanent magnet
synchronous motors drive is employed. The simulation oI PMSM is developed using
SIMULINK. The eIIectiveness oI the proposed control method is veriIied by
simulation based on MATLAB. The simulation results along with the case study is
presented and explained in detail.

CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT i
LIST OF FIGURES v-vi
SYMBOLS vii
1 INTRODUCTION 1-3
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 Obiective 2
1.3 Research methodology 3
1.4 Scope oI proiect 3

2 LITERATURE SURVEY 4-10
2.1 Introduction 5
2.2 Literature survey 5
2.3 Literature conclusion 10
2.4 Problem deIinition 10

3 THEORITICAL ANALYSES 11-18
3.1 Introduction 12
3.2 Basic constructional details oI PMSM 12
3.3 Principle oI operation oI PMSM 15
3.4 Scalar control 17
3.5 Vector control 17

4 DESCRIPTION OF THE DRIVE SYSTEM 19-28
4.1Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive System 20
4.2 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor 21
4.2.1 Permanent Magnet Materials 21
4.2.2 ClassiIication oI Permanent Magnet Motors 22
4.2.2.1 Direction oI Iield Ilux 22
4.2.2.2 Flux density distribution 23
4.2.2.3 Permanent magnet radial Iield motors 23
4.3 Position Sensor 25
4.3.1 Optical Encoders 25
4.3.1.1 Incremental encoders 26
4.3.1.2 Absolute encoders 26
4.3.2 Position resolver 27

5 MODELING OF PM DRIVE SYSTEM 29-39
5.1 Introduction 30
5.2 Detailed Modeling oI PMSM 30
5.2.1 Parks TransIormation and Dynamic d q Modeling 32

5.2.2 Equivalent Circuit oI PMSM 32
5.3 PM Motor Control 32
5.3.1 Field Oriented Control oI PM Motors 33
5.3.1.1 Constant torque operation 35
5.3.1.2 Flux-weakening 35
5.4 Speed Control oI PM Motor 37
5.4.1 Implementation oI the Speed Control Loop 37

SPEED CHECK IMPLEMENTATION OF VECTOR CONTROLLED PMSM
DRIVE IN MATLAB/SIMULIMK 40-49
6.1 Introduction 41
6.2 Advantages oI SIMULINK 41
6.3 Simulation Tools 42
6.4 SIMULINK Simulation oI PMSM Drive 42
6.4.1 V
abc
to V
dqo
block and I
dqo
to I
abc
block 43
6.4.2 d-axis circuit and q-axis circuit 44
6.4.3 Load Torque Block 45
6.4.4 Speed Block 45
6.4.5 Vector Control Block 46
6.4.6 PM Motor Drive System in SIMULINK 47
6.4.7 Vector control oI PMSM drive 48

7 SIMULATION RESULTS 50-8
7.1 Case 1 51-54
7.1.1 ReIerence torque and actual torque 51
7.1.2 Actual speed and ReIerence speed 51
7.1.3 I
abc
currents and V
abc
voltages 52
7.1.4 V
aIa
and V
beta
53
7.1.5 Error Signal between ReIerence Speed and Actual Speed 54
7.1.6 V
d
, V
q
voltage and I
d-reI
, I
q-reI
54
7.2 Case 2 56-59
7.2.1 Actual speed and ReIerence speed 56
7.2.2 ReIerence torque and actual torque 56
7.2.3 I
d
, I
q
, I
d-reI
and I
q-reI
57
7.2.4 I
abc
currents and V
abc
voltages 58
7.2.5 Error Signal between ReIerence Speed and Actual Speed 59
7.2.6 V
d
voltage and V
q
voltage 59
7.3case 3 60-63
7.3.1 Actual speed and ReIerence speed 60
7.3.2 ReIerence torque and actual torque 61
7.3.3 I
abc
currents and V
abc
voltages 61
7.3.4 Error Signal between ReIerence Speed and Actual Speed 62
7.3.5 V
d
voltage and V
q
voltage 62
7.3.6 I
d
, I
q
, I
d-reI
and I
q-reI
63

7.4 Case 4 64-67
7.4.1 Actual speed and ReIerence speed 64
7.4.2 ReIerence torque and actual torque 64
7.4.3 Error Signal between ReIerence Speed and Actual Speed 65
7.4.4 I
q
, I
d
, I
dreI
and I
qreI
66
7.4.5 V
d
voltages and V
q
voltages 67
7.5 Discussion oI results 68

8 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE 9
8.1 Conclusion 70
8.2 Future scope 70

Appendices 71-7

Bibliography 77





















LIST OF FIGURES

NAME OF THE FIGURE PAGE NO.

Figure 3.1 Three basic conIigurations oI PMSMs 13
Figure 3.2 Torque Establishment 16
Figure 3.3 (a) Rotor (b) Stator (c) Phase Currents 16
Figure 3.4 (a) Separately Excited Dc Motor (b) Vector Controlled Ac Motor 18
Figure 4.1 Drive Systems Schematic 20
Figure 4.2 Permanent Magnets Synchronous Motor 21
Figure 4.3 Flux Density Vs Magnetizing Field oI Permanent Magnetic
Materials 22
Figure 4.4 SurIace Permanent Magnet Motor 24
Figure 4.5 Interior Permanent Magnet Motor 25
Figure 4.6 Optical Encoder 25
Figure 4.7 Quadrature Encoder Channels 26
Figure 4.8 Absolute Encoder 27
Figure 4.9 Resolver 27
Figure 4.10 Excitation and Output Signal oI the Resolver 28
Figure 5.1 Motor Axis 30
Figure 5.2 PMM Electric Circuits without Damper Windings 32
Figure 5.3 SelI Controls Synchronous Motor 33
Figure 5.4 Steady State Torque versus Speed 33
Figure 5.5 Block Diagram 38
Figure 5.6 Proportional integral Controller 38
Figure 5.7 Block Diagram oI Speed Loop 39
Figure 6.1 V
abc
to V
dqo
block 43
Figure 6.2 I
dqo
to I
abc
block 43
Figure 6.3 d-axix circuit and q-axis circuit 44
Figure 6.4 Load Torque Block 45
Figure 6.5 Speed Block 45
Figure 6.6 Vector Control Block 46
Figure 6.8 PM Motor Drive System in SIMULINK 48
Figure 6.9 Vector control oI PMSM drive 48
Figure 7.1 ReIerence torque and actual torque 51
Figure 7.2 (a) Actual speed and (b) ReIerence speed 52
Figure 7.3 (a) I
abc
currents and (b) V
abc
voltages 53
Figure 7.4 (a)V
aIa
and (b)V
beta
53
Figure 7.5 Error Signal between ReIerence Speed and Actual Speed 54
Figure 7.6 V
d
voltage and V
q
voltage 55
Figure 7.7 (a) I
d-reI
and (b) I
q-reI
55
Figure 7.8 (a) Actual speed and (b) ReIerence speed 56
Figure 7.9 (a) ReIerence torque and (b) actual torque 57
Figure 7.10 (a) Id current and (b) Iq current 57
Figure 7.11 (a) I
d-reI
and (b) I
q-reI
58
Figure 7.12 (a)Iabc currents and (b)Vabc voltages 58
Figure 7.13 Error Signal between ReIerence Speed and Actual Speed 59
Figure 7.14 V
d
voltage and V
q
voltage 60

Figure 7.15 (a) Actual speed and (b) ReIerence speed 60
Figure 7.16 (a) ReIerence torque and (b)actual torque 61
Figure 7.17 (a) I
abc
currents and (b)V
abc
voltages 61
Figure 7.18 Error Signal between ReIerence Speed and Actual Speed 62
Figure 7.19 (a) V
d
voltage and (b) V
q
voltage 62
Figure 7.20 (a) I
d
current and (b) I
q
current 63
Figure 7.21 (a) I
d-reI
and (b) I
q-reI
63
Figure 7.22 (a) Actual speed and (b) ReIerence speed 64
Figure 7.23 (a) ReIerence torque and (b) actual torque 65
Figure 7.24 Error Signal between ReIerence Speed and Actual Speed 65
Figure 7.25 (a) I
d
current and (b) I
q
current 66
Figure 7.26 (a) I
d-reI
and (b) I
q-reI
66
Figure 7.27 (a) V
d
Voltage and (b) V
q
Voltage 67


























Symbols

i
abc
abc phase current vector
i
drr
,i
qrr
Fictitious rotor currents in d and q axis, A
i
ds
,i
qs
d and q axis stator currents, A
i
u
,i
þ
Two phase instantaneous currents, A
i
um
,i
þm
Currents in the ne rotor Irames, A
J Total moment oI inertia, Kg-m
2
L
q
, L
d
Quadrature and direct axis selI inductances, H
L
qn
, L
dn
Normalized quadrature and direct axis selI inductances, p.u
L
qq
, L
dd
SelI inductance oI the stator q and d axis windings, H
L
uu
SelI inductance oI u the rotor axis windings, H
L
þþ
SelI inductance oI þ the rotor axis windings, H
R
d
, R
q
Stator d and q axis winding resistance, O
P DiIIerential operator
T
abc
TransIormation Irom abc to qd0 axes
V
abc
abc voltage vector

Subscripts

d Direct-axis
q Quadrature-axis

Acronyms

PM Permanent Magnet
PMDC Permanent Magnet Direct Current
PMSM Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine
PWM Pulse Width Modulation
MMF Magneto-Motive Force
EMF Electro-Motive Force
BLDC BrushLess Direct Current

1

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION










2

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
With the advent oI switching power transistor and silicon controlled rectiIier
devices in later part oI 1950`s, and the replacement oI the mechanical commutator
with an electronic commutator in the Iorm oI an inverter was achieved. These two
developments have contributed to the development oI the PM synchronous and
brushless DC machines. A Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is a
motor that uses permanent magnets to produce the air gap magnetic Iield rather than
using electromagnets. These motors have signiIicant advantages, attracting the
interest oI researchers and industry Ior use in many applications.
Permanent magnet synchronous motors are widely used in low and mid power
applications such as computer peripheral equipments, robotics, adiustable speed
drives and electric vehicles.
The growth in the market oI PMSM motor drives has demanded the need oI
simulation tool capable oI handling motor drive simulations. Simulations have helped
the process oI developing new systems including motor drives, by reducing cost and
time. Simulation tools have the capabilities oI perIorming dynamic simulations oI
motor drives in a visual environment so as to Iacilitate the development oI new
systems.
In this work, the simulation oI PMSM is developed using SIMULINK. The
vector control is one oI the high perIormance control strategies Ior ac machine. The
aim oI the proiect is to study the implementation oI the vector control in Permanent
Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM).
1.2 OBECTIVES
The obiectives oI the proiect are
i) To stimulate the vector control oI permanent magnet synchronous motor.
ii) To analyze the simulation results.

3

1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research work is undertaken in the Iollowing stages:
i) Studied the application oI MATLAB/SIMULINK.
ii) Studied the theoretical basis oI the vector control Ior permanent magnet
synchronous motor drives.
iii) Simulation oI vector control oI permanent magnet synchronous motor is
perIormed using SIMULINK.
iv) Analyzed the simulation results.
1.4 SCOPE OF PROECT
The scope oI work Ior this proiect
i) PMSM with saliency is considered.
ii) Simulation is perIormed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
iii) The perIormance oI vector control oI PMSM is discussed based on the
simulation results.



4

CHAPTER-II
LITERATURE SURVEY AND PROBLEM
DEFINITION

3

2 LITERATURE SURVEY AND PROBLEM
DEFINITION
2.1 INTRODUCTION
A literature survey Iorms the basis on which a proiect can be built or
developed. It Iorms the core to which ideas can be added and developed into a
comprehensive system, which will be able to cover the deIiciencies oI some oI the
existing systems.
This chapter deals with the data and inIormation accumulated aIter reIerring to
many books, articles and technical papers written by well-known authors and the
problem deIinition oI the proiect.
2.2 LITERATURE SURVEY
|1| T. Sebastian, G. Slemon, and M. Rahman, "Modeling oI permanent magnet
synchronous motors," Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 22, pp. 1069-1071,
1986.
|2| T. M. Jahns, G. B.Kliman, and T. W. Neumann, "Interior Permanent-Magnet
Synchronous Motors Ior Adiustable-Speed Drives," Industrial Applications, IEEE
Transactions on, vol. IA-22, pp. 738-746, 1986.
|3| P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, "Modeling oI permanent magnet motor drives,"
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 35, pp. 537-541, 1988.
|4| P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, "Modeling, simulation, and analysis oI permanent-
magnet motor drives. I. The permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive," Industry
Applications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 25, pp. 265-273, 1989.
|5| B. K. Bose, Modern power electronics and AC drives: Prentice Hall, 2002
|6| A. H. Wiienayake and P. B. Schmidt, "Modeling and analysis oI permanent
magnet synchronous motor by taking saturation and core loss into account," 1997.
6

|7| K. Jang-Mok and S. Seung-Ki, "Speed control oI interior permanent magnet
synchronous motor drive Ior the Ilux weakening operation," Industry Applications,
IEEE Transactions on, vol. 33, pp. 43-48, 1997.
|8| Weera Kaewiind and Mongkol Konghirun 'Vector Control Drive oI Permanent
Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Resolver Sensor¨ ECTI transactions on electrical
eng., electronics, and communications vol.5, no.1 Iebruary 2007.

PM motor drives have been a topic oI interest Ior the last twenty years.
DiIIerent authors have carried out modeling and simulation oI such drives. Some oI
them have been discussed in detail.
1] T. Sebastian. G. Slemon. and M. Rahman. "Modeling of permanent magnet
synchronous motors"
In 1986 Sebastian, T., Slemon, G. R. and Rahman, M. A. |1| reviewed
permanent magnet synchronous motor advancements and presented equivalent
electric circuit models Ior such motors and compared computed parameters with
measured parameters. Experimental results on laboratory motors were also given.

2] T. M. ahns. G. B.Kliman. and T. W. Neumann. "Interior Permanent-
Magnet Synchronous Motors for Adjustable-Speed Drives."
In 1986 Jahns, T.M., Kliman, G.B. and Neumann, T.W. |2| discussed that
interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous motors possessed special Ieatures Ior
adiustable speed operation which distinguished them Irom other classes oI ac
machines. They were robust high power density machines capable oI operating at
high motor and inverter eIIiciencies over wide speed ranges, including considerable
range oI constant power operation. The magnet cost was minimized by the low
magnet weight requirements oI the IPM design. The impact oI the buried magnet
conIiguration on the motor`s electromagnetic characteristics was discussed. The rotor
magnetic saliency preIerentially increased the quadrature-axis inductance and
introduced a reluctance torque term into the IPM motor`s torque equation. The
electrical excitation requirements Ior the IPM synchronous motor were also discussed.
7

The control oI the sinusoidal phase currents in magnitude and phase angle with
respect to the rotor orientation provided a means Ior achieving smooth responsive
torque control. A basic Ieed Iorward algorithm Ior executing this type oI current
vector torque control was discussed, including the implications oI current regulator
saturation at high speeds. The key results were illustrated using a combination oI
simulation and prototype IPM drive measurements.

3] Modeling. Simulation. And Analysis of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous
Motor Drive¨ by P. Pillay and R. krishnan
In 1988 Pillay and Krishnan, R.|3| presented PM motor drives and classiIied
them into two types such as permanent magnet synchronous motor drives (PMSM)
and brushless DC motor (BDCM) drives. The PMSM has a sinusoidal back EMF and
requires sinusoidal stator currents to produce constant torque while the BDCM has a
trapezoidal back EMF and requires rectangular stator currents to produce constant
torque. The PMSM is very similar to the wound rotor synchronous machine except
that the PMSM that is used Ior servo applications tends not to have any damper
windings and excitation is provided by a permanent magnet instead oI a Iield winding.
Hence the d, q model oI the PMSM can be derived Irom the well known model oI the
synchronous machine with the equations oI the damper windings and Iield current
dynamics removed. Equations oI the PMSM are derived in rotor reIerence Irame and
the equivalent circuit is presented without dampers. The damper windings are not
considered because the motor is designed to operate in a drive system with Iield-
oriented control. Because oI the non-sinusoidal variation oI the mutual inductances
between the stator and rotor in the BDCM, it is also shown in this paper that no
particular advantage exists in transIorming the abc equations oI the BCDM to the d, q
Irame. As an extension oI his previous work, Pillay, P. and Krishnan, R. in 1989
presented the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which was one oI
several types oI permanent magnet ac motor drives available in the drives industry.
The motor had a sinusoidal Ilux distribution. The application oI vector control as well
as complete modeling, simulation, and analysis oI the drive system were given. State
space models oI the motor and speed controller and real time models oI the inverter
switches and vector controller were included. The machine model was derived Ior the
PMSM Irom the wound rotor synchronous motor. All the equations were derived in
8

rotor reIerence Irame and the equivalent circuit was presented without dampers. The
damper windings were not considered because the motor was designed to operate in a
drive system with Iield-oriented control. PerIormance diIIerences due to the use oI
pulse width modulation (PWM) and hysteresis current controllers were examined.
Particular attention was paid to the motor torque pulsations and speed response and
experimental veriIication oI the drive perIormance were given.

4] P. Pillay and R. Krishnan. "Modeling. Simulation. And Analysis Of
Permanent-Magnet Motor Drives".
As an extension oI his previous work, Pillay, P. and Krishnan, R. in 1989 |4|
presented the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which was one oI
several types oI permanent magnet ac motor drives available in the drives industry.
The motor had a sinusoidal Ilux distribution. The application oI vector control as well
as complete modeling, simulation, and analysis oI the drive system were given. State
space models oI the motor and speed controller and real time models oI the inverter
switches and vector controller were included. The machine model was derived Ior the
PMSM Irom the wound rotor synchronous motor. All the equations were derived in
rotor reIerence Irame and the equivalent circuit was presented without dampers. The
damper windings were not considered because the motor was designed to operate in a
drive system with Iield-oriented control. PerIormance diIIerences due to the use oI
pulse width modulation (PWM) and hysteresis current controllers were examined.
Particular attention was paid to the motor torque pulsations and speed response and
experimental veriIication oI the drive perIormance were given.

5] Modern Power Electronics And Ac Drives¨ by B. K. Bose
Bose, B. K., in 2001 |5|, presented diIIerent types oI synchronous motors and
compared them to induction motors. The modeling oI PM motor was derived Irom the
model oI salient pole synchronous motor. All the equations were derived in
synchronously rotating reIerence Irame and was presented in the matrix Iorm. The
equivalent circuit was presented with damper windings and the permanent magnet
was represented as a constant current source. Some discussions on vector control
using voltage Ied inverter were given.

9

] Modeling And Analysis Of Pmsm¨ by Wijenayake. A.H. and Schmidt. P.B.
The paper in 1997 by Wiienayake, A.H. and Schmidt, P.B. |6|, described the
development oI a two-axis circuit model Ior permanent magnet synchronous motor
(PMSM) by taking machine magnetic parameter variations and core loss into account.
The circuit model was applied to both surIace mounted magnet and interior permanent
magnet rotor conIigurations. A method Ior on-line parameter identiIication scheme
based on no-load parameters and saturation level, to improve the model, was
discussed in detail. Test schemes to measure the equivalent circuit parameters, and to
calculate saturation constants which govern the parameter variations were also
presented.

7] K. ang-Mok and S. Seung-Ki. "Speed control of interior permanent magnet
synchronous motor drive for the flux weakening operation."
In 1997 Jang-Mok, K. and Seung-Ki, S. |7|, proposed a novel Ilux-weakening
scheme Ior an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM). It was
implemented based on the output oI the synchronous PI current regulator reIerence
voltage to PWM inverter. The on-set oI Ilux weakening and the level oI the Ilux were
adiusted inherently by the outer voltage regulation loop to prevent the saturation oI
the current regulator. Attractive Ieatures oI this Ilux weakening scheme included no
dependency on the machine parameters, the guarantee oI current regulation at any
operating condition, and smooth and Iast transition into and out oI the Ilux weakening
mode. Experimental results at various operating conditions including the case oI
detuned parameters were presented to veriIy the Ieasibility
oI the proposed control scheme.

8] Weera Kaewjind and Mongkol Konghirun Vector Control Drive of
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Resolver Sensor¨
The rotor position is necessary to achieve the vector control drive system oI
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM). In this paper, the resolver sensor
detecting the rotor position oI PMSM is Io- cused. The outstanding Ieatures oI this
sensor are its robust structure and noise insensitivity. The resolver algorithm is
proposed and implemented in the vector control drive system oI PMSM. The pro
10

posed scheme has been veriIied by both simulation and experiment using
MATLAB/Simulink and the TMS320F2812 based digital controller, respectively The
proposed resolver algorithm has been veriIied in the current controlled drive system
oI PMSM. Both simulation and experimental results are presented. According to these
results, the re-solver algorithm can Iorce the angle error to zero. Thus, the computed
angle can eventually match with the actual rotor angle. Then, the correct rotor speed
computation is guaranteed. In the Iuture works, this algorithm will be extensively
tested in the speed controlled drive system oI PMSM.

2.3 LITERATURE REVIEW CONCLUSION
PM motor drives have been a topic oI interest Ior the last twenty years.
DiIIerent authors have carried out modeling and simulation oI such drives. This thesis
gives a brieI note oI the special Ieatures possessed by the interior PMSM drives
classiIication, modeling, comparison oI induction and synchronous motor drives and
vector control technique oI PMSM using resolver sensor.

2.4 PROBLEM DEFINITION
The main obiective is to implement the vector control technique in permanent
magnet synchronous motor and to observe the perIormance oI the drive under
diIIerent conditions oI speed and torque. in order to overcome inherent coupling
eIIect in scalar control and to increase the perIormance oI the permanent magnet
synchronous motor drive, we are making use oI the vector control technique. In order
to save time and money the vector control implementation is carried out in
MATLAB/SIMULINK.

11

CHAPTER III
THEORITICAL ANALYSIS








12

3 THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF PERMANENT
MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

3.1 INTRODUCTION
Permanent magnet synchronous motors are increasing applied in several areas
such as traction, automobiles, robotics and aerospace technology. The power density
oI permanent magnet synchronous motor is higher than one oI induction motor with
the same ratings due to the no stator power dedicated to the magnetic Iield production.
Nowadays, permanent magnet synchronous motor is designed not only to be more
powerIul but also with lower mass and lower moment oI inertia.

3.2 BASIC CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF PERMANENT
MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
A PMSM consists oI a magnetic rotor and wound stator construction. Its
wound stators can rapidly dissipate heat to the motor housing and environment. In
contrast, a brush motor traps the heat under a non-conductive air gap, resulting in
greater eIIiciency and power density Ior the PMSM design and providing high torque-
to-inertia ratios. A PMSM motor generates magnetic Ilux using permanent magnets in
the rotors, which are driven by the stators applying a synchronous rotational Iield. On
the other hand, the Ilux that is applied by the stators (the armature-reaction Ilux)
generates torque most eIIectively when it is perpendicular to Ilux generated by the
rotors. To maintain near-perpendicularity between stator Ilux and rotor Ilux, two
control methods with position-speed Ieedback loop are popularly used Ior controlling
a PMSM: Field-Oriented Control and Brushless DC Control.
In principle, the construction oI a permanent magnet synchronous machine
does not diIIer Irom that oI the BLDC, although distributed windings are more oIten
used. However, while the excitation current waveIorm was rectangular with a BLDC,
sinusoidal excitation is used with PMSMs, which eliminates the torque ripple caused
by the commutation. PMSMs are typically Ied by voltage source inverters, which
cause time-dependent harmonics on the air gap Ilux. Permanent magnet synchronous
machines can be realized with either embedded or surIace magnets on the rotor, and
13

the location oI the magnets can have a signiIicant eIIect on the motor`s mechanical
and electrical characteristics, especially on the inductances oI the machine. As the
relative permeability oI the modern rare-earth magnets, such as the NdFeB is only
slightly above unity, the eIIective air gap becomes long with a surIace magnet
construction. This makes the direct-axis inductance very low, which has a substantial
eIIect on the machine`s overloading capability, and also on the Iield weakening
characteristics. As the pull-out torque is inversely proportional to the d-axis
inductance, the pull-out torque becomes very high. Typically, the per-unit values oI
the d-axis synchronous inductances oI the SMPMSM servos vary between 0.20.35
p.u., and consequently the pull-out torque is in the range oI 46 p.u., which makes
them well suitable in motion control applications. The drawback oI a low Ld value is
the very short Iield weakening range, as the armature reaction with a surIace magnet
construction is very weak. This means that a high demagnetizing stator current
component would be required to decrease the air gap Ilux, and consequently, there
would be very little current leIt on the q-axis to produce the torque. Direct-axis
inductance oI a machine having embedded magnets becomes high, as the rotor
magnets per pole Iorm a parallel connection Ior the Ilux, while with a surIace magnet
construction they are connected in series. With equivalent magnets, the rotor
reluctance oI the surIace-magnet construction is thereIore double compared to an
embedded-magnet construction, and the inductance is inversely proportional to the
reluctance. With embedded-magnets, the direct-axis inductance is Iurther increased
because oI the higher rotor leakage Ilux. Three basic conIigurations oI PMSMs are
shown in Fig. 3.2.


Figure 3.1 Three basic conIigurations oI PMSMs
14

The most common PM rotor constructions are
a) Non-salient surIace magnet rotor, due to high d axis reluctance, L
d
is low and
consequently the pull-out torque high.
b) Salient pole surIace magnet rotor with inset magnets, which is basically the same
as a), but this type produces also some reluctance torque.
c) Embedded magnets in the rotor, which has a high L
d
value, and consequently a
poor overloading capability, but a lot better Iield weakening characteristics than with
the surIace magnet constructions.
Typically the construction oI the PMSM servomotor is somewhere between (a)
and (b), and the q-axis inductance is larger. Industrial PMSMs oIten represent the type
(c).
In addition to the good overloading capability, another reason that makes the
surIace magnet construction Iavorable in servo applications is the lower inertia. With
multi-pole machines, the rotor and the stator yokes can be made very thin, and all the
additional iron can be removed Irom the rotor to provide a lower inertia. These large
holes also improve the heat transIer Irom the rotor, as the high Irequency Ilux
pulsations generate heat on the magnets and on the rotor iron. As the servomotors
must typically rotate very Iast, gluing does usually not suIIice in attaching the
magnets on the surIace oI the rotor, and some non-magnetic material, such as a
stainless steel cylinder or a Iibre-glass band must be used to support the magnets. The
problem in using steel is that it is a highly conductive material, and the air gap
harmonics strongly generate losses and consequently heat in it. ThereIore, a Iibre-
glass band or a plastic cylinder is more oIten used Ior the magnet retaining.
UnIortunately, electrical insulators are also thermal insulators, which mean that their
thermal conductivity Ior the heat generated in the rotor iron and in the magnets is
poor. The temperature rise oI the magnets decreases their remanence Ilux density, and
consequently the torque production.
The rotor in Fig. 3.1 (b) with inset surIace magnets has better mechanical
characteristics, but on the other hand, it has higher leakages between two adiacent
magnets. In addition to the higher leakage, the torque production decreases more as
the motor must operate at higher pole angle due to increased q-axis inductance
compared to a non-salient rotor. Typically, the construction oI commercial
servomotors is somewhere between (a) and (b) in Fig. 3.1, that is, the magnets are
slightly embedded in the rotor. This improves the mechanical strength oI the rotor and
13

introduces a reluctance diIIerence-based term in the torque. According to
measurements made at LUT Ior eight diIIerent commercial servomotors in the power
range oI 35 kW, the values Ior the q-axis inductances were 1020 ° higher than the
values in the d-direction.
With buried magnets and Ilux concentration, a sinusoidal air gap Ilux density
distribution is possible with simple rectangular magnets. A sinusoidal air gap Ilux
distribution signiIicantly decreases the cogging torque especially with low-speed
multi-pole machines that have a low number oI slots per poles per phase number q.
Also, it is possible to increase the air gap Ilux density beyond the remanence Ilux
density oI the magnets with a Ilux concentration arrangement, and the machine can
produce more torque at a given volume. This is especially desirable in low speed
applications, such as in wind generators and in propulsion motors (ABB Azipod®)
where the space is limited. As the direct-axis inductance is typically high with a
buried magnet construction, the overloading capability will be poor, which makes this
motor type incompetent in motion control applications. Typically, the embedded v-
shape magnet machine can have L
d
approx. 0.7 p.u, which means only 1.4 p.u.
overloading capability according to the load-angle equation oI a synchronous machine
with the assumption that EPM ÷ us ÷ 1 p.u. and L
d
÷ L
q
. II there is a reluctance
diIIerence in the machine, the maximum torque can be somewhat larger. It must,
however, be borne in mind that despite the embedded magnets, it is oI course possible
to increase the physical air gap large enough, and thereby to decrease the direct axis
inductance oI the machine remarkably Irom the value given above. However, the
consumption oI the magnet material is increased remarkably in such a case.

3.3 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF PMSM
The PMSM rotate because oI the magnetic attraction between the rotor and the
stator poles. When the rotor poles are Iacing stator poles oI the opposite polarity, a
strong magnetic attraction is set up between them. The mutual attraction locks the
rotor and the stator poles together and the rotor is literally yanked into step with the
revolving stator magnetic Iield. At no-load conditions, rotor poles are directly
opposite to the stator poles and their axes coincide. At load conditions the rotor poles
lag behind the stator poles, but the rotor continues to turn at synchronous speed, the
16

mechanical angle '0¨ between the poles increases progressively as we increase the
load.

Figure 3.2 Torque Establishment
· Permanent magnet rotor (a)
· Three-phase Y-connected stator (b)
· Sinusoidal phase currents (c)
· Each phase is 120º displaced Irom the others
· Phase currents must sum to 0

Figure 3.3 (a) Rotor (b) Stator (c) Phase Currents
17

3.4 SCALAR CONTROL
Scalar control is based on relationships valid in steady state. It is simple but
due to the inherent coupling eIIect (i.e., torque and Ilux are proportional to the voltage
or current and Irequency) gives sluggish response and the system can be easily prone
to instability. In this only magnitude and Irequency oI voltage, current, etc are
controlled. Scalar control is used where several motors are driven in parallel by the
same inverter. In order to overcome these problems we are going Ior vector control.
3.5VECTOR CONTROL
The vector or Iield-oriented control technique brought on a renaissance in
modern high-perIormance control oI ac drives. This control method has Iound wide
acceptance in applications such as paper mills, textile mills, steel rolling mills,
machine tools, servos, and robotics. With vector or decoupling control, the dynamics
oI ac drives is similar to that oI dc drives, and with current control, the conventional
stability limit oI ac machine does not arise. This is indeed a remarkable
accomplishment. The direct or Ieedback method, which was developed by Blaschke,
depends on unit vector generation Irom the machine terminal voltages. As usual,
harmonic noise becomes a problem in Ieedback signal processing, and the method is
diIIicult to use near zero speed because oI the dominance oI stator drop. OI course,
Ior servo-type applications, the unit vectors can be computed Irom stator currents and
speed signals. In the indirect or Ieed Iorward method, which was developed by Hasse,
the above problems do not exist, but the controller is highly dependent on machine
parameters. This method has gained popularity in industrial applications. At present,
signiIicant R&D eIIorts have been Iocused on parameter identiIication techniques.
The so-called slip gain tuning in order to have decoupling between the rotor Ilux and
torque component oI current has been attempted by reactive power balancing,
iniecting a pseudo-random binary sequence, Kalman Iilter estimation, and MRAC
balancing oI reactive power, torque, and voltages. While the on-line controller tuning
with initial parameters is not diIIicult, tracking oI controller parameters with machine
parameters during system operation is always a challenge. Recently, a hybrid or
universal vector control method has been suggested, where the indirect vector control
operates in the lower speed range and is switched to parameter-independent direct
vector control in the higher speed range. It should be mentioned here that, the vector
18

control can be applied to both induction and synchronous machines and, in Iact can be
applied to the general AC system Ior independent active and reactive power control.
By using the Vector control, the perIormance oI the ac machine can be made similar
to that oI a separately excited DC motor by the orientation oI the stator MMF or
current vector in relation to the rotor Ilux to achieve a desired obiective.


Figure 3.4 (a) Separately Excited Dc Motor (b) Vector Controlled Ac Motor
In vector control we are making the i
a
and i
I
which are responsible Ior producing
the Iluxes oI 1
a
and 1
I
orthogonal to each other.
In case oI DC machine, the construction is such that i
a
and i
I
are perpendicular
to each other. I
a
is responsible Ior torque and iI is responsible Ior the production oI
Ilux. When torque is controlled by i
a
the 1
I
is not aIIected. When Ilux is controlled by
iI, there will be no eIIect on 1
a
. ThereIore a DC motor has Iast transient response.
But due to the inherent coupling eIIect the ac machine cannot give such Iast
response. In order to exhibit the DC machine characteristics, the machine is controlled
in the synchronously rotating reIerence Irame (d
e
-q
e
), where the sinusoidal machine
variables appear as DC quantities in the steady state.
The perIormance oI vector control is comparable to DC machine. It produces
less ripples but the system is more complex and less robust when compared to DTC
control.



19

CHAPTER IV
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRIVE SYSTEM







20

4 DESCRIPTION OF THE DRIVE SYSTEM
This chapter deals with the description oI the diIIerent components oI the drive
system such as permanent magnet motors, position sensors, inverters and current
controllers oI the drive system. A review oI permanent magnet materials and
classiIication oI permanent magnet motors is also given.

4.1 PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVE
SYSTEM
The motor drive consists oI Iour main components, the PM motor, inverter,
control unit and the position sensor. The components are connected as shown in
Figure 4.1.

Figure 4.1 Drive System Schematic
PM Motor: It is a motor that uses permanent magnets to produce the air gap magnetic
Iield. The most commonly used magnetic materials are rare earth magnets such as
NdFeB, SmCo, Strontium Ferrite or Barium Ierrite etc.
Inverter: The stator windings oI the motor are Ied by an inverter that generates a
variable Irequency variable voltage.
Position sensor: Instead oI controlling the inverter Irequency independently, the
Irequency and phase oI the output wave are controlled using a position sensor. These
are mainly used Ior determining the position oI the rotor. The most commonly used
position sensors are encoders and resolvers. Depending on the application and
21

perIormance desired by the motor a position sensor with the required accuracy can be
selected.
Control unit: The control input and the rotor position signal is given to the controller
and depending upon both the signals it will generate the output which is given to the
inverter.
4.2 PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a motor that uses
permanent magnets to produce the air gap magnetic Iield rather than using
electromagnets. These motors have signiIicant advantages, attracting the interest oI
researchers and industry Ior use in many applications.


Figure 4.2 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
The use oI permanent magnets (PMs) in construction oI electrical machines
brings the beneIits oI no electrical energy is absorbed by the Iield excitation system
and thus there are no excitation losses which means substantial increase in the
eIIiciency, higher torque and/or output power per volume than when using
electromagnetic excitation, better dynamic perIormance than motors with
electromagnetic excitation (higher magnetic Ilux density in the air gap),simpliIication
oI construction and maintenance. reduction oI prices Ior some types oI machines.
4.2.1 Permanent Magnet Materials
The properties oI the permanent magnet material will aIIect directly the
perIormance oI the motor and proper knowledge is required Ior the selection oI the
22

materials and Ior understanding PM motors.
The earliest manuIactured magnet materials were hardened steel. Magnets
made Irom steel were easily magnetized. However, they could hold very low energy
and it was easy to demagnetize. In recent years other magnet materials such as
Aluminum Nickel and Cobalt alloys (ALNICO), Strontium Ferrite or Barium Ferrite
(Ferrite), Samarium Cobalt (First generation rare earth magnet) (SmCo) and
Neodymium Iron-Boron (Second generation rare earth magnet) (NdFeB) have been
developed and used Ior making permanent magnets.
The rare earth magnets are categorized into two classes: Samarium Cobalt
(SmCo) magnets and Neodymium Iron Boride (NdFeB) magnets. SmCo magnets
have higher Ilux density levels but they are very expensive. NdFeB magnets are the
most common rare earth magnets used in motors these days. A Ilux density versus
magnetizing Iield Ior these magnets is illustrated in Figure 4.3.

Figure 4.3 Flux Density Vs Magnetizing Field oI Permanent Magnetic Materials

4.2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF PERMANENT MAGNET MOTORS
The permanent magnet synchronous motors are broadly classiIied according to
the direction oI Iield Ilux density distribution and permanent magnet radial Iield
motors as Iollows.
4.2.2.1 Direction of field flux
PM motors are broadly classiIied by the direction oI the Iield Ilux. The
Iirst Iield Ilux classiIication is radial Iield motor meaning that the Ilux is along the
23

radius oI the motor. The second is axial Iield motor meaning that the Ilux is
perpendicular to the radius oI the motor. Radial Iield Ilux is most commonly used in
motors and axial Iield Ilux have become a topic oI interest Ior study and used in a Iew
applications.

4.2.2.2 Flux density distribution
PM motors are classiIied on the basis oI the Ilux density distribution and the
shape oI current excitation. They are PMSM and PM brushless motors (BLDC). The
PMSM has a sinusoidal-shaped back EMF and is designed to develop sinusoidal back
EMF waveIorms.
They have the Iollowing:
1. Sinusoidal distribution oI magnet Ilux in the air gap
2. Sinusoidal current waveIorms
3. Sinusoidal distribution oI stator conductors.
BLDC has a trapezoidal-shaped back EMF and is designed to develop trapezoidal
back EMF waveIorms. They have the Iollowing:
1. Rectangular distribution oI magnet Ilux in the air gap
2. Rectangular current waveIorm
3. Concentrated stator windings.


4.2.2.3 Permanent magnet radial field motors
In PM motors, the magnets can be placed in two diIIerent ways on the rotor.
Depending on the placement they are called either as surIace permanent magnet motor
or interior permanent magnet motor.
24

SurIace mounted PM motors have a surIace mounted permanent magnet rotor.
Each oI the PM is mounted on the surIace oI the rotor, making it easy to build, and
specially skewed poles are easily magnetized on this surIace mounted type to
minimize cogging torque. This conIiguration is used Ior low speed applications
because oI the limitation that the magnets will Ily apart during high-speed operations.
These motors are considered to have small saliency, thus having practically equal
inductances in both axes .The permeability oI the permanent magnet is almost that oI
the air, thus the magnetic material becoming an extension oI the air gap.
For a surIace permanent magnet motor L
d
÷ L
q
.
The rotor has an iron core that may be solid or may be made oI punched
laminations Ior simplicity in manuIacturing. Thin permanent magnets are mounted on
the surIace oI this core using adhesives. Alternating magnets oI the opposite
magnetization direction produce radially directed Ilux density across the air gap. This
Ilux density then reacts with currents in windings placed in slots on the inner surIace
oI the stator to produce torque.
Figure 4.4 shows the placement oI the magnet.

Figure 4.4 SurIace Permanent Magnet Motor
Interior PM Motors have interior mounted permanent magnet rotor as
shown in Figure 4.4. Each permanent magnet is mounted inside the rotor. It is not as
common as the surIace mounted type but it is a good candidate Ior high-speed
operation. There is inductance variation Ior this type oI rotor because the permanent
magnet part is equivalent to air in the magnetic circuit calculation. These motors are
considered to have saliency with q axis inductance greater than the d axis inductance
(L
q
~ L
d
).
23

Figure 4.5 Interior Permanent Magnet Motor

4.3 Position Sensor
Operation oI permanent magnet synchronous motors requires position sensors
in the rotor shaIt when operated without damper winding. The need oI knowing the
rotor position requires the development oI devices Ior position measurement. There
are Iour main devices Ior the measurement oI position, the potentiometer, linear
variable diIIerential transIormer, optical encoder and resolvers. The ones most
commonly used Ior motors are encoders and revolvers. Depending on the application
and perIormance desired by the motor a position sensor with the required accuracy
can be selected.

4.3.1 Optical Encoders
The most popular type oI encoder is the optical encoder as shown in Figure
4.6, which consists oI a rotating disk, a light source, and a photo detector (light
sensor). The disk, is mounted on the rotating shaIt, has coded patterns oI opaque and
transparent sectors. As the disk rotates, these patterns interrupt the light emitted onto
the photo detector, generating a digital pulse or output signal.

Figure 4.6 Optical Encoder
26

Optical encoders oIIer the advantages oI digital interIace. There are two types
oI optical encoder`s Incremental encoder and absolute encoder.

4.3.1.1 Incremental encoders
Incremental encoders have good precision and are simple to implement but
they suIIer Irom lack oI inIormation when the motor is at rest position and in order Ior
precise position the motor most be stop at the starting point.
The most common type oI incremental encoder uses two output channels (A
and B) to sense position. Using two code tracks with sectors positioned 90° degrees
out oI phase, the two output channels oI the quadrature encoder indicate both position
and direction oI rotation as shown in Figure 4.7. II A leads B, Ior example, the disk is
rotating in a clockwise direction. II B leads A, then the disk is rotating in a counter-
clockwise direction. By monitoring both, the number oI pulses and the relative phase
oI signals A and B, it's possible to track position and direction oI rotation. Some
quadrature encoders also include a third output channel, called a zero or index or
reIerence signal, which supplies a single pulse per revolution. This single pulse is
used Ior precise determination oI a reIerence position. The precision oI the encoder is
Iix by its code disk but it can be increased by detecting the Up and Down transitions
on both the A and B channels.

Figure 4.7 Quadrature Encoder Channels
4.3.1.2 Absolute encoders
The absolute encoder, as shown in Figure 4.8 captures the exact position oI the
rotor with a precision directly related to the number oI bits oI the encoder. It can
rotate indeIinitely and even iI the motor stops the position can be measured or
obtained.
It provides a 'whole word¨ output with a unique code pattern representing
each position. This code is derived Irom independent tracks on the encoder disc (one
Ior each 'bit¨ oI resolution) corresponding to individual photo detectors. The output
Irom these detectors is HI (light) or LO (dark) depending on the code disc pattern Ior
27

that particular position.

Figure 4.8 Absolute Encoder
Absolute encoders are used in applications where a device is inactive Ior long
periods oI time or moves at a slow rate, such as Ilood gate control, telescopes, cranes,
valves, etc. They are also recommended in systems that must retain position
inIormation through a power outage.

4.4 POSITION REVOLVER
Position revolver as shown in Figure 4.9, also called rotary transIormers works
on the transIormer principle. The primary winding is placed on the rotor and
depending upon the rotor shaIt angle the induced voltage at the two secondary
windings oI the transIormer shiIted by 90° would be diIIerent. The position can be
calculated using the two voltages.
The resolver is basically a rotary transIormer with one rotating reIerence
winding (V
reI
) and two stator windings. The reIerence winding is Iixed on the rotor,
and thereIore, it rotates iointly with the shaIt passing the output windings, as is
depicted in Figure 4.9. Two stator windings are placed in quadrature (shiIted by 90°)
with one another and generate the sine and cosine voltages (V
sin
, V
cos
) respectively.
Both windings will be Iurther reIerred to as output windings. In consequence oI the
excitement applied on the reIerence winding V
reI
and along with the angular
movement oI the motor shaIt 0, the respective voltages are generated by resolver
output windings V
sin
, V
cos
.

Figure 4.9 Resolver
28

The Irequency oI the generated voltages is identical to the reIerence voltage and
their amplitudes vary according to the sine and cosine oI the shaIt angle 0.
Considering that one oI the output windings is aligned with the reIerence winding,
then it is generated Iull voltage on that output winding and zero voltage on the other
output winding and vice versa. The rotor angle 0 can be extracted Irom these voltages
shown in Figure 4.10.


Figure 4.10 Excitation and Output Signal oI the Resolver

The shaIt angle can be determined by an Inverse Tangent |5| Iunction oI the
quotient oI the sampled resolver output voltages V
sin
, V
cos
. This determination can be
expressed, in terms oI resolver output voltages, as Iollows:

)
cos
sin
tan(
U
U
- 7








29

CHAPTER V
MODELING OF PM DRIVE SYSTEM














30

5 MODELING OF PM DRIVE SYSTEM

5.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter deals with the detailed modeling oI a permanent magnet
synchronous motor. Field oriented control oI the motor in constant torque and Ilux-
weakening regions are discussed. Closed loop control oI the motor is developed using
a PI controller in the speed loop. Design oI the speed controller is discussed.

5.2 DETAILED MODELING OF PMSM
Detailed modeling oI PM motor drive system is required Ior proper simulation
oI the system. The d-q model has been developed on rotor reIerence Irame as shown
in Figure 5.1. At any time t, the rotating rotor d-axis makes and angle 0
r
with the Iixed
stator phase axis and rotating stator MMF makes an angle u with the rotor d-axis.
Stator MMF rotates at the same speed as that oI the rotor.

Figure 5.1 Motor Axis

The model oI PMSM without damper winding has been developed on rotor
reIerence Irame using the Iollowing assumptions:
1) Saturation is neglected.
2) The induced EMF is sinusoidal.
3) Eddy currents and hysteresis losses are negligible.
4) There are no Iield current dynamics.
31

5) Variation in rotor temperature with time is considered to be negligible
The stator equations in the rotor reIerence Irames using Ilux linkages are taken
to derive the model oI the PMSM.
The stator Ilux-linkage equations are given by:
V
qs
÷ R
q
i
qs
¹ pì
qs
¹ e
r
ì
ds
5.1
V
ds
÷ R
d
i
ds
e
r
ì
qs
¹ pì
ds
5.2
The d and q axes Flux Linkages in rotor reIerence Irame are given by
ì
qs
÷ L
s
i
qs
¹ L
m
i
qr
5.3
ì
ds
÷ L
s
i
ds
¹ L
m
i
dr
5.4
The PM excitation can be modeled as a constant current source i
Ir
. The rotor Ilux is
along the d-axis, so the d-axis rotor current is i
Ir
. The q-axis current in the motor is
zero, because there is no Ilux along this axis in the rotor, by assumption
ì
qs
÷ L
q
i
qs
5.5
ì
ds
÷ L
ds
i
ds
¹L
m
i
Ir
5.6
Where Lm÷ mutual inductance between the stator winding and rotor magnets
By substituting equations 5.5 and 5.6 into 5.1 and 5.2
V
qs
÷ R
q
i
qs
¹ e
r
( L
d
i
ds
¹ L
m
i
Ir
) ¹ p L
q
i
qs
5.7
V
ds
÷ R
s
i
ds
e
r
L
q
i
qs
¹ p ( L
d
i
ds
¹ L
m
i
Ir
) 5.8
Let L
m
i
Ir
÷ ì
I

Arranging equations 5.7 and 5.8 in matrix Iorm

¦
¦
'
+

'

+
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
¦
'
+

'

+
+

¦
¦
'
+

'

f
f r
d
q
d s q r
d r q q
i
i
L R L
L L R
J
J
s
d

ì æ
o æ
æ o
5.9
The developed torque motor is being given by


d q q d
P
e
i i T ì ì
2 2
3
5.10
The mechanical Torque equation is

dt
d
m L e
m
J B T T
æ
æ + +
5.11
Solving Ior the rotor mechanical speed Iorm equation 3.9

dt
J
B T T
m
m L e

æ
æ
5.12
And
P r m
2
æ æ 5.13
In the above equations e
r
is the rotor electrical speed where as e
m
is the rotor
mechanical speed.
32

5.2.1 Parks Transformation and Dynamic d q Modeling
The dynamic d q modeling is used Ior the study oI motor during transient and
steady state. It is done by converting the three phase voltages an currents to dqo
variables by using Parks transIormation |5|.
Converting the phase voltages variables V
abc
to V
dqo
variables in rotor reIerence
Irame the Iollowing equations are obtained

+
+

.
-
,
r r r
r r r
o
d
q
J
J
J
J
J
J
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
7 7 7
7 7 7
5.14
Convert V
dqo
to V
abc

+ +

o
d
q
r r
r r
r r
.
-
,
J
J
J
J
J
J
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 sin cos
7 7
7 7
7 7
5.15

5.2.2 Equivalent Circuit of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Equivalent circuits oI the motors are used Ior study and simulation oI motors.
From the d-q modeling oI the motor using the stator voltage equations the equivalent
circuit oI the motor can be derived. Assuming rotor d axis Ilux Irom the permanent
magnets is represented by a constant current source as described in the Iollowing
equation ì I ÷ L
dm
i
I
, Figure 5.2 is obtained.
Figure 5.2 Permanent Magnet Motor Electric Circuits without Damper Windings

5.3 PM MOTOR CONTROL
Control oI PM motors is perIormed using Iield oriented control Ior the
operation oI synchronous motor as a DC motor. The stator windings oI the motor are
Ied by an inverter that generates a variable Irequency variable voltage. Instead oI
controlling the inverter Irequency independently, the Irequency and phase oI the
33

output wave are controlled using a position sensor as shown in Figure 5.3.

Figure 5.3 SelI Control Synchronous Motor
Field oriented control was invented in the beginning oI 1970s and it
demonstrates that an induction motor or synchronous motor could be controlled like a
separately excited DC motor by the orientation oI the stator MMF or current vector in
relation to the rotor Ilux to achieve a desired obiective. In order Ior the motor to
behave like DC motor, the control needs knowledge oI the position oI the
instantaneous rotor Ilux or rotor position oI permanent magnet motor. This needs a
resolver or an absolute optical encoder. Knowing the position, the three phase currents
can be calculated. Its calculation using the current matrix depends on the control
desired. Some control options are constant torque and Ilux weakening. These options
are based in the physical limitation oI the motor and the inverter. The limit is
established by the rated speed oI the motor, at which speed the constant torque
operation Iinishes and the Ilux weakening starts as shown in Figure 5.4.

Figure 5.4 Steady State Torque versus Speed

5.3.1 Field Orientated Control Of PM Motors
The Field Orientated Control (FOC) consists oI controlling the stator currents
represented by a vector. This control is based on proiections which transIorm a three
phase time and speed dependent system into a two co-ordinate (d and q co-ordinates)
time invariant system. These proiections lead to a structure similar to that oI a DC
34

machine control. Field orientated controlled machines need two constants as input
reIerences: the torque component (aligned with the q co-ordinate) and the Ilux
components (aligned with d co-ordinate). As Field Orientated Control is simply based
on proiections the control structure handles instantaneous electrical quantities. This
makes the control accurate in every working operation (steady state and transient) and
independent oI the limited bandwidth mathematical model. The FOC thus solves the
classic scheme problems, in the Iollowing ways:
O the ease oI reaching constant reIerence (torque component and Ilux component
oI the stator current)
O the ease oI applying direct torque control because in the (d,q) reIerence Irame
the expression oI the torque is:
m iR Sq ay
By maintaining the amplitude oI the rotor Ilux (y R) at a Iixed value we have a
linear relationship between torque and torque component (i
Sq
). We can then control
the torque by controlling the torque component oI stator current vector.
The PMSM control is equivalent to that oI the DC motor by a decoupling
control known as Iield oriented control or vector control. The vector control separates
the torque component oI current and Ilux channels in the motor through its stator
excitation.
The vector control oI the PM synchronous motor is derived Irom its dynamic
model. Considering the currents as inputs, the three currents are:
) sin( - æ + t I i
r m ,
5.16
) sin(
3
26
- æ + t I i
r m -
5.17
) sin(
3
26
- æ + + t I i
r m .
5.18
Writing equations 5.16 to 5.18 in the matrix Iorm:

) (
) cos(
) cos(
) cos(
3
2
3
2
m
r
r
r
.
-
,
I
t
t
t
i
i
i
¦
¦
¦
'
+

'

+ +
+
+

¦
¦
¦
'
+

'

6
6
- æ
- æ
- æ
5.19
Where u is the angle between the rotor Iield and stator current phasor, e
r
is the
electrical rotor speed.
The previous currents obtained are the stator currents that must be transIormed
to the rotor reIerence Irame with the rotor speed e
r
, using Park`s transIormation. The
33

q and d axis currents are constants in the rotor reIerence Irames since u is a constant
Ior a given load torque. As these constants, they are similar to the armature and Iield
currents in the separately excited DC machine. The q axis current is distinctly
equivalent to the armature current oI the DC machine; the d axis current is Iield
current, but not in its entirety. It is only a partial Iield current; the other part is
contributed by the equivalent current source representing the permanent magnet Iield.
For this reason the q axis current is called the torque producing component oI the
stator current and the d axis current is called the Ilux producing component oI the
stator current.
Substituting equation 5.19 and 5.14 is obtained id and i
q
in terms oI I
m
as Iollows:

¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
¦
'
+

'

-
-
cos
sin
m
d
q
I
i
i
5.20
Using equations 5.1, 5.2, 5.10 and 5.20 the electromagnetic torque equation is
obtained as given below.

) - ì - sin 2 sin ) (
2
2
1
2 2
3
m f
m
q d
P
e
I I L L T +
5.21

5.3.1.1 Constant torque operation
Constant torque control strategy is derived Irom Iield oriented control, where
the maximum possible torque is desired at all times like the DC motor. This is
perIormed by making the torque producing current i
q
equal to the supply current I
m
.
That results in selecting the angle u to be 90 º degrees according to equation 5.20. By
making the id current equal to zero the torque equation can be rewritten as:

q f
P
e
i T ì
2 2
3
5.22
Assuming that:


f
P
t
k ì
2 2
3

5.23
The torque is give by
q t e
i k T
5.24
Like the DC motor, the torque is dependent oI the motor current.



36

5.3.1.2 Flux-weakening
Flux weakening is the process oI reducing the Ilux in the d axis direction oI
the motor which results in an increased speed range. The motor drive is operated with
rated Ilux linkages up to a speed where the ratio between the induced EMF and stator
Irequency (V/I) is maintained constant. AIter the base Irequency, the V/I ratio is
reduced due to the limit oI the inverter DC voltage source which is Iixed. The
weakening oI the Iield Ilux is required Ior operation above the base Irequency. This
reduces the V/I ratio. This operation results in a reduction oI the torque proportional to a
change in the Irequency and the motor operates in the constant power region.
The rotor Ilux oI PMSM is generated by permanent magnet which cannot be
directly reduced as induction motor. The principle oI Ilux-weakening control oI
PMSM is to increase negative direct axis current and use armature reaction to reduce
air gap Ilux, which equivalently reduces Ilux and achieves the purpose oI Ilux-
weakening control.
This method changes torque by altering the angle between the stator MMF and
the rotor d axis. In the Ilux weakening region where e
r
~ e
rated
angle u is controlled
by proper control oI id and i
q
Ior the same value oI stator current. Since i
q
is reduced
the output torque is also reduced. The angle u can be obtained as:
¦
¦
'
+

'

d
q
i
i
T,3
1
-
5.25
The current I
m
is related to id and i
q
by:

q d
m
i i I
2 2
+
5.26
Flux-weakening control realization
The realization process oI equivalent Ilux-weakening control is as Iollows,
1) Measuring rotor position and speed e
r
Irom a sensor which is set in motor rotation
axis.
2) The motor at the Ilux weakening region with a speed loop, Te* is obtained Irom the
PI controller.
3) Calculate I
q
* using equation 5.22
37

¦
¦
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

f
e
d
P
T
i
ì
2 2
3
*
5.27
5) Calculate I
d
* using equation:

d
f d
d
L
i
ì ì

*
5.28
6) Calculate u using equation 5.25.
7) Using u and rotor position the controller will generate the reIerence currents as per
equation 5.19.
8) Then the current controller makes uses oI the reIerence signals to control the
inverter Ior the desired output currents.
9) The load torque is adiust to the maximum available torque Ior the reIerence speed


r
r,ted
r,ted e L
T T
æ
æ

5.29
5.4 SPEED CONTROL OF PM MOTOR

Many applications, such as robotics and Iactory automation, require precise
control oI speed and position. Speed Control Systems allow one to easily set and
adiust the speed oI a motor. The control system consists oI a speed Ieedback system, a
motor, an inverter, a controller and a speed setting device. A properly designed
Ieedback controller makes the system insensible to disturbance and changes oI the
parameters.
The purpose oI a motor speed controller is to take a signal representing the
demanded speed, and to drive a motor at that speed. Closed Loop speed control
systems have Iast response, but become expensive due to the need oI Ieedback
components such as speed sensors.

5.4.1 Implementation of the Speed Control Loop
For a PM motor drive system with a Iull speed range the system will consist oI
a motor, an inverter, a controller (constant torque and Ilux weakening operation,
generation oI reIerence currents and PI controller) as shown in Figure 5.5
38

Figure 5.5 Block Diagram
The operation oI the controller must be according to the speed range. For
operation up to rated speed it will operate in constant torque region and Ior speeds
above rated speed it will operate in Ilux-weakening region. In this region the d-axis
Ilux and the developed torque are reduced.
Speed controller calculates the diIIerence between the reIerence speed and the
actual speed producing an error, which is Ied to the PI controller. PI controllers are
used widely Ior motion control systems. They consist oI a proportional gain that
produces an output proportional to the input error and an integration to make the
steady state error zero Ior a step change in the input. Block diagram oI the PI
controller is shown in Figure 5.6.

Figure 5.6 PI Controller
Speed control oI motors mainly consist oI two loops the inner loop Ior current
and the outer loop Ior speed. The order oI the loops is due to their response, how Iast
they can be changed. This requires a current loop at least 10 times Iaster than the
speed loop. Since the PMSM is operated using Iield oriented control, it can be
modeled like a DC motor. The design begins with the innermost current loop by
drawing the block diagram. But in PMSM drive system the motor has current
controllers which make the current loop. The current control is perIormed by the
comparison oI the reIerence currents with the actual motor currents.
39

The design oI the speed loop assumes that the current loop is at least 10 times
Iaster than speed loop, allowing reducing the system block diagram by considering
the current loop to be oI unity gain as shown in Figure 5.7.

Figure 5.7 Block Diagram oI Speed Loop
The open loop transIer Iunction oI the motor is given by:

5.30
k
T
÷ PM Ilux ÷ ì
I

The crossover Irequency has been selected an order smaller than the current
loop. To satisIy dynamic response without oscillations the phase margin ( o
PM
)
should be greater than 45º, preIerably close to 60º. Knowing the motor parameters and
phase margin, the k
i
and k
p
gains can be obtained Ior the motor controller using
equations 5.31 and 5.32.
Phase Margin ÷ o
OL
¹ 180°
1 1
2

¦
'
+

'

+
æ
-
s
i
p T i
k
k
s
Js
k k
5.31

PM
i
p T i
k
k
s
Js
k k

-
+
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

+ .
0
2
180 1
5.32
The gains Ior the speed controller was obtained using the motor parameters and by
selecting a crossover Irequency.
The selected values are
I
c
(crossover Irequency)÷ 100Hz
J ÷ 0.000179
k
T
÷ ì
I
÷ 0.272
Using equation 3.29 and 3.30 and motor parameters the values oI ki and kp are
obtained as 129.9014 and 0.3581 respectively.
40

CHAPTER VI
SPEED CHECK IMPLEMENTATION OF VECTOR
CONTROLLED PERMANENT MAGNET
SYNCHORONOUS MOTOR DRIVE IN
MATLAB/SIMULINK



41

SPEED CHECK IMPLEMENTATION OF
VECTORVCONTROLLED PMSM DRIVE IN
MATLAB/SIMULINK

.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter describes the advantages oI SIMULINK and diIIerent tools
available Ior electrical and electronic systems simulation and then iustiIication is
given Ior selecting SIMULINK Ior the PMSM system. Block by block an explanation
is given Ior SIMULINK simulation oI the drive system.

.2 ADVANTAGES OF SIMULINK
There are two maior advantages to perIorm simulation rather than actually
building the design and testing it. The biggest oI these advantages is that it is
economical. Designing, building, testing, redesigning, rebuilding, retesting Ior
anything can be an expensive proiect. Simulations take the building/rebuilding phase
out oI the loop by using the model already created in the design phase. Most oI the
time, the simulation testing is cheaper and Iaster than perIorming the multiple tests oI
the design each time. Considering the typical university budget cheaper is usually a
very good thing. In the case oI an electric thruster the test must be run inside oI a
vacuum tank. Vacuum tanks are very expensive to buy, run, and maintain. One oI the
main tests oI an electric thruster is the liIetime test, which means that the thruster is
running pretty much constantly inside oI the vacuum tank Ior 10,000¹ hours. This is
pouring money down a drain compared to the price oI the simulation.
The second maior advantage oI a simulation is the level oI detail that you can
get Irom a simulation. A simulation can give you results that are not experimentally
measurable with our current level oI technology. Results such as surIace interactions
on an atomic level, Ilow at the exit oI a micro electric thruster, or molecular Ilow
inside oI a star are not measurable by any current devices. A simulation can give these
results when problems such as it's too small to measure, the probe is too big and is
skewing the results, and any instrument would turn to a gas at those temperatures
42

come into the conversation. You can set the simulation to run Ior as many time steps
you desire and at any level oI detail you desire the only restrictions are your
imagination, your programming skills, and your CPU.
.3 SIMULATION TOOLS
Study oI electric motor drives needs the proper selection oI a simulation tool.
Their complex models need computing tools capable oI perIorming dynamic
simulations. Today with the growth in computational power there is a wide selection
oI soItware titles available Ior electrical simulations such as ACSL, ESL, EASY5, and
PSCSP are Ior general systems and SPICE2, EMTP, and ATOSEC5 Ior simulating
electrical and electronic circuits. IESE and SABER are examples oI general-purpose
electrical network simulation programs that have provisions Ior handling user-deIined
modules. SIMULINK® is a toolbox extension oI the MATLAB program. It is a
program Ior simulating dynamic systems.
SIMULINK has the advantages oI being capable oI complex dynamic system
simulations, graphical environment with visual real time programming and broad
selection oI tool boxes. The simulation environment oI SIMULINK has a high
Ilexibility and expandability which allows the possibility oI development oI a set oI
Iunctions Ior a detailed analysis oI the electrical drive .Its graphical interIace allows
selection oI Iunctional blocks, their placement on a worksheet, selection oI their
Iunctional parameters interactively, and description oI signal Ilow by connecting their
data lines using a mouse device. System blocks are constructed oI lower level blocks
grouped into a single maskable block. SIMULINK simulates analogue systems and
discrete digital systems.

.4 SIMULINK SIMULATION OF PMSM DRIVE
The PM motor drive simulation was built in several steps like abc phase
transIormation to dqo variables, calculation torque and speed, and control circuit. The
abc phase transIormation to dqo variables is built using Parks transIormation and Ior
the dqo to abc the reverse transIormation is used. For simulation purpose the voltages
are the inputs and the current are output. Parks transIormation used Ior converting
V
abc
to V
dqo
is shown in Figure 6.1 and the reverse transIormation Ior converting I
dqo

to I
abc
is shown in Figure 6.2.
43

.4.1 V
abc
to V
dqo
block and I
dqo
to I
abc
block
The below Figures 6.1 and 6.2 is implemented in the MATLAB/SIMULINK.
These are used to convert V
abc
to V
dqo
and I
dqo
to I
abc
i.e. it used to convert rotating
Irame to stationary reIerence Irame parameters or vice versa.

Figure 6.1 V
abc
to V
dqo
block

+
+

.
-
,
r r r
r r r
o
d
q
J
J
J
J
J
J
2
1
2
1
2
1
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
3
2
7 7 7
7 7 7
6.1
With the use oI equation 6.1 the abc parameters are converted into dqo parameters.


Figure 6.2 I
dqo
to I
abc
block

44

) (
) cos(
) cos(
) cos(
3
2
3
2
m
r
r
r
.
-
,
I
t
t
t
i
i
i
¦
¦
¦
'
+

'

+ +
+
+

¦
¦
¦
'
+

'

6
6
- æ
- æ
- æ
6.2
With the use oI above equation the dqo parameters are converted into abc parameters.

.4.2 d-axis circuit and q-axis circuit
The d and q axis motor circuits built using SIMULINK elements are shown in
Figure 6.3
This block is developed using equation6.3 Ior d-axis circuit and q-axis circuit
¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
¦
'
+

'

-
-
cos
sin
m
d
q
I
i
i
6.3

Figure 6.3 d-axis circuit and q-axis circuit
q-axis stator current, i
q
2.015 A
d-axis stator current, i
d
2.745e
.008
A
Rotor electrical speed, e 52.36 radians
Stator resistance, R
s

6.852 ſ
43

d- axis stator voltage, V
ds
-1.277 V
q-axis stator voltage, V
qs
11.18 V
L
ndd
0.02439 H
L
ndq
0.0827 H
Parameters OI The d and q Circuits
.4.3 Load Torque Block
Figure 4.4 shows the load torque block in SIMULINK. This block is
developed using equation 4.5 Ior load torque developed

Figure 6.4 Load Torque Block
The developed torque motor is being given by


d q q d
P
e
i i T ì ì
2 2
3
6.5
.4.4 Speed Block
The speed oI the motor is obtained using Figure 6.4 and equation 6.6. The
developed speed block is shown in Figure 6.5.

Figure 6.5 Speed Block
46

The mechanical Torque equation is
dt
d
m L e
m
J B T T
æ
æ + +
6.6
Solving Ior the rotor mechanical speed Iorm equation 6.6
dt
J
B T T
m
m L e

æ
æ
6.7
And

P r m
2
æ æ 6.8
In the above equations e
r
is the rotor electrical speed where as e
m
is the rotor
mechanical speed.
.4.5 Vector Control Block
The vector control requires a block Ior the calculation oI the reIerence current
using u angle, the position oI the rotor and the magnitude oI the I
m
. The block is
shown in Figure 6.6. It is built using equation 3.17.

) (
) cos(
) cos(
) cos(
3
2
3
2
m
r
r
r
.
-
,
I
t
t
t
i
i
i
¦
¦
¦
'
+

'

+ +
+
+

¦
¦
¦
'
+

'

6
6
- æ
- æ
- æ
6.9
Where u is the angle between the rotor Iield and stator current phasor, e
r
is the
electrical rotor speed.

Figure 6.6 Vector Control Block
47

The stator currents that must be transIormed to the rotor reIerence Irame with
the rotor speed e
r,
using Park`s transIormation. The q and d axis currents are
constants in the rotor reIerence Irames since u is a constant Ior a given load torque. As
these constants, they are similar to the armature and Iield currents in the separately
excited DC machine. The q axis current is distinctly equivalent to the armature current
oI the DC machine; the d axis current is Iield current, but not in its entirety. It is only
a partial Iield current; the other part is contributed by the equivalent current source
representing the permanent magnet Iield. For this reason the q axis current is called
the torque producing component oI the stator current and the d axis current is called
the Ilux producing component oI the stator current.
The PI controller increases the order and type oI the system and also improves
the steady state response oI the system. There are 3 PI controllers in the vector
controller. The proportionality constant values are taken as K
p1
÷2.285e
.007;
K
i1
÷2.015;
K
p2
÷-8.235e
.008
;

K
i2
÷-1.277;

K
p3
÷-1.746e
.
006; K
i3
÷11.18.
When the input signal is within the range speciIied by the Lower limit and
Upper limit parameters, the input signal passes through unchanged. When the input
signal is outside these bounds, the signal is clipped to the upper or lower bound. The
upper limit value is taken as I
phmax
(2.5A) and the lower limit value is taken as - I
phmax
(-2.5A). When the Lower limit and Upper limit parameters are set to the same value,
the block outputs that value.
.4. PM Motor Drive System in SIMULINK
Equivalent circuits oI the motors are used Ior study and simulation oI motors.
From the d-q modeling oI the motor using the stator voltage equations the equivalent
circuit oI the motor can be derived. Assuming rotor d axis Ilux Irom the permanent
magnets is represented by a constant current source as described in the Iollowing
equation
48

Figure 6.8 PM Motor Drive System in SIMULINK

.4.7 Vector Control Of PMSM Drive
Using all the drive system blocks the complete system block has been developed as
shorn in Figure6.9

FIGURE 6.9 Vector Control oI PMSM Drive
49

The operation oI the controller must be according to the speed range. For
operation up to rated speed it will operate in constant torque region and Ior speeds
above rated speed it will operate in Ilux-weakening region. In this region the d-axis
Ilux and the developed torque are reduced.
Speed controller calculates the diIIerence between the reIerence speed and the
actual speed producing an error, which is Ied to the PI controller. PI controllers are
used widely Ior motion control systems. They consist oI a proportional gain that
produces an output proportional to the input error and an integration to make the
steady state error zero Ior a step change in the input.
Speed control oI motors mainly consist oI two loops the inner loop Ior current
and the outer loop Ior speed. The order oI the loops is due to their response, how Iast
they can be changed. This requires a current loop at least 10 times Iaster than the
speed loop. Since the PMSM is operated using Iield oriented control, it can be
modeled like a DC motor. The design begins with the innermost current loop by
drawing the block diagram. But in PMSM drive system the motor has current
controllers which make the current loop. The current control is perIormed by the
comparison oI the reIerence currents with the actual motor currents.
The design oI the speed loop assumes that the current loop is at least 10 times
Iaster than speed loop, allowing reducing the system block diagram by considering
the current loop to be oI unity gain
The operation oI the controller must be according to the speed range. For
operation up to rated speed it will operate in constant torque region and Ior speeds
above rated speed it will operate in Ilux-weakening region. In this region the d-axis
Ilux and the developed torque are reduced.
Speed controller calculates the diIIerence between the reIerence speed and the
actual speed producing an error, which is Ied to the PI controller. PI controllers are
used widely Ior motion control systems. They consist oI a proportional gain that
produces an output proportional to the input error and an integration to make the
steady state error zero Ior a step change in the input.

30

CHAPTER VII
SIMULATION RESULTS






31

7. SIMULATION RESULTS

7.1 CASE 1
In this the speed and the torque are kept constant. Hence below are the
waveIorms which are obtained Irom simulation in MATLAB.
7.1.1 Reference Torque and Actual Torque

Figure 7.1 ReIerence torque and actual torque

The above Figure 7.1 waveIorms are the simulation result oI torque variation
which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. It give inIormation about the
variation oI torque with respective to the reIerence torque. In this the actual torque
Iollows the reIerence torque. Hence under steady state there is no change in actual
torque i.e. torque is not varied at any point oI time.




32

7.1.2 Actual Speed and Reference Speed

Figure 7.2 (a) Actual speed and (b) ReIerence speed
The above Figure 7.2 waveIorms are the simulation result oI speed variation
which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. It give inIormation about the
variation oI speed with respective to the reIerence speed. In this the actual speed
Iollows the reIerence speed. Hence under steady state there is no change in actual
speed i.e. speed or load is not varied at any point oI time.

7.1.3 I
abc
currents and V
abc
voltages
The below Figure 7.3 waveIorms are the simulation result oI current and
voltage variation which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. These waveIorms
are the three phase current and voltages in rotating Irame oI reIerence under steady
state.
33

Figure 7.3 I
abc
currents and V
abc
voltage

7.1.4 V
afa
and V
beta

The below Figure 7.4 waveIorms are the simulation result oI V
aIa
and V
beta

variation which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Hear three phase voltages
are converted into two phase waveIorms i.e. V
abc
is converted into V
aIa
and V
beta

(which is known as clark`s transIormation or stationary reIerence Irame)

Figure 7.4 (a) V
aIa
and (b) V
beta

34

7.15 Error Signal between Reference Speed and Actual Speed

Figure 7.5 Error Signal between ReIerence Speed and Actual Speed
The above Figure 7.5 waveIorm is the simulation result oI error variation
which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. This is the waveIorm oI the error
signal between reIerence speed and actual speed oI the permanent magnet
synchronous motor drive. In this steady state the error is nearly maintained to zero as
shown in Figure 7.6 above.

7.1. V
d
. V
q
Voltage and I
d-ref
. I
q-ref

The below Figure 7.6 and 7.7 waveIorms are the simulation result oI V
d

voltage, V
q
voltage variation and I
d-reI
, I
q-reI
which is implemented in
MATLAB/SIMULINK. Hear two phase V
aIa
and V
beta
voltages are converted into two
phase V
d
and V
q
waveIorms i.e. V
aIa
and V
beta
is converted into V
d
and V
q
as shown
in Figure 5.7 (which is known as park`s transIormation or rotating Irame oI reIerence)
Under steady state at speed 100rpm. In this I
d-reI
, I
q-reI
are the reIerence signals and I
d-
reI
is maintained at zero. As shown in Figure 7.7

33

Figure 7.6 (a)V
d
voltage and (b) V
q
voltage

Figure 7.7 (a) I
d-reI
and (b) I
q-reI


7.2 CASE 2
In this the speed is varied and the torque is kept constant. Hence below are the
waveIorms which are obtained Irom simulation in MATLAB.
36

7.2.1 Actual Speed and Reference Speed

Figure 7.8 (a) Actual speed and (b) ReIerence speed
The above Figure 7.8 waveIorms are the simulation result oI speed variation
which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. It give inIormation about the
variation oI speed with respective to the reIerence speed. In this the actual speed
Iollows the reIerence speed. Hence under speed dynamic state there is change in
actual speed i.e. speed or load is varied at any point oI time. In this Figure 7.9 the
speed is changed to 500rpm at some point oI time.

7.2.2 Reference Torque and Actual Torque
The below Figure 7.9 waveIorms are the simulation result oI torque variation
which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. It give inIormation about the
variation oI torque with respective to the reIerence torque. In this the actual torque
Iollows the reIerence torque. Hence under speed dynamics there is no change in actual
torque i.e. torque is not varied at any point oI time.

37

Figure 7.9 (a) ReIerence torque and (b) Actual torque

7.2.3 I
q
. I
d
. I
d-ref
and I
q-ref

The below Figure 7.10 and 7.11 waveIorms are the simulation result oI I
q
, I
d
,
I
d-reI
and I
q-reI
currents which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. In this I
d-reI
,
I
q-reI
is the reIerence signals are maintained at zero. Thus the actual signals which are
generated in the control analysis are as shown in the Figure 7.11 are Iollowing the
reIerence signals. This is under speed dynamics.

Figure 7.10 (a) I
q
current and (b) I
d
current
38

Figure 7.11 (a) I
d-reI
and (b) I
q-reI

7.2.4 I
abc
Currents and V
abc
Voltages
The below Figure 7.12 waveIorms are the simulation result oI current and
voltage variation which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. These waveIorms
are the three phase current and voltages in rotating Irame oI reIerence under speed
dynamics state. The variation in current and voltages in the Figures is due to the
change in speed.

Figure 7.12 (a) I
abc
currents and (b) V
abc
voltages

39

7.2.5 Error Signal between Reference Speed and Actual Speed
The below Figure 7.13 waveIorm is the simulation result oI error variation,
which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. This is the waveIorm oI the error
signal between reIerence speed and actual speed oI the permanent magnet
synchronous motor drive. In this speed dynamics state the error is nearly maintained
to zero as shown in Figure 7.13 below.

Figure 7.13 Error Signal between ReIerence Speed and Actual Speed

7.2. V
d
Voltage and V
q
Voltage
The below Figure 7.14 waveIorms are the simulation result oI V
d
voltage and
V
q
voltage variation which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Here two
phases V
aIa
and V
beta
voltages are converted into two phase V
d
and V
q
waveIorms i.e.
V
aIa
and V
beta
is converted into V
d
and V
q
(which is known as park`s transIormation
or rotating Irame oI reIerence) Under speed dynamics at speed 1000rpm to 500rpm.
60

Figure 7.14 (a)V
d
voltage and (b) V
q
voltage
7.3 CASE 3
In this the torque is varied and the speed is kept constant. Hence below are the
waveIorms which are obtained Irom simulation in MATLAB.
7.3.1 Actual Speed and Reference Speed
The below Figure 7.15 waveIorms are the simulation result oI speed variation
which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. It give inIormation about the
variation oI speed with respective to the reIerence speed. In this the actual speed
Iollows the reIerence speed. Hence under torque dynamics there is no change in actual
speed i.e. speed or load is not varied at any point oI time.


Figure 7.15 (a) Actual speed and (b) ReIerence speed
61

7.3.2 Reference Torque and Actual Torque
The below Figure 7.16 waveIorms are the simulation result oI torque variation
which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. It give inIormation about the
variation oI torque with respective to the reIerence torque. In this the actual torque
Iollows the reIerence torque. Hence under torque dynamics state there is change in
actual torque i.e. torque is varied at any point oI time.


Figure 7.16 (a) ReIerence torque and (b)actual torque
7.3.3 I
abc
Current and V
abc
Voltage
The below Figure 7.17 waveIorms are the simulation result oI current and
voltage variation which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. These waveIorms
are the three phase current and voltages in rotating Irame oI reIerence under torque
dynamic state.


Figure 7.17 (a) I
abc
currents and (b)V
abc
voltages
62

7.3.4 Error Signal between Reference Speed and Actual Speed
The below Figure 7.18 waveIorm is the simulation result oI error variation
which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. This is the waveIorm oI the error
signal between reIerence speed and actual speed oI the permanent magnet
synchronous motor drive. In this torque dynamics state the error is nearly maintained
to zero as shown in Figure 7.18 below.

Figure 7.18 Error Signal between ReIerence Speed and Actual Speed
7.3.5 V
d
and V
q

The below Figure 7.19 waveIorms are the simulation result oI V
d
voltage and
V
q
voltage variation which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Here two
phases V
aIa
and V
beta
voltages are converted into two phase V
d
and V
q
waveIorms i.e.
V
aIa
and V
beta
is converted into V
d
and V
q
(which is known as park`s transIormation or
rotating Irame oI reIerence) Under torque dynamics.

Figure 7.19 (a)V
d
and (b) V
q

63

7.3. I
q
. I
d
. I
d-ref
and I
q-ref

The below Figure 7.20 and 7.21 waveIorms are the simulation result oI I
q
, I
d
,
I
d-reI
and I
q-reI
currents which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. In this I
d-reI
,
I
q-reI
is the reIerence signals in this I
d-reI
are maintained at zero. As shown in Figure
7.21. Thus the actual signals which are generated in the control analysis are as shown
in the Figure 7.20 are Iollowing the reIerence signals. This is under torque dynamics.

Figure 7.20 (a) I
q
current and (b) I
d
current


Figure 7.21 (a) I
d-reI
and (b) I
q-reI

64

7.4 CASE 4
In this both speed and the torque are varied. Hence below are the waveIorms
which are obtained Irom simulation in MATLAB
7.4.1 Actual Speed And Reference Speed

Figure 7.22 (a) Actual speed and (b) ReIerence speed
The above Figure 7.22 waveIorms are the simulation result oI speed variation
which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. It give inIormation about the
variation oI speed with respective to the reIerence speed. In this the actual speed
Iollows the reIerence speed. Hence speed or load is varied at any point oI time. In this
Figure 5.35 the speed is changed to 500rpm at some point oI time.

7.4.2 Reference Torque and Actual Torque
The below Figure 7.23 waveIorms are the simulation result oI torque variation
which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. It give inIormation about the
variation oI torque with respective to the reIerence torque. In this the actual torque
Iollows the reIerence torque. Torque is varied at any point oI time.

63

Figure 7.23 (a) ReIerence torque and (b) Actual torque
7.4.3 Error Signal between Reference Speed and Actual Speed
The below Figure 7.24 waveIorm is the simulation result oI error variation
which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. This is the waveIorm oI the error
signal between reIerence speed and actual speed oI the permanent magnet
synchronous motor drive. In this speed-torque dynamics state the error is nearly
maintained to zero as shown in Figure 7.24 below.

Figure 7.24 Error Signal between ReIerence Speed and Actual Speed
66

7.4.4 I
q
Current. I
d
Current and I
d¸ref
. I
q¸ref



Figure 7.25 (a) I
q
current and (b) I
d
current

Figure 7.26 (a) I
d-reI
current and (b) I
q-reI
current

67

The above Figures 7.25 and 7.26, waveIorms are the simulation result oI I
q
, I
d
,
I
d-reI
and I
q-reI
currents which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. In this I
d-reI
,
I
q-reI
is the reIerence signals in this I
d-reI
are maintained at zero. As shown in Figure
7.26. Thus the actual signals which are generated in the control analysis are as shown
in the Figure 7.25 are Iollowing the reIerence signals. This is under speed-torque
dynamics.
7.4.5 V
d
Voltage and V
q
Voltage


Figure 7.27 (a) V
d
Voltage and (b) V
q
Voltage

The above Figure 7.27 waveIorms are the simulation result oI V
d
voltage and
V
q
voltage variation which is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Here two
phases V
aIa
and V
beta
voltages are converted into two phase V
d
and V
q
waveIorms i.e.
V
aIa
and V
beta
is converted into V
d
and V
q
(which is known as park`s transIormation or
rotating Irame oI reIerence) Under speed-torque dynamics.






68

7.5 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

These simulation results show the drive operation is satisIactory. In order to
steady the speed torque characteristics oI PMSM we are considering 4 cases.
In case 1, the speed and torque are kept constant. The speed is assumed to be
500rpm and the torque is considered to be 0.5 N-m. The actual and reIerence speed
along with the error and actual and reIerence torque waveIorms are as shown in the
Figures. From the waveIorms we can observe that the actual torque and speed Iollows
the reIerence torque and speed. Hence under steady state there is no change in actual
torque and speed i.e. speed and torque are not varied at any point oI time and the error
between the reIerence speed and actual speed is almost maintained to zero.
In case 2, the speed is varied and the torque is kept constant. The speed is
varied upto 800 rpm in steps and the torque is taken to be 0.5 N-m. We can observe
the distortions in the waveIorm oI the actual speed at 0.5 since torque and speed are
inversely proportional.
In case 3, the speed is kept constant and the torque is varied. The speed is
assumed to be 500 rpm and the torque is varied up to -0.2 N-m. From the waveIorms
we can observe that when torque is high the speed is low and when torque is low, the
speed is high since speed and torque are inversely proportional to each other and the
error between the reIerence speed and actual speed is almost maintained to zero.
In case 4, both speed and torque are varied. The torque is varied upto -0.2 and
speed is varied upto 800 rpm and in this case we can observe that the error between
the actual and reIerence speed is almost maintained to zero.






69

CHAPTER VIII
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE










70

8 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE

8.1 CONCLUSION
Thus this thesis explained the mathematical equations related to the application
oI the vector control oI PMSM. The SIMULINK block oI vector control in PMSM
is presented. The simulation results examined the implementation oI the vector
control in PMSM.
A detailed SIMULINK model Ior vector control oI PMSM has been
developed. SIMULINK has been chosen Irom several simulation tools because oI its
Ilexibility. Mathematical models can be easily incorporated in the simulation and the
present numerous tools boxes and support guides simpliIied the simulation oI large
system compared to other soItware. SIMULINK is capable oI showing real time
results with reduced simulation time and debugging.
It is shown in the simulation results oI vector control in PMSM that the
vector control implementation in PMSM is having less level oI speed and toque
ripples and at the same time maintaining the good torque response.

8.2 FUTURE SCOPE
Future works needed to be carried out to improve the perIormance oI the
motor. A vector-controlled PMSM drive with a continually on-line learning hybrid
neural-network model-Iollowing speed controller is one oI the advancement in vector
control oI PMSM in which the speed controller produces rapid, robust perIormance
and accurate response to the reIerence model regardless oI load disturbances or
PMSM parameter variations. The other is vector control oI permanent magnet
synchronous motor with surIace magnet using artiIicial neural networks; the use oI
ANN makes the drive system robust, accurate and insensitive to parameter variations.
The hardware implementation oI the above drive system can also be done.



71

APPENDICES








72

APPENDIX 1

MATLAB is a high-perIormance language Ior technical computing. It
integrates computation, visualization, and programming in an easy to use environment
where problems and solutions are expressed in Iamiliar mathematical notations.
MATLAB is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that
does not require dimensioning. This allows you to solve many technical problems,
especially those with matrix and vector Iormations. , in a Iraction oI the time it would
take to write a program in a scalar non interactive language such as C or Fortran. The
name MATLAB stands Ior matrix laboratory. MATLAB was originally written to
provide easy access to matrix soItware developed by the LINPACK and EISPACK
proiects. Today a MATLAB engines incorporates the LAPACK and BLAS libraries,
embedding the state oI the art in soItware Ior matrix computation. MATLAB has
evolved over a period oI years with input Irom many users. In university
environments, it is the standard instructional tool Ior introductory and advanced
courses in mathematics, engineering and science. In industry, MATLAB is the tool oI
choice Ior high productivity research, development, and analysis. MATLAB Ieatures
a oI add on application speciIic solutions called toolboxes. Very important to most
users oI MATLAB, toolboxes allow you to learn and apply specialized technology.
Toolboxes are comprehensive collections oI MATLAB Iunctions (M-Iiles) that
extended the MATLAB environment to solve particular classes oI problems. Areas
in which toolboxes are available include signal processing, control systems, neural
networks, Iuzzy logic, wave lets, simulation, and many others.


73

APPENDIX 2
MATLAB CODE

1.
2.
3.clear
4.
5.Vph = 60/sqrt(3)/2; % ¯V`, peak value, phase
voltage
6.Vs = Vph/sqrt(2); % RMS phase voltage
7.
8.nrat = 1000; % ¯rpm`, rate speed
9.
10. Npp = 4/2; % Number of pole pairs
= 1/2 number of poles
11.
12. Jmegae_rat = 2·pi·nrat/60·Npp;
i. % Rated electrical angular
frequency
13.
14.
15. Lndmpm = Vph/Jmegae_rat;% ¯Web.turns`, rotor
peak PM flux linkage
16.
17. J = 1·1e-4·1; % Motor inertia ¯J.m^2`
18. % _____________________________________________________
19.
20. Vs = 11.25; % Specified terminal
voltage, RMS value
21. Vph = sqrt(2)·Vs; % the corresponding
peak phase voltage
22.
23.
24. fs = 5e3; % switching frequency
25.
26. % Initializing the Simulink model
27. Jmegae_ini = 0; % Initial motor shaft
speed, electrical value, ¯rad`
28. Lndd_ini = Lndmpm; % This means at t=0,
theta=0 and N-pole aligned with d-axis
29.
30. Jmegae = 2·pi·5;
31.
32. % ------------------------------------------------------
33. % -------------------------------------------------------
74

34.
35. Rs = 3.4; % ¯Jm`
36. Lls = 1.1e-3; % ¯H`
37. Lmd = 11e-3; % ¯H`
38. Lmq = Lmd;
39.
40. % _______________________________________________________
41. % Lmq = 0.6·Lmd;
42. % ______________________________________________________
43.
44. Ld = Lmd+Lls;
45. Lq = Lmq+Lls;
46.
47. % -------------------------------------------------------
48. % -------------------------------------------------------
49.
50. Iphmax = 2.5;
51. Jmeg_vec = linspace(Jmegae_rat/200,
Jmegae_rat,5);
52.
53. Jmeg_const = Jmeg_vec(5); % Parameter needed by
'PMSMmotor_setp3_discrete.mdl'
54.
55. % -------------------------------------------------------
56. % -------------------------------------------------------
57.
58. switch 4
59. case 1
60. % A set of parameters that do not work! (Jscillation in
S.S.)
61. Kp1 = 0.8;
62. Ki1 = 818;
63. Kp2 = 8.16;
64. Ki2 = 7645;
65. Kp3 = 26.05;
66. Ki3 = 8014;
67. case 2
68. % A set of parameters that work well in continuous states
but resulting S.S. oscillation in
69. % discrete control system
70. Kp1 = 3.5;
71. Ki1 = 10e-3; %10e-3;
72. Kp2 = 3.5;
73. Ki2 = 3.5e3/10;
74. Kp3 = 20/2; %6.8;
75. Ki3 = 4.8e3/10; %3.8e3;
76. case 3
73

77. % Used for testing PI parameters one by one in
'PMSMmotor_setp3_discrete.mdl', which can
78. % both work in continuous and discrete systems
79. Kp1 = 0.025;
80. Ki1 = 0.8;
81. Kp2 = 3.0;
82. Ki2 = 5.0e3;
83. Kp3 = 5.5;
84. Ki3 = 3.0e3;
85. case 4
86. % These seem to be the best parameters!
87. Kp1 = 0.025;
88. Ki1 = 0.8;
89. Kp2 = 3.0;
90. Ki2 = 5.0e3;
91. Kp3 = 5.5;
92. Ki3 = 3.0e3;
93. case 5
94. % Parameters can let the continuous model work when there
is none of the 'saturation' units
95. Kp1 = 0.1;
96. Ki1 = 1.0;
97. Kp2 = 0.1;
98. Ki2 = 1.0;
99. Kp3 = 0.1;
100. Ki3 = 1.0;
101. case 6
102. Kp1 = 0.025;
103. Ki1 = 0.8;
104. Kp2 = 3.0;
105. Ki2 = 0;
106. Kp3 = 5.5;
107. Ki3 = 0;
108.
109. case 6
110.
111. end
112.
113. % _______________________________________________________
114. % Parameters used for PI anti wind-up function
115.
116. T_pi_delay = 1/fs;
117. SaturationVal_1 = 50;
118. SaturationVal_2 = 2;
119. SaturationVal_3 = 2;
120. % ______________________________________________________
121.
76

122. % -------------------------------------------------------
123. % -------------------------------------------------------
124.
125. if exist('t_sim')
126. switch 1
127. case 1
128. plot(t_sim,n_ref ,'Color',colorvec(mod(6-
1,6)+1,:),'Marker','none'); hold on; grid on
129.
130. colidx = 3;
plot(t_sim,n_meas,'Color',colorvec(mod(colidx-
1,6)+1,:),'Linestyle',':'); hold on; grid on
131. case 2
132. end
133. end
134.
135.
136.
137.












BIBLIOGRAPHY
77

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synchronous motors," Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 22, pp. 1069-1071,
1986.
|2| T. M. Jahns, G. B.Kliman, and T. W. Neumann, "Interior Permanent-Magnet
Synchronous Motors Ior Adiustable-Speed Drives," Industrial Applications, IEEE
Transactions on, vol. IA-22, pp. 738-746, 1986.
|3| P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, "Modeling oI permanent magnet motor drives,"
Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 35, pp. 537-541, 1988.
|4| P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, "Modeling, simulation, and analysis oI permanent-
magnet motor drives. I. The permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive," Industry
Applications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 25, pp. 265-273, 1989.
|5| B. K. Bose, Modern power electronics and AC drives: Prentice Hall, 2002
|6| A. H. Wiienayake and P. B. Schmidt, "Modeling and analysis oI permanent
magnet synchronous motor by taking saturation and core loss into account," 1997.
|7| K. Jang-Mok and S. Seung-Ki, "Speed control oI interior permanent magnet
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IEEE Transactions on, vol. 33, pp. 43-48, 1997.
|8| Weera Kaewiind and Mongkol Konghirun 'Vector Control Drive oI Permanent
Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Resolver Sensor¨ ECTI transactions on electrical
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