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TEACHING AND LEARNING APPROACHES EN NAZARIA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Constructivism Inquiry-discovery Science Technology and society Laboratory work Project based learning

INQUIRY [INKUIRI] Definisi: • Means to find information • To questionand to investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the environment • Process of defining and investigating problems, formulating hypothesis, designing experiments, gathering data and drawing conclusions about problems. Aktiviti: • Pondering and posing questions • Menggunakan pelbagai kaedah untuk membuat dan mengklasifikasikan pemerhatian. • Mengesahkan sumber maklumat • Menyiasat, menganalisa, memberi jawapan dan penerangan • Meyampaikan kesimpulan dan kesan DISCOVERY [PENEMUAN] Definisi: • Process mental untuk menggabungkan konsep dan prinsip • Include o Memerhati o Mengelas o Mengukur o Meramal o Menghuraikan o Membuat inferens Kaedah pengajaran inkuiri • Guided inkuiry (inkuiri terpimpin) o Students does not have experience • Inkuiri bebas o For students have experienced and sufficient knowledge and skills about guided inquiry teaching. o Guna peta konsep

Science Learning Cycle Model o Evaluation o Elaboration o Explanation o Exploration o Engagement Discrepent event – perkara luar biasa -digunakan untuk permulaan pelajar menyiasat Steps What you could do? Set up a descripent event (situasi o Demonstrate a discrepent event bercanggah) and ask question. o Students are confrontes with questions or problems that they will want to know teh answer Students investigate to resolve the o Students will be engage in discrepancy meaningful inquiry. o They will be using the appropriate science process skills in order to solve problem o Students are engaged in active and meaningful learning Resolve the discrepancy o Students get the answer after doing activities. o Even if they are not successful in finding all the answer, they will benefit by listening to explanation given by teachers. Guided discovery o Combination of teacher centred and student centred techniques. o Not restricted to finding something entirely new o A matter of internally rearranging data so children can go beyond the data to form concepts new to them. o Involves finding the meaning, organization and structure of ideas.

EN NAZARIA 23 Feb., 11 Constructivism  Is a learning theory based on observation and scientific study.  Implication: teacher must consider what is in the students mind and begin teaching from what they already know.  Some researchers refer to students’ prior knowledge as alternative concepts.  Students prior knowledge may contains errors or misconception.

Characteristic of students prior knowledge  Prior students bring to the science classroom cut across age, ability, gender and cultural boundaries. In other words, even the brightest students can hold incorrect view of basic science concept.  Prior knowledge are tenacious and resistant to change by conventional teaching. Teching science is not simply adding or replacing existing information. Students might hold on to prior knowledge despite being taught the correct concepts.  PK can originate from personal experiences, family background, teachers’ explanation and text book  Teachers may also have similar prior knowledge as their students. Ways     Some        to identify misconception Interview Concept mapping MCQ tests Predict observe explanation (POE)

common misconception (salah konsep) Air has no mass Heating a body always means raising its temp Metals attract cold better than wood A moving object has force acting on it Pressure is the same as force A faster moving object has bigger force Electricity is used up in electric circuit. (tenaga elektrik digunakan dalam litar elektrik) o Sepatutnya, tenaga elektrik diubah kepada tenaga lain dlm litar elektrik.  Heavy objects fall faster than lighter objects

Teaching strategies for conceptual change  Constructivism is concern with students obtaining the correct concepts  Conventional teaching strategies like lecturing or presenting the correct information do not overcome student misconception 1. Strategy based on cognitive conflict a. In this approach students prior idea is challenged with another situation so that the students will experience cognitive conflict b. Cognitive(pemikiran) conflict can be created by creating discrepant event.

2. Strategy that develops and extend the preconceived idea through analogy and metaphor into a new domain (Bridging strategy has 4 steps) a. Students misconceptions are made explicit b. The teacher that introduce another situation. This analogy is known as anchoring analogy c. The teacher then ask students to compare the anchoring analogy(analogy utama) example to the real situation d. If the students do not understand try a series of Bridging analogy 3. Needham Constructivism teaching model. a. Needham's Five-phase Steps/phase/tim contents Teaching and Remarks. e learning activity Orientation • More suitable for inquiry-discovery Eliciting ideas teaching Restructuring of • Covers all the other models ideas Applications of ideas reflection  Homework: download from youtube, discrepant events on science Teachers role in conceptual change teaching • As motivator : science teacher need to motivate students to follow the process of teaching and learning • As diagnostician: Diagnostician is a role specifically for conceptual teaching. Science teachers need to be sensitive to the students’ prior ideas since it has a huge impact on learning. • As a guide: science teachers need to show to the students that they might make wrong assumption and they need to rethink their assumption. • As an innovator: the role of the teacher is to help students see that the scientific ideas in general are better or more valid than their own ideas. Teaching and learning strategies. 1. Human Factors: a. Teachers –knowledge, teaching experience, personality b. Students- intellectual level, educational background, age and experience, social and cultural background. 2. Resource factor a. Infrastructure b. Teaching-learning activities c. Time 3. Subject matter/content a. Theoretical

b. Investigative c. Exploration d. Reflective

Teaching and learning methods. a. Teaching and learning approaches can be implemented through varios methods such as a. Experiments b. Discussions c. Simulation d. Projects e. Visit and use of external resources f. use of technology Conctructivist based teaching models 1. Needham’s five phase Steps/phase/tim contents e Orientation Eliciting ideas Restructuring of ideas Applications of ideas reflection 2. generative teaching model Steps/phase/time content Teaching and remarks learning activities/scientific skills -useful to develop further topics which students already know - the challenge phase is when scientist view is introduce -this model purposely introduces a challenge to the scientist’s concept which is different from the students’ original ideas so that students can adapt the new information to what they already knew. • •

Teaching and Remarks. learning activity More suitable for inquiry-discovery teaching Covers all the other models

Preparation Focus Challange application

3. interactive teaching model Steps/phase/time content

Teaching and learning activities/scientific skills

remarks

Preparation

-before view -exploratory activities • Student’s question • Investigation After view reflection

• • • • •

Useful for development of topics on which students have asked questions Students ask and examine their own question The knowledge objective is divergent and personal Students give their views openly and then ask and examine their own question Collaboration and mutual confidence are the essence of this model

4. Cooperative learning content

Teaching and learning activities/scientific skills

remarks

5. 6. 7. 8.

Concept mapping science, technology and society learning cycle (5Es) Infusion of thinking skills and thinking strategies