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Introduction

Vibration can be pleasant and useful as in massaging and therapeutic application but at the same time it can be unpleasant and harmful too because it can lead to catastrophic failures of components and materials. Unwanted vibration can interfere with our comfort, damage to structures, reduction of equipment performance and machinery noise level. For examples, vibration of car or any other automobile can lead to driver discomfort and eventually fatigue. Electronic component used in automobile or planes, machines, structures and so on may also fail because of vibration [1]. Furthermore, a vibration environment can cause malfunction or failure of mechanical systems and may cause injury to human beings. Therefore, it is envisaged that a form of vibration control or suppressor is needed to compensate the undesirable vibration effect so that it will not damage the systems or cause injury/discomfort to human beings. Vibration absorber and vibration isolator are two important concepts of vibration control. Vibration isolation is a common method used to protect receivers (device, human, system, machine or structure) from the vibration source. Car suspension system is one example of a system that employs an isolation concept in an effort to reduce the car body displacement due to the road profile. In this context, vibration isolation or vibration µabsorption¶ is primarily realized by passive methods which deal directly with the physical properties of a mechanical structure itself that is related to stiffness, damping and mass. The performances of the passive systems are highly system dependent as they are unable to adapt or re-tune to changing disturbances or structural characteristics over time [2]. The idea of active control is that desirable performance characteristics can be achieved through cooperating sensors, actuators and control techniques within mechanical structures. Roger et. al [3] has presented the design methodology for active control in their study in which they discussed and proposed on the actuation concept, alternate control algorithm and also about an approach to solving the problem. In the design process section, they have explored actuators and their technologies, controller hardware and software, and sensors to be integrated effectively into the system. Recently active vibration isolation with various control methods and actuators technology has become a popular topic in vibration control and applied on many systems such as suspension system, precision machine platform, building structures, etcs. D¶Amato and Viassolo [4] have designed an active suspension car system using an inner loop to track the actuator¶s command and outer controller loop used to satisfy the passenger¶s comfort with the proposed method applied to a quarter car model. Yildrim [5] presented a simulation study with comparison made between PID, PI and PD with the proposed neural network schemes applied to a suspension system. He has shown that the proposed scheme can guarantee the stability of the adaptive system in the presence of the modeling uncertainties. Ahn [6] proposed a hybrid type of active vibration isolation system using a form of neural network in which a hybrid of passive air spring and active electromagnetic actuators was employed. The results of their study indicate that the hybrid model provides a better vibration isolation performance compared to the passive system. A study by Abakumov [7] showed that his proposed scheme using new optimal and quasioptimal control algorithm for active isolation system has shown an improved and better vibration suppression of the disturbances than the PID counterpart.

appropriate friction model should be chosen to reflect the relevant features of the physical system. and N is the normal force pressing the two sliding surfaces together. v is the relative sliding velocity. Awrejcewicz and Olejnik [21]. friction can be considered dependent on any of the following factors: relative sliding velocity. . these models are capable of reproducing various features of friction such as velocity and acceleration dependence. acceleration. An essential part of any study on the behavior of a dynamical system with friction is to appropriately account for the friction effect using a sufficiently accurate friction model. etc. [18]. [19]. temperature. the variations of friction with velocity is typically explained by the Stribeck curve [24]. When some form of lubrication is present between the sliding bodies. Their paper starts from the first human experiences in fire-making and early inventions of the ancient cultures to the early works of Leonardo da Vinci. dwell time. pre-slip displacement. and Berger [22]. This model is extensively used in the study of friction-induced vibration. In one of the first survey papers on friction modeling by Armstrong-Helouvry et al. various friction models are studied. pre-slip displacement.Friction-induced Vibration A historical review of structural and mechanical systems with friction is given by Feeny et al. and hysteresis effect. The friction models used in the dynamic modeling of systems can be further divided into static models and dynamic models. In the dynamic friction models such as the so-called LuGre model [23]. friction memory. and expands to the modern-day scientific advances in friction utilization and prevention. The simplest approximate friction model may be given by (see for example [19. Depending on the specific problem being investigated. four different regimes are identified in this model [25]. As reported in these works. The latter category is the subject of numerous works as can be seen in review papers by Ibrahim [20]. normal load. the friction force is dependent on additional state variables that are governed by nonlinear differential equations stemming from the model for the average deflection of the contacting surfaces. These models can be divided into the following two categories: ‡ Models that are based on the micro-mechanical interaction between rough surfaces and aim to explain the friction force. ‡ Models that incorporate various time or system dependent parameters to reproduce the effect of friction in a dynamical system. As shown in Figure 2-1. There are numerous works found in the literature on the various friction models for simulation and analysis of dynamical systems. At the price of increased complexity of the system dynamics. (v) is the velocity-dependent coefficient of friction.22]) Where Ff is the friction force.

In the second regime.1 below. since the lead screw threads slide against meshing nut threads as the system operates. In this regime. In the third regime with the increase of velocity.Figure 2-1: Stribeck curve [25]. and when it does. increasing the sliding velocity decreases friction. This type of instability is discussed in Section 2. friction-induced vibration may occur. the sliding velocity is not enough to build a fluid film between the surfaces and lubrication has insignificant effect.27]). it can have severe effects on the function of the system. lubricant enters the loadbearing region. and reduced life are some of the adverse consequences of frictioninduced vibration. the solid-to-solid contact is eliminated and the load is fully supported by the fluid. the friction force is the result of the shear resistance in the fluid and increases linearly with velocity. Wherever sliding motion exists in machines and mechanisms.1. Different models have been proposed to reproduce this type of velocity-dependent friction (see for example [26. The important feature of these models is the existence of a region of negative slope in the friction-velocity curve. which may lead to self-excited vibrations. The first regime is the static friction where lubricant does not prevent the contact of the asperities of the two surfaces and friction acts similar to the no lubricant situation. In this regime. lead screw systems are no exception. diminished accuracy. which results in partial lubrication. Finally in the fourth regime. To this end. . Excessive noise.

for simplicity. is a disk brake.27]). Here. there are innumerable publications found in the literature that are dedicated to various aspects of disk brake noise and vibrations. Decreasing friction force with relative velocity or negative damping. [29]. researchers adopted the well-known mass-on-a-conveyer model to study the stick-slip vibration (See for example [33. Major self-excited vibration mechanisms in the systems with friction relevant to the lead screw drives can be categorized into three types [28-31]: 1. In most instances. 2.28]. Kinematic constraint instability. Negative Damping The negative slope in the friction/sliding velocity curve or the difference between static and kinematic coefficients of friction can lead to the so-called stick-slip vibrations (see for example [24. Major experimental and theoretical works on the automotive disk brake squeal problem are reviewed in a paper by Kinkaid et al. Mode coupling.Numerous researchers have studied self-excited vibration phenomena in variety of frictional mechanisms [20-21.32]). the coefficient of friction is considered to decrease linearly with relative velocity. 3. Fortunately. Figure 2-2: 1-DOF mass-on-a-conveyer model The equation of motion for this model can be written as where N > 0 is the normal force between the mass and the conveyer and Vb> 0 is the conveyer¶s constant velocity. This simple model is shown in Figure 2-2. Transferring the steady-sliding state to the origin gives .34. Possibly the closest mechanism to a lead screw drive in terms of dynamics and friction-induced instabilities.

the same mechanism is the cause of ³jamming´ or ³wedging´ [40]. this type of instability is sometimes referred to as ³sprag-slip´ vibration (see for example [29] and references therein).Considering small perturbations around the steady-sliding fixed point where vb.e. humped friction model). In cases where the coefficient of friction is a nonlinear function of sliding velocity (e. Kinematic constraint instability When friction is present. This type of instability is usually characterized by violation of the solution existence or uniqueness conditions of the system¶s equations of motion [41]. the vibration amplitude grows until it reaches the stick-slip boundary. In the study of disc brake systems. They showed that as damping is increased.38. i.dot( y) > 0 & .dot( y) = 0 Using an exponentially decreasing model for the coefficient of friction. linearized equation of motion is found from (2. [34] used the method of averaging ([35]) to study the steady-state solutions of a system similar to the one shown in Figure 2-2. a massless rigid rod pivoted at point O is contacting a rigid moving plane. A force L is pressing the free end of the rod against the moving plane.4) is unstable. resulting in an unstable limit cycle that defines the region of attraction of the stable fixed point.3) as It is obvious that when c < Nm3 the system (2. The simplest example to demonstrate the kinematic instability is shown in Figure 2-3 [29].39]). the constraint equation used to model kinematic pairs in dynamical systems can lead to instabilities even when the coefficient of friction is assumed to be constant (see for example [28] and references therein). Thomsen and Fidlin [37] also used averaging techniques to derive approximate expressions for the amplitude of stick-slip and pureslip (when no sticking occurs) vibrations in a model similar to Figure 2-2. In this type of friction instability. It can be shown that at equilibrium .g. Hetzler et al. In the context of constrained multi-body system dynamics with friction. In this situation. The normal and friction force applied to the rod are given by N and Ff=mkN where mk is the constant kinetic coefficient of friction. In the model shown. no sticking occurs between the two rubbing surfaces (see for example [20. the presence of one or more sections of negative slope in the frictionsliding velocity curve can lead to negative damping and self-excited vibration. They used a thirdorder polynomial to describe the velocity-dependent coefficient of friction. vb. the unstable steady-sliding fixed point goes through a subcritical Hopf-bifurcation ([36]).

K if the symmetric stiffness matrix.5) it is evident that if and further motion becomes impossible. The divergence instability boundary ( d h = h ) is found from ([43]) . Mode Coupling In the context of the linear dynamical systems. the motion continues by deflection of the parts (see for example Hoffmann and Gaul [42]). In a more realistic setting where some flexibility is assumed. and h is a parameter of interest. This situation is known as the sprag-slip limit cycle. From (2. and S(h) is an asymmetric matrix originating from the non conservative forces.Figure 2-3: Simple model to demonstrate kinematic constraint instability [29]. the stability may be lost by divergence or flutter as the parameter h is varied. Consider the equations of motion of a second order undamped multi-DOF linear autonomous system as1 where q is the vector of generalized coordinates. The natural frequencies of this system are found from the solutions of the characteristic equation given by Assuming the initial system ( h = h0 ) is stable. After sufficient deformation of the contacting bodies. the effects of non-conservative forces on stability are well understood (see for example [43]). M is a positive-definite symmetric inertia matrix. slippage occurs which allows the bodies to assume their original configuration and the cycle continues.

7) vanishes. one of the roots of (2. The downward force R is assumed large enough to ensure contact between mass and conveyer belt is not lost. see also [44]. The flutter boundary ( f h = h ) is characterized by the coalescence of two of the system natural frequencies. two roots become complex conjugate. The role of friction as a follower force in destroying the symmetry of the stiffness matrix resulting in flutter instability was first used to explain brake squeal [29]. By further variation of the parameter beyond its critical value. The addition of velocity-dependent forces to this system yields where C is positive semi-definite matrix and G = -GT defines the gyroscopic forces . system (2. Consider the 2-DOF system shown in Figure 2-4 studied by Hoffman and Gaul [47]. [45] and Mottershead and Chan [46] studied hard disk drive instability using a similar concept. The friction force is modeled using Coulomb friction law. This model consists of a point mass sliding on a conveyer.7). In cases where S(h) is skew-symmetric.6) can only become unstable through flutter instability as divergence is not possible [43]. t n F = F where is the constant coefficient of friction.At this critical value. Ono et al. The flutter instability boundary can be found by setting where D is given by (2. It has been shown that the addition of damping can have a complex effect on the stability of the system and it may even destabilize the otherwise stable system [43]. An additional spring placed at 45o angle is also considered which acts as the coupling between vertical and horizontal motions. The mass is suspended using vertical and horizontal linear spring and dampers. For further details on this subject. . Also the conveyer belt is moving with constant velocity of > 0 b v .

The equation of motion for this system can be written in matrix form as Shifting the equilibrium point (steady sliding state) to the origin by setting 0 and .Figure 2-4: A simple 2-DOF model capable of exhibiting mode coupling instability [47]. where gives .

an active vibration control system working principle starts with measuring the response of the system using suitable sensors. (2. Based on Fig. a great number of papers were published on the systems exhibiting mode coupling instability due to friction and the complex effect damping on such systems. from (2. results in the a pair of complex conjugate squared natural frequencies.9) the flutter instability threshold is calculated as If the two natural frequency become identical. Then the electronic circuit reads the sensors output.10). Active Vibration Control An active vibration control is a method that relies on the use of an external power source called actuator (e.16) can be obtained from (2.The symmetry-breaking role of friction is clearly shown in (2. The actuator will provide a force or displacement to the system based on the measurement of the response of the system using feedback control system.13) simplifies to a linear homogeneous differential equation Comparing (2. Other recent works on this subject include [60-64].9).13). a piezoelectric device or an electric motor)[1]. 1. . which indicates instability of the steady sliding fixed point. The actuator force will actually compensate the vibration force in the system. given by Note that (2. Recently. Increasing the coefficient of friction beyond its flutter critical value. it can be concluded that Neglecting damping1. a hydraulic piston. . Based on the control law used. In a small neighborhood of the origin. See papers by Hoffmann and his coworkers [49-51] and Jézéquel and his coworkers [52-59]. the calculated force signal is sent to the actuator and the controlled force is correspondingly applied to the system. later converts the signal appropriately and sent it to the control unit. Note that the right-hand-side of this equation non-zero only when b x £ ív &~ .14) with (2.g.

robust and .Fig. However. the system remains stable. For example. PD and PID) can be realized by simply exploiting the controller gains. active vibration control can be viewed as a method that is based on the use of sensors and actuators within a mechanical structure. In general. cooperating through signal conditioning electronics and control technique [4]. if the integral gain Ki is set to zero. then the controller is reduced to a PD type. the PD type controller (or others) can be simply referred to as a generic PID controller for convenience and thus. Ki and Kd : proportional. PI. 1: Active Vibration Control A typical PID control law that can be used in the active vibration control system is as follows: Gc = Kpe + Ki œ e dt + Kd where Gc : control signal Kp. Active Force Control (AFC) Hewitt first introduced Active Force Control (AFC) strategy to control a dynamic system in the late 70s [8]. integral and derivative gains respectively e and : joint position error and its derivative respectively It should be noted that a family of PID controllers (P. It has been shown that by using AFC. the PID term is preferred and would be consistently used throughout the paper.

AFC has been demonstrated to perform excellently compared to the conventional methods in controlling robot arm [9-13]. friction and changes in the operating conditions) that partially contribute to the acceleration should be approximated appropriately. which need to be measured directly from the system.effective even in the presence of known/unknown disturbances. vibration. Fig. M* with the presence of the disturbances (e. 2 illustrates a schematic of an AFC scheme applied to a dynamic system. F* via the measurement of mass acceleration. This can be achieved by using simple crude approximation (CA) method or rtificial intelligent (AI) methods [10. The physical quantities. Fig. Then the estimated mass of the system. are the actuating force. 2: Schematic Diagram of an AFC Strategy . this is in fact a very attractive option for real-time or on-line implementation. a and actuator force. Fa together with an appropriate estimation of the estimated mass. 11]. M* as described in the following equation: F* = Fa ± M*a (2) It is obvious that Eq. 2 is very simple and is expected to be computationally light.g. a which can be obtained using some sensing elements. uncertainties and varied operating conditions. The essence of the AFC strategy is to obtain the estimated disturbances force. Fa and the acceleration.