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Philosophy 3: Unit 3 I. Preliminaries: Review the definitions: – An argument is valid iff…? -- An argument is sound iff…?

-- A set of premises is inconsistent iff …? -- What is the difference between a deductive and an inductive argument? -- What is cogency? -- What is strength? And so forth. Because so much of what we have learned in the past few weeks is best understood by active participation and does not lend itself to rote learning, I have decided that the thing for you to do to really master this material is simply to practice it until you are comfortable with it. Logic is not so much a theory as it is a skill – no one truly excels at a skill without practice and participation. So, what follows here are mostly a series of exercises designed to help you comprehend proofs, symbolizations and tests of validity. Good luck. Feel free to e-mail me any questions you might have. If you have questions regarding this handout, please be sure to indicate exactly which exercise you mean. Don’t forget: Jenessa and I are holding a review session Monday, December 6th, 5-7pm in Buchanan 1930. Bring questions – the point of the review session is to clear up any last minute problems and residual confusions, and not to condense several weeks of material into a two hour lecture. II. Symbolizations and Calculating Truth Values: Exercise 1: Symbolize the following1: A. Either the fire was produced by arson or it was produced by spontaneous combustion. B. Either John is not here or Mary is, and Helen certainly is. C. If there are more cats than dogs, then there are more horses than dogs and there are fewer snakes than cats. D. The man in the moon is a fake, and if the same is true of Santa Claus, many children are deceived. E. If either red-heads are lovely or blondes do not have freckles, then logic is confusing. F. If John testifies and tells the truth, he will be found guilty; he will be found guilty, if he does not testify. G. Either John must testify and tell the truth, or he does not have to testify.
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All of the following (A—G) are from Suppes, Patrick, Introduction to Symbolic Logic, (Mineola: Dover, 1999, pp.17-18).

then Descartes was born in the sixteenth century. A. then either Descartes was not born in the sixteenth century or Newton was born before Shakespeare.18) Adapted from Suppes (1999. from the given truth values of the component sentences ((a)-(d))2: (a) (b) (c) (d) “Galileo was born before Descartes” is true. then Newton was not born before Shakespeare. note that due to software (and human) limitations I will use “ ” in place of the hook. V(W) = T. V(S) = F (a) (b) (c) (d) 2 3 (P & Q) & R P & (Q & R) S P P S The following are adapted from Suppes (1999. V(C) = F (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) NvC N&C ~N&~C N iff (~W v C) (N iff ~W) v C (W v ~C) N W v (~C N) (W v N) (W ~C) (W iff ~N) iff (N iff C) (W N) [(N ~C) (~C W)] Exercise 4: Use the tabular method to calculate the truth value of ((a)-(o)) given the following assignment of truth values to the atomic sentences4: V(P) = T. Also.Exercise 2: Symbolize the following sentences and use the truth table method to determine the truth value of the compound sentences (A-C). If Racine was not a compatriot of Galileo. “iff” in place of the tribar and “&” in place of the dot. “Descartes was born in the sixteenth century” is true. V(R) = T. 18-19) . C. p. If either Racine was a compatriot of Galileo or Newton was born before Shakespeare. p. “Racine was a compatriot of Galileo” is false. If Galileo was born before Descartes. B. V(Q) = T. p18). 4 From Suppes (1999. “Newton was born before Shakespeare” is false. Exercise 3: Use the truth table method to calculate ((a)-(j)) given the following assignment of truth values to the atomic sentences of ((a)-(j))3: V(N) = T.

Tossington III. OM. OBE. assuming Aunt Delia’s train was delayed at the Chesterfield junction. OBE. FRS will be late for his appointment. FRS will be late for his appointment. (c) “The cable dispatched to Scotland Yard will arrive before the HMS Biggles makes port in Marrakesh” is false.(e) (P & Q) & (R & S) (f) (P& Q) iff (R & ~S) (g) P & (Q iff (R & ~S)) (h) P & ((Q iff R) & ~S) (i) (P iff Q) (S iff R) (j) P iff (Q (S iff R)) (k) ((P iff Q) S) iff R (l) (~P Q) (S R) (m) (P ~Q) (S iff R) (n) (P Q) [(Q R) (o) (P [Q iff (R S)] (R S)] Exercise 5: Symbolize the following sentences and use either the tabular method or the truth table method to calculate the truth values of (A-D) given the assignment of truth values to atomic sentences ((a)-(d)): (a) “Aunt Delia’s train was delayed at the Chesterfield junction” is true. OM. If the cable dispatched to Scotland Yard will arrive before the HMS Biggles makes port in Marrakesh and the right honorable and gallant Sir Edward J. then the Baroness Hildegard Von Wurtenheimholtzenhammerlichenfeldstein will cross the FrancoPrussian border by midnight. FRS will not be late for his appointment5. OM. then.. B. 5 Hint – commas often indicate scope. Sir Edward J. FRS will be late for his appointment” is true. Obviously.. A. Esq. OBE. the right honorable and gallant Sir Edward J. FRS will be late for his appointment. . If Aunt Delia’s train was delayed at the Chesterfield junction.. only if Aunt Delia’s train was delayed at the Chesterfield junction. Tossington III. Esq. C. Esq. OM. Either Aunt Delia’s train was not delayed at the Chesterfield junction or the Baroness Hildegard Von Wurtenheimholtzenhammerlichenfeldstein will not cross the Franco-Prussian border by midnight. provided that the cable dispatched to Scotland Yard will not arrive before the HMS Biggles makes port in Marrakesh and the right honorable and gallant Sir Edward J. only if the right honorable and gallant Sir Edward J. OBE. (b) “The right honorable and gallant.. D. Esq. Tossington III. (d) “The Baroness Hildegard Von Wurtenheimholtzenhammerlichenfeldstein will cross the Franco-Prussian border by midnight” is true. Although the cable dispatched to Scotland Yard will not arrive before the HMS Biggles makes port at Marrakesh. will the Baroness Hildegard Von Wurtenheimholtzenhammerlichenfeldstein cross the FrancoPrussian border by midnight.. OBE. I mean the commas separating clauses of sentences and not the commas separating Sir Edward’s titles and honors. OM. Tossington III. Tossington III. Esq.

6 7 ~ (P & ~ (Q & R)) P Rv~P ~ Q /Therefore R W S Arguments A – E are due to Dan Dolson. 1. 1. Invalidity and Proofs: Exercise 1: Use the truth table method to establish whether or not the following arguments are valid.e. R P 3.III. C. 4. give a counterexample to the argument (i. If an argument is invalid. A hint: a biconditional is equivalent to the conjunction of two conditionals. 1. (V v E) S / Therefore O D. haven’t we got a rule for proving conditionals? . 1. ~~~ (P v ~P) 2. If the argument is valid. if the argument is invalid. K iff R 2.e. 2. Q (W & D) / Therefore Q C. (R S) v Q 2. K (R P) 3. Q iff R / Therefore R Exercise 2: Use the short test to determine the validity of the following arguments. Validity. prove it. S & ~Q 3. O ( Q & N) 2. 1. T ~ (A S) 2. ~ (R v S) /Therefore Q B. T (H & J) 2. 1. 1. 1. an invalidating assignment)6: A. 3. P (P & Q) /Therefore R D. R (S Q) 2. 1. an invalidating assignment): A. give a counterexample (i. (H v N) T / Therefore T iff H7 E. T v N / Therefore T iff ~ N. ~ P / Therefore R B.

then either Congress must regulate it or the people will suffer. Hence. there are a large number of suppliers. OM. But the supreme duty is not the pursuit of pleasure. S. then there are a large number of suppliers. Congressmen will be unpopular. then logic is not difficult. give a counterexample9: A. N) B. If Algernon is in jail. then eroticism is not virtuous. L. I’m sorry I’ve found it necessary to expose you to so much of both. I) C. If mathematics is easy. N. P. if many students like logic. Esq. R) F. I. . C. D.. (D. Esq. if there are price controls. the market is perfectly free. only if he is drunk. Moreover. However. then he is not a nuisance to his family. Therefore. Tossington III. OBE. FRS. Aunt Delia believed that Sir Edward J. he is either not drunk or in the army. S. either duty is not the highest virtue or hedonism is not correct. If prices are high. there will be inflation. S) G. then he is not a disgrace. If the people suffer. W. M) E..Exercise 3: Symbolize the following arguments and test for validity8. A. mathematics is not easy. Prices are high or there are price controls. Also. Therefore. U) D. D. If a single supplier cannot affect prices. prove it. Tossington III. (F. FRS. (P. If the argument is valid. there is inflation. if the argument is invalid. Congress will not regulate inflation and Congressmen will not be unpopular. and if she believed that Sir Edward J. If he is not a disgrace. wages are high. If he is not in jail. wages will not rise. If Aunt Delia’s conduct was always consistent with her beliefs. then he is in the army. OBE. Arguments A – F are adapted from Suppes (1999). He is a nuisance to his family. If the market is perfectly free. Therefore. OM. then either duty is not the highest virtue or the supreme duty is the pursuit of pleasure. then wages are high. If either wages or prices are raised. (J. then there is not inflation. or not many students like it. was far too old to 8 9 I’ve supplied a scheme of abbreviation. Either logic is difficult. (W. If hedonism is not correct. If there is inflation. (H. then a single supplier cannot affect prices. E. Therefore. was far too old to marry. If eroticism is virtuous. The remaining arguments are the children of an unholy union between Suppes’s argument forms and my brain. C. Therefore.

and Colonel Farrago’s men are not ambushed in the Smolenskinisi Pass. then the Baroness Hildegard von Wurtenheimholtzenhammerlichenfeldstein has not crossed the Franco-Prussian border by midnight of the 23rd. Swivens has not rung the bell thrice before this afternoon’s tea. then she did not marry Sir Edward. will not be able to effect their coup d’état. The fact is that the Vicar of St. If. (B. (B. will the rebels. be able to effect their coup d’état. C. the Baroness Hildegard von Wurtenheimholtzenhammerlichenfeldstein has crossed the Franco-Prussian border by midnight of the 23rd. under the auspices of the Hellfire Club. But Aunt Delia did marry Sir Edward. R. V) 10 I regret to say. . Therefore. D.10 the rebels. If the Vicar of St. Therefore Aunt Delia’s conduct was not always consistent with her beliefs.marry. and the Duke of Westphalia receives Sir Edward’s dispatch before the HMS Biggles makes port at Marrakesh. M) H. C. under the auspices of the Hellfire Club. Swivens has not rung the bell thrice before this afternoon’s tea. and only if.