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SECOND MATE RODIEN E. PACA COMPASS ADJUSTMENTS.................................................................................................................1 VARIATION:...........................................................................................................................................4 GETTING DEVIATION:.......................................................................................................................5 DEVIATION............................................................................................................................................5 COMPASS DEVIATION BY HEAVENLY BODY OBSERVATION..............................................8

COMPASSES
COMPASS ADJUSTMENTS
- to eliminate or reduce deviation COEFFICIENT A- coefficient of constant deviation COEFFICIENT B - coeff. of semi-circular deviation (sine) COEFFICIENT C- coeff. of semi-circular deviation (cosine) COEFFICIENT D- coeff. of quadrantal or inter-cardinal deviation (sine) COEFFICIENT E- coeff. of quadrantal deviation (cosine) heeling magnets/atwartship magnets = N S flinder’s bar/ fore and aft magnets = E W QUADRANTAL SPHERES- inter-cadinal magnets (NE, SW, SE, NW) -0860 1. if the blue ends of the magnetic are aft and the fore and aft tray is at the top, you should add same magnet. 2. if the red end of the magnets are aft , you should lower the fore and aft tray.

093 degrees 1. if the blue ends of the magnets are forward, you should raise the fore and aft tray.

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12/6/2011

12/6/2011

“Sometimes you have to see deep inside your heart and meditate if we are in the ight direction”—

PACS

If the red ends are to port and the tray is at the bottom. Raise or lower athwartship magnets. If the red end are to starboard & the athwartship tray is at the bottom . If the blue ends of the magnets are to starboard and the athwartship tray is at the bottom. 2. 2. if the red ends are to starboard. 356 degrees 1. if the red ends of the magnets are forward & the fore and aft tray’s at the bottom. if the blue ends of the magnets are to port and athwartship tray is at the bottom. If the red ends of the magnets are to starboard and the athwartship tray is at the top you should add some more magnets. NOTES: 1. if the red ends of the magnets are aft. 4. 3. If the red ends of the magnets are to port . you should remove some magnets. certain correctors must be checked to ensure that they are free of permanent magnetism. you should reverse the magnets. 5. the athwartship magnets should be lowered. If the red ends are to port . 6. 003 degrees 1. you should raise the tray. 3. you should lower the athwartship tray. Before a magnetic compass is adjusted.the atwartship magnets should be raised. you should remove some magnets. you should raise the fore and aft tray. you should remove some magnets.compilation by: SECOND MATE RODIEN E. Those corrections are: FLINDER’S BAR AND QUADRANTAL SPHERES 2 12/6/2011 12/6/2011 “Sometimes you have to see deep inside your heart and meditate if we are in the ight direction”— PACS . 3. PACA 2.

The flinder’s bar in a magnetic compass compensates for the INDUCED MAGNETISM IN VERTICAL SOFT IRON. what connects for the coefficient of the deviation? FLINDER’S BAR 6. 7. 11. 5. 9. you should have the ship on an even keel. To center a compass bowl in this binnacle .compilation by: SECOND MATE RODIEN E. heading North or South and adjust the screws until----NO CHANGE OF HEADING BY COMPASS IS OBSERVED IF YOU RAISE OR LOWER THE HEEELING MAGNET. Magnets are placed in horizontal trays in the compass binnacle to compensate the: PERMANENT MAGNETISM OF THE VESSEL 3. 8. The flinder’s bar and the quadrantal spheres should be tested for permanent magnetism at what interval? ANNUALLY 4. What are the only magnetic corrector that corrects for both permanent MAGNETS and induced effects of magnetism? HEELING 3 12/6/2011 12/6/2011 “Sometimes you have to see deep inside your heart and meditate if we are in the ight direction”— PACS . This changes of Lat when you are adjusting a compass. Heeling error is defined as the change of deviation for a heel of ---1 0 of the magnetic WHILE THE VESSEL IS ON A COMPASS HEADING 0000 T 10. Which statements about the flinder’s bar compass is correct? IT COMPENSATES FOR THE ERROR CAUSED BY THE VERTICAL COMPONENT OF THE EARTH’S MAGNETIC FIELD. The vertical components of the earth’s magnetic field causes induced magnetism in vertical soft iron. The single magnet placed underneath the compass in the binnacle is used to compensate for ---DEVIATION CAUSED BY THE VESSEL’ S INCLINATION FROM THE VERTICAL. PACA 2. When adjusting a magnetic compass using fore and aft permanent magnets you should---USE THE MAGNETS IN RANGE FROM THE BOTTOM UP OF THE TRAYS AT THE LOWEST POINT OF THE TRAVEL.

SOLUTION: PRESENT YEAR 1997 YEAR MADE DIFF X = = 1’ 43 MINUTES 1954 43 YRS.To expedite the adjustments at sea. in what order should be the following dockside adjustments be made: FLINDER’S MAGNETS. a deviation table VARIATION: DEFINITION: TO CORRECT VARIATION IN CHARTS: GET THE DIFFERENCE OF THE PRESENT YEAR AND THE YEAR OF THE CHART MADE.compilation by: SECOND MATE RODIEN E. THEN THE SPHERES AND HEELING compass. VARIATION IS 2-25 E (1954) INCREASING ABOUT 1’ ANNUALLY. The purpose of the soft iron spheres mounted on the binnacle is to compensate for--.INDUCED MAGNETISM IN THE HORIZONTAL SOFT IRON. PACA 12. PROBLEMS: 1. Which of the following compensates for error introduced when a vessel heels over? A SINGLE VERTICAL MAGNET BENEATH THE COMPASS 13. 15. MULTIPLY THE DIFFERENCE TO THE RATE OF CORRECTION PER YEAR. 14. When correcting a magnetic should be made--AFTER ADJUSTING THE FORE AND AFT ATHWARTSHIP PERMANENT MAGNETS. VARIATION = 2 -35’ 4 12/6/2011 12/6/2011 “Sometimes you have to see deep inside your heart and meditate if we are in the ight direction”— PACS . THEN. You are about to go to sea and adjust the magnetic compass. BAR FIRST.

COMPASS COURSE = = MAGNETIC COURSE= 5 12/6/2011 12/6/2011 “Sometimes you have to see deep inside your heart and meditate if we are in the ight direction”— PACS .IF UNCORRECTING COMPASS COURSE BEST ERROR WEST. DEVIATION WEST AND MAGNETIC COURSE ONLY IF CORRECTING = REVERSE THE ABOVE IF COMPARED WITH COMPASS COURSE.compilation by: SECOND MATE RODIEN E. LEAST ERROR EAST = CORRECTING: COMPASS COURSE = DEVIATION VARIATION TRUE COURSE UNCORRECTING IS THE REVERSE THE CODE IS “ CAN DEAD MAN VOTE TWICE” CORRECTING ADD THE EASTERLY AND SUBTRACT WESTERLY REVERSE THE ABOVE IF UNCORRECTING GETTING THE ERROR: COMPASS ERROR = VARIATION ~ DEVIATION • • NAME ACCORDING TO THE GREATER COMPASS ERROR = TRUE COURSE . PACA VAR (1997)= 3 .18 EAST GETTING DEVIATION: DEFINITION: PRINCIPLES INVOLVED: FORMULAS: COMPARED WITH THE TRUE BEARING: COMPASS BEST ERROR WEST COMPASS LEAST ERROR EAST DEVIATION = DIFFERENCE OF COMPASS ERROR AND VARIATION AND NAME AFTER COURSE THE GREATER LEAST ERROR EAST AS COMPARED WITH TRUE = OR MAGNETIC COURSE BEST.

WHAT TRUE COURSE ARE YOU MAKING GOOD? ANSWER: TRUE COURSE MAKING GOOD= 153 DEG 4. THE CHART INDICATES THAT THE RANGE IS IN LINE OF 194 DEG TRUE. THE CHART INDICATES THAT THE DIRECTION OF THIS PAIR IS 147 DEG TRUE & T/C = 253 DEG 6 12/6/2011 12/6/2011 “Sometimes you have to see deep inside your heart and meditate if we are in the ight direction”— PACS . IF THE BEARING OF YOUR VESSEL AT THE TIME OF THE SIGHTING IS 190 PSC.compilation by: SECOND MATE RODIEN E. PACA PROBLEMS: 1. A NORTHEAST BY EAST WIND PRODUCES A 5 DEG LEEWAY . YOU ARE ON COURSE OF 251 PGC & 241 PSC. YOUR VESSEL IS PROCEEDING OF A CHANNEL AND YOU SEE A RANGE OF LIGHT THAT ARE IN LINE AHEAD.SOUTHWEST PRODUCING 2 DEG LEEWAY. THE WIND IS FROM THE WEST. WHAT IS THE CORRECT DEVIATION? ANSWER: DEVIATION = 3 DEG WEST 3. THE VAR IS 10 WEST. MAGNETIC COMPASS DEV IS 5 DEG E & GYRO ERROR IS 5 WEST. YOUR VESSEL IS PROCEEDING UP A CHANNEL AND YOU SEE A PAIR OF RANGE LIGHTS THAT ARE IN LINE AHEAD. VAR FOR THE AREA IS 8 WEST & DEVIATION IS 3 WEST. YOUR VESSEL IS PROCEEDING COURSE 166 DEG PSC. WHEN YOU OBSERVE A RANGE IN LINE OF 192 PGC. WHAT IS THE COURSE TO STEER PER STANDARD COMPASS TO MAKE TRUE COURSE GOOD ? ANSWER: C/C TO STEER = 132 DEG 5. THE VARIATION IS 16E. YOU DESIRE TO MAKE GOOD A TRUE COURSE OF 132 DEG. WHAT IS THE DEVIATION ? ANSWER: GYRO ERROR = 2 DEG E DEVIATION = 4 DEG WEST 2. THE CHART INDICATES THAT THE DIRECTION OF LIGHTS IS 196 DEG TRUE AND THE VARIATION IS 7 DEG E.

THE TRUE COURSE BETWEEN TWO POINTS IS 106 YOUR GYRO HAS AN ERROR OF 2 DEG EAST AND YOU MAKE AN ALLOWANCE OF OF 313 DEG TRUE AND 076 DEG TO TWO PROMINENT OBJECTS. PACA THE VAR IS 5 DEG EAST. YOUR VESSEL IS PROCEEDING DOWN A CHANNEL AND YOU SEE A PAIR OF RANGE LIGHTS THAT ARE IN LINE AHEAD. AVESSEL’S COURSE IS 116 PSC. WHAT COURSE WOULD YOU STEER PSC IN ORDER TO MAKE GOOD THE TRUE 7 12/6/2011 12/6/2011 “Sometimes you have to see deep inside your heart and meditate if we are in the ight direction”— PACS . WHILE ENROUTE FROM MONTEVIRGO TO WALVIS BAY. IF YOU TAKE BEARINGS WILL PROVIDE THE BEST FIX. WHAT IS THE DEVATION ? ANSWER: DEVIATION = 6 DEG WEST 6. ANSWER: 30 DEG NOT LESS THAN AND 120 NOT MORE THAN 10. A NORTH BREEZE CAUSES A COURSE? ANSWER: COURSE TO STEER PSC = 059 DEG 9.compilation by: SECOND MATE RODIEN E. WHAT IS THE CORRECT DEVIATION ? ANSWER: DEVIATION = 3 EAST 8. IF THE VARIATION FOR LOCALITY IS 25 WEST AND THE DEVIATION IS 6 WEST. IF THE HEADING OF YOUR VESSEL AT THE TIME OF OBSERVATION IS 232 DEG PSC. WHILE EN ROUTE FROM SYDNEY TO THE PANAMA CANAL . IF THE HEADING OF YOUR VESSEL AT THE TIME OF OBSERVATION IS 148 DEG PSC. WHAT IS THE TRUE COURSE MADE GOOD IF A WEST WIND PRODUCES A 1 DEG LEEWAY. THE CHART INDICATES THAT THE DIRECTION OF THIS PAIR OF LIGHTS IS 229 DEG TRUE AND VARIATION IS 6 WEST. VESSEL’S TRUE COURSE IS 071 VAR IS 14 E DEVIATION IS 4 WEST . ANSWER: TRUE COURSE MADE GOOD = 084 DEG TRUE 7. WHAT BEARING OF THE THIRD OBJECT 2 DEG LEEWAY.

(SIN LAT X COS LHA +/-) 8 12/6/2011 12/6/2011 “Sometimes you have to see deep inside your heart and meditate if we are in the ight direction”— PACS . YOUR GYRO HAS AN ERROR OF 1 WEST AND YOU MAKE AN ALLOWANCE OF 4 DEG LEEWAY FOR AN EAST WIND. SUNRISE EAST THEN INSERT THE NAME OF THE DECLINATION AT ANY TIME OTHER THAN SUNRISE AND SUNSET TAN AZIMUTH = • • IF THE DECLINATION AND LATITUDE DIFFERENT NAMES DECLINATION IS TREATED NEGATIVE SIN LHA+/(COS LAT X TAN DEC). WHAT IN THE COURSE OT STEER PER MAGNETIC COMPASS TO MAKE THE TRUE COURSE GOOD.compilation by: SECOND MATE RODIEN E. THE TRUE COURSE BETWEEN TWO POINTS IS 023 DEG. MAGNETIC DEVIATION IS 2 DEG WEST AND GYRO COMPASS ERROR IS 1 DEG EAST. THE VARIATION IS 19 EAST. WHAT GYRO COURSE SHOULD BE STEERED TO MAKE THE TRUE COURSE GOOD? ANSWER: 106 DEG PSC 11. YOU DESIRE TO MAKE GOOD A TRUE COURSE OF 203.? ANSWER: COURSE = 189 DEG PSC SHOULD BE COMPASS DEVIATION BY HEAVENLY BODY OBSERVATION FORMULAS: UPON SUNSET AND SUNRISE: SIN AMPLITUDE = SIN DECLINATION SEC LATITUDE • • • ALWAYS NAME FIRST EAST OR WEST. A WESTERLY WIND PRODUCES A 3 DEG LEEWAY. PACA 2 DEG LEEWAY FOR A SOUTH WIND. IN RELATION TO SUNRISE OR SUNSET IF SUNSET WEST. WHAT G/C STEERED TO MAKE THE TRUE COURSE GOOD? ANSWER: 028 DEG PGC 12.

Zn = 360 .....Zn = Z LHA LESS THAN 180 DEG .. • AZIMUTH ANGLE CAN BE CONVERTED TO TRUE AZIMUTH BY THE FF: NORTH LAT : LHA GREATER THAN 180 DEG .... sin A cot B = sin c cot b ....Zn = 180 + Z DERIVATIONS OF FORMULAS: USING COSINE AND SINE LAWS: sin a = sin A sin b sin B substitute in this formula: sin a cos B = cos b sin c .sin L cos LHA cos L sin d .compilation by: SECOND MATE RODIEN E..sin b cos c cos A then. PACA • IF THE ACUTE ANGLE AS CALCULATED IS NEGATIVE.cos c cos A cot Z = cos L tan d ... IT IS LABELED WITH THE DIRECTION THE DIRECTION MEASUREMENT FROM THE REFERENCE DIRECTION AS A SUFFIX. 9 12/6/2011 12/6/2011 “Sometimes you have to see deep inside your heart and meditate if we are in the ight direction”— PACS .... IT IS NECESSARY TO ADD 180 DEG TO OBTAIN THE DESIRED AZIMUTH ANGLE • AZIMUTH ANGLE IS MEASURED FROM 0 DEG AT THE NORTH OR SOUTH REFERENCE AS DIRECTION PREFIX CLOCKWISE AND THE OR COUNTEROF CLOCKWISE THROUGH THE 180 DEG.....Z LHA LESS THAN 180......Zn = 180 ..Z SOUTH LAT: LHA GREATER THAN 180..sin L cos LHA sin LHA tan Z = substituting: sin d/cos d for tan d tan Z = cos d sin LHA sin LHA cos L tan d ..sin L cos d cos LHA IF ALTITUDE IS GIVEN: (ALTITUDE AZIMUTH) LAW OF SINES...

h ) + sin (90 . PACA SIN AZIMUTH = COS DEC X SIN T (LHA) COS ALTITUDE LIMITATIONS: when the azimuth is near 90 or declination is less than 23 degrees.USE THE FORMULAS LHA /ALT BY “ON THE PRIME VERTICAL” LAW OF COSINES: COS AZIMUTH = SIN DEC . AZIMUTH IS NAMED SAME AS COMBINED NAMES OF A & B AND THE LHA BY POLARIS OBSERVATION: ENTER TO POLE STAR TABLE OF NAUTICAL ALMANAC COLUMN LHA & LATITUDE AZIMUTH = POLARIS = 10 PACS 12/6/2011 12/6/2011 “Sometimes you have to see deep inside your heart and meditate if we are in the ight direction”— .SIN ALT SIN ALT COS L COS H DERIVATIONS: ( law of cosines for sides ) cos b = cos c cos a + sin c sin a cos B cos ( 90-d )= cos( 90 .L )cos( 90 .compilation by: SECOND MATE RODIEN E.B = C COT AZIMUTH = C X LAT COS ( 1/x shift tan) • • • • • • NAMED “A” OPPOSITE TO LAT except THE LHA IS BETWEEN 90 AND 270 NAMED “B” AS DECLINATION A & B SAME NAMES ADD A & B DIFFERENT NAMES SUBTRACT CORRECTION IS ALWAYS NAMED THE SAME OF THE GREATER OF THE QUANTITIES.L)sin co-alt cos Z sin d = sin L sin alt + cos L cos h cos Z SOLVING BY ABC TABLES: TABLE A = COT LHA X TAN LAT TABLE B = CSC LHA X TAN DEC TABLE C = A +/.

.5 = 316 .05S DR LONG = 111 DEG E......2 CT = 18 ..Zn = 360 ... PACA COMPASS ERROR= COMPASS BEST ERROR WEST COMPASS LEAST ERROR EAST BY TABLE 249: ENTER TAB 249 UNDER COLUMN LAT INTERSECTING LHA GET THE VALUE OF Z..08M . 1979 ANTARES STAR C/BEARING = 240 DEG CT = 18H ..01..Z LHA LESS THAN 180.compilation by: SECOND MATE RODIEN E.05 = GHA SHA GHA LHA 3 SEC FAST = 204 ..58.01.08 .Z SOUTH LAT: LHA GREATER THAN 180..Zn = 180 + Z GYRO ERROR: GYRO BEARING ~ TRUE BEARING = GYRO ERROR • GYRO BEST ERROR WEST AND GYRO LEAST ERROR EAST PROBLEMS: 1.08 ..4 ( + E ) .....1 = 112 ..57.Zn = 180 .360 LHA STAR = 068 DEG E 11 PACS 12/6/2011 12/6/2011 “Sometimes you have to see deep inside your heart and meditate if we are in the ight direction”— ... THEN APPLY THE FOLLOWING RULES: NORTH LAT : LHA GREATER THAN 180 DEG ....Zn = Z LHA LESS THAN 180 DEG .6 = 428 DECLINATION = S 26-23.. DR LAT = 9 DEG N CHRONO ERROR = 3 SEC FAST SOLUTION: CT = 18 ....02 LONG = 111.. GIVEN: MAY 26..

12.3 E 3. THE POLARIS 001 CT= 17H 11M 20S ANSWER: COMPASS ERROR IS 0. 1979 THE DR POSITION LATITUDE 17 NORTH 117 DEG EAST .9 DEG.3 C/ AZIMUTH = 109 COMPASS ERROR = 1.4 DEG GYRO/ AZ = 240 DEG COMPASS ERROR = 0. GHA IS 350-16.compilation by: SECOND MATE RODIEN E.7 LHA = 277 W SOLUTION: TRUE AZIMUTH= 110. DECLINATION IS 20. POSITION IS 38-10. ON MAY 24.2 = 7 .9 DEG G/B = 185.8 E ON BOARD M/S STAR LEIKANGER.2 T/B = 187. PACA TRUE AZIMUTH= 239. GIVEN: LAT 13-52 N LONG 119-32.9 GHA = 157 .4 EAST CHRONO ERROR = 14 SECONDS FAST.12.5 DEG PER GYRO COMPASS .4 WEST 4.5 DEG GYRO ERROR= 2. FIND THE GYRO ERROR? SOLUTION: LHA = 367 . 12 PACS 12/6/2011 12/6/2011 “Sometimes you have to see deep inside your heart and meditate if we are in the ight direction”— .38.8 N LONG 16-55.6 DEG WEST 2.4.15. GYRO COMPASS 209 DEG TRUE.0 E BEARING = 109 DECLINATION = S 19-08. THE BEARING OF THE SUN IS 185.

compilation by: SECOND MATE RODIEN E.4 DEG EAST 8.7 W. GIVEN: ( ON BOARD STAR LANGANGER) LATTITUDE 48 . THE LHA IS 39-54.5 DEG ERROR = 1. SOLUTION: (-)86.25 S.4 . THE DECLINATION IS 18 -00 N.9 DEG G/B = 216.2 . THE LATITUDE OF THE OBSERVER IS 30 - 25 N.2 N.4 E ANSWER: T/B = 217.7 E.6 DEG TRUE 6.2 ALTITUDE PARALLAX BY: COS Z = sin d .THEN DIP AT THE HEIGHT OF EYE REFRACTION AT (-)6. FIND THE AZIMUTH: SOLUTION: COMPUTATION OF THE AZ ANGLE IS MADE FOR AN ALTITUDE OD (-)00 41.6 + 180 = N 93. THE DECLINATION OF THE CELESTIAL BODY IS 22 .6. THE THE DECLINATION OF THE CELESTIAL BODY IS 22 . THE LATITUDE OF THE OBSERVER IS 30-00 N.41.07.2 N MERIDIAN ANGLE IS 39 .35.1 .3 N LONG 162 .06. FIND THE AZIMUTH.3 DECLINATION N 17 .4 LHA = 382 = 22 E = 338 W 13 PACS 12/6/2011 12/6/2011 “Sometimes you have to see deep inside your heart and meditate if we are in the ight direction”— .sin L sin h cos L cos h + 0.35. PACA 5.15.4 W = 266. THE LATITUDE OF THE OBSERVER IS 30 . REQUIRED AZIMUTH OF THE BODY: SOLUTION: Z = (-)41 + 180 = S 139 E Z = 041 DEG TRUE 7.4 . THE CENTER OF THE SUN IS IN THE VISIBLE HORIZON.06.54.

CT = 07H 10M 20 S AND COMPASS BRG 269 DEG WITH CHRONO ERROR OF 5 SEC FAST. SOLUTION: T/B = 269.2 DEG NORTH.compilation by: SECOND MATE RODIEN E.5 EAST 14 PACS 12/6/2011 12/6/2011 “Sometimes you have to see deep inside your heart and meditate if we are in the ight direction”— .11. THE SUN WAS OBSERVED ON APRIL 11. 1979.0 9. DECLINATION IS 8 . PACA Z = 68-40. LHA IS 406 DEG . FIND THE TRUE AZIMUTH OF THE SUN WHILE IN LONG 11845 EAST AND 12-09 N.0 DEG ERR = 000.5 DEG G/B = 269.