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Submitted to:

Submitted By:
Dr. Braj Mohan Mr. Dinesh Kumar
Lecturer M.Sc.(Ag.) Horticulture
Department of Horticulture 2nd Semester
Roll No.- J0826110002



Planning an orchard:
Commercial fruit growing is now more challenging than ever
before. Careful planning for orchard establishment plays the role of
running industry serving the purpose of perennial fountain of
revenue for various sectors. Poor initial decisions can be costly and
impossible to correct later, hence faultless planning becomes quite
imperative to deliver the goods. An orchard is sure to give greater
dividends in the long run if proper planning and modern
technology skill is put to execution. The elaboration made herein
would plan to the zealous orchard lovers.

Site selection:
Selection of site is of paramount importance, while planning
a new orchard. As the fruit plants are of permanent nature and
mistakes committed at the outset are difficult to rectify at a later

Climate refers to the average condition of fruit growing;
various component of climate like temp., humidity, wind, rainfall,
hail and frost should be carefully studied. It is wise to learn as
much as possible about climate pattern of the proposed planting
site. Such information can be obtained from the person who have
lived in the area for many years or from a local whether
observatory or station.

Porous, aerated and deep soil should be preferred for fruit
cultivation. The ideal orchard soil should be at least 1.8 m deep
having a uniform structure, well-drained, non saline and fertile
soil. Soil with a poor sub soil-stratum should be avoided. Fruit
trees will not grow well if there is solid rock or permanent hard
pan or pebbles with 120 com of surface soil should not be chosen.
Extreme condition of top and sub-soil should be avoided. Medium
textured slightly loam or fine sandy loam makes good orchard soil.
Most fruit plants like slightly acidic to neutral soil reaction
(pH6-7). In alkaline oil, concentration of sodium salt above 0.1%
is considered dangerous to most fruit species soil having water
table depth of <3m. are not usually preferred for establishing on

Flat land with slight gentle slope, allowing good run off from
heavy rains, constitutes the best site for orchard. Similarly
undulating lands are not suitable because rain water may stagnate
in through formed due to corrugation of the land.
In hilly areas the direction of slope is important which should
receive proper attention while selecting a site. The south slope
receives more insulation because it is exposed to direct sun almost
the whole day, even in the winter months. In general, the southern
slope promotes early blooming and early maturity of the fruit.
Thus the preferred site is one with a gentle slope facing the sun,
which allows air drainage in cool condition and reduces the
incidence of frost.

Irrigation water:
Water helps the plants to grow and bear properly when given
at the right time of the year. Irrigation is used even in areas where
rainfall is considered adequate. The total soluble salt contents of
irrigation water should not exceed 1400 ppm. Water containing
high levels of chloride or a portion of sodium ions in relation to
calcium and magnesium should not be used for irrigation.
Irrigation water containing boron salts higher than 1 ppm will
damage plant tissues and should not be used for irrigation.
Irrigation water should be adequately available at a cheaper
rate. Most of the tropical fruits like mango, litchi, jack fruit and
cashew nut, flower during spring and the greatest need is usually
when the fruits are developing during summer. In litchi growing
area, irrigation is applied at weekly intervals during alter phase of
fruit development in summer months to avoid skin cracking. If
irrigation is costly it will greatly enhance the cost of production.

Finance and man power:

Capital expenditure for setting up an orchard, need a
reasonable volume of finance. It includes expenditure on land
purpose, land preparation, installation of irrigation system,
purchase of nursery sapling, planting and staking, installing trellis
for vines, pruning and training, fertilization, weed, insect and
disease control, depreciation and repairs and interest on
investment. The actual needed to accomplish the work varies
considerably with country and locality.
Fruit growing is not only capital intensive but also labour-
intensive while planning for a fruit orchard not should consider not
only the adequate supply but also regular supply of different of
manpower for various types of routine work in the orchard
regularly at a standard rate. Initially, the operations like digging,
propping etc. are mostly executed by human labours which require
a large number of manpower of various skills. In this content an
area with familiarity of fruit growing may be selected to ensure
flow of manpower with various skills, especially at peak periods,
e.g. picking time and maturing time.

Nearness to market:
Nearness to market is important and should be considered in
choosing a site. Since fruits are highly perishable nature they
should be marketed soon after their harvest. Most of the tropical
fruits like mango, litchi, guava and jamun are difficult to store,
there edible quality readily deteriorates under prolonged cold
storage it is obvious that a near by market reduces the transport
cost and increase the profit margin.

Transport system:
A good transport system is an integral part of commercial
fruit growing a good transport system greatly helps in bridging the
distance between the site of production and the place of
consumption. Quick transport also helps in maintaining freshness
of the produce at selling point. Nowadays refrigerated truck,
railway, wagons and ships are available to send the fruits to
distance market in good conditions. Also the use of air cargo is
expending rapidly in transporting fruits over long distance in short

Storage facility:
Storage facilities by the side of commercial orchard will
helps in checking the post harvest loss of the fruits and minimize
the transportation cost. Intensive planting of a crop in a given area
may lead to market glut when the orchards come into full
production. Market glut normally lead to lowering of price.
However of canning or fruit preservation factories are present near
the orchard site. The excess harvest can be utilized for making
storable processed product. So before planning for an orchard and
selecting a site, the resources like storage facilities available near
by should be considered seriously.

Planning deals with overall aspect of orcharding. Orchard
buildings, roads, path, fencing, wind-breaks, layout system of
planting, spacing of planting etc. are especially emphasized in
planning. Generally 10% of the total area is left aside for building,
roads, paths, tube wells, channels etc.
At the very entry of the orchard, provision of watch-hut
should be made. Farm building should be located in the center of
the orchard. Provision of storage house packing etc. should be
made while planning of the orchard. Road approaching every
corner of the orchard should be at right angle. Generally a road of
10-15 feet inside the orchard serves the purpose of movement of
carts and machinery inside the orchard. Provision of irrigation in
the orchard should be made properly if it is a bore-well. It should
be dug at a place suitable to feed the water requirement of entire
orchard. In some areas the growers use canal water to irrigate the
orchard. In these areas construction of farm pond is necessary to
have a regular supply of irrigation water as per need of the orchard.
The pond should be sufficiently deep and of adequate storage
capacity. Facility of water supply is essential in view of installation
of drip irrigation system also effective.
Orchard crops are intensively cared ones damaged fruit
plants hardly recover properly. There protection from stray animals
is necessary. Temporary fencing may be created using Carrissa
carandas, Inga dulsis and other thorny plants. Preference should
be given to permanent fencing which is created using angle iron
pole and barbed wire. Poles of 8-10 feet height are sufficient for
this purpose. These poles are drilled at an interval of 150-200 com
through which barbed wires are stretched to create fence.
Wind break is very important aspect of orchard planning. It
consists of planting of tall trees along with the boundary of the
orchard. Wind break helps the orchard in following ways:
(i) It converts the wind ward side into leeward side and
reduces the velocity of the wind.
(ii) Maintains favorable micro climate in orchard by reducing
moisture removal and minimizing rate of transpiration.
(iii) Prevent dropping of flowers and fruits.
(iv) Prevent orchard during winter from cold waves.