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ELECTRONIC PUBLICATION SCI ED001

Recommended Application of BS 6399-2

This document has been prepared by: The Steel Construction Institute Silwood Park Ascot Berkshire SL5 7QN Tel: 01344 623345 Fax: 01344 622944 Email: reception@steel-sci.com The author of the document is: Mr D G Brown
BEng CEng MICE

© 2002 The Steel Construction Institute Enquiries concerning reproduction of this document should be sent to The Steel Construction Institute, at the address given above. Although care has been taken to ensure, to the best of our knowledge, that all data and information contained herein are accurate to the extent that they relate to either matters of fact or accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of publication, The Steel Construction Institute, the authors and the reviewers assume no responsibility for any errors in or misinterpretations of such data and/or information or any loss or damage arising from or related to their use. Publication Number: SCI ED001

© 2002 The Steel Construction Institute

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SCI ED001

It explains the different methods in the Standard that may be used to calculate wind loads. The guidance sets out a recommended procedure for applying the provisions of the Standard. With increasing experience. and for liaison with the Code Committee. In particular. A comprehensive guide to the Standard. This document was drafted by Mr D Brown of the Steel Construction Institute. Guide to evaluating design wind loads to BS 6399-2 by Dr C Bailey will be published later in 2002[3]. designers will learn where the recommended approach can be foreshortened without penalty. The recommendations are not intended to produce the “best” answer in every case – rather that they will produce good results in most cases. and where extra calculation effort will reap benefits. with significant contribution by others in developing the understanding of how to use the Standard. © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute iii SCI ED001 . the contribution of Dr C Bailey of BRE was considerable.FOREWORD This guidance note has been prepared to assist designers using BS 6399-2:1997. He was responsible for many of the studies clarifying the Standard. Valuable comment and advice has also been received from: Dr D Moore Mr P J Williams Mr C M King BRE BCSA SCI Financial support from the DLTR is gratefully acknowledged. particularly for those designers using the Standard for the first time.

© 2002 The Steel Construction Institute iv SCI ED001 .

2 The dependence of the dynamic pressure.3 Overall loads 6.2 Recommendations OVERVIEW OF THE RECOMMENDED PROCESS 2.4 Frame deflections REFERENCES 7 © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute v SCI ED001 .2 Pressure coefficients 6.1 Calculation stages 2.Contents Page No. qs on wind direction DYNAMIC CLASSIFICATION WIND 4.3 SPEED Basic wind speed Site wind speed Effective wind speed iii vi 1 1 1 2 2 2 6 7 7 7 8 12 15 15 15 20 21 22 2 3 4 5 6 DYNAMIC PRESSURE CALCULATION OF LOADS 6.1 Scope 1.1 Overview of the recommended process 6.1 4.2 4. FOREWORD SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION 1.

qs calculation of the loads on the building. as helpful advice in addition to the preceding text. highlighted in a tinted box.SUMMARY This short document gives recommendations on how to apply the provisions of BS 6399-2:1997 Loadings for buildings. the calculation process is split into a number of sequential stages: • • • • dynamic classification of the structure calculation of wind speeds calculation of the dynamic pressure. Its main objective is to help designers minimise the design wind loads. Recommendations covering all of these principal stages are given in the publication. Within each method. © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute vi SCI ED001 . The publication gives the overview of two principal calculation methods: the directional method and the standard method. It also includes notes. Code of practice for wind loads. as higher (more conservative) wind loads may lead to unnecessarily conservative steel designs.

It gives recommendations on how to apply the provisions of the Standard. The guidance may not give the minimum wind load in every circumstance. highlighted in a tinted box. It is expected that when published. as helpful advice in addition to the preceding text.2 • • • Recommendations Advice is contained in this note is taken from three sources: The Standard. The objective of this publication is to help designers minimise the design wind loads. for example Figure 6. are designated by a single number. designers could achieve the same wind load with less work. This publication includes notes. © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 1 SCI ED001 . 1 introduces some significant changes to the 1997 Standard. 1 BRE Digest 436[2] The draft design guide[3] All references to the Standard refer to the Standard incorporating Amendment No.1. References to figures and tables in the Standard. incorporating Amendment No. later in 2002.1 1. Figures and tables in this publication are enumerated with a two-part number. More detailed guidance on the use of the Standard is given in Guide to evaluating design wind loads to BS 6399-2 [3]. In some circumstances further reductions in the wind loads could result from following a more refined approach. 1. 1. for example Figure 3. with particular application to steel structures. Throughout this publication. In some cases. Readers should note that Amendment No. designers will refer to this comprehensive guide. as higher (more conservative) wind loads may lead to unnecessarily conservative steel designs.1 INTRODUCTION Scope This short guidance document is intended to help designers using BS 6399-2:1997[1]. BS 6399-2 is referred to as the Standard. issued 27 March 2002.

and terrain and building factor) may be directionally dependent. The value of dynamic pressure to be used in design is then the highest of those calculated in © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 2 SCI ED001 . the recommendations follow the stages in the flow chart given in Figure 1 of the Standard. The simplest and most conservative approach when determining the dynamic pressure is to ignore any variation around the site and simply take the worst case (i. and building and terrain factor within each 30° segment. the combination of worst-case factors will be unrealistic and lead to a conservative (i. Generally. Recommendations covering all of these principal stages are given in the following Sections. which are a combination of the directional and standard methods. because the factors that modify the basic and site wind speeds (the altitude factor. This leads to a unique value of the dynamic pressure for each of the 12 directions considered.e. Each stage is introduced and recommendations are made. the most onerous terrain category. qs calculation of the loads on the building. directional factor. The most accurate approach is to calculate the dynamic pressure at 30° intervals. using the appropriate altitude factor. in turn. and hence the simplest approach will produce the correct value for the dynamic pressure. The effective wind speed is directionally dependent. it is convenient to split the calculation process into a number of sequential stages: • • • • dynamic classification of the structure calculation of wind speeds calculation of the dynamic pressure.2 The dependence of the dynamic pressure. The directional method is primarily suited to computer calculation. Within each method. directional factor. this will be a realistic combination.2 OVERVIEW OF THE RECOMMENDED PROCESS Calculation stages 2. the most onerous directional factor.e. 2. In some locations. The standard method is appropriate for hand calculation. Clause 3. and the closest distance from the sea). qs on wind direction The calculation of the dynamic pressure is based on an effective wind speed on the structure and that.1 BS 6399-2 contains two principal calculation methods: the directional method and the standard method. is based on a site wind speed. higher) value for the dynamic pressure. For the majority of sites. but may be up to 30% more conservative than the directional method. and assume that these three factors are coincident.4 of the Standard allows hybrid methods.

2 makes it clear that if the designer chooses wind directions that are normal to the building faces.2 Range of directions to be considered 2.any of the 12 directions.1. directional factor. The recommended approach is to determine the appropriate factors in each of four 90° segments and to use these to determine the dynamic pressure in each of the four quadrants. and need not be aligned with respect to the faces of the structure.3 shows a situation where the quadrants have been chosen to not align with the axis of the building. In each of the four quadrants.2. as shown in Figure 2. it is critically important for factors around the full 360° be considered. if only four specific directions that are normal to the building faces were considered.1. This requirement results in the calculation of the dynamic pressure within four 90° quadrants. This approach reduces the calculation effort involved whilst producing a reduced dynamic pressure compared to the simple approach. as described above. For example.1.1 Directions normal to building faces 45° 45° 45° 45° 45° 45° 45° 45° Figure 2. Figure 2. or terrain and building factor. The calculation effort in calculating the dynamic pressure in 12 directions is considerable. The dynamic pressure to be used in design may be conservatively taken as the largest of the four values calculated.1 Choice of quadrants Quadrants may be chosen aligned in any direction around the site. the most onerous directional factor and the most onerous terrain and building factor are used to calculate the dynamic pressure.2. © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 3 SCI ED001 . it would be quite possible to miss a more onerous altitude factor. Whichever approach is adopted. Clause 2. as shown in Figure 2. a range of wind directions within 45° each side of the normal to the building faces must also be considered. Figure 2. the most onerous altitude factor.

when the orientation of the building is known. and if so. Aligning the four quadrants with respect to the building axes may be particularly beneficial if the building is asymmetric or if the building has particular features. © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 4 SCI ED001 .90° 90° Site Figure 2. The primary benefit of using quadrants to determine the dynamic pressure arises from a consideration of the site rather than being related to the building orientation. it may be beneficial to align the quadrants with respect to the building axes. or the quadrants are deliberately chosen to misalign with the faces of the building. The designer may wish to use different dynamic pressures in the orthogonal loadcases. South. If the orientation of the building is unknown.3 Deliberate misalignment between building axis and quadrants It will usually be convenient to choose quadrants based on North. the dynamic pressure to be used in design (the maximum of the four values calculated) will be used in each orthogonal direction. If the orientation of the building is unknown.2. the maximum of the four values of dynamic pressure must be used in each orthogonal loadcase. It is not essential that the quadrants be aligned with respect to the axes of the building.4. where a reduction in the wind pressure on the face with the dominant openings may help mitigate the effects of the opening. N North-west quadrant North-east quadrant W South-west quadrant E South-east quadrant S Figure 2. such as dominant openings. the quadrants should be arranged as shown in Figure 2. East and West as shown in Figure 2.4 Recommended orientation of quadrants In some circumstances.

when a site is relatively close to a large stretch of inland water. rather than impacting on two quadrants. it will generally be beneficial to “capture” the significant topography within one quadrant.5 Alternative orientation of quadrants © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 5 SCI ED001 .If topography is significant only over a relatively narrow range of directions. It is generally advantageous if any such features can be “captured” in a single quadrant. the proximity of the inland water affects two quadrants.5 shows two alternative orientations. the proximity of the inland water affects only one quadrant. In the second orientation. such as terrain category or distance from the sea. The same recommendation applies to any other important feature. Inland water affects NE and SE quadrants Inland water 'capured' in one quadrant Figure 2. the Standard recommends that the “distance from the sea” must be measured from the inland water. In this case. Figure 2. In the first orientation of quadrants. leading to a more onerous building and terrain factor.

© 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 6 SCI ED001 . Note that the building height in Figure 3 is shown as a log scale. Figure 3 is used to calculate the dynamic augmentation factor. Cr. Table 1 adequately describes orthodox buildings. choosing the appropriate curve and using the overall height of the building. Having determined the building-type factor. for use later in the process when determining the overall loads on the building. If the intersection of curve and building height falls in the shaded zone of Figure 3. determines the dynamic augmentation factor. To determine Cr. The initial part of the design process: • • checks that the building falls within the provisions of the Standard. the building is too dynamic for the methods described in the Standard and the designer is directed by the Standard to sources of specialist advice. and. Notes 1. Kb. 2. should be determined from Table 1. the building-type factor. The amplification is described within the Standard as dynamic augmentation. Building-type factors for unorthodox structures should be chosen by taking a view on their likely dynamic response.3 DYNAMIC CLASSIFICATION The Standard allows loads on mildly dynamic buildings to be calculated by amplifying the static loads.

Sd Values of the directional factor are found in Table 3. Designers are referred to Clause 2. for the geographical location of the building. the altitude factor is simply 1+ (altitude /1000). If topography is not considered to be significant. but is unlikely to be significant in all wind directions If topography is significant. the altitude factor is taken as the greater of: • • the altitude factor as calculated above ( 1 + altitude / 1000). Slopes which are steeper than 1 in 20 are considered to be significant topography The significance of topography depends on the wind direction. topography is not significant.3 and Figure 8 of the Standard. discussed in the following Sections. 4.2. If topography is considered significant.2 Site wind speed The site wind speed is calculated from the basic wind speed by applying a number of factors. 5. 4.4 4.1 WIND SPEED Basic wind speed The basic wind speed Vb should be taken from Figure 6. or a value dependent on the altitude at the base of the topographic feature. The influence of the altitude factor on the value of the dynamic pressure is very significant. 4. Interpolation is allowed. Altitude is measured in metres. The effect of the altitude factor is squared.2. Interpolation between windspeed contours is allowed.2. Sd should be taken as the maximum value that appears anywhere in the quadrant © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 7 SCI ED001 . If the ground level for 1 km around the site is flat. note that the altitude to be used is the altitude at the base of the topographic feature.2.2 Directional factor. meaning that a 100 m difference in height can produce as much as 20 percent change in the dynamic pressure 2. 4. Sa The altitude factor depends on: the altitude above sea level any significant topography. the effective slope and a topographic location factor. Topography may be significant when the wind is blowing from certain directions.2. 3.1 • • Altitude factor. or slopes at less than 1 in 20. Notes 1.

the effective height and the distance from the sea must all be calculated. depending on the terrain and the building height. equivalent to an annual risk of 0. Ss In most circumstances. Structural designers choosing a seasonal factor of less than 1. Using a probability factor of 1. 4.00 is used.00 be used.2.360° Sd 0.0 represents a once-in-50-year risk. a new dynamic pressure is calculated.90° 90° .85 1. 4.00 need to be confident that the structure will only be exposed to wind during the expected period.under consideration.180° 180° . Annex D of the Standard provides values of Sd for periods as short as a single month.99 4. Sp The probability factor has a value of 1.3 Effective wind speed The effective wind speed is derived from the site wind speed. should be calculated from: Vs = Vb × Sa × Sd × Ss × Sp Note that four values of the site wind speed will be calculated.2.00. a seasonal factor of less than 1. a temporary structure). the accidental case of the door or window being open must be considered (see Section 6. 270° and 360° are chosen.00 0.00 may be used. the seasonal factor has a value of 1. It is generally recommended that a seasonal factor of 1. the terrain category. Table 4. when quadrants orientated from 0° Bearing range 0° .e.6).1 Quadrant North-east South-east South-west North-west Values of Sd.2. taking Sp as 0. For this check. 180°. If the structure will be exposed to the wind for less than one year (i.02. If quadrants between 0°.3. © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 8 SCI ED001 .4 Probability factor.8.78 0.2. Annex D of the Standard provides a number of values of the probability factor for various annual risks. If a dominant opening is assumed closed. 90°.5 Expression for site wind speed. Vs. 4.1 should be used.00 or less.1 Terrain category In order to determine the terrain and building factor.3 Seasonal factor. the values in Table 4.270° 270° . one for each quadrant. In all other circumstances it is recommended that a probability factor of 1. Structural designers should only use a probability factor of less than 1.00 if they wish to amend the standard design risk. 4. Vs The site wind speed.

Note that the terrain category may be different in each of the four quadrants. © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 9 SCI ED001 . BRE Digest 436 [2] recommends that the average height be calculated over a distance of 100 m upwind from the site. Country terrain is any terrain that is neither sea nor town terrain. This means that the degree of shelter is assumed not to decrease over time 2.7. assuming each storey height is 3 m.3.3. Note that the calculation of effective height may result in a different effective height in each quadrant. This is beneficial. There is no reduction for sites in the country terrain category. since this depends on the average height of the upwind buildings and the spacing between the site and the upwind buildings. as long as the plan area of the upwind buildings is at least 8% of the total area in the segment being considered. since the dynamic pressure increases with the effective height of the structure. BRE Digest 436 recommends that a spacing of 20 m be assumed in suburban and urban areas.2 Effective height If a site falls in the town terrain category. If the spacing between the site and the upwind buildings is not known. BRE Digest 436 confirms that the design wind speed should not be adversely affected by the demolition of any individual neighbouring building. The town category includes two-storey domestic housing. The Standard assumes irreversible urbanization. 4. a reduced effective height may be calculated. the town must extend at least 100 m upwind of the site.3 allows the height to be estimated from the average number of storeys. Notes 1. the height of the upwind buildings and the spacing between the upwind shelter and the site must be known. To be in the town category.3. If the height of the upwind shelter is not known. the note to Clause 1. in accordance with Clause 1. In order to calculate a reduced effective height. Reduced effective heights can only be calculated for sites in the town terrain category.7.Three categories of terrain are defined in the Standard: • • • Sea (which includes large stretches of inland water) Town Country Town is defined as built-up areas in which the average level of rooftops is at least 5 m above ground level. Annex E of the Standard gives more details of the terrain categories.

The first. the distance from the sea may be taken as the distance from any water. smallest) factor. having determined the terrain category and calculated a reduced effective height (if the site is in the town terrain category). 10 SCI ED001 © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute .3 Distance from the sea In order to determine the terrain and building factor.3. Table 4 is divided into two halves. Note that the distance from the sea will undoubtedly differ in each of the four quadrants.3. The left-hand side of Table 4 covers sites in the country. and yet the site is less than 2 km into the town. involving additional calculations. The second.e. Table 4.4 Terrain and building factor. Ordinary linear interpolation of Table 4 is recommended. and simplest. Notes 1. Use of Table 4 Table 4 is used to determine the terrain and building factor. 4. the distance from the sea must be calculated. The right-hand side covers sites that are at least 2 km into a town. the terrain and building factor should still be calculated on the basis of the reduced effective height.4. Interpolation or logarithmic interpolation of Table 4 is allowed. The effective wind speed reduces as distance from the coast increases. involves the use of Table 4. particularly near the edge of a town. Sb Two alternatives for calculating the terrain and building factor are provided in this section. 2. although this will often be unduly onerous. and is recommended in order to produce the most advantageous (i. (thus falling into the left-hand side of Table 4).2 Recommended accuracy for measuring distance from the sea Recommended accuracy Nearest 100 m Nearest 200 m Nearest 500 m Nearest km Nearest 2 km Nearest 10 km Distance from the sea Between 100 and 300 m Between 300 m and 1 km Between 1 km and 3 km Between 3 km and 10 km Between 10 km and 30 km Between 30 km and 100 km Note BRE Digest 436 offers advice on calculating the distance from the sea when the site is adjacent to an estuary or inland stretches of water. and sites up to 2 km into towns. Table 4. Conservatively.2 gives recommended accuracy when measuring distance from the sea. If a reduced effective height has been calculated for a site in the town terrain category. follows the process described in the directional method. and knowing the distance from the sea. The second approach will generally result in a smaller value of Sb. The terrain and building factor is likely to differ in each of the four quadrants considered.

the potential for confusion is clear. The value of gt should always be taken as 3.2. In these circumstances.2.1).Determination of Sb from the directional method In order to determine the terrain and building factor using the directional method: • • Equation 28 (Clause 3.44. the term Sh is used. Ca.44 when following the recommendations in this guide. the factor Sh should be set to zero. This factor allows for significant topography. 4. the recommended accuracy of measurement is shown in Table 4. Clause 3. 3. Sa (Section 4. when determining loads on surfaces.3. In Equations 28 and 29. 2.3 Recommended accuracy of measurement from edge of town Recommended accuracy Nearest 100 m Nearest 200 m Nearest 500 m Nearest km Nearest 10 km Distance from the edge of town Between 100 m and 300 m Between 300 m and 1 km Between 1 km and 3 km Between 3 km and 10 km Between 10 km and 30 km Notes 1. In Equations 28 and 29.2.2.3.5. When following the recommendations in this guide.3) should be used for sites in town terrain Equation 28 uses values from Table 22. Note that Table 22 is headed “Upwind distance from sea to site” and Table 23 is headed “Upwind distance from edge of town to site”.2.3.2. Since the effect of any significant topography has already been included in Sa. When measuring distance into town.3. significant topography has already been accounted for when calculating the altitude factor.3. The Standard and Hybrid methods both use the size effect factor.3. Interpolation within both tables is recommended.3 specifies that gt should be taken as 3.5 Expression for effective wind speed. Ve The effective wind speed is given by: Ve = Vs × Sb Since both the site wind speed and the terrain and building factor vary in each quadrant.2) should be used for sites in country terrain Equation 29 (Clause 3. the effective wind speed is likely to be different in each quadrant.2. Although the tables look similar. as described in Section 6. the term gt is used. Table 4. © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 11 SCI ED001 . Equation 29 uses values from Tables 22 and 23.

1.4.613 × Ve2 It is highly likely that the dynamic pressure will differ in each quadrant. the highest of these four values should be used in design. qs3. or to associate the different dynamic pressures with their respective loadcases. and qs8.5 DYNAMIC PRESSURE The dynamic pressure is given by: qs = 0.2.3. and qs4.1 Deliberate misalignment of quadrants and building faces As the designer will typically wish to consider two orthogonal loadcases (wind at 0° and 90°). here designated qs1.2 Dynamic pressure for orthogonal loadcases If the quadrants have been aligned with respect to the building axes as shown in Figure 5.2. the designer has the opportunity simply to apply the maximum value in both orthogonal loadcases. If the four values of dynamic pressure in Figure 5. Quadrant 1 q s1 Quadrant 4 q s4 Quadrant 3 q s3 Quadrant 2 q s2 Figure 5. then these may be applied in the four orthogonal directions shown in Figure 5. © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 12 SCI ED001 . q max q max Figure 5.3 are designated qs5. as shown in Figure 5. the maximum of these four values (here designated qmax) will be applied in both orthogonal loadcases. A value of dynamic pressure will be calculated for each quadrant. qs6. as Figure 5. If the quadrants have not been orientated with respect to the building faces. qs2. qs7. where the quadrants have not been chosen to relate to the building axis. Such a situation is illustrated in Figure 5.

4 Four orthogonal loadcases with differing values of dynamic pressure For most structures that are doubly-symmetric and rectangular on plan.3 Quadrants chosen to align with building axes q s5 q s8 q s6 q s7 Figure 5.3). with wind directions along the structure and across the structure. designers typically consider only two loadcases. Larger of q s6 or q s8 Larger of q s7 or q s5 Figure 5. the two orthogonal loadcases and appropriate values of dynamic pressure are shown in Figure 5.Quadrant 5 q s5 Quadrant 8 q s8 Quadrant 6 q s6 Quadrant 7 q s7 Figure 5.5.5 Values of dynamic pressure for two orthogonal loadcases © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 13 SCI ED001 . If quadrants have been aligned with the building axes (Figure 5.

2 (building orientation unknown or ignored) and those given by Figure 5.4 is recommended.In many cases.5 will be small. © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 14 SCI ED001 . If the wind loads are a critical consideration in the design. the difference between the values given by the approach illustrated in Figure 5. the approach illustrated in Figure 5. or the structure has some form of asymmetry or has dominant openings.

8 B/D # 0.2.3.6 of the Standard. or are to be calculated from the loads on the windward and leeward faces.0 0. in accordance with Clause 2. for example when sizing vertical bracing.1 Overall load coefficients The Standard provides a table of net pressure coefficients that may be used to determine overall loads.6 6. tables from the Amended Standard are quoted. Designers should note that Amendment No 1 introduces some significant changes to the 1997 Standard.1 Net pressure coefficients for overall load (Table 5a from the Standard) D/H #1 1. Overall loads may be calculated using overall force coefficients (only specified in the draft amendment).8 0. 6.8 0. When calculating overall loads based on the loads on the windward and leeward faces.1. 6.1 CALCULATION OF LOADS Overview of the recommended process Pressure coefficients are determined from the appropriate table for the building size and configuration. a factor of 0. instead of summing the effects on the windward and leeward faces. If the form of construction is such that load sharing takes place over a significant area. Table 5a from the Standard is reproduced as Table 6.1 $4 1.5 1 2 $4 Where: B is the crosswind breadth of the building D is the inwind depth of the building H is the building height.2 Pressure coefficients Within this guide. Unless a preliminary design is required.2 1. © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 15 SCI ED001 . it is recommended that the overall loads be calculated from the combination of loads on the windward and leeward faces.2 1.2 1.85 is applied to overall loads (excluding drag) to account for non-simultaneous action between faces. Both external and internal pressure coefficients should be determined. Surface loads are calculated from the product of the dynamic pressure and the net pressure coefficient. which is related to the size of the area over which load sharing takes place. the surface loads may be reduced by a size effect factor. Table 6.1 below.

2.6 Vertical wall face Side Zone A Zone B Exposure case Isolated –1. the height of the upwind shelter.8 –0.4Hr. and the spacing between the structure and the upwind shelter. Depending on the geometry of the building. Xo.3 Hr It is recommended that it be made clear to designers whether funnelling is to be considered by providing information about the gap between buildings. Cpe Pressure coefficients for walls Table 5 from the Standard is reproduced below as Table 6. Table 6. Hr. funnelling may be disregarded.9 Leeward (rear) –0.3 identifies when funnelling should be checked. B.3 –0. Funnelling If the wind can blow down the gap between buildings. Guidance for inclined walls can be found in the directional method 2.3 Spacing If X < 2H0 If X ≥ 6 H0 If 2H0 < X < 6H0 Requirement to check funnelling Requirement for funnelling check No funnelling if H0 ≥ 1.85 D/H $ 4 0. 3. Funnelling may occur when the gap between the two buildings is between b/4 and b. b.2 External pressure coefficients. The effective height depends on the structure height. Interpolation should be used to determine coefficients for span ratios between 1 and 4 Note that H is the height of the wall. Table 5 can be used for walls within 15° of vertical. b. it is quite possible that zone C does not exist. 4.2. Table 6. where b is the scaling length. The Standard specifies that if the two buildings are sheltered by upwind buildings such that the effective height before the lower of the two buildings is no greater than 0.6 –0. Ho. © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 16 SCI ED001 . which is not necessarily the height of the building.5 –0.5 Zone C Notes 1.6. The length of zones A.2 Vertical wall face Windward (front) External pressure coefficients Cpe for vertical walls (Table 5 from the Standard) Span ratio of building D/H # 1 0. Table 6.5 Funnelling –1. and C depends on the scaling length.9 –0.5Hr Funnelling may occur – check gap No funnelling if H0 – 0. The scaling length. funnelling (which increases the pressure coefficients on the facing elevations) may occur.1X ≥ 0. is the lesser of the crosswind breadth and twice the height of the building.

2 –0. See Section 6.5 –0.2 0. the first loadcase has external pressure coefficients of –1.7.5 C –0. and reasonably equal permeability on all faces of the building[2]. Monopitch.6 on zones A. For example.8 0. 2. © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 17 SCI ED001 .9 –0.6 0 –0.2. Note that two loadcases are specified for wind at 0° (across the building).1 0. design of portal frames should proceed with a single internal pressure coefficient of Cpi = -0. In most cases. Coefficients should be interpolated between the roof slopes given. Table 11 covers hipped roofs.9 –0.5 G –0.4 –0. BRE Digest 436 advises that Cpi = +0. Pressure coefficients for flat roofs External pressure coefficients for flat roofs (with roof slopes between +5° and -5°) are given in Table 8 of the Standard. This assumes that there are no dominant openings (or that these are closed during a storm). B and C. and therefore no other allowance need be made for asymmetric loads.8 0 –1.3.3 –0. duopitch. Table 6. 10 and 11 are associated with a revision to Clause 2.2 –0.4 Pitch angle 5° 15° 30° External pressure coefficients Cpe for duopitch roofs of buildings (extracted from Table 10 of the Standard) Zone for 2 = 00 Zone for 2 = 900 F –0. Cpi Internal pressure coefficients are given in Table 16.5 –0.9 –1. and hipped roofs are specifically covered by Tables 9.6 –1.Designers should always state whether funnelling has been considered and this information should be recorded in the as-built documentation and the Health and Safety file.6 D –0.4 –0.6 –0.4 0.3.1.1 –0.2 is now less likely to be a critical design case. The second loadcase has no external load at all on zones A. Permanent non-dominant openings in the walls. –0. –1.3 –0.3 –1. at a roof slope of 5°.5 –0. for duopitch roofs.2 –0.4.9 A –1.5 0.6 –0.3 for recommendations on simplifying the range of pressure coefficients for orthodox roofs. such as ventilators.9 –0.4 A –2 B –1. as can be seen in Table 6.2 –1.2 0 –0.5 –1.1 C –0.4 E –0. 10 and 11. Part of Table 10. Notes 1.4 above.2.8 Designers familiar with the 1997 Standard should note that the changes to Tables 9. Internal pressure coefficients.9 –0.5 –0. is reproduced as Table 6.5 –0. which covers asymmetric loads.5 0.3 –0.5 –1. Asymmetric loads on structures not specifically covered must be allowed for by reducing the design wind load by 40% on those parts of the structure where the effect of the load is beneficial. B and C respectively.8.5 B –1. Pressure coefficients for monopitch and duopitch roofs External pressure coefficients for monopitch and duopitch roofs are given in Tables and 9 and 10 respectively.

Table 6. If a more refined approach is necessary.5) is smaller or equal to 1.1 Key for Table 6.0.5 are shown in Figure 6.2. provided that they are distributed approximately equally around the perimeter of the building.3.50 –0.1. the coefficients in zone Y of Table 6.2. Table 6. As the size effect © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 18 SCI ED001 .5 may be ignored.14 0.94 1. it is expected that purlins will be designed using the coefficients for zone X.5 may be used for the design of purlins and for the design of frames as described below. where the internal pressure coefficient is taken as -0. since the zone X coefficients are conservative. Frame design When designing a portal frame. The size effect factor (see Section 6.will not affect the internal pressure coefficient.74 0. provided that: • • bw/10 ≤ (half the span of the purlin).3 Simplified net pressure coefficients for portal frame roofs For portal frame buildings.5. reducing the spacing of the purlins if necessary.64 0 –1.80 Y –1.10 y x y bL /10 x y y bL /10 b L /2 b L /2 Figure 6. Partial details from Reference 3 are given in Table 6.4 Surface pressures Surface pressures are calculated from the product of the dynamic pressure multiplied by a pressure coefficient.14 0 –0. The zones referenced in Table 6. and Cpi is taken as –0.2.5. and checked for zone Y. the coefficients in the Standard and draft amendment should be used.94 0.5 6.5 Pitch angle 5° 15° 30° Simplified net coefficients for duopitch roofs Zone for 2 = 0° X –1. 6. simplified net pressure coefficients may be used for design. Full details are given in References 3 and 4.50 –0.3 Purlin design Purlins may be designed using the coefficients in Table 6. multiplied by a size effect factor.

For an individual portal frame: the diagonal based on frame spacing and height to apex. An 6.6 Dominant openings If buildings have dominant openings (see Clause 2.factor for external and internal pressures will be considerably different.52.0 for both external and internal pressures. 6. For roof bracing: the diagonal of the entire loaded area carried by the bracing. as the most onerous net pressure will result from a smaller “relieving” pressure.1. For continuous systems. For a purlin: the diagonal of the spacing and span. approximate value for the diagonal dimension will be satisfactory. standing-seam roof systems. it is recommended that the external and the internal surface pressures be calculated.6.6. as long as this is positively fixed to the purlins. before combining the two pressures to give a net pressure.2. and depends on a diagonal dimension. However. it is recommended that this feature of the design. resulting from a size effect factor less than 1. External pressures Dimension a for external pressures is taken as the diagonal over which load sharing takes place. The size effect factor could be as small as 0. the relevant diagonal dimension a for internal pressures may be taken as: a = 10 × 3 internal volume of storey Note Note that in Figure 4. The last bullet above implies that load sharing does not take place between main frames. due to the shear stiffness of the roof cladding. Ca The size effect factor is taken from Figure 4 of the Standard.3 states that if a dominant opening is considered to be closed at © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 19 SCI ED001 .2 of the Standard).1. and others without positive fixing. It is not conservative to take the size effect factor as 1. Clause 2.5 Size effect factor.0. both the diagonal dimension and the internal pressure coefficients change significantly. and hence a larger diagonal dimension is calculated. the diagonal dimension is a log scale. Some knowledge of structural response is therefore necessary when determining the wind loads. Internal pressures In accordance with Clause 2.2. a.6. load sharing will take place. In most cases.1. If load sharing over more than one bay is assumed in the design calculations. and the need for adequate shear stiffness from any replacement cladding system is documented in the Health and Safety file. Typical examples of dimension a for external pressures are: • • • • For a gable post: the diagonal of the loaded height and post spacing. dimension a may be based on the purlin spacing and two spans. have insufficient shear stiffness to justify load sharing over more than one bay.

1. The specified © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 20 SCI ED001 .8. 6. i. To account for this effect. the Standard specifies that a factor of 0.3. 6.85 is applied to all loads. Note that even for tall buildings. where Cr is the dynamic augmentation factor (see Section 3).3 6. In this situation. When calculating overall loads (and only at this stage) the loads are amplified by (1+ Cr). Designers are referred to Figure 11 of the Standard.3. Where there is no time delay.7 Frictional drag Frictional drag should be calculated in accordance with Clause 2. The intent of the clause is that an alternative ULS loadcase should be considered.85 be applied when calculating the overall loads. of 0.2 Pressures due to wind across a building When the wind direction is along the building. the dynamic pressure should be recalculated using a probability factor.2.1 Overall loads Calculation of overall loads Overall loads are calculated in accordance with Clause 2. the suction at a section along the building and the suction on the leeward gable.3. This is made clear by BRE Digest 436 [2].6 as the sum of the loads on individual surfaces.3. the factor 0.8 Division by parts Division by parts. the condition with the door open should be considered as a serviceability limit state. zone C of walls and zone D of roofs. At this stage (and only at this stage) allowance should be made for the nonsimultaneous action between faces. Thus in Figure 6. In addition. Sp. the 0. familiar to designers using CP3:ChV:Part 2 is not allowed unless the building is taller than the cross-wind breadth. there is a time delay between gusts acting on the upwind and downwind faces of the building.1. Frictional drag is only applied to the most “downwind” zones of walls and roofs. which states that when considering this alternative loadcase. 6.ULS.2.2.8. division by parts can only be used for positive pressures. since this is an accidental loadcase. as in Figure 6. representing the accidental opening of a door during a severe storm.0. Frictional drag coefficients for different types of surface are given in Table 6.e. the time delay is only applicable to the pressures on the windward gable. The non-simultaneous action can be thought of as allowing for the time delay between gusts acting on the faces of the structure.85 factor should not be applied. Figure 6. at ULS and SLS. all load factors used in load combinations should be taken as 1.

9 0.89 0.85 factor is applied to frictional drag.6.5 1. to the horizontal deflections arising from the wind loads.0 2.1.4 Frame deflections Table 5a of the draft amendment presents overall pressure coefficients (see Section 6. © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 21 SCI ED001 . The reductions in horizontal deflection are given in Table 6.81 ≥ 4.89 0. 2. and the 0.0 0. if required.0 0.2.suctions on an individual frame can all occur simultaneously.6 Reduction factors which may be applied to horizontal deflections due to wind D/H ≤ 1. The reduction factors in Table 6.73 0. but the reductions can be applied.2).3 Note Pressures due to wind along building Neither the dynamic augmentation nor the 0. Table 6.85 factor which may have been applied in accordance with Section 6.0 ≥ 4. Figure 6. It is not clear how the implied reductions could be applied to loads on frames when determining forces and moments around the frame. 6.89 0.85 factor should not be applied to the loads on an individual frame in these circumstances. The reduction factors are additional to the 0.73 0. These produce smaller overall loads than calculating the loads on the windward and leeward faces individually.73 B/D ≤ 0.6 can only be applied to the deflections due to wind[3].0 Notes 1.3.

G Simplified wind net pressure coefficients for the design of portal frames The Structural Engineer. Guide to evaluating design wind loads to BS 6399-2 The Steel Construction Institute. (to be published) BAILEY. G. 3. 2002 2. 4. Wind loading on buildings – Brief guidance for using BS 6399 BRE. © 2002 The Steel Construction Institute 22 SCI ED001 . C. BS6399-2:1997 Code of practice for wind loads (Incorporating Amendment No. Part 1. C. 4 The Institution of Structural Engineers. issued 27 March 2002) Building Research Establisment BRE Digest 436. 1. 1999 BAILEY.7 1. REFERENCES BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION BS6399 Loadings for buildings. No. Volume 80.