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Landolfo) NUMERICAL SIMULATION

BENCHMARK II: NUMERICAL ANALYSES FOR MASONRY VAULT Pavel Pevsner, Robert Levy, Emad Nsieri and Avigdor Rutenberg Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel

Description of the tested structure The tested masonry structure proposed as a Benchmark II is a prototype of a brick masonry (Figure 1) four-sided cloister vault supported by four reinforced concrete beams (30×30cm2) and by four square brick masonry columns (40×40cm2). The side length of the square base is 200cm and the vault is produced by the intersection of four cylindrical shells of 12cm thick. The vault height is 100cm. The load was applied by means of a steel beam placed at the top of the vault.

Figure 1. The tested masonry vault specimen

General description of ABAQUS software The computer code ABAQUS was used to perform the numerical analysis for the tested masonry vault. ABAQUS is a suite of general-purpose, advanced nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) programs. ABAQUS is used throughout the world for stress, heat transfer, and other types of analysis in mechanical, structural, civil, biomedical, and related engineering applications. The ABAQUS suite consists of three core products: ABAQUS/Standard,

accurately. clay. and 3D). The flexibility provided by this integration allows ABAQUS/Standard to be applied to those portions of the analysis that are well-suited to an implicit solution technique. 2D. beams. ABAQUS/Explicit provides finite element solution techniques to simulate a wide variety of dynamic and quasi-static events in an accurate. thus. • Material models for metals. low-speed dynamic.ABAQUS/Explicit and ABAQUS/CAE. sand. jointed rock. • Element formulations suitable for large displacements. This solution is done iteratively using Newton’s method. Each increment is relatively inexpensive because there is no solution for a set of 2 . plastics and rubber. rotations and strains. such as static. robust. and reliably. or steady-state transport analyses. In an implicit dynamic analysis the integration operator matrix must be inverted. • Automatic time incrementation within an implicit time integration algorithm (Hilber- Hughes-Taylor) for nonlinear dynamic analysis. The Hilber-Hughes-Taylor operator is unconditionally stable and. The explicit dynamics procedure performs a large number of small time increments efficiently. including continuum elements (1D. concrete. • User-defined subroutines permit inclusion of additional material models and element types. membranes and shells. and a set of simultaneous nonlinear equilibrium equations must be solved at each time increment. there is no limit on the size of the time increment that can be used for most analyses in ABAQUS/Standard (accuracy governs the time increment in ABAQUS/Standard). An explicit central-difference time integration rule is used together with the use of diagonal or “lumped” element mass matrices. and efficient manner conducting the best analyses possible in the shortest amount of time. ABAQUS analysis options ABAQUS/Standard enables a wide range of linear and nonlinear engineering simulations to be carried out efficiently. The direct-integration dynamic procedure provided in ABAQUS/Standard uses the implicit Hilber-Hughes-Taylor operator for integration of the equations of motion. The following items are some of the more significant features of the code: • A wide range of element types. • Fracture mechanics capability. Each of these packages offers additional optional modules that address specialized capabilities.

because the central-difference operator is conditionally stable. Following crack detection. and the concrete damaged plasticity model in both ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit (“concrete damaged plasticity”). However. Cracking is assumed to occur when the stress reaches a failure surface that is called the “crack detection surface”. Three different constitutive models are offered in ABAQUS for the analysis of concrete at low confining pressures: the smeared crack concrete model in ABAQUS/Standard (“Concrete smeared cracking”). the brittle cracking model in ABAQUS/Explicit (“cracking model for concrete”). trusses. shells. and concrete. Plastic straining in compression is controlled by a “compression” yield surface. the concrete models available in ABAQUS software can be used to model masonry structures as will be shown later. soils. there is no specific model available for modelling of an unreinforced masonry structures. its orientation is stored for subsequent calculations. the crack affects the calculations because a 3 . When a crack has been detected. Contact conditions and other extremely discontinuous events are easily handled by ABAQUS/Explicit. Cracking is assumed to be the most important aspect of the behavior and the representation of cracking and post-cracking anisotropic behavior dominates the modeling. The smeared crack concrete model in ABAQUS/Standard is intended for applications in which the concrete is subjected to essentially monotonic straining and a material point exhibits either tensile cracking or compressive crushing. and solids. cast iron. Subsequent cracking at the same point is restricted to being orthogonal to this direction since stress components associated with an open crack are not included in the definition of the failure surface used for detecting the additional cracks. Unfortunately. However. ABAQUS nonlinear concrete modelling options The material library in ABAQUS includes several models of inelastic behavior of different materials.simultaneous equations. Cracks are irrecoverable: they remain for the rest of the calculation (but may open and close). The use of small increments (dictated by the stability limit) is advantageous because it allows the solution to proceed without iterations and without requiring tangent stiffness matrices to be form. such as metals. the size of the time increment in an explicit dynamic analysis is limited. Each model is designed to provide a general capability for modeling plain and reinforced concrete (as well as other similar quasibrittle materials) in all types of structures: beams.

and solids). trusses. which is intended primarily for the analysis of concrete structures. The concrete damaged plasticity model in ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit provides a general capability for modeling concrete and other quasi-brittle materials in all types of structures (beams.damaged elasticity model is used. The model takes into consideration the degradation of the elastic stiffness induced by plastic straining both in tension and compression. orthogonal cracks. This model uses concepts of isotropic damaged elasticity in combination with isotropic tensile and compressive plasticity to represent the inelastic behaviour of concrete. The ABAQUS/Explicit cracking model assumes fixed. The model is a continuum. with the maximum number of cracks at a material point limited by the number of direct stress components present at that material point of the finite element model (a maximum of three cracks in threedimensional. The presence of cracks enters into these calculations by the way in which the cracks affect the stress and material stiffness associated with the integration point. two cracks in plane stress and shell problems. The evolution of the yield (or failure) surface is controlled by two hardening variables linked to failure mechanisms under tension and compression loading. It assumes that the main two failure mechanisms are tensile cracking and compressive crushing of the concrete material. plasticity-based. The model includes consideration of the anisotropy induced by cracking. A simple brittle failure criterion is available to allow the removal of elements from a mesh. damage model for concrete. and one crack in beam or truss problems). the model assumes elastic behavior. plane strain. In compression. and axisymmetric problems. The concrete model is a smeared crack model in the sense that it does not track individual “macro” cracks. the brittle cracking model in ABAQUS/Explicit can also be useful for modeling other materials such as ceramics or brittle rocks. shells. 4 . The brittle cracking model in ABAQUS/Explicit is intended for applications in which the concrete behavior is dominated by tensile cracking and compressive failure is not important. It also accounts for stiffness recovery effects under cyclic loading. This model is designed for applications in which the concrete is subjected to arbitrary loading conditions. Contrary to smeared crack concrete model in ABAQUS/Standard. including cyclic loading. Constitutive calculations are performed independently at each integration point of the finite element model. ABAQUS/Explicit uses a smeared crack model to represent the discontinuous brittle behavior in concrete.

(a) (b) Figure 2. This is a quasi-static method of analysis that simulates the dynamics of a slow compression test (performed for shell as well as 3D solid elements).load incremental static geometric and material nonlinear. 4 and 6). The finite elements mesh was created by starting with the grid of a flat triangle quarter of the base of the vault (Figure 2a) and transforming it into quarter of the real vault using a home written Matlab routine (Figure 2b). ABAQUS/Standard implicit linear analyses (performed for shell element only).Types of analyses used for masonry vault 1. Note that triangular shell elements were used 5 . 3. Structural modelling methods and member properties The Finite Element Mesh Several alternative finite element models having different modelling assumptions and different loading conditions were developed to represent the masonry vault. ABAQUS/Explicit nonlinear analyses. (performed for shell element only). The finite elements mesh as shown in Figure 3 (see also Figures 4 and 6) is quite sophisticated in which the size of the elements are almost identical. This efficient finite elements mesh will facilitate the analysis process to a large extent. Geometric construction of the model: (a) projection (b) real geometry Shell Element Two-dimensional quadrilateral thick shell elements (4-node element) that consider shear effects were used to model the masonry vault. 2. Then the whole vault is generated using symmetry (Figures 3. ABAQUS/Standard implicit nonlinear analyses .

Hence. i. The supports were fully fixed. Finite element model of the masonry vault: (a) sharp edges model (b) truncated edges model The sharp edges geometric model with a rectangular hole at the apex was used for the nonlinear analysis (assuming geometric and material nonlinearity). all six degrees of freedom were constrained.. the smeared crack concrete model was assumed to model the inelastic mechanical behaviour of the masonry vault. This second model was used for the purpose to reduce significantly the stress concentrations on the edges (Figure 3b). Each element has five degrees of freedom (three translational degrees with two rotational degrees of freedom) at each node (see Element S4R5 in ABAQUS). The authors believe that using two-dimensional shell elements to represent the relatively thick bricks compared with the masonry vault dimensions may underestimate the behaviour of the masonry vault.1N/mm2. (a) (b) Figure 3. Implicit and explicit nonlinear analyses were carried out using ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit. 6 . In the explicit analysis the brittle cracking model was assumed to model the inelastic mechanical behaviour of the masonry vault. The surface failure was fitted to the given material properties of the masonry brick units in which were measured from tests (masonry compressive and tensile strength were 3.e. In the second model the edges of the first model were truncated by joining adjacent nodes along the elliptical line of intersection. Two geometrical models were developed for the linear analysis.0N/mm2 and 0. respectively). This model is intended for applications in which the element behaviour is dominated by tensile cracking and it assumes an elastic behaviour in compression. a three-dimensional solid brick elements were also used to model the masonry vault as will be shown subsequently. In the implicit analysis. One model includes the sharp edges that were a result of the intersection of cylinders of “zero” thickness (Figure 3a).at the supports.

to simulate such loading condition. The vertical distributed load was slowly increased until the analysis was automatically terminated when the capacity of the structure reached. Hence. ABAQUS/Explicit was used to perform the nonlinear analysis assuming the brittle cracking model to model the inelastic mechanical behaviour of the masonry vault. a very stiff solid member in contact with the vault at the apex was provided to the finite elements modelling as shown in Figure 6. the function of the applied load is given in Figure 5 (the “Applied Force” curve). and static incremental linear and nonlinear analyses were carried out on several alternative models. The distributed load condition (Figure 4) was also used. Figure 4.3D Solid Element Three-dimensional solid continuum brick elements (see Element C3D8R in ABAQUS) were also used to model the masonry vault. the loading conditions have a significant effect on the structural behaviour and the load leading to failure. Again. Load conditions Shell Element The models were vertically loaded with distributed load around a square hole at the apex (Figure 4). As will be shown subsequently. The element has eight nodes with three translational degrees of freedom at each node. The applied load shape as function of time is shown in Figure 5 (the “Applied Force” curve). the load was applied by means of steel beam placed at the top of the vault. Full geometry of the vault with nodal loading 3D Solid Element In the experimental test of the masonry vault. 7 .

Full geometry of the vault with contact element loading 8 . time Figure 6. Applied load shape and contact forces vs.Figure 5.

In this model. 9 . Results of principal stresses are shown in Figure 7 in which Figure 7a relates to the inside of the vault whereas Figure 7b describes the stresses at the outside and Figure 7c shows the location (by means of coordinates) of the first yield in the diagonal ellipse section. It was observed that first yield occurred at a load level of 1.4 ton at the internal layer of the vault at the intersection of the cylinders. Figure 8 displays the principal stresses for this case.Numerical simulation results Shell Element Results of an implicit linear analysis for the sharp edges model were scaled so that the principal stress reaches yielding.0 ton at the internal layer of the vault at the intersection of the cylinders. the stress concentration was relieved and the first yield occurred at a load level of 1. Results of implicit linear analysis for the truncated edges model were also scaled so that principal stress reaches yielding.

(a) (b) (c) Figure 7. Principal stresses (sharp edges): (a) Inside layer. (c) Location of first yield 10 . (b) Outside layer.

Load displacement curve at apex Figure 10 shows description of combined inside and outside cracks at the instant of collapse.0 ton on the inside layer of the vault at the intersection of the cylinders and at the apex. Note that in both analyses first cracks emerged at a load level close to 1. (b) Outside layer Load vs. In both implicit and explicit analyses the load leading to collapse was around 3. 11 . Figure 9. The dotted curve represents the implicit analysis results and the triangular curve represents the explicit analysis results. Principal stresses in truncated edges model: (a) Inside layer.(a) (b) Figure 8. With increasing vertical loading.05 ton.35 ton and 3. Results of the explicit analysis are very similar to those shown in Figure 10. respectively. cracks on the inside layer started to propagate through the thickness and along the edges. displacement curves at the apex of the implicit and explicit nonlinear analyses are shown in Figure 9. and new cracks emerged at the haunches of the cloister vault (at the outside layer).

Implicit analysis results: display of combined cracking at the instant of collapse at the inside (at the apex and edges) and outside (at the haunches) layers 3D Solid Element Figures 11 and 12 show the onset of cracks for the model with nodal loading condition (Figure 4) and the model with contact element loading condition (Figure 6). Model with nodal loading: Onset of cracks 12 .Figure 10. Top surface Bottom surface Figure 11.

Figure 13 shows load vs. The load level leading to collapse of the masonry vault for the nodal loading and contact element loading conditions were 2.5 ton. With increasing the applied load a local deformation will take place at the apex.Top surface Bottom surface Figure 12. Note also the protruding difference between the two load-displacement curves especially in the first stages of the loading process. This local deformation will enlarge the contact area and hence lead to the participation of more parts of the masonry vault to resist the applied loading. Figures 14 and 15 show the predicted cracks for both loading conditions just before collapse. displacement curves at the apex for the nodal loading and contact loading conditions used in the explicit analyses. 13 . Note that determining of the collapse load using the contact loading model is quite simple since at collapse. In he first stages of the loading process the contact area between the stiff solid element and the masonry vault at the apex is quite small. the stiff loading solid member penetrates through the masonry vault and the contact force drops drastically as can be clearly shown in Figure 5 (see the “Contact Force” curve which shows the reaction activated by the masonry vault on the contact element). Figure 16 shows the propagated crack at the instant of collapse through the thickness of a diagonal section of the vault.9 ton and 2. Model with contact: Onset of cracks. respectively.

Figure 13: Load-displacement curves at the apex for both loading conditions Top surface Bottom surface Figure 14: Model with nodal loading at the instant of collapse 14 .

Cracks observed at the extrados along the groins and at the haunches of the cloister vault 15 .Top surface Bottom surface Figure 15: Model with contact element loading at the instant of collapse Figure 16. Model with contact loading condition: diagonal section of the masonry vault Figure 17.

cracks were firstly formed at the internal layer of the vault and propagated through the thickness in a relatively rapid manner and reached the external layer. Hence.05 ton to 3. Two types of nonlinear analyses were carried out: implicit and explicit quasi-static nonlinear analyses. 15 and 16 the results obtained from the numerical simulation show a very good agreement with the experimental test result (Figure 17). Three-dimensional solid brick elements were also used to model more faithfully the masonry vault. As shown in Figures 14. 16 . Results of the nonlinear analyses using shell elements to model the masonry vault show a good agreement with the experimental test result. The predicted cracks (Figure 10) are similar to the observed cracks obtained from the experimental test (Figure 17).Discussion and Conclusions – collapse conditions Several alternative finite element models having different modelling assumptions and different loading conditions were developed to represent the tested masonry vault. Explicit nonlinear analyses were carried out for two different loading conditions (Figures 4 and 6). The range of the lateral load leading to failure using shell elements is 3.5 ton. In the experimental test. However. cracks were observed on the masonry at the extrados along the groins and at the haunches of the cloister vault. using two-dimensional shell elements to represent the relatively thick bricks compared with the masonry vault dimensions may lead to unconservative results. the authors believe that the vertical load leading to failure of the masonry vault is about 2. especially when contact loading condition was used which simulate more reliably the real loading condition.35 ton (Figure 9). In the numerical simulation using shell elements cracks were initiated and propagated at the inside layer (bottom surface) of the vault at the intersection of the cylinders and at the outside layer (at the haunches). The authors believe that during the experimental test.

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