You are on page 1of 18

Submitted to: Submitted By

:
Dr. J.P.SINGH H.O.D.(Hoticulture) Department of Horticulture
MO-07500700815 COLE CROPS (Cauliflower, Cabbage, Knol-Khol, Brussels Sprout, Sprouting Broccoli, Kale, Rutabaga etc.) Mustard saw fly (Athalia proxima) Nature of damage • The insect feeds on the leaves of young seedlings. • The infested leaves curl and fall on the ground.

Mr. Satish Kumar M.Sc.(Ag.) Horticulture 2nd Semester Roll No.- J0826110024

Control • Collect caterpillars and destroy them. • Dust with endosulfan. Dimond black moth (Plutella maculipensis) Nature of damage • The caterpillar maks holes inside the leaves tussue and feeds on the leaves. Control • Spray Cartap hydrochloride @ 500 g a.i./hectare. • Spray Bacillus thuringiensis @500 g a.i./hectare. Aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) Nature of damage • Suck the sap from tender leaves of plants. • The leaves are distorted. Control • Spray 0.2% Metasystox or Rogor. Painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum) Nature of damage • They suck the cell sap and retard the growth of plants. Control • Spray 0.2% Rogor. CUCURBITS Red pumpkin beetles (Raphidopalpa foveicollis) Nature of damage • In case of early attack during seedling stage, the insect feeds away entire foliage of plants leaving veins and veinlets. • In case of severe attack, the plants fail to grow. Control • Summer ploughing of the field to kill soil hidden larvae and pupae of insect. • Dust the crop with kerosenized ash or pyrethrum dust @ 5-6 kg./hectare. Fruit fly (Dacus cucurbitae) Nature of damage • The insect punctured the young developing fruits and lays eggs inside. • The infested fruits are deformed and rot. Control • Collect and destroy affected fruits.

Poison baits prepared by protein hydrolysate 0.5 kg + 1.25 kg of 50% malathion wp + 200 g of molasses should be placed at 10 spots/hectare after keeping it in open mouthed container. POTATO

Tubermoth(Ghorimoschema opercullela) Nature of damage • The insect is primarily problematic in storage. It makes tunnel, feeds inside and causes damage to the tubers. It also attacks in the field. The insect mines the leaves, bores the tender shoots and the developing tubes. • The infested tubers are attacked by fungi and bacteria and ultimately rot. Control • Keep the tubers covered in the field by proper earthing up. • Dust the tubers with endosulfan.. • Fumigation of stre house using EDB. • Protective dusting of bags with malathion 5%. Cut-worm (Agrotis ipsilon) Nature of damage • Larvae cut the tender stem of young plants and feed on leaves. • In grown up plants, they cut the branches and cause retardation in growth. Control • Drenching of soil using 0.2% Endosulfan. • Poison bait prepared by 125 ml insecticide, 2 kg jaggery, 1 litre water in 25 kg wheat bran is effective in control of insect. Leaf hoppers (Amarasca biguttula biguttula) Nature of damage • The nymph and insect suck the sap from the under surface of the leaves. • The affected leaves show yellowing, curling, bronzing and finally drying up of plants. Control • Spray 0.05% Phosphamidon. Brinjal Shoot and Fruit borer (Laucinodes orbonalis) Nature of damage • It bores the terminal shoot as a result it withers and dries. • It bores the fruit also. Affected fruits are deformed. Severely affected fruits rot.

Control • Spray metasystox 0.2% during early stage of crop and 0.05% Endosulfan during later stage. Epilachna beetle (Epilachna vigintioctopunctata) Nature of damage • The insect feeds voraciously on the leaves and tender portion of plant. As a result of feeding on green chlorophyll, characteristic skeletonized patches appear which give lace like appearance on the leaves. • The affected leaves dry away. Control • Spray 0.05% malathion. • Grow resistant varieties like arka shirish, hissar sel.1-4. Tomoto Fruit borer (Heliothis armigera) Nature of damage • Defoliation of leaves. • The insect cuts holes and burrow into the fruits. The affected fruits become unfit for consumption. Control • Spray cypermethrin @ 50 g a.i./hectare flowering stage. Epilachna beetles Nature of damage and control.- As described in case of brinjal. White fly (bamisia tabaci) Nature of damage • The insect sucks the sap from tender portion of plants like leaves and inflorescence. • The larves are curled. • The insect acts as a vector for leaf curl disease. Control

Spray Dimthoate 0.02% during vegetative stage.

Root-knot Nematode (Meloidagyne incognita) Nature of damage • Swelling of roots takes place. As a result spheroid gall formation appears on root. • Foliage turns pale. • The plants show wilting symptom during hot dry weather. Control • Grow resistant varieties like Nematax, SL-120. • Follow crop rotation. • Apply Nemagan @ 230 kg/hectare or Karani or Neem cake @ 25 g/hectare. Chilli Thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis) Nature of damage • The insect sucks the sap causing curling of leaves. • The affected plants are stunted. Control • Spray 0.15% metasystox. Aphid (aphis gossypii) Nature of damage • The insect sucks the sap from leaves and petioles and reduces the yield considerably. Control • Spray Monocrotophos 0.1%. Okra Shoot and fruit borer (Erias vittela) Nature of damage • The insect bores into the growing points as well as young fruits of plants.

The affected portion of shoot dry and fruits are deformed. The excreta of insect can be seen after cutting the fruits. The affected fruits become unfit for consumption.

Control • Spray Metasystox 0.02% during vegetative stage and just after flowering. Jassid (Amarasca buguttula biguttula) Nature of damage • The insect sucks the sap and inject toxic material, as a result, the leaves curl upward and turn pale. • In case of severe attack, the leaves show burnt appearance and fall down. Control • Spray 0.1% Monocrotophos. Root-knot Nematode (Meloidagyne spp.) Nature of damage • Swelling of roots takes place. As a result spheroid gall formation appears on root. • Foliage turns pale. • The plants show wilting symptom during hot dry weather. Control • Grow resistant varieties like Nematax, SL-120. • Follow crop rotation. • Apply Nemagan @ 230 kg/hectare or Karani or Neem cake @ 25 g/hectare. Peas and Beans Pod borer (Heliothes spp.) Nature of damage • The insect bores into the pod and feeds on the seed. The damaged pods become unfit for consumption. Control • Spray 0.2% Malathio. Aphids (Macrosiphum pisi)

Nature of damage • The insect sucks the sap from growing tip and leaves. As a result, the leaves show curling. • The pods have rough spot fail to fill. Control • Spray 0.2% Methyl parathion. Stem fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli) Nature of damage • The insect bores into the stem and causes death of young plants. Control • Spray 0.02% Monocrotophos. Onion and garlic Thrips (Thrips tabaci, Heliothrips indicus, Scirtothrips dorsalis) Nature of damage • Among the various species, Thrips tabaci is a major damaging pest. They feed on leaves. As a result, pale white blotches appear. Severely affected leaves dry. Control • Spray 0.2% Nuvacron.

Leafy vegetables Aphids Nature of damage • The insect sucks the sap causing curling and yellowing of leaves. Control • Spray 0.2% Malathion. Pointed bug (bagrada cruciferarum) Nature of damage • It causes damage by sucking the sap from the plants.

Control • Dusting with Endosulfan dust is helpful in controlling the pest.

Diseases COLE CROPS (Cauliflower, Cabbage, Knol-Khol, Brussels Sprout, Sprouting Broccoli, Kale, Rutabaga etc.) Black-rot (Bacteria Xanthomonas compestris) Symptoms • Margin of the leaves turn yellow. • Veins of the leaves become dark. • Vascular discoloration in the stem. Control • Follow crop-rotation • Seed treatment with 0.1% Streptocycline solution. • Hot water treatment of seed at 50o C for 30 minutes. Club-rot (Fungus Phasmodiophora brassicae) Symptoms • Swelling of the roots giving a clubbed appearance. • Flagging or wilting of diseases during sunny days. • Turning the plants dwarf. The disease is more prevalent in acid soil. Control • Crop-rotation without cruciferous crop. • Liming @ 25 kg/ha. of the field. • Treatment of seedlings with 0.2% mercuric chloride solution. Leaf spot (Fungus Alternaria brassicicola)

Symptoms • Appearance of dark colour spots on the leaves. • Turning of cauliflower to brown. Control • Hot water treatment of seed at 50o C for 30 minutes. • Spray of 0.5-0.7% copper oxychloride. Cucurbitaceous crops (Bottle Gourd, Bitter Gourd, Sponge Gourd, Pointed Gourd, Pumpkins, Cucumber, Watermelon, Muskmelon etc.) Powdery mildew (fungus Erysiphe cichoracearum, sphaerotheca fuliginea) Symptoms • Appearance of white powdery substance on stem and leaves. • Premature defoliation of leaves. • Stunted growth of plants. • Small sized fruits. Control • Dust sulphur at 25-30 kg/ha. or spray 0.05% solution of sulphex or karathane. Downey Mildew (fungus Psedoperonospora cubensis) Symptoms • Appearance of yellow spots on the upper surface of the leaves. • Appearance of purplish spots on the lower surface of the leaves. Control • Spray 0.02% Copper sulphate. Anthracnose (fungus Colletorichum sp.) It is commonly seen in watermelons and munkmelons. • Appearance of reddish brown or black spots on leaves and fruits. • Scorched appearance of the leaves. • Rotting of the fruits. control • Collect and burn the affected portion. • Don’t use seed from diseased fruits. • Spray with Bordeaux mixture (5:5:50) or 0.2% Benlate.

Sugar baby variety is resistant to disease. Hence, it should be preferred for cultivation.

Mosaic (fungus Cucumis vinus) It is especially problematic in cucurmber and disseminated by aphids. Symptoms • Young leaves are first affected resulting in stunted growth of the plants. • Mottling of leaves. • Appearance of v-shaped lesion on older leaves extending from margin to mid-rib. • Dwarfing of internodes. • Mottling and deformity of fruits. Control • Spray rogor 0.04% to control aphid. • Uproot the affected plants and burn. Root and Stem Crops Radish and turnip White rust (fungus Albugo candida) Symptoms • Appearance of irregular oval white postules on the leaves, stem and flower. • Stopped growth of affected plants. Control • Uproot the affected plants and burn. • Follow crop rotation avoiding cruciferous crop for 2-3 years. • Spray mancozeb at 2% Leaf spot (Fungus Alternaria brassicae) Symptoms • Appearance of black spots on growing stem. • Arrested growth of the plants. Control • Similar to white rust. Potato

Late blight (fungus Phytophora infestans) Symptoms • Appearance of small brown lesions on the leaves, leaflets and stem. • Rotting of crown of the plant. • Brown or purple discoloration of tuber. Control • Spray 0.02% Dithane Z-78. • Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Moti, Kufri Jeevan, Kufri Khasi-Garo etc. are resistance to disease. Early-blight (fungus Alternaria solani) Symptoms • Small pale grown spots appear on leaves. Later on the spots turn dark brown to black with concentric rings. • Lower leaves dry up and drop down. • Appearance of dark, sunken and irregular shape spots on tubes. • Rotting of affected tuber during storage. Control • Spray 0.2% Dithane Z-78 or Zineb 2 kg in 1000 liters of water/ha. Scab disease (fungus Streptomyces scabies) Symptoms • Formation of small brown spots on tubers which enlarge in size and irregular corky area develops on tubers. • Covering of entire tuber withcorky spots. • Maintain good drainage. Control • Use healthy tuber for sowing. • Dip the tuber in 0.2% emissan solution for 10 minutes. • Irrigate the crop at definite intervals. • Avoid use of acid fertilizers in infected field. • Use elemental sulphur in the soil. Onion and garlic Purple blotch or blight (fungus Alternaria porri) Symptoms • Appearance of white spots with purple centre on the leaves. • Girdling of the leaves and flower stalks and falling over of it.

Decay of bulb in storage.

Control • Spray with 1% Borrdeaux mixture.

Smut (fungus Urocystic cepalaee) Symptoms • Appearance of numerous raised blisters near the vase of the scales of older plants. • Apperanace of black powdery mass of spores upon exposing the blisters. Control • Treat the seeds @ 2-3 g Agrosan per kg seeds. • Store only dry bulbs. Downey mildew (fungus Peronospora destructor) Symptoms • Appearance of violet furry growth on the surface of leaves and seed stem. • Breaking os seed stalk due to the weight of umble. Control • Spray Dithane M-45 at 0.2%. Basal rot (fungus Fusarium oxysporum) Symptoms • Wilting and dying-black of veaves at the time of maturity of plants. • Turning of roots to pinkish. • Rotting of the roots. • Softening and semi-wateryh decay of the bulb is observed. Control • • Follow crop rotation avoiding onion and its relatives for 5 year. Varieties White Large, Poona Large, Patnarad, Udaipur-103 etc. are resistant to disease. Leafy vegetables

Leaf spot --fungus cercospora traversinia in fenugreek C. baticola in poi. C. spinacea in spinach. C. chenopodi in Bathua. Symptoms • Appearance of brown, dead spots on the leaves. Control • Spray blitox 0.2%. • Follow crop rataion. White rust (fungus Albugo candida) Symptoms • Appearance of white bleister like circular or irregular spots on the upper surface of the leaves. • Development of yellow patches on the upper surface of the leaves. Control • Follow up crop rotation. • Spray Dithan M-45 0.2%. Downy mildew (fungus peronospora sp.) Symptoms • Appearance of light yellow area on the surface of the leaves. • Crinkling of leaves. Control • Spray Dithane Z-78 0.2%. Fruit vegetables Okra Yellow vein mosaic (virus: Hibiscus virus I ) Vector: whit fly insect Bamesia tabaci. Symptoms • Turning of leaves and fruits to yellow. • Petioles remains stunted. • Very sparse fruiting.

Control • Spray 0.02% Rogor. • Abelmochus manihot is immune to disease. It can be used for developing resistant varieties • Grow resistant v\arieties like Arka Abhay and Arka Anamika. Powdery mildew (fungus Erysiphe cichoracearum) Symptoms • White grayish powdery coating is seen on the under surface of the leaves. Later on the white spots also appear on the upper surface of the leaves. • Turning of severely affected leaves to yellow followed by dropping of th leaves. Control • Dust 25-30 kg sulphur per hectare or spray Karathane 0.05%. Peas and beans Powdery mildew (fungus Erysiphe polygoni) Symptoms • White powdery substance appears on both the surfaces of the leaves and also on the stems and pods. • Malformation of leaves and stteem. • Drying of leaves. Control • Dusting of the crop using Sulfex at 3 kg./ha. Downey mildew (fungus peronospora sp.) Symptoms • White cottony patches are formed on the lower surface of the leaves. • Appearance of yellow spots on the upper surface of leaves. • Drying of leaves. Control • Spray the crop with 0.2% Dithane Z-78 or Dithane M-45. Anthracnose (fungus Colletorichum lindemuthianum)

Symptoms • Black, sunken spots with yellowish or reddish margins appear on leaves, stems and pods. Control • Treat the seeds with Agrosan GN @ 2 kg/kg seeds before sowing. • Spray the crop with 0.2% Zineb. Brinjal Damping off (fungus Pythium sp., Phytophthora sp., Rhizocronia sp., Fusarium sp.) Symptoms • Rotting of seedling at ground level. • Toppling down of seedling at ground. Control • Treatment of seed with Bavistin @ 1g/kg . • Spray Blitox 0.2%. • \Avoid same site for raising nursery continuously. Phomopsis blight (fungus Phomopsis vexans) Symptoms • Appearance of brown, circular or oblong spots on the fruits. • Rotting of severely affected fruits. Control • Seed treatment with Ceresan @ 2g/kg seed. • Hot water treatment of seed at 50o C for 30 minutes. • Varieties like Florida Market, Pusa Bhairab and Pant Samrat are resistant to disease. Bacterial wilt (bacteria Pseudomonas solanacearum) Symptoms • Wilting, stunting and yellowing of the foliage. • Dying of entire plant. • Oozing of grayish whte bacterial ooze upon squeezing of vascular portion of the stem. Control

• • •

Dip seedling into 25 ppm streptocycline.. Rouge out affected plant. Varieties like Pusa Purple Cluster and Annamali are resistant to disease.

Little leaf (Mycoplasma) Cector: leaf hopper insect Cestius sp. Symptoms • Production of numerous small leaves and deformation of flower. Control • Uproot affected plant. • \spray 0.02% Rogor to control the insect. • Grow resistant variety like Pusa Purple Culuster. Bushy stunt disease Symptoms • Reduction in leaf area. • Peduncle and calyx length of flower increases. Control • Uproot the affected plant. Tomoto Damping off Symptoms and control similar as described under the crop brinjal.

Fusarium wilt (fungus Fusarium oxysporum) Symptoms • Turning of lower leaves yellow. • Dropping of petioles of the leaves. • Affected plants wilt and die. Control • Follow crop rotation. • Treat the seeds with Bavistin @ 2.5 g/kg seed. • Grow resistant variety like Marglobe, Manalucie.

Early blight (fungus alternaria solani) Symptoms • Appearance of black spots on leaves and stems. The spots have concentric rings. • Defoliation of leaves. Control • Spray Dithane Z-78 0.2%. Late blight (fungus Alternaria solani) Symptoms • Appearance of brown spots on leaves, stems and fruits. • Rotting affected portion of fruits. The rotten portion looks dark blotchy. The unaffected part of the fruit remains firm and ripe. Control • Spray 0.2% Dithane Z-78. Fruit rot or Buck eye rot (fungus phytophthora sp.) Symptoms • Brownish spot appear on the fruit on the ground touching portion. • The affected fruits rot. Control • Maintain proper drainage in the field. • Support the plants with stakes and plat them on the ridges. • Wpray with 0.5% Blitox. Mosaic (virus) Vector: insect thrips tabaci, Bemisia gossipiparaidda. Symptoms • Appearance of light or dark green mottled spots on the leaves. • Smalling, puckering and curling of the leaves. • Stunted growth of plant and poor fruit setting. Control • Uproot and burn the affected plant. • Spray Rogor 0.2% to control insect vector. • Hot water treatment of seeds at 50o C for 30 minutes.

Chilli Damping-off As decribed earlier Anthracnose (fungus Colletorichum capasici) Symptoms • Appearance of grey spots on half ripe fruits. • Drying, shriveling and premature dropping of fruits. Control • Seed treatment with ceresin @ 2 g/kg seeds. • Spraying the crop with Bordeaux mixture. Leaf curl or Mosaic disease (virus) Vector :thrips and aphids. Symptoms • Curling of leaf margins. • Falling down of leaves. Control • Uproot the affected plants. • Spray 0.2% Rogor. • Grow resistant varieties like Puri Red, Jwala. Wilt (fungus Fusarium oxysporum) Symptoms • Turning of leaves to yellow. • Upward and inward rolling of leaves. • Wilting of the plant. Control • Soil treatment using Bavistin. • Treatment of seed using Vitavax/Bavistin @2g/kg seed.