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The concept of corporate governance, which emerged as a response to corporate failures and widespread dissatisfaction with the way

many corporates function, has become one of the wide and deep discussions across the globe recently. It primarily hinges on complete transparency, integrity and accountability of the management. There is also an increasingly greater focus on investor protection and public interest. Corporate governance is concerned with the values, vision and visibility. It is about the value orientation of the organisation, ethical norms for its performance, the direction of development and social accomplishment of the organisation and the visibility of its performance and practices. Indian Banking Industry Indian banking has around 200 years of history and has undergone many transformations since independence. But, Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation and Information Technology are currently changing the Indian banking radically. Earlier, banking was virtually a monopoly of the public sector banks with full protection from the State. But the process of reforms in the Indian banking system has thrown them out to more liberal and free market forces. Now the banks, more particularly the public sector ones, feel the real heat of the competition. The interest rate cuts, dwindling margins and more number of players to serve a reduced number of bankable clients have all added to the worries of the banks. The customer has finally come to hold the center stage and all banking products are tailor-made to suit his tastes and preferences. This sudden change in the banking environment has bereaved the banks of all their comforts and many of them are finding it extremely difficult to cope with the change. Need for Corporate Governance in Banks o Since banks are important players in the Indian financial system, special focus on the Corporate Governance in the banking sector becomes critical. o The Reserve Bank of India, as a regulator, has the responsibility on the nature of Corporate Governance in the banking sector. o To the extent that banks have systemic implications, Corporate Governance in the banks is of critical importance. o Given the dominance of public ownership in the banking system in India, corporate practices in the banking sector would also set the standards for Corporate Governance in the private sector. o With a view to reducing the possible fiscal burden of recapitalising the PSBs, attention towards Corporate Governance in the banking sector assumes added importance. Prerequisites for Good Governance There are some pre-requisites for good corporate governance. They are: o A proper system consisting of clearly defined and adequate structure of roles, authority and responsibility. o Vision, principles and norms which indicate development path, normative considerations and guidelines and norms for performance. o A proper system for guiding, monitoring, reporting and control. Recommendations by the Birla Committee The report of the Committee on Corporate Governance, set up by the Securities and Exchange board of India, under the Chairmanship of Kumar Mangalam Birla, is the first formal and comprehensive attempt to evolve a Code of Corporate Governance, in the context of prevailing conditions of governance in Indian companies, as well as the state of capital markets. The committee has identified the three key constituents of corporate governance. Shareholders' Role The role of shareholders in corporate governance is to appoint the directors and the auditors and to hold the board accountable for the proper governance of the company by requiring the board to provide them periodically with the requisite information, in transparent fashion, of the activities and progress of the company.

Board of Directors' Role The board of directors performs the pivotal role in any system of corporate governance. investigating. o The Board's Committees: It will be difficult for a board. therefore. To strengthen the stability of banking system. o Self. It stewards the company. o Risk Based Supervision This ensures that a bank's capital position is consistent with overall risk profile and strategy thus encouraging early supervisory intervention. puts in place adequate internal controls and periodically reports the activities and progress of the company in a transparent manner to the stakeholders. It also highlighted the need for having appropriate accountability and checks and balances within each bank to ensure sound corporate governance. The Committee suggested that it is the responsibility of the banking supervisors to ensure that there is an effective corporate governance in the banking industry. needs to be assisted by the some committee. Efforts were taken for several years to remedy the deficiencies of Basel I norm and Basel committee came out with modified approach in June 2004. The final version of the Accord titled " International Convergence of Capital Measurement And Capital Standards-A. 2. to achieve its objectives effectively and with apt independence. To promote adequate capitalisation of banks. Base ll seeks to rectify most of the defects of Basel l Accord. to put in place adequate control systems and to ensure their operation and to provide information to the board on a timely basis and in a transparent manner to enable the board to monitor the accountability of management to it.Revised Framework" was released by BIS. sets its strategic aim and financial goals. To ensure better risk management and 3. with all the members acting together on some issues. lending. and oversees their implementation. It is intended that such an approach will also apply either directly or indirectly and in varying degrees to the risk weighting of exposure of banks to corporate and securities firms. The new framework lays accent on bank managements developing internal assessment processes and setting targets for capital that are commensurate with bank' particular risk profile and control environment. transparency in accounts etc. The law regulates certain responsible areas on borrowing. there fore. The result will be reduced risk weights for high quality corporate credits and introduction of more than 100% risk weight for low quality exposures. o Market Disclosures The strategy of market disclosure will encourage high disclosure standards and enhance the role of market participants in encouraging banks to hold and maintain adequate capital. It is not just a matter of creating checks and balance but it emphasizes on customer satisfaction and shareholders value. This internal assessment then would be subjected to supervisory review and intervention by RBI. This is popularly known as New Basel Accord of simply Basel ll. The board. evaluate themselves through self-introspection. The Basel Committee Recommendations The Basel Committee published a paper for banking organisations in September 1999. which in turn would lead to effective and more meaningful supervision. Management's Role The responsibility of the management is to undertake the management of the company in terms of the direction provided by the board. which will increase their transparency and lead to higher foreign investment. Steps to be taken To overcome from these challenges. banks are required to emphasize on certain factors. Essentials of Accord of Basel ll o Capital Adequacy: Basel ll intends to replace the existing approach by a system that would use external credit assessments for determining risk weights. .Appraisal System: Good governance is like trusteeship. The directors. It is accountable to the stakeholders and directs and controls the management. The objectives of Basel ll are the following: 1.

Basic organisational structure and incentive structure of the bank. it is the process under which the organizations try to hold the balance between economic and social goals and between individual and communal goals. This means that the managements of the company has to ensure that the decisions taken by them actually create wealth and do not destroy wealth. if the Indian corporates have to survive and succeed amidst increasing competition globally. the investments and the return on investment is safeguarded. (b) Accountability for the decisions taken (c ) Accountability for the stakeholders For example.o Transparency: Transparency can reinforce sound corporate governance. in terms of product and service. Indian Banks . The excellence in terms of customer satisfaction. In case the net earnings are less than the cost of capital it is considered as net destruction of wealth and can not be considered as good governance. (b) The Board is responsible to establish certain strategic objectives and a set of corporate values for the senior management. In a nutshell. public disclosure is desirable in Board Structure. we can say that the corporate governance framework strives to the efficient use of resources and equally to require accountability for the stewardship of those resources. Therefore. some of the sound corporate governance practices for Banks in India include :(a) The Board of a bank should be broad-based with induction of non-executive directors of sufficient caliber and number for their independent views to carry the desired weight in the Board’s decisions. Conclusion Corporate governance has assumed vital role and significance due to globalisation and liberalisation. . in terms of return to promoters and in terms of social responsibilities towards society and people cannot be achieved without practicing good corporate governance CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Corporate Governance is concerned with the systems and processes for ensuring proper accountability. lines of responsibility and accountability throughout the bank. employees and the Board members themselves. The basic aim of Corporate Governance is to align as nearly as possible the interests of individuals. Corporate Governance has three important features. in terms of return. it the duty of the Board members to ensure that in the case of shareholders. it can only be through transparency in operations. corporations and society. Thus. and these are :(a) Transparency in operations and decision-making. (c ) The Board should set and enforce clear systems & procedures.Some Sound Practices for Corporate Governance According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation & Development (OECD). With the opening of economy and to be in line with WTO requirements. Senior management. probity and openness in the conduct of an organization’s business.

communicate this importance throughout the bank and ensure effective utilization of the work by internal & external auditors. The primary responsibility for good governance lies with the Board of Directors and the senior management of the Bank . Recent Steps Taken by Banks in India for Corporate Governance (a) Induction of non executive members on the Boards (b) Constitution of various Committees like Management Committee. ALM Committee etc. (d) Introduction of Citizens Charter in Banks (e) Implementation of “Know Your Customer” concept. (e) The Board should recognize the importance of the audit process. Investor’s Grievances Committee. Audit Committee. (c) Gradual implementation of prudential norms as prescribed by RBI.(d) The Board should ensure that senior managers exercise supervisory role with respect to line managers in specific business and activities with great sense of propriety.