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Appendix 2

ENUMA ELISH THE BABYLONIAN EPIC OF CREATION
(from: The Seven Tablets of Creation.) THE FIRST TABLET: When in the height heaven was not named, And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name, And the primeval Apsu, who begat them, And chaos, Tiamut, the mother of them both Their waters were mingled together, And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen; When of the gods none had been called into being, And none bore a name, and no destinies were ordained; Then were created the gods in the midst of heaven, Lahmu and Lahamu were called into being... Ages increased,... Then Ansar and Kisar were created, and over them.... Long were the days, then there came forth..... Anu, their son,... Ansar and Anu... And the god Anu... Nudimmud, whom his fathers, his begetters..... Abounding in all wisdom,...' He was exceeding strong... He had no rival Thus were established and were... the great gods. But Tiamat and Apsu were still in confusion...

.. and their deeds. .. In disorder... thou minister that rejoicest my spirit. ...... Since he (Mummu) planned evil against the gods his sons.." When Tiamat heard these words.. She. They consulted on a plan with regard to the gods.... Then Ea. they gave way beneath him....... . .. and let us lie down again in peace.. By day I can not rest.They were troubled and.. they will smite... he addressed the word: . Then Apsu. in. thy. unto Tiamut let us go! So they went and before Tiamat they lay down. and let us lie down again in peace. . And Tiamat roared..their way. . .. .. [about 30 illegible lines] .. who were taken captive. His knees became weak. .. Apsu was not diminished in might. thou didst.. he was afraid.... he spake: ... their sons.. Because of the evil which their first-born had planned.. we shall not lie down in peace. went up and he beheld their muttering. .... and said unto him: "O Mummu... Lamentation they sat in sorrow ... She uttered a curse... But I will destroy their way... by night shalt thou lie down in peace.. of fear.. Cried unto Mummu. their way is strong..... the begetter of the great gods.. and Mummu. Then by day shalt thou have rest...... their. and gave counsel unto Apsu.. I will. and unto Apsu she spake: "What then shall we do? Let their way be made difficult... And unto Tiamut. Come. Let there be lamentation.." Apsu harkened unto him and his countenance grew bright. Apsu is laid waste.. who knoweth all that is. he weepeth and sitteth in tribulation.. She raged and cried aloud... the glistening one. but thou shalt destroy it. they...... Apsu opened his mouth and spake......." Mummu answered... She smote.and hostile to the gods was the counsel Mummu gave: Come.. . by night I can not lie down in peace.. . let us lie down in peace... they altered. his minister (also translated as messenger). he hath conquered and . Their way was evil. grievously.

. and fish-men. . And hurricanes. thou shalt take vengeance for them. Among the gods who were her sons. Made in addition weapons invincible." Now Kingu.. they devised mischief without resting night and day. and rams. Evil she wrought against the gods her children. none could resist them. let us lie down in peace. saying: I have uttered thy spell. having received the power of Anu. she spawned monster-serpents.!" And Tiamat harkened unto the word of the bright god. to control the fight. the god unto Ea divulged. With splendor she decked them. May they magnify thy name over all of them the Anunnaki. They were furious. Be thou exalted. They joined their forces and made war. she made them of lofty stature.. the gods in the midst of. fuming and raging. To direct the battle.. in their midst she raised him to power. Decreed the fate among the gods his sons. thus exalted. To march before the forces. saying: Thy command shall not be without avail.. Ummu-Hubur [Tiamat] who formed all things.. and the monster Lahamu. Fierce monster-vipers she clothed with terror. terror overcame him. to advance to the attack. shalt thou entrust! let us wage war!" . With poison. and He was grievously afflicted and he sat in sorrow.. They prepared for battle. Unto him she entrusted. They banded themselves together and at the side of Tiamat they advanced. She exalted Kingu. . let him display his might!" THE SECOND TABLET: Tiamat made weighty her handiwork. The dominion over all the gods have I entrusted unto him. in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power.. and said: . Tiamat planned evil.. for the gods did she create. and merciless of fang... She set up vipers and dragons.. And mighty tempests. and scorpion-men. The days went by. Whoso is exalted in the battle. and his anger was appeased. To give the battle-signal. to lead the host... instead of blood. But how she had collected her forces. huge of stature. To avenge Apsu. After this fashion. They bore cruel weapons. Her commands were mighty. Whoever beheld them. in costly raiment she made him sit.." She gave him the Tablets of Destiny.. inasmuch as he had given her support. she made eleven [kinds of] monsters. she filled their bodies. on his breast she laid them. unto the tempest shalt thou.. . thou my chosen spouse. without fear of the fight. Ea harkened to this thing. and the word of thy mouth shall be established. Sharp of tooth. saying: "Let the opening of your mouth quench the Fire-god. Their bodies reared up and none could withstand their attack. and raging hounds. .

and merciless of fang. After this fashion. to lead the host. Sharp of tooth. Be thou exalted.. he made a bitter lamentation: . in their midst she hath raised him to power.. Mummu and Apsu thou hast smitten But Tiamat hath exalted Kingu. he bit his lips. He went and.. whom ye created. With all her force she rageth. inasmuch as he hath given her support. she hath filled their bodies. With poison. And hurricanes and raging hounds. deliberation . thus exalted. -Nudimmud. in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power.. she hath spawned monster-serpents. To direct the battle. To march before the forces. saying: 'Let the opening of your mouth quench the Fire-god. I have uttered thy spell. her sons. to control the fight. With splendor she hath decked them. They are furious. . All that Tiamat had plotted he repeated unto him. let him display his might!'" When Ansar heard how Tiamat was mightily in revolt. Hath made in addition weapons invincible. they devise mischief without resting night and day.. Whoever beholdeth them is overcome by terror. Among the gods who are her sons. the father who begat him. thou. With those... Saying. and where is one who can oppose her? . in costly raiment she hath made him sit. . They bear cruel weapons. saying: 'Thy command shall not be without avail. And mighty tempests. Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror. and fish-men and rams. on his breast she laid them. . and the monster Lahamu. thou my chosen spouse.. She hath exalted Kingu.' Now Kingu. To give the battle-signal.. They are banded together and at the side of Tiamat they advance. battle. the . instead of blood. "Tiamat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us. saving:. standing before Ansar. thev go at her side.. All the gods have turned to her. They have joined their forces and are making war. They prepare for battle. to advance to the attack. she hath made them of lofty stature. hath she made eleven monsters. of the gods.. She hath set up vipers. who formed all things. Decreed the fate for the gods. Unto him hath she entrusted. Ummu-Hubur. and the word of thy mouth shall be established.. none can resist them. Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack. The dominion over all the gods have I entrusted unto thee. and dragons. huge of stature.. full of wrath. and scorpion-men. having received the power of Anu. his mind was not at peace.And to the place of Ansar his father he took his way. Her commands are mighty. Whoso is exalted in the battle.. May they magnify thy name over all of them She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny. fuming and raging.. without fear of the fight.

Go and stand before Tiamat.. thou shalt return again. Whose strength is great and whose onslaught can not be withstood.. . If I. he beheld the muttering of Tiamat. Our word shalt thou speak unto her. . my mighty hero. Speedily set out upon thy way. His heart exulted. who hath brought thee forth to battle? . Ansar .." The lord rejoiced at the word of his father.. that her heart may be merciful. and he turned back. . 0 my son.. who knoweth all wisdom.." He heard the word of his father Ansar And he directed his path to her. make my fate preeminent and proclaim it. The neck of Tiamat shalt thou swiftly trample under foot. rejoice and be glad... is armed and attacketh thee. And he drew nigh and stood before Ansar. let not the word of thy lips be overcome... O Ansar. that I may accomplish all that is in thy heart.] Ansar unto his son addressed the word: ". let not the word of thy lips be overcome.[A gap of about a dozen lines occurs here. in the place of his decision . rejoice and be glad. In Upsukkinaku seat yourself joyfully together.. that I may accomplish all that is in thy heart. But he could not withstand her. Tiamat.. who maketh merciful his heart. Pacify Tiamat with thy pure incantation. That her spirit may be appeased.. Destiny of the great gods. .. Appoint an assembly. Let me go. "O my father.. your avenger. . he that shall behold thee shall have peace.. Ansar beheld him and his heart was filled with joy.] an avenger.. and unto his father he spake: "O Lord of the gods. He kissed him on the lips and his fear departed from him. he spake unto him: ." And the lord rejoiced at the word of his father. The neck of Tiamat shalt thou swiftly trample under foot. Ann drew nigh. For thy blood shall not be poured out. valiant .. . Conquer Tiamat and give you life. thy father " Thou art my son.. toward her he took the way.." What man is it.. But if she will not harken unto thy word.. that she may be pacified. he spake unto him: [A gap of over twenty lines occurs here. Let me go.. to the battle shalt thou draw nigh. who is a woman..

in their midst she hath raised him to power.. The purpose of his heart he hath made known unto me. stand before them. And mighty tempests. Her commands are miahty. to advance to the attack. Unto him hath she entrusted. in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power. to control the fight. let the gods. They are furious. May whatsoever I do remain unaltered. whom ye created. his minister. terror overcometh him. none can. to lead the host. They are banded together. All the gods have turned to her. and at the side of Tiamat they advance. That for Marduk.. and scorpion-men. Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror. Sharp of tooth and merciless of fang. Let them eat bread. May the word of my lips never be chanced nor made of no avail. She hath set up vipers. fuming and raging. The purpose of his heart he hath made known unto me. and fish-men. she hath made them of lofty stature. who formed all things.. their avenger they may decree the fate. and dragons. To march before the forces. thou minister that rejoicest my spirit. and say: 'Ansar. and rams. all of them. They have joined their forces and are making war. Hath made in addition weapons invincible. without fear of the fight. she hath spawned monster-serpents. Among the gods who are her sons. thou shalt cause to be brought before thee. and Unto Gaga. at a banquet let them sit. To direct the battle.. vour son. Go. To give the battle-signal.. let them mix wine. huge of stature. resist them. He saith that Tiamat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us." THE THIRD TABLET: Ansar opened his mouth. Ummu-Hubur. Make ready for a feast. Gaga. repeat unto them. With poison. . And all that I tell thee. hath she made eleven monsters. They prepare for battle. . . she hath filled their bodies. in costly raiment she hath made him sit. instead of blood.. they devise mischief without resting night and day. they go at her side.With my word in place of you will I decree fate. And hurricanes. saying: I have uttered thy spell. Whoever beboldeth them. With splendor she hath decked them. full of wrath. Unto Lahmu and Lahamu will I send thee. "O Gaga. thou canst attain. They bear merciless weapons. . With those. She hath exalted Kingu. and raging bounds. After this fashion. spake the word. inasmuch as he hath given her support. hath sent me. and the monster Lahamu. Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack. With all her force she rageth.

hath she made eleven monsters. Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack. his fathers. instead of blood. Nudimmud was afraid and turned back. He humbled himself. and fish-men. and he kissed the ground at their feet. therefore. . After this fashion. but he could not withstand her. Ummu-Hubur. They bear merciless weapons. terror overcometh him. With my word in place of you will I decree fate. With splendor she hath decked them. thou my chosen spouse. none can resist them. Whoso is exalted in the battle. To set out against Tiamat his heart hath prompted him. and the monster Lahamu. With poison. She hath set up vipers. He saith that Tiamat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us. Appoint an assembly. without fear of the fight. your son. Gaga went. huge of stature. they go at her side. then he stood up and spake unto them saying: "Ansar. and raging hounds. and scorpion-men. But Marduk hath set out."' Hasten. your son. inasmuch as he hath given her support. He opened his mouth and spake unto me. All the gods have turned to her. and the word of thy mouth shall be established. on his breast she laid them. They prepare for battle. she hath spawned monster-serpents. Her commands are mighty. May they magnify thy name over all of them . she hath made them of lofty stature. saving: Let the opening of your mouth quench the Fire-god. Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror. and swiftly decree for him the fate which you bestow. whom ye created. With all her force she rageth. the gods. That he may go and fight your strong enemy." She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny. Decreed the fate for the gods. saying: "If I. hath sent me. Among the gods who are her sons. and dragons. let him display his might!" I sent Anu. make my fate preeminent and proclaim it. Hath made in addition weapons invincible. In Upsukkinaku seat yourself joyfully together. thus exalted. fuming and raging. Sharp of tooth and merciless of fang. With those.. They are furious. May the word of my lips never be changed nor made of no avail. Be thou exalted. saying: Thy command shall not be without avail.The dominion over all the gods have I entrusted unto thee." Now Kingu. Whoever beboldeth them. your avenger. he took his way and Humbly before Lahmu and Lahamu.. the Anunnaki. They have joined their forces and are making war. And mighty tempests. having received the power of Anu. and rams. Conquer Tiamat and give you life. the director of the gods. she hath filled their bodies. The purpose of his heart he hath made known unto me. They are banded together and at the side of Tiamat they advance. He made obeisance. May whatsoever I do remain unaltered. And hurricanes. they devise mischief without resting night and day. her sons. who formed all things. full of wrath.

.. thou art chiefest among the great gods. They were wholly at ease. Be thou exalted. therefore. did they decree the fate. They ate bread. To march before the forces. Nudimmud was afraid and turned back. saving: I have uttered thy spell. They entered in before Ansar. To give the battle-signal.the Anunnaki. but he could not withstand her.. to advance to the attack. To direct the battle. saying: What has been altered so that they should We do not understand the deed of Tiamat! Then did they collect and go. and swiftly decree for him the fate which you bestow. in the assembly. Conquer Tiamat and give you life. the mead. Thy fate is unequaled. all of them. To set out against Tiamat his heart hath prompted him. May.. in their midst she hath raised him to power.' Now Kingu. their bodies were filled. they mixed sesame-wine. thus exalted. But Marduk hath set out. "Thou art chiefest among the great gods. The great gods. thou my chosen spouse..She hath exalted Kingu. The dominion over all the gods have I entrusted unto thee. Appoint an assembly. saying: 'If I. let him display his might!' I sent Anu. She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny on his breast she laid them. having received the power of Anu.. May they magnify thy name over all of them. May the word of my lips never be changed nor made of no avail. and the word of thy mouth shall be established. thy word is Anu! . They kissed one another. THE FOURTH TABLET: They prepared for him a lordly chamber. They made ready for the feast. He opened his mouth and spake unto me. saving: Thy command shall not be without avail. The sweet drink. In Upsukkinaku seat yourselves joyfully together. to control the fight. With my word in place of you will I decree fate. whatsoever I do remain unaltered.' Hasten. they filled. the director of the gods. who decree fate. They were drunk with drinking. Before his fathers as prince he took his place. to lead the host. Then for Marduk. their avenger. That he may go and fight your strong enemy! Lahmu and Lahamu heard and cried aloud All of the Igigi [The elder gods] wailed bitterly. confused their.. at the banquet they sat. make my fate preeminent and proclaim it. your son. in costlv raiment she hath made him sit. Whoso is exalted in the battle. Thy fate is unequaled.. Decreed the fate for the gods. your avenger. Unto him hath she entrusted. her sons. saying: 'Let the opening of your mouth quench the Fire-god. thy word is Anu! 0 Marduk. in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power.. their spirit was exalted.

He slung a spear upon him and fastened it. even though they lack offerings. Go. Command now and let the garment vanish. and the whirlwind. it shall crush thy foe. the storm unequaled for terror. Destructive. Again he commanded it. " Marduk is king!" They bestowed upon him the scepter.... mighty in battle. he chose his weapon. They caused him to set out on a path of prosperity and success. they had been trained to trample underfoot.. be exalted in thy command. . Sit thou down in might. speak thou the word.... He made ready the bow. When the gods. He made a net to enclose the inward parts of Tiamat. And unto Marduk... With burning flame he filled his body.. The South wind and the North wind and the East wind and the West wind He brought near to the net." Then set they in their midst a garment. He set the lightning in front of him. Established shall be the word of thy mouth. Shall be established in thy sanctuary. his fathers. overwhelming. the desire of the shrines of the gods. they were flecked with foam. .Henceforth not without avail shall be thy command. and the ring. be supreme among the gods. and. were their teeth. And the fourfold wind. . and the hurricane. and swift of pace. Left and right. and they did homage unto him. they followed after him. And speak the word again and let the garment reappear! Then he spake with his mouth. The four winds he stationed so that nothing of her might escape. spare the life of him that putteth his trust in thee. ferocious. the gift of his father Anu. pour out his life. He harnessed and yoked unto it four horses. the seven of them. To destroy and to create. But as for the god who began the rebellion. They rejoiced. his mighty weapon. The bow and the quiver he hung at his side. irresistible shall be thy command. And let the wind carry her blood into secret places. To disturb the inward parts of Tiamat. They give him an invincible weapony which overwhelmeth the foe. Abundance. and the sevenfold wind.. and the garment vanished.. They were skilled in. Then the lord raised the thunderbolt. and cut off the life of Tiamat. and the tempest. . O lord. beheld the fulfillment of his word. He sent forth the winds which he bad created. O Lord. and thy command shall be fulfilled. saying. thou art our avenger! We give thee sovereignty over the whole world.their first-born they spake: "May thy fate. None among the gods shall transgress thy boundary." After the gods his fathers had decreed for the lord his fate. O Marduk. in his right hand he grasped it. the garment reappeared. He mounted the chariot. Thy weapon shall never lose its power. and the throne. and the wind which had no equal. He created the evil wind. He raised the club. In thy power shall it be to exalt and to abase. .

. . Beheld their leader's. that. .. even as Anu. And toward the raging Tiamat he set his face. while as yet she had not shut her lips. . his mighty weapon. . To the fight they came on. let us join battle! When Tiamat heard these words. .. he pierced her heart. And against the gods my fathers thou hast contrived thy wicked plan. thou hast exalted thyself on high. And her courage was taken from her. With lips that failed not she uttered rebellious words: ". the counsellor of the gods... But Tiamat.. She recited an incantation. On his lips he held . he was clothed with terror. he should issue deerees. she pronounced her spell. the leader. With overpowering brightness his head was crowned. .. who was raging. She trembled and shook to her very foundations. who marched by his side. As Tiamat opened her mouth to its full extent.. she turned not her neck. And the evil wind that was behind him he let loose in her face. Then they beheld him. their fathers.. who marched by her side.. piercing cries. and her mouth she opened wide. he took his way. He cast down her body and stood upon it. And the gods. let thy weapons be girded on! Stand! I and thou. in thy place are they! " Then the lord raised the thunderbolt. Her might was broken. From their places have they gathered. thou hast followed after evil... He perceived the muttering of Kingu. the gods beheld him. thy coming as lord of the gods. Let then thy host be equipped..she lost her reason. The lord spread out his net and caught her. He seized the spear and burst her belly... Tiamat uttered wild. He overcame her and cut off her life. her host was scattered. Then he set out.. his helpers. When be had slain Tiamat.. him. His will was destroyed and his motions ceased.. And the gods her helpers.. thus he sent the word: Thou art become great. And the lord drew nigh. he grasped in his hand. Thou hast. As Marduk gazed... The terrible winds filled her belly.His garment was. She was like one posessed. the gods beheld him. and their sight was troubled... .. he gazed upon the inward parts of Tiamat. And against Tiamat. And thy heart hath prompted thee to call to battle. He severed her inward parts. thou hatest.. The gods his fathers beheld him. And the gods of the battle cried out for their weapons. Kingu was troubled in his gait. He drove in the evil wind. to the battle they drew nigh. their.. Then advanced Tiamat and Marduk. Thou hast exalted Kingu to be thy spouse.. her spouse.

He set the station of Bel and Ea along with him. One half of her he established as a covering for heaven. and were afraid. Upon the troop of devils. And over against the Deep he set the dwelling of Nudimmud.. as the stars of the Zodiac. After he had .. And the lord measured the structure of the Deep. And he made the North wind bear it away into secret places.. The mansion E-sara which he created as heaven. He founded the station of Nibir to determine their bounds. he surveyed the regions thereof. He cut through the channels of her blood. He brought affliction. He caused Anu. And he founded E-sara. they were held in bondage. And the lord stood upon Tiamat's hinder parts. of the world they filled with cries of grief. and with the god Dug-ga he counted him.. They received punishment from him. and devised a cunning plan. he broke their weapons. His fathers beheld. .. That none might err or go astray. Now after the hero Marduk had conquered and cast down his enemies. For the twelve months he fixed three stars. whom be bad conquered. He sealed them with a seal and in his own breast he laid them. And bade them not to let her waters come forth. a mansion like unto it. And with his merciless club he smashed her skull. and turned back. Presents and gifts they brought unto him. who had been exalted over them. He fixed a bolt. he fixed.. who marched at her. gazing upon her dead body. The stars. And on the eleven creatures which she had filled with the power of striking terror.. THE FIFTH TABLET: He made the stations for the great gods. He split her up like a flat fish into two halves.. And unto Tiamat. He opened great gates on both sides. In the net they were caught and in the snare they sat down. he stationed a watchman. He passed through the heavens. He ordained the year and into sections he divided it... and Ea in their districts to inhabit. He conquered.Trembled. their images.. Then the lord rested. They took to flight to save their lives. their strength he. Over the captive gods he strengthened his durance. He took from him the Tablets of Destiny that were not rightly his. . Them and their opposition he trampled under his feet. images.. so that they could not escape. Moreover. The . And had made the arrogant foe even like And had fullv established Ansar's triumph over the enemy And had attained the purpose of Nudimmud. While he divided the flesh of the . Kingu. be returned. and they rejoiced and were glad.. the days of the year .. Bel. But they were surrounded. He took them captive.

He made strong the bolt on the left and on the right...." [Nearly fifty lines are here lost... his fathers. . to destroy. in heaven shall it." .. shall be destroyed and men will I... the . "'Long-wood' shall be one name.... The Moon-god he caused to shine forth.... He kissed the bow. a being of the night... Every month without ceasing with the crown he covered him. But I will alter the ways of the gods. They beheld the bow and how its work was accomplished. The . When the Sun-god on the foundation of heaven... And its third name shall be the Bow-star. to determine the days. Now after the fate of. the half. when thou shinest upon the land. He set a throne. . thou shalt cause to draw nigh.. In the midst thereof he fixed the zenith... .... That the service of the gods may be established. saving. .... saying: "At the beginning of the month.... in the assembly of the gods. the night he entrusted to him.!" And thus he named the names of the bow...in heaven. unto the path of the Sun-god shalt thou cause to draw nigh..!" Then he fixed a station for it... Then Anu raised the .....thee. He appointed him. and the second name shall be .. beheld the net which he had made. ...... thou shalt cause to . and that their shrines may be built.] THE SIXTH TABLET: When Marduk beard the word of the gods.. And on the seventh day to divide the crown. that man may I will create man who shall inhabit the earth. and I will change their paths. saving.... He opened his mouth and unto Ea he spake That which he had conceived in his heart he imparted unto him: "My blood will I take and bone will I fashion I will make man. and thou shalt make his. On the fourteenth day thou shalt stand opposite. ..... Together shall they be oppressed and unto evil shall they.. And on the . of the gods I have changed ... And Ea answered him and spake the word: ". to traverse her way.. " It is..] The gods.. and one. Thou commandest the horns to determine six days. They praised the work which he had done.. . day thou shalt stand opposite. and the gods .... and the Sun-god shall. and thou shalt judge the right. and they.... [The remainder of this tablet is missing.. His heart prompted him and he devised a cunning plan.. .

"the Bringer of Purification." Who established for the gods the bright heavens. and ordained their path. Who through his Pure Incantation hath destroyed all the evil ones!" Sag-zu. fear took hold upon them! O Asaru-alim-nuna. In the mouth of mankind whom his hands have made! Tutu as Mu-azag. . and Ea!" He was their patron. Never shall his . which read as follows. whose provision is abundance. Should they attack him in anger.. [Marduk] "who knoweth the heart of the gods. then are the gods appeased.. Of the heroic son. Tutu [Marduk] is "He who created them anew". let them pay reverence. fifthly. whom he succored.." "The Merciful One." "The God of the Favoring Breeze.. Should their wants be pure.. [Marduk] "Bestower of planting. then are they satisfied. deeds be forgotten among men." " the Founder of Plenteousness.[The rest of the text is wanting with the exception of the last few lines of the tablet..... his "Pure incantation" may their mouth proclaim." " the Quickener of the Dead." The gods paid homage." "Founder of sowing" "Creator of grain and plants." "Who had mercy upon the captive gods. their avenger.. and in the assembly of the gods let him. may they never be forgotten ." In sore distress we felt his favoring breeze. None among the gods can rival him! 15 Tutu [Marduk] is Zi-ukkina. !" They seated themselves and in the assembly they named him. They all cried aloud.. with whom it is to bestow life!" May his deeds endure.. let them bow in humility before him! Tutu as Aga-azag may mankind fourthly magnify! "The Lord of the Pure Incantation." "who aboundeth in counsel. "the Life of the host of the gods. THE SEVENTH TABLET: O Asari." "the Light of the father who begat him... [Mardk] "who is revered in the house of counsel. they cried: " We." "the Lord of Hearing and Mercy. In Upsukkinnaku they set their dwelling. He set them on their way." "Who removed the yoke from upon the gods his enemies. goeth forth." " who seeth through the innermost part!" "The evil-doer he hath not caused to go forth with him!" . he withstandeth their onslaught! Let him therefore be exalted." Let them say. [Marduk] "the mighty one. they exalted him.." "who caused the green herb to spring up!" O Asaru-alim." "Who directeth the decrees of Anu Bel.. Tutu as Zi-azag thirdly they named.." "The Creator of Fulness and Abundance." "Who increaseth all that is small..." "For their forgiveness did he create mankind.] They rejoiced. Should he make an incantation. be ordained their. He.

... "Who brought the gods to naught. in Dul-azag be made it known.. . . of the battle! [Here follows the better-preserved ending....." "... the heavens.." ".." .. ! [There is a gap here of sixty lines...!" . which shineth in the heavens..... their.!" "Director of Righteousness. ." " the Lord of rulers. their heart!" "Subduer of the disobedient..!" Zulummu... supreme is his might! Lugal-durmah...!" Agil.." " Who rebellion and... the. He named the four quarters of the world..." "Who destroyed all the wicked.. in the midst of Tiamat.." ....." "... " the Creator of.." who .. the star.. " the Counselor of Ea. He shepherded all the gods like sheep! He conquered Tiamat... "He who forced his way through the midst of Tiamat without resting." who created the gods his fathers.." "Who put an end to anger.] who.!" Tutu as Suh-kur. pure is his dwelling! . mankind hecreated.... let... "the King of the band of the gods.. may they pay homage unto him.!" Tutu as Zi-si. "the Destroyer of the foe..!" Mummu..... supreme is his might! . ." "Who put their plans to confusion. "the ... "The mighty one.] ..!" Giskul. Unto the path of whose majesty No god can ever attain! . let them. Let his name be Nibiru.. May he hold the Beginning and the Future.. 'the Seizer of the Midst'! For the stars of heaven he upheld the paths.. "The Creator of the earth. Saying..!" Mulil... But somewhere among the lost lines belong the following fragments."Founder of the assembly of the gods..." "Who among the gods is gloriously supreme! Adu-nuna.... he troubled and ended her life. " the Chief of all lords... "Who for...." ." "who.... "The Giver of counsel and of whatsoever... And upon him understanding...." "Who is exalted in a royal habitation. of those without understanding is Lugaldul-azaga! . thirdly....

The sinner and evil-doer in his presence.. . He gazed in his anger. made his path preeminent. Did Ea hear. .. . they took and. his name shall be Ea! The binding of all my decrees shall he control.... When he is wroth. he turned not his neck.e. they spake before him.. no god can withstand his indignation. EPILOGUE: Let them [i. and his spirit was rejoiced. Let them be in the ears of the pastor and the shepherd! Let a man rejoice in Marduk. they. his name... This title. and he said: "He whose name his fathers have made glorious. .. the Lord of the gods. May they .. when the days grow old.. of Marduk may the gods.. Wide is his heart. unto. . The utterance of his mouth hath no god ever annulled. All my commands shall he make known! " By the name of "Fifty " did the great gods Proclaim his fifty names. which all the Spirits of Heaven proclaimed. That be may cause his land to be fruitful.. and that he himself may have prosperity! His word standeth fast.. may it hold sway forever! Since he created the realm of heaven and fashioned the firm earth. So Ends the Babylonian Epic of Creation and The Battle with Tiamat.In the future of mankind. The Lord of the World. Shall be even as I...." the father Bel hath called his name. They received instruction.. Let the wise and the understanding consider them together! Let the father repeat them and teach them to his son. broad is his compassion. May this be heard without ceasing. the names of Marduk] be held in remembrances and let the first man proclaim them. his command is unaltered...