Appendix 2

ENUMA ELISH THE BABYLONIAN EPIC OF CREATION
(from: The Seven Tablets of Creation.) THE FIRST TABLET: When in the height heaven was not named, And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name, And the primeval Apsu, who begat them, And chaos, Tiamut, the mother of them both Their waters were mingled together, And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen; When of the gods none had been called into being, And none bore a name, and no destinies were ordained; Then were created the gods in the midst of heaven, Lahmu and Lahamu were called into being... Ages increased,... Then Ansar and Kisar were created, and over them.... Long were the days, then there came forth..... Anu, their son,... Ansar and Anu... And the god Anu... Nudimmud, whom his fathers, his begetters..... Abounding in all wisdom,...' He was exceeding strong... He had no rival Thus were established and were... the great gods. But Tiamat and Apsu were still in confusion...

Cried unto Mummu. By day I can not rest. Then Ea.... Apsu was not diminished in might. . .. Lamentation they sat in sorrow .. His knees became weak.. [about 30 illegible lines] . ... he spake: . And Tiamat roared. Apsu opened his mouth and spake. and their deeds. his minister (also translated as messenger).. She. we shall not lie down in peace. their.. Since he (Mummu) planned evil against the gods his sons.... they will smite.." Mummu answered. went up and he beheld their muttering. ... and said unto him: "O Mummu. they..... thy. Their way was evil.. by night shalt thou lie down in peace. they gave way beneath him.... their sons.... their way is strong....and hostile to the gods was the counsel Mummu gave: Come..... . who were taken captive.. and Mummu. and unto Apsu she spake: "What then shall we do? Let their way be made difficult. thou minister that rejoicest my spirit.. . Then by day shalt thou have rest.. they altered... Let there be lamentation. I will. and gave counsel unto Apsu.... and let us lie down again in peace.. ... of fear.. And unto Tiamut.. ..... Apsu is laid waste... who knoweth all that is... Come... he addressed the word: . the glistening one. and let us lie down again in peace... . In disorder. he weepeth and sitteth in tribulation...... but thou shalt destroy it.. She uttered a curse. . . let us lie down in peace. Then Apsu. But I will destroy their way........ the begetter of the great gods. he hath conquered and .... She raged and cried aloud..... he was afraid. thou didst.. She smote.. by night I can not lie down in peace. in. .." When Tiamat heard these words.their way.. grievously.They were troubled and. They consulted on a plan with regard to the gods. unto Tiamut let us go! So they went and before Tiamat they lay down.." Apsu harkened unto him and his countenance grew bright.. Because of the evil which their first-born had planned...

Their bodies reared up and none could withstand their attack. To direct the battle. But how she had collected her forces. And hurricanes. they devised mischief without resting night and day. They prepared for battle. and the word of thy mouth shall be established. and fish-men. she made them of lofty stature. To march before the forces. She exalted Kingu. thus exalted.. Fierce monster-vipers she clothed with terror. They joined their forces and made war. in costly raiment she made him sit. Tiamat planned evil. and merciless of fang. thou my chosen spouse. the gods in the midst of.. she made eleven [kinds of] monsters.. unto the tempest shalt thou. to control the fight. she filled their bodies. for the gods did she create. in their midst she raised him to power." She gave him the Tablets of Destiny. having received the power of Anu. let us lie down in peace. Ummu-Hubur [Tiamat] who formed all things.. . Whoso is exalted in the battle... With splendor she decked them. Ea harkened to this thing. none could resist them. saying: I have uttered thy spell. inasmuch as he had given her support. Whoever beheld them.. in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power. the god unto Ea divulged. After this fashion. And mighty tempests. . Unto him she entrusted. To give the battle-signal. They bore cruel weapons. Made in addition weapons invincible. They banded themselves together and at the side of Tiamat they advanced. . without fear of the fight. saying: Thy command shall not be without avail. Decreed the fate among the gods his sons. huge of stature... With poison. and his anger was appeased. terror overcame him.. and the monster Lahamu. Evil she wrought against the gods her children. They were furious. Sharp of tooth. To avenge Apsu. fuming and raging. Among the gods who were her sons. and rams. on his breast she laid them.. and said: . she spawned monster-serpents. May they magnify thy name over all of them the Anunnaki. saying: "Let the opening of your mouth quench the Fire-god. and He was grievously afflicted and he sat in sorrow. She set up vipers and dragons.. The days went by.. The dominion over all the gods have I entrusted unto him. thou shalt take vengeance for them. and scorpion-men. shalt thou entrust! let us wage war!" . Be thou exalted.!" And Tiamat harkened unto the word of the bright god. . and raging hounds... instead of blood. Her commands were mighty. let him display his might!" THE SECOND TABLET: Tiamat made weighty her handiwork. to lead the host.." Now Kingu.. to advance to the attack.

And to the place of Ansar his father he took his way.' Now Kingu. Whoso is exalted in the battle. And hurricanes and raging hounds. With those. inasmuch as he hath given her support. and where is one who can oppose her? . She hath exalted Kingu.. With splendor she hath decked them. thou. They prepare for battle. With poison. he made a bitter lamentation: . thev go at her side. Be thou exalted. Among the gods who are her sons.. With all her force she rageth. After this fashion. he bit his lips. They bear cruel weapons. full of wrath. May they magnify thy name over all of them She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny. thus exalted. let him display his might!'" When Ansar heard how Tiamat was mightily in revolt. The dominion over all the gods have I entrusted unto thee. Unto him hath she entrusted.. in their midst she hath raised him to power. of the gods. Decreed the fate for the gods. in costly raiment she hath made him sit. her sons. without fear of the fight. to control the fight. and merciless of fang. She hath set up vipers.. Hath made in addition weapons invincible. They are furious. Whoever beholdeth them is overcome by terror.. on his breast she laid them. saying: 'Thy command shall not be without avail.. They are banded together and at the side of Tiamat they advance. in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power. To march before the forces. having received the power of Anu. and the word of thy mouth shall be established. and dragons. they devise mischief without resting night and day. Mummu and Apsu thou hast smitten But Tiamat hath exalted Kingu. huge of stature. his mind was not at peace. -Nudimmud.. I have uttered thy spell. To direct the battle. standing before Ansar.. And mighty tempests. .. whom ye created. To give the battle-signal. to advance to the attack. Saying. All the gods have turned to her. Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack. All that Tiamat had plotted he repeated unto him. instead of blood. thou my chosen spouse. saying: 'Let the opening of your mouth quench the Fire-god. battle. to lead the host. fuming and raging. she hath made them of lofty stature. "Tiamat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us. the . deliberation . hath she made eleven monsters. He went and. . and the monster Lahamu. who formed all things. Ummu-Hubur.. none can resist them. and scorpion-men. saving:.. Her commands are mighty. . she hath spawned monster-serpents. Sharp of tooth. and fish-men and rams... Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror. the father who begat him... They have joined their forces and are making war. she hath filled their bodies.

Ansar . rejoice and be glad.... that she may be pacified. Ansar beheld him and his heart was filled with joy. . . thy father " Thou art my son. He kissed him on the lips and his fear departed from him.." The lord rejoiced at the word of his father.." And the lord rejoiced at the word of his father. Let me go. who is a woman. let not the word of thy lips be overcome.[A gap of about a dozen lines occurs here. who knoweth all wisdom.] an avenger.. that her heart may be merciful.. . But he could not withstand her... Pacify Tiamat with thy pure incantation. 0 my son. my mighty hero. . Conquer Tiamat and give you life. ... . toward her he took the way. to the battle shalt thou draw nigh. But if she will not harken unto thy word. Ann drew nigh. Appoint an assembly.. and he turned back. thou shalt return again.. that I may accomplish all that is in thy heart.. Tiamat. His heart exulted." What man is it.. The neck of Tiamat shalt thou swiftly trample under foot. and unto his father he spake: "O Lord of the gods. valiant . in the place of his decision . Destiny of the great gods. make my fate preeminent and proclaim it. Let me go. he beheld the muttering of Tiamat. who hath brought thee forth to battle? . If I.. The neck of Tiamat shalt thou swiftly trample under foot. rejoice and be glad. he spake unto him: [A gap of over twenty lines occurs here. who maketh merciful his heart. In Upsukkinaku seat yourself joyfully together. let not the word of thy lips be overcome. For thy blood shall not be poured out.. he that shall behold thee shall have peace. Go and stand before Tiamat. your avenger.." He heard the word of his father Ansar And he directed his path to her. Whose strength is great and whose onslaught can not be withstood... O Ansar. is armed and attacketh thee. And he drew nigh and stood before Ansar... "O my father... that I may accomplish all that is in thy heart. Speedily set out upon thy way.] Ansar unto his son addressed the word: ". he spake unto him: . That her spirit may be appeased. Our word shalt thou speak unto her.

With those. thou canst attain. And mighty tempests. To give the battle-signal. hath she made eleven monsters. Her commands are miahty. instead of blood. Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror. and rams. Go. fuming and raging. And all that I tell thee. full of wrath. They are banded together. and at the side of Tiamat they advance. let the gods. Sharp of tooth and merciless of fang. they devise mischief without resting night and day. May the word of my lips never be chanced nor made of no avail. . That for Marduk. She hath exalted Kingu. she hath made them of lofty stature. and Unto Gaga. And hurricanes. . to control the fight. Among the gods who are her sons. "O Gaga. Let them eat bread. whom ye created. in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power." THE THIRD TABLET: Ansar opened his mouth. hath sent me. They have joined their forces and are making war. Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack.. she hath filled their bodies. she hath spawned monster-serpents.With my word in place of you will I decree fate. spake the word. With splendor she hath decked them. They prepare for battle. at a banquet let them sit. thou minister that rejoicest my spirit. After this fashion. in costly raiment she hath made him sit. Make ready for a feast. resist them. With all her force she rageth. and say: 'Ansar. They are furious. She hath set up vipers. let them mix wine. The purpose of his heart he hath made known unto me. The purpose of his heart he hath made known unto me. huge of stature. inasmuch as he hath given her support. Gaga.. saying: I have uttered thy spell. With poison. thou shalt cause to be brought before thee. in their midst she hath raised him to power. and the monster Lahamu. Unto Lahmu and Lahamu will I send thee. and raging bounds. they go at her side. All the gods have turned to her. vour son. to lead the host. He saith that Tiamat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us.. repeat unto them. and fish-men. who formed all things. Whoever beboldeth them. They bear merciless weapons. none can. Unto him hath she entrusted. ... to advance to the attack. To march before the forces. his minister. terror overcometh him. May whatsoever I do remain unaltered. all of them. their avenger they may decree the fate. To direct the battle.. and dragons. and scorpion-men. Hath made in addition weapons invincible. Ummu-Hubur. stand before them. . without fear of the fight.

hath sent me. thou my chosen spouse. After this fashion. terror overcometh him. saying: Thy command shall not be without avail. Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack. But Marduk hath set out. he took his way and Humbly before Lahmu and Lahamu. They are furious. she hath made them of lofty stature. With splendor she hath decked them. they devise mischief without resting night and day. the director of the gods. All the gods have turned to her. He made obeisance. They have joined their forces and are making war. Nudimmud was afraid and turned back. Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror. With poison. she hath filled their bodies. Gaga went. Conquer Tiamat and give you life. your son.. She hath set up vipers. instead of blood. and scorpion-men. May whatsoever I do remain unaltered. May the word of my lips never be changed nor made of no avail. she hath spawned monster-serpents. They prepare for battle. and the monster Lahamu. the Anunnaki. To set out against Tiamat his heart hath prompted him. without fear of the fight. With all her force she rageth. the gods. Be thou exalted. therefore. saying: "If I." Now Kingu. whom ye created.The dominion over all the gods have I entrusted unto thee. but he could not withstand her. and raging hounds. inasmuch as he hath given her support. Her commands are mighty. He saith that Tiamat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us. They are banded together and at the side of Tiamat they advance. In Upsukkinaku seat yourself joyfully together. He humbled himself. thus exalted.. With my word in place of you will I decree fate. hath she made eleven monsters. and rams. Sharp of tooth and merciless of fang. Among the gods who are her sons. having received the power of Anu. let him display his might!" I sent Anu. Whoever beboldeth them. And mighty tempests. your avenger. and fish-men. Ummu-Hubur. make my fate preeminent and proclaim it. And hurricanes. then he stood up and spake unto them saying: "Ansar. That he may go and fight your strong enemy. and dragons. her sons. on his breast she laid them. saving: Let the opening of your mouth quench the Fire-god." She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny. Whoso is exalted in the battle. The purpose of his heart he hath made known unto me. Hath made in addition weapons invincible. With those. He opened his mouth and spake unto me. his fathers. They bear merciless weapons. none can resist them. full of wrath. who formed all things. and the word of thy mouth shall be established. huge of stature. May they magnify thy name over all of them . . Decreed the fate for the gods. they go at her side."' Hasten. your son. and swiftly decree for him the fate which you bestow. and he kissed the ground at their feet. Appoint an assembly. fuming and raging.

their spirit was exalted. in costlv raiment she hath made him sit. thou art chiefest among the great gods. having received the power of Anu. their avenger. their bodies were filled. May the word of my lips never be changed nor made of no avail. her sons. Whoso is exalted in the battle. May.. saying: 'If I. in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power. to control the fight. thy word is Anu! . To direct the battle. who decree fate. saving: Thy command shall not be without avail. The dominion over all the gods have I entrusted unto thee. To give the battle-signal. He opened his mouth and spake unto me. Be thou exalted. but he could not withstand her.. They made ready for the feast.' Now Kingu. Nudimmud was afraid and turned back. "Thou art chiefest among the great gods. To set out against Tiamat his heart hath prompted him. your son. and swiftly decree for him the fate which you bestow. saying: 'Let the opening of your mouth quench the Fire-god.' Hasten. to advance to the attack. With my word in place of you will I decree fate. whatsoever I do remain unaltered. let him display his might!' I sent Anu. thou my chosen spouse. Appoint an assembly. confused their. at the banquet they sat. To march before the forces. your avenger... the mead. and the word of thy mouth shall be established. Unto him hath she entrusted. saving: I have uttered thy spell. That he may go and fight your strong enemy! Lahmu and Lahamu heard and cried aloud All of the Igigi [The elder gods] wailed bitterly. May they magnify thy name over all of them. They ate bread.the Anunnaki. they mixed sesame-wine. Decreed the fate for the gods. The sweet drink. Then for Marduk. in the assembly.. thy word is Anu! 0 Marduk. make my fate preeminent and proclaim it. They were drunk with drinking. the director of the gods. in their midst she hath raised him to power. Before his fathers as prince he took his place. Thy fate is unequaled. They entered in before Ansar.. They were wholly at ease.She hath exalted Kingu. did they decree the fate. thus exalted. to lead the host. The great gods.. saying: What has been altered so that they should We do not understand the deed of Tiamat! Then did they collect and go. She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny on his breast she laid them. Conquer Tiamat and give you life. In Upsukkinaku seat yourselves joyfully together. Thy fate is unequaled. they filled. therefore.. THE FOURTH TABLET: They prepared for him a lordly chamber. all of them. They kissed one another.. But Marduk hath set out.

spare the life of him that putteth his trust in thee.. He slung a spear upon him and fastened it. the gift of his father Anu. And speak the word again and let the garment reappear! Then he spake with his mouth.. He created the evil wind. He mounted the chariot. ferocious. O lord. irresistible shall be thy command. They rejoiced. and the ring. it shall crush thy foe. He made ready the bow. . But as for the god who began the rebellion. the desire of the shrines of the gods. They give him an invincible weapony which overwhelmeth the foe. He set the lightning in front of him. They were skilled in. and the throne. Established shall be the word of thy mouth. They caused him to set out on a path of prosperity and success. and the hurricane. Left and right. and. None among the gods shall transgress thy boundary. He raised the club. The South wind and the North wind and the East wind and the West wind He brought near to the net. overwhelming. pour out his life. He harnessed and yoked unto it four horses. He sent forth the winds which he bad created. . and they did homage unto him. and the garment vanished.. and the sevenfold wind. saying. Destructive. When the gods. and cut off the life of Tiamat.. . And unto Marduk. they had been trained to trample underfoot.. and the wind which had no equal. The four winds he stationed so that nothing of her might escape. Command now and let the garment vanish. and the tempest. In thy power shall it be to exalt and to abase." After the gods his fathers had decreed for the lord his fate. Thy weapon shall never lose its power. " Marduk is king!" They bestowed upon him the scepter.Henceforth not without avail shall be thy command. O Lord. Abundance. Again he commanded it. Sit thou down in might. be supreme among the gods. his fathers. Shall be established in thy sanctuary... they followed after him." Then set they in their midst a garment. .. O Marduk. . his mighty weapon. speak thou the word. the garment reappeared. To destroy and to create. he chose his weapon. and the whirlwind. in his right hand he grasped it.. He made a net to enclose the inward parts of Tiamat.. Then the lord raised the thunderbolt. To disturb the inward parts of Tiamat. the seven of them. the storm unequaled for terror. And let the wind carry her blood into secret places. thou art our avenger! We give thee sovereignty over the whole world.. Go.. they were flecked with foam. And the fourfold wind. were their teeth. and swift of pace. mighty in battle. and thy command shall be fulfilled. beheld the fulfillment of his word. With burning flame he filled his body.their first-born they spake: "May thy fate. even though they lack offerings. The bow and the quiver he hung at his side. be exalted in thy command.

Kingu was troubled in his gait. To the fight they came on. . And the gods her helpers. that. her spouse.... thou hast exalted thyself on high. in thy place are they! " Then the lord raised the thunderbolt. to the battle they drew nigh. And the evil wind that was behind him he let loose in her face. let us join battle! When Tiamat heard these words. her host was scattered. He drove in the evil wind. she pronounced her spell. The lord spread out his net and caught her. He seized the spear and burst her belly.. Beheld their leader's.. He cast down her body and stood upon it... even as Anu. She recited an incantation.. . . On his lips he held .. the leader. while as yet she had not shut her lips.. the counsellor of the gods. He overcame her and cut off her life.. the gods beheld him. When be had slain Tiamat. Let then thy host be equipped. She was like one posessed. And thy heart hath prompted thee to call to battle.she lost her reason. Tiamat uttered wild.. let thy weapons be girded on! Stand! I and thou.. he should issue deerees. piercing cries. She trembled and shook to her very foundations. Her might was broken. who marched by her side. But Tiamat. With lips that failed not she uttered rebellious words: ".. him.. From their places have they gathered.. thou hatest. And against Tiamat..His garment was. With overpowering brightness his head was crowned. she turned not her neck. And the lord drew nigh. And her courage was taken from her. Then advanced Tiamat and Marduk. Thou hast.. thy coming as lord of the gods. As Marduk gazed. He perceived the muttering of Kingu.. he gazed upon the inward parts of Tiamat. he pierced her heart. As Tiamat opened her mouth to its full extent. the gods beheld him. and their sight was troubled. And against the gods my fathers thou hast contrived thy wicked plan.. . He severed her inward parts. Then he set out. And the gods of the battle cried out for their weapons. who was raging. he took his way.. His will was destroyed and his motions ceased. Then they beheld him... . his helpers. And the gods. their fathers. he was clothed with terror. . thus he sent the word: Thou art become great. he grasped in his hand.. and her mouth she opened wide. their.. The terrible winds filled her belly. And toward the raging Tiamat he set his face. The gods his fathers beheld him. ... who marched by his side. Thou hast exalted Kingu to be thy spouse. thou hast followed after evil. his mighty weapon.

Them and their opposition he trampled under his feet. and Ea in their districts to inhabit.. He took them captive. He opened great gates on both sides.. And he made the North wind bear it away into secret places. and were afraid. who had been exalted over them.. And the lord stood upon Tiamat's hinder parts. gazing upon her dead body.. He caused Anu. His fathers beheld.. The mansion E-sara which he created as heaven. They received punishment from him. He passed through the heavens. and turned back. One half of her he established as a covering for heaven. and devised a cunning plan. And over against the Deep he set the dwelling of Nudimmud.... he broke their weapons. But they were surrounded. who marched at her. Now after the hero Marduk had conquered and cast down his enemies.. whom be bad conquered. Over the captive gods he strengthened his durance. so that they could not escape. And unto Tiamat. He sealed them with a seal and in his own breast he laid them. That none might err or go astray. and with the god Dug-ga he counted him. the days of the year . Then the lord rested.. He ordained the year and into sections he divided it. He brought affliction.. they were held in bondage. their images.. Kingu. and they rejoiced and were glad. . While he divided the flesh of the . And the lord measured the structure of the Deep. be returned... their strength he. a mansion like unto it. For the twelve months he fixed three stars. of the world they filled with cries of grief. . Presents and gifts they brought unto him. He took from him the Tablets of Destiny that were not rightly his. Moreover. He founded the station of Nibir to determine their bounds. In the net they were caught and in the snare they sat down. And with his merciless club he smashed her skull. The stars. They took to flight to save their lives. he fixed. He cut through the channels of her blood. He split her up like a flat fish into two halves. he stationed a watchman. He set the station of Bel and Ea along with him. He conquered. The . And he founded E-sara. images. After he had . as the stars of the Zodiac. He fixed a bolt. And had made the arrogant foe even like And had fullv established Ansar's triumph over the enemy And had attained the purpose of Nudimmud. he surveyed the regions thereof. And on the eleven creatures which she had filled with the power of striking terror. THE FIFTH TABLET: He made the stations for the great gods. Bel. And bade them not to let her waters come forth.Trembled. Upon the troop of devils.

in heaven shall it... when thou shinest upon the land.. "'Long-wood' shall be one name. and the Sun-god shall. On the fourteenth day thou shalt stand opposite. of the gods I have changed ." . Then Anu raised the . his fathers.. the night he entrusted to him...He made strong the bolt on the left and on the right. And Ea answered him and spake the word: "..... Together shall they be oppressed and unto evil shall they. .. And its third name shall be the Bow-star.... ... . to destroy.thee. He appointed him.in heaven.. And on the .. But I will alter the ways of the gods. His heart prompted him and he devised a cunning plan. the . They praised the work which he had done. That the service of the gods may be established. . in the assembly of the gods.... a being of the night. The Moon-god he caused to shine forth. He set a throne.. The ....!" Then he fixed a station for it.. saying: "At the beginning of the month.. and they.. He kissed the bow.... to determine the days... the half. In the midst thereof he fixed the zenith... and one..... . to traverse her way... saving. .....] The gods. shall be destroyed and men will I...... Every month without ceasing with the crown he covered him. day thou shalt stand opposite. and thou shalt make his....... And on the seventh day to divide the crown.] THE SIXTH TABLET: When Marduk beard the word of the gods... They beheld the bow and how its work was accomplished. thou shalt cause to draw nigh. saving.. thou shalt cause to . [The remainder of this tablet is missing.!" And thus he named the names of the bow. . " It is. Thou commandest the horns to determine six days. When the Sun-god on the foundation of heaven. He opened his mouth and unto Ea he spake That which he had conceived in his heart he imparted unto him: "My blood will I take and bone will I fashion I will make man....." [Nearly fifty lines are here lost. unto the path of the Sun-god shalt thou cause to draw nigh. and thou shalt judge the right.. and I will change their paths. and the second name shall be . . Now after the fate of. beheld the net which he had made. and the gods .... and that their shrines may be built.. that man may I will create man who shall inhabit the earth.

" "the Lord of Hearing and Mercy. and ordained their path. "the Bringer of Purification. whom he succored. which read as follows.[The rest of the text is wanting with the exception of the last few lines of the tablet. !" They seated themselves and in the assembly they named him. they exalted him. Who through his Pure Incantation hath destroyed all the evil ones!" Sag-zu. Tutu as Zi-azag thirdly they named. he withstandeth their onslaught! Let him therefore be exalted.." "Founder of sowing" "Creator of grain and plants. Never shall his . [Marduk] "the mighty one. be ordained their.." "Who directeth the decrees of Anu Bel." "Who removed the yoke from upon the gods his enemies. THE SEVENTH TABLET: O Asari. with whom it is to bestow life!" May his deeds endure. goeth forth. "the Life of the host of the gods." In sore distress we felt his favoring breeze. let them pay reverence. let them bow in humility before him! Tutu as Aga-azag may mankind fourthly magnify! "The Lord of the Pure Incantation. deeds be forgotten among men.." "who caused the green herb to spring up!" O Asaru-alim.. fifthly. They all cried aloud. None among the gods can rival him! 15 Tutu [Marduk] is Zi-ukkina." " who seeth through the innermost part!" "The evil-doer he hath not caused to go forth with him!" . his "Pure incantation" may their mouth proclaim.. In Upsukkinnaku they set their dwelling." "For their forgiveness did he create mankind." " the Quickener of the Dead." "The Merciful One. Should he make an incantation. Should they attack him in anger. and Ea!" He was their patron.." "The Creator of Fulness and Abundance.. Of the heroic son." "the Light of the father who begat him. In the mouth of mankind whom his hands have made! Tutu as Mu-azag." "The God of the Favoring Breeze." "Who had mercy upon the captive gods. and in the assembly of the gods let him." Who established for the gods the bright heavens... their avenger... Tutu [Marduk] is "He who created them anew"..." Let them say. [Mardk] "who is revered in the house of counsel. fear took hold upon them! O Asaru-alim-nuna." " the Founder of Plenteousness.. [Marduk] "Bestower of planting.." "who aboundeth in counsel. He." The gods paid homage. then are the gods appeased. . He set them on their way." "Who increaseth all that is small...] They rejoiced.. may they never be forgotten . [Marduk] "who knoweth the heart of the gods. Should their wants be pure. whose provision is abundance. they cried: " We. then are they satisfied..

" who created the gods his fathers.... " the Chief of all lords. "He who forced his way through the midst of Tiamat without resting... which shineth in the heavens... their heart!" "Subduer of the disobedient.. "Who brought the gods to naught. But somewhere among the lost lines belong the following fragments.!" Agil..... the...." "Who is exalted in a royal habitation.. Unto the path of whose majesty No god can ever attain! . supreme is his might! ...!" .... "The Creator of the earth..... thirdly..!" Zulummu.!" Giskul." . mankind hecreated.] .... " the Counselor of Ea. "Who for..." "Who put an end to anger." ". supreme is his might! Lugal-durmah.." "Who destroyed all the wicked. in the midst of Tiamat...!" Tutu as Zi-si..... "the ... he troubled and ended her life... . their. "The mighty one." who ." " Who rebellion and.... the star..." " the Lord of rulers. ...." "Who put their plans to confusion.. of those without understanding is Lugaldul-azaga! .... Let his name be Nibiru." "Who among the gods is gloriously supreme! Adu-nuna..!" "Director of Righteousness. " the Creator of.. Saying... in Dul-azag be made it known." "who.....] who. He named the four quarters of the world.!" Mummu. "The Giver of counsel and of whatsoever." "..." ".." .!" Mulil."Founder of the assembly of the gods. .. May he hold the Beginning and the Future.. let. ! [There is a gap here of sixty lines.." . And upon him understanding.. "the Destroyer of the foe. the heavens... .. may they pay homage unto him. pure is his dwelling! .. of the battle! [Here follows the better-preserved ending...... "the King of the band of the gods.... 'the Seizer of the Midst'! For the stars of heaven he upheld the paths..!" Tutu as Suh-kur. He shepherded all the gods like sheep! He conquered Tiamat.. let them..

they spake before him. So Ends the Babylonian Epic of Creation and The Battle with Tiamat. broad is his compassion. of Marduk may the gods... .. when the days grow old.. That be may cause his land to be fruitful. Wide is his heart. his name shall be Ea! The binding of all my decrees shall he control. May they . He gazed in his anger. his command is unaltered. . . may it hold sway forever! Since he created the realm of heaven and fashioned the firm earth. made his path preeminent. May this be heard without ceasing. Let them be in the ears of the pastor and the shepherd! Let a man rejoice in Marduk.In the future of mankind.. the names of Marduk] be held in remembrances and let the first man proclaim them... This title.. Let the wise and the understanding consider them together! Let the father repeat them and teach them to his son. When he is wroth. The utterance of his mouth hath no god ever annulled. and he said: "He whose name his fathers have made glorious. The Lord of the World. Shall be even as I. All my commands shall he make known! " By the name of "Fifty " did the great gods Proclaim his fifty names." the father Bel hath called his name.. unto. his name.. which all the Spirits of Heaven proclaimed.. EPILOGUE: Let them [i. the Lord of the gods.. they took and. no god can withstand his indignation. he turned not his neck... The sinner and evil-doer in his presence.e.. and that he himself may have prosperity! His word standeth fast. Did Ea hear. and his spirit was rejoiced... they. They received instruction. ... ..

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