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Introduction: The aim in this task is to consider geometric shapes which lead to special numbers.

The simplest example of these are square numbers, 1, 4, 9, 16, which can be represented by squares of side 1, 2, 3 and 4. Task 1 The first task is to complete the triangular numbers sequence with three more terms. Here are the initial terms:

1

3

6

10

15

By looking at this sequence, we can create a picture of what the pattern is. From the first term to the second term, there is an increase of 2, from the second to third is an increase of 3, and from the third to the fourth is an increase of 4 etc. The pattern is as follows:

And from here it continues as:

Task 2 The second task is to find a general statement that represents the of .

th

triangular number in terms

Based on the pattern above, we can see that it is a sequence and not a series but also not an arithmetic sequence since there is no fixed number being added (common difference) to each number and it is not a geometric sequence because each number is not being multiplied by the same constant (common ratio). Though it is neither geometric nor arithmetic, there is still a pattern. The numbers added to each consecutive term go through the number line: 1+2, 3+3, 6+4, 10+5 and so on. To create a general statement for the th number, we need sequence to be arithmetic or geometric. Here the ratio comes into place:
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 When simplified. the sequence is: This is now in the format of an arithmetic sequence since one half is being added to each consecutive term. We can now use the arithmetic sequence¶s formula for finding the th term which is: We then substitute in what values we know to create the general statement.where ratio. When and so the general statement is To confirm this. test with and : hence this general statement is valid. we can repeat it for the rest of the terms in the sequence: Note that the bolded numbers are the three extra terms. This is puts the pattern in a Using this as a base. is the term and is the number of the term. The general statement ultimately can be simplified to So it should the sequence should look as follows: 1 3 6 10 15 21 28 36 Page | 2 .

Page | 3 . Based on this pattern. The initial terms are: The number of dots in each term is as follows: The patter is as follows: Note that bold are the terms added.Task 3 Task 3 is based on the stellar shapes with vertices. when . For example when . However the multiple is one less than the of each term. leading to -stellar numbers. The pattern starts initially with 1 before anything is added to it. In this task we have to find the number of dots in each stage up to . each term is found by the previous term being added to by multiples of 12 starting at 0:   .

This is the general statement for the 6-stellar number. This would then lead to since each term is multiplied by the multiples of 12. Using the general statement from task 2 which is: Using this statement. I will be repeating the steps for 4-stellar and 5-stellar. these are the values to : Page | 4 . We need to do so since the ratio does not apply here. Task 6 The sixth task is to repeat the steps above for other values of where is the number of vertices on the star. For example the 6-stellar has a and a 5-stellar has a . This then results in the task 3 general statement to become: . one less than the and the extra one.Task 4 In task 4 we have to find an expression for the 6-stellar number at stage . to since each of the numbers that 12 is multiplied to is one less than the of the term. This can be done using the patterns found in the previous task so the expression is: Which would become when   Task 5 The fifth task is to find a general statement for the 6-stellar number at stage in terms of . and the additional 1 since the pattern starts initially with 1 before anything is added to it. we have to modify it so that it suits the needs of the 6-stellar number by using the patterns found in task 3. For or 4-stellar numbers.

we can construct an expression for which is: which would then become when : From this we can get the general statement by adjusting the statement we gained from task 2. Here we need to replace with since each term is multiplied by multiples of 8. Using this pattern. .The number of dots in each is as follows: The pattern is as follows: The bolded terms are not present in the diagram. In this sequence. to since each of the numbers that 8 is multiplied is one less than the of the term. and Page | 5 . the multiple is one less than the of the term and the sequence starts initially with 1 before anything is added to it. we can see that each term is found by adding a multiple of 8 to the previous term.

these are the values to : The number of dots in each is as follows: Page | 6 . use where is the term number. This general statement is valid For or 5-stellar numbers. result in the general statement to become: The sequence should now look as follows: To test the validity of this statement. This will .the additional 1 since the pattern starts initially with 1 before anything is added to it.

we can see that each term is found by adding a multiple of 10 to the previous term. . Here we need to replace with since each term is multiplied by multiples of 10. to since each of the numbers that 10 is multiplied is one less than the of the term. The sequence should now look as follows: To test the validity of this statement.The pattern is as follows: The bolded terms are not present in the diagram. This will result in the general statement to become: . Page | 7 . we can construct an expression for which is: which would then become when : From this we can get the general statement by adjusting the statement we gained from task 2. use where is the term number. and the additional 1 since the pattern starts initially with 1 before anything is added to it. the multiple is one less than the of the term and the sequence starts initially with 1 before anything is added to it. Using this pattern. In this sequence.

they are . use the calculation function to calculate the Quadratic regression using List 1 and List 2. To do so we can use the next stellar shape. Calculator used: TI-84 Plus Silver Edition From the following table. and . Task 7 The seventh task is to produce a general statement. and respectivley. It displays QuadReg Substitute in the known values for and and substitute for and for . in terms of sequence of -stellar numbers for any value of at stage . use This general statement is valid. To test the validity. One can see that there is a pattern and they are almost identical except for the first term however all the first terms are equal to each of their values respectively so therefore we can say that the general statement in terms of and is: .This general statement is valid Another way to get a general statement is through means of technology. enter into List 1 and into List 2 1 2 3 4 1 11 31 61 After. I will be using a calculator. and 6-stellar at in terms on . . Task 8 The next task is to test the validity of the general statement. use and Page | 8 . that generates the When looking at all the general statements for 4-stellar. To test the validity. 5-stellar.

Since true. The value given the fact that it is the number of vertices cannot be a fraction nor can it be a negative number. Page | 9 . or stars. I arrived at the general statement by first looking at the other general statements for each individual stellar number and finding the relationship between them. I just replaced the number with since I realized that the numbers were the same as the number of vertices the star had. . The also cannot be a fraction or a negative number because it is the total number of dots and you cannot have a fraction of a dot or a negative dot nor can the since it is the term number. . Task 10 Explain how you arrived at the general statement. we can use the general statement for 7-stellar to see if the above is The general statement in terms of and is valid. The test of the validity in Task 8 shows that the scope of the general statement lies within all stellar numbers. must be equal to 1. and so to make a general statement in terms of and . I saw that they were all identical except for the first term i.e. Task 9 Discuss the scope or limitations of the general statement.