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SOY00411 – Tourism Theories and Practices Alvin Koh Wan Hup – 21830615 In this paper, the purpose is to read

and critically review four different articles extracted from the journal titled Journal of Travel Research: Persuasive Design of Destination Websites: An Analysis of First Impression Heejun Kim and Daniel R.Fesenmaier Year-Volume-Issue: 2008-47-1 The design of a website plays an important role when it comes to influencing consumers’ choice-making. In this article, the authors researched on the persuasiveness of destination websites and the factors affecting a consumer’s first impression of it. Today the Internet has evolved into such that the authors believe it is now one of the most effective persuasive media for destination marketing to influence tourists’ travel planning process. According to the authors, the process of information searching basically consists of three stages 1) Search, 2) Primary and 3) Elaboration. The “Search” stage is reached when a consumer begins searching for information using a search engine. After entering a search term, a list of results will be generated. Proceeding to the “Primary” stage, a consumer’s first impression of a website is formed when he or she begins evaluating the metadata of the search results generated from a search engine after entering a search term. The authors believe that metadata act as a primary cue for information seekers as it allows them to evaluate a website based on how the metadata is presented and what to expect from the website. Referring to a recent study conducted by Xiang and Fesenmaier (2006), an information seeker will most likely navigate within a website and use it for trip planning if he or she has a good impression of it which concludes the “Elaboration” stage of the search process. By focusing on the second stage of the search process, the authors argued there are six main design factors that affect the persuasiveness of destination websites. They are Infomativeness, Usability, Credibility, Inspiration, Involvement and Reciprocity. From the authors’ argument, it is hypothesized that a consumer will form a favourable first impression towards a website with any of the six factors present. The authors also concluded that among the six design-related factors discussed, the Inspiration factor followed by Usability and Credibility had the greatest impact on first impression formation.

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” Studies also show how the evolution of the Internet has result in the shrinking of information gap. the authors present a number of 2 . The authors also stress that both travelers’ booking decision and hotel pricing decisions are interrelated. Glab (2004) stated that “conventional wisdom maintains that the earlier you book. the better price you’ll get. According to other research. the authors present a number of studies to support assumptions made by researchers in the increase of willingness to book over time by travelers. In this article. the amount of business travelers increases as the date of stay approaches. Based on another study conducted. and it plays an important role in the survival and future of any tourism products and services.SOY00411 – Tourism Theories and Practices Alvin Koh Wan Hup – 21830615 Timing Matters: Travelers’ Advance-Booking Expectation and Decision Chih-Chien Chen and Zvi Schwartz Year-Volume-Issue: 2008-47-1 Timing plays an important role when it comes to the price discrimination of hotel rooms and the travelers’ decision to book a hotel room. hence affecting customers’ online booking decision and consequently hotel revenues. the authors focus on the overall satisfaction of travelers. are not price sensitive and on average are willing to pay for immediate availability of room at the last minute. They believe these business travelers have the tendency to book close to their date of travel. hence customers might be more willing to pay for a room as the date of stay approaches due to their change in perception or expectation. A Multifaceted Analysis of Tourism Satisfaction Janet D. the authors also state that a traveler’s channel selection when booking accommodations is affected by time. they also suggest that regardless of business or leisure travelers. customers become more aware of the risk of a room sellout as the date of stay approaches. According to these researchers. Whereas leisure travelers are more price sensitive and willing to book early in order to secure a better room rate. there are still doubts and uncertainties faced by customers when deciding the optimal time for them to stop searching and booking their reservation. To further analyse tourist satisfaction. However according to research. In this article.Neal and Dogan Gursoy Year-Volume-Issue: 2008-47-1 Recent studies have shown that customer satisfaction is one of the most important and frequently topics discussed.

The third region is the destination region in which the traveler is doing various activities such as shopping or relaxing. investment size and quality of alternatives are key elements of customers’ brand loyalty. therefore the consumer is the most important element. a customer’s loyalty to a brand is strengthened based on how satisfied he or 3 . quality of alternative options negatively influences a customer’s attitudinal loyalty and investment size positively influences a customer’s attitudinal loyalty. the authors concluded that customers are more likely to develop positive satisfaction behaviour if the end result met the customers’ expectation or exceeded their expectation. pre-trip services. p. the authors propose that satisfaction. persistence with hobbies or activities. at least one tourist is involved in every tourism system. Pre-trip planning also takes place in the first region. The authors also state that according to researchers. By studying these theories and approaches. decision making and purchase behaviours. where the trip ends and begins.SOY00411 – Tourism Theories and Practices Alvin Koh Wan Hup – 21830615 theories and approach used by researchers to examine travelers’ satisfaction. Petrick Year-Volume-Issue: 2008-47-1 In this article. satisfaction with services at the destination and satisfaction with the transit route that contribute to the customers’ overall satisfaction. According to Leiper (1990).54) states that “the Investment Model is not strictly an interpersonal theory and can be extended to such areas as commitment to jobs. a few examples such as the Expectation-Disconfirmation model. In other words. Equity theory. Examining the Antecedents of Brand Loyalty from an Investment Model Perspective Xiang (Robert) Li and James F. The second region is the transit route where the traveller travels to and from his destination. The first is the person’s home region. Research has shown that the Investment Model was developed initially to examine interpersonal relationships but Le and Agnew (2003. There are three regions a tourist will pass through during a trip. Hence it can be hypothesized that satisfaction is a positive antecedent of a customer’s loyalty. The authors made use of the multiphase model developed Leiper to reinforce this view. the authors’ aim is to theoretically study the key determinants of brand loyalty by introducing the Investment Model (IM) to the field of tourism. Norm theory and Perceived Performance Model. there are in fact several stages of the travel process. or loyalty to institutions. Hence it is hypothesized that a traveler’s overall satisfaction is the product of his or her satisfaction at all the three regions.” With the support of various case studies.

The authors also conclude that among these three factors. vol. vol. ‘Commitment and Its Theorized Determinants: A MetaAnalysis of the Investment Model’. ‘Persuasive Design of Destination Websites: An Analysis of First Impression’. vol. no.1. pp. vol. & C. vol.Neal & Dogan Gursoy. and D. 2008. Z.8.47. pp. pp.47. no. no.17. Annals of Tourism Research. vol. Information Technology & Tourism.2. ‘Does Advance Booking Pay?’ http://www. Journal of Travel Research.travelandleisure . J. no. 91-104 Chih-Chien Chen & Zvi Schwartz. Journal of Travel Research.1. 367-384 Xiang (Robert) Li & James F. 35-42 Glab. after reviewing these four articles.47.1. 2008. 25-34 Le. no. ‘Tourist Attraction Systems’.. 2003.1. 2006).10. 1990. and weakened if the quality of alternatives is high. B. no. Fesenmaier. Journal of Travel Research. Agnew. pp.1. I notice the common theme of these articles is that Customer Satisfaction plays a very important role in the tourism industry. 2008. Personal Relationships. pp. Journal of Travel Research.3. ‘Timing Matters: Travelers’ Advance-Booking Expectation and Decision’.SOY00411 – Tourism Theories and Practices Alvin Koh Wan Hup – 21830615 she is with the brand. satisfaction plays the largest role in determining customer’s loyalty. R.47.Fesenmaier. 2008. no. 37–57 4 . 3-13 Xiang. 53-62 Leiper. Janet D. driven by his or her investment contributed. N. ‘Examining the Antecedents of Brand Loyalty from an Investment Model Perspective’. vol.com/articles/does-advance-booking-pay (accessed November 8. pp. ‘Assessing the Initial Step in the Persuasion Process: Meta Tags on Destination Marketing Web sites’. ‘A Multifaceted Analysis of Tourism Satisfaction’. 2006. Petrick. R. In conclusion. 2004. pp. References Heejun Kim & Daniel R.