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Reasons for Migration in Orissa (Interstate) - 2001
Santosh Kr. Acharya
Migration is one the most important demographic component to determining the size, growth and structure of population of a particular region, besides fertility and mortality. For a large country like India, the study of movement of population in different parts of the country helps in understanding the dynamics of the society and societal change better. At this juncture in the economic development, particularly in areas, such as, manufacturing, information technology or service sectors, data on migration profile of population has become more important. When a person is enumerated in Census at a different place than her/his place of birth, she/ he is considered a migrant. For 2001 Census, there are two types of migrants namely i) Migrants by place of birth ii) Migrants by place of last residence. Migrants by place of birth have also been classified as intra-district, inter-district, inter-state and from abroad depending upon their place of birth. For every State and Union Territory migrants by place of birth who are migrating from outside the state (or in-migrants) and those who have migrated to places outside the state (or outmigrants) are clubbed together to obtain number
of gross migrants. The difference between inmigrant and out-migrant provides the estimate of net migrants. The 2001 Census has revised the list of reason for migration. ‘The reasons included in the list are (i) Work / Employment (ii) Business (iii) Education (iv) Marriage (v) Moved after birth (vi) Moved with household (vii) Any other reason.’ The 2001 Census has also collected data on ‘Commutation’ by asking question on ‘Distance of place of work from residence’ and mode of travel used to go to place of work. In India, as per Census 2001, about 307 million persons have been reported as migrants considering place of birth. Out of them about 259 million (84.2%) persons migrated from one part of the state to another i.e., from one village or town to another village or town.42 million (13.8%) persons migrated from outside a state and only 6 million (2%) from outside the country. In India, as per Census 2001,about 314 million persons have been reported as migrants by place of last residence. Out of them migrants by last residence, 268 million (85%) has been intra-state migrants, those who migrated from one area of the state to another. 41 million (13%) were inter-state migrants and 5.1 million (1.6%) migrated from outside the country.
December - 2010
e.66 million persons have been reported as in-migrants and 0.66 million total in-migrants in Orissa as per 2001 Census.73%).57%).7 million) were the two states with largest number of net migrants migrating out of the state. Out of total out-migrants from Orissa to different parts of India. education 10198 (1. moved after birth to Orissa by last residence as per 2001 Census. Chhatisgarh 95521 (14. moved after birth 10375 (1.68 million) and Harayana (0.35 per cent have been reported as inter-state migrants by place of last residence. Gujarat stands at the top of other two reasons (employment and business). Marriage is the most common reason for migration among females or for work.3 million net migrants. 249102 (37.25%) as per 2001 Census. This is mainly due to movement of females in their place of their husbands.58%) have been reported (6. West Bengal stands at the top of the list with 140860 (21.7 million).2). Chhatisgarh stands at the top of the two reasons (marriage and moved with household). Uttar Pradesh (-2. There are six reasons for migration as per information collected in Census 2001 by last residence.32%). Chhatisgarh stands at the top of the list with 172372 (18. West Bengal stands at the top of other two reasons of in-migrants (business and moved with household) and Andhra Pradesh stands at the top of one reason of in-migrant i.Gujarat (0. moved after birth 22701 (2. Out of about 0.80%). business and other facilities are available there. business 13161 (1. Out of them about 0.78%) as per 2001 Census.07%) and other 93504 (14.41%) and Bihar 78105 (11.1).39%) by last residence followed by West Bengal 15486 (16. Andhra Pradesh (moved after birth) and Delhi (education) stands at the top in their above reason of out-migrants from Orissa to different states and union territory by last residence as per 2001 Census (table.94 million persons have been reported as outmigrants by place of last residence (table.6 million persons or 4. 215 .62%). 326114 (34. i.91%).. about 1.14%). Andhra Pradesh 108.80%) has been reported as inter-state migrants migrating due to work and employment followed by marriage 278618 (29. Lakshadweep stands at the bottom of the list with 12 out-migrants. Out of about 0.e. People largely migrate to state of Gujarat and other metropolitan cities of the country because opportunities of employment.30%) and Andhra Pradesh 105459 (11.27 million).67 million) as per 2001 Census.3)..94 million total outmigrants by last residence from Orissa to different parts of the country as per 2001 Census. education and marriage). as per Census 2001.240 (16. in Orissa. The overall picture of migration indicates that movement of population in respect of women is more prevalent in our state.2010 residence to total in-migrants to Orissa followed by Jharkhand 137859 (20. Jharkhand stands at the top of the three reasons of in-migrants (employment. the difference between in-migration and out-migration is (-0. Gujarat 115316 (12. Daman and Diu stands at the bottom of the list with no in-migrants to Orissa by last residence as per 2001 Census (table.6 million) and Bihar (-1. is the reason generally among males.25%) in-migrants by last December .Orissa Review (Census Special) Maharashtra stands at the top of the list of net migrants with 2.24%).42%). moved with household 171639 (18. education 7066 (1.37%). In Orissa.09%) and other 114845 (12. followed by Delhi (1.40%). On the basis of net migration by last residence during the past decade.
845 937.21%) 41.Orissa Review (Census Special) Table.326 -22.68% 36.858 7.Migrants state Rest of States Migrants state Work/Employmen t Business Jharkhand (22.701 171.114 13.29%) Andhra Pradesh (16.276 Reasons Work/Employment Business Education Marriage Moved after birth Moved with household Other TOTAL Gross migrants 435.639 114.04%) 38.04%) B i h a r(13.512 -21.127 93.25%) West Bengal (21.766 208.48% 216 December .198 278.50% Marriage Jharkhand (25.00.019 17.132 -29.516 -12.349 Net migrants -216.2010 .62%) Andhra Pradesh (16.09%) West Bengal (18.Migrants state 2 nd Highest In - 3 rd Highest In .28%) B i h a r(17.161 10.18% Education Jharkhand (27.93%) Chhatisgargh (23.65%) Jharkhand (17.618 22.066 249.91%) West Bengal (20.076 320.102 10.720 33.01%) 29.08% Moved after birth Moved with household Other Andhra Pradesh (30.41%) West Bengal (24.26%) Andhra Pradesh (16.076 -274.507 43.1 : Reasons of Migration by last Residence – Orissa – 2001 Inmigrants 109.375 149.621 57.607 30.504 662.93%) Jharkhand (18.53% 45.65%) B i h a r (23.74%) West Bengal (17.81% 43.69%) West Bengal (21.341 16.26%) West Bengal (22.476 Table.800 Out migrants 326.264 527.2 : Distribution of In-Migrants to Orissa by Reasons for Migration – 2001 Reasons Highest In.697 -3.31%) 37.17%) J h arkhand (13.
2010 217 .47%) W e st Bengal (16.M i g r a n t s state 2 nd Highest Out - 3 rd Highest Out- Rest of States Migrants state Migrants state Gujarat Work/Employment Business (23.07%) Andhra Pradesh (16.10% 49.16%) Chhatisgar Chhatisgarhg h (21.12% 38.06% 54.61% 44.54%) West B e n g a l (16.76%) Andhra Pradesh (8.81%) Maharashtra (14.05%) Chhatisgar Chhatisgarh g h (13.08%) Moved after birth Moved with household Other Andhra Pradesh (24.27%) Maharashtra (18.Orissa Review (Census Special) Table.96%) 45.43% 24.34%) Gujarat (39.47%) West Bengal (27.46% December .07%) West Bengal (16.43%) Education Delhi (16.33%) Chhatisga Chhatisgarhr g h (13.70%) West Bengal (15.16%) Maharashtra (14.41% 49.67) Andhra Pradesh (13.3 : Distribution of Out-Migrants from Orissa by Reasons for Migration – 2001 Reasons H i g h e s t O u t.04%) Marriage Chhatisgar Chhatisgarhg h (29.19%) West Bengal (20.30%) Jharkhand (16.
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