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Orissa Review (Census Special

)

Reasons for Migration in Orissa (Interstate) - 2001
Santosh Kr. Acharya

Migration is one the most important demographic component to determining the size, growth and structure of population of a particular region, besides fertility and mortality. For a large country like India, the study of movement of population in different parts of the country helps in understanding the dynamics of the society and societal change better. At this juncture in the economic development, particularly in areas, such as, manufacturing, information technology or service sectors, data on migration profile of population has become more important. When a person is enumerated in Census at a different place than her/his place of birth, she/ he is considered a migrant. For 2001 Census, there are two types of migrants namely i) Migrants by place of birth ii) Migrants by place of last residence. Migrants by place of birth have also been classified as intra-district, inter-district, inter-state and from abroad depending upon their place of birth. For every State and Union Territory migrants by place of birth who are migrating from outside the state (or in-migrants) and those who have migrated to places outside the state (or outmigrants) are clubbed together to obtain number
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of gross migrants. The difference between inmigrant and out-migrant provides the estimate of net migrants. The 2001 Census has revised the list of reason for migration. ‘The reasons included in the list are (i) Work / Employment (ii) Business (iii) Education (iv) Marriage (v) Moved after birth (vi) Moved with household (vii) Any other reason.’ The 2001 Census has also collected data on ‘Commutation’ by asking question on ‘Distance of place of work from residence’ and mode of travel used to go to place of work. In India, as per Census 2001, about 307 million persons have been reported as migrants considering place of birth. Out of them about 259 million (84.2%) persons migrated from one part of the state to another i.e., from one village or town to another village or town.42 million (13.8%) persons migrated from outside a state and only 6 million (2%) from outside the country. In India, as per Census 2001,about 314 million persons have been reported as migrants by place of last residence. Out of them migrants by last residence, 268 million (85%) has been intra-state migrants, those who migrated from one area of the state to another. 41 million (13%) were inter-state migrants and 5.1 million (1.6%) migrated from outside the country.
December - 2010

. 326114 (34.6 million) and Bihar (-1. the difference between in-migration and out-migration is (-0. This is mainly due to movement of females in their place of their husbands. education and marriage). Uttar Pradesh (-2. There are six reasons for migration as per information collected in Census 2001 by last residence.e. moved after birth 10375 (1. Andhra Pradesh (moved after birth) and Delhi (education) stands at the top in their above reason of out-migrants from Orissa to different states and union territory by last residence as per 2001 Census (table.68 million) and Harayana (0.78%) as per 2001 Census. West Bengal stands at the top of the list with 140860 (21.2). about 1.3 million net migrants. education 7066 (1.7 million).3).94 million persons have been reported as outmigrants by place of last residence (table.91%).07%) and other 93504 (14. Out of about 0. business and other facilities are available there. i.39%) by last residence followed by West Bengal 15486 (16.80%) has been reported as inter-state migrants migrating due to work and employment followed by marriage 278618 (29.35 per cent have been reported as inter-state migrants by place of last residence. Lakshadweep stands at the bottom of the list with 12 out-migrants. Gujarat 115316 (12. as per Census 2001. In Orissa.27 million).7 million) were the two states with largest number of net migrants migrating out of the state.41%) and Bihar 78105 (11. West Bengal stands at the top of other two reasons of in-migrants (business and moved with household) and Andhra Pradesh stands at the top of one reason of in-migrant i. Chhatisgarh stands at the top of the list with 172372 (18. The overall picture of migration indicates that movement of population in respect of women is more prevalent in our state. followed by Delhi (1. People largely migrate to state of Gujarat and other metropolitan cities of the country because opportunities of employment.57%). moved after birth 22701 (2.42%).240 (16.80%). Andhra Pradesh 108.14%).94 million total outmigrants by last residence from Orissa to different parts of the country as per 2001 Census. Marriage is the most common reason for migration among females or for work. Daman and Diu stands at the bottom of the list with no in-migrants to Orissa by last residence as per 2001 Census (table.67 million) as per 2001 Census. Chhatisgarh 95521 (14. Out of total out-migrants from Orissa to different parts of India. moved after birth to Orissa by last residence as per 2001 Census.30%) and Andhra Pradesh 105459 (11.25%) as per 2001 Census. Jharkhand stands at the top of the three reasons of in-migrants (employment. 249102 (37.66 million persons have been reported as in-migrants and 0. business 13161 (1. education 10198 (1. Chhatisgarh stands at the top of the two reasons (marriage and moved with household).25%) in-migrants by last December .Orissa Review (Census Special) Maharashtra stands at the top of the list of net migrants with 2. On the basis of net migration by last residence during the past decade.2010 residence to total in-migrants to Orissa followed by Jharkhand 137859 (20. 215 .. is the reason generally among males.32%).40%).6 million persons or 4. moved with household 171639 (18. Gujarat stands at the top of other two reasons (employment and business). Out of about 0. Out of them about 0.66 million total in-migrants in Orissa as per 2001 Census.62%).09%) and other 114845 (12.e.Gujarat (0. in Orissa.24%).58%) have been reported (6.1).73%).37%).

766 208.2010 .066 249.639 114.65%) Jharkhand (17.858 7.04%) B i h a r(13.326 -22.48% 216 December .17%) J h arkhand (13.1 : Reasons of Migration by last Residence – Orissa – 2001 Inmigrants 109.076 320.50% Marriage Jharkhand (25.Migrants state 2 nd Highest In - 3 rd Highest In .349 Net migrants -216.04%) 38.91%) West Bengal (20.161 10.62%) Andhra Pradesh (16.375 149.264 527.65%) B i h a r (23.276 Reasons Work/Employment Business Education Marriage Moved after birth Moved with household Other TOTAL Gross migrants 435.102 10.512 -21.25%) West Bengal (21.93%) Jharkhand (18.504 662.93%) Chhatisgargh (23.845 937.53% 45.29%) Andhra Pradesh (16.114 13.127 93.74%) West Bengal (17.019 17.198 278.076 -274.701 171.Migrants state Rest of States Migrants state Work/Employmen t Business Jharkhand (22.697 -3.69%) West Bengal (21.2 : Distribution of In-Migrants to Orissa by Reasons for Migration – 2001 Reasons Highest In.800 Out migrants 326.476 Table.41%) West Bengal (24.618 22.08% Moved after birth Moved with household Other Andhra Pradesh (30.01%) 29.720 33.Orissa Review (Census Special) Table.26%) Andhra Pradesh (16.18% Education Jharkhand (27.132 -29.26%) West Bengal (22.28%) B i h a r(17.341 16.516 -12.31%) 37.00.607 30.09%) West Bengal (18.621 57.81% 43.21%) 41.68% 36.507 43.

41% 49.47%) West Bengal (27.07%) Andhra Pradesh (16.76%) Andhra Pradesh (8.34%) Gujarat (39.33%) Chhatisga Chhatisgarhr g h (13.67) Andhra Pradesh (13.2010 217 .16%) Maharashtra (14.19%) West Bengal (20.43%) Education Delhi (16.08%) Moved after birth Moved with household Other Andhra Pradesh (24.06% 54.61% 44.70%) West Bengal (15.05%) Chhatisgar Chhatisgarh g h (13.27%) Maharashtra (18.43% 24.12% 38.Orissa Review (Census Special) Table.07%) West Bengal (16.04%) Marriage Chhatisgar Chhatisgarhg h (29.81%) Maharashtra (14.3 : Distribution of Out-Migrants from Orissa by Reasons for Migration – 2001 Reasons H i g h e s t O u t.47%) W e st Bengal (16.30%) Jharkhand (16.16%) Chhatisgar Chhatisgarhg h (21.46% December .54%) West B e n g a l (16.10% 49.96%) 45.M i g r a n t s state 2 nd Highest Out - 3 rd Highest Out- Rest of States Migrants state Migrants state Gujarat Work/Employment Business (23.