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Introduction

1.1 What is vector calculus?

Vector calculus is how to define and measure the variation of temperature, fluid velocity, force, magnetic flux etc. over all three dimensions of space. In the real 3D engineering world, one wants to know things like the stress and strain inside a structure, the vorticity of the air flow over a wing, or the induced electromagnetic field around an aerial. For such questions, it is simply not good enough to deal with

dy dx

and f ( x )dx . We must instead know how to integrate and differentiate vector quantities with three components (in directions i, j and k) which depend on three co-ordinates x, y, z. Vector calculus provides the necessary mathematical notation and techniques for dealing with such issues. First, let’s recall what we mean by vectors and calculus in isolation.

1.2 Vectors (revision)

Notation: length: | v | Position vector: r

xi v v1 i v2 j v3 k v1 , v2 , v3

2 2 2

v1

v2

v3

unit vector: v = v

x, y , z

v |v|

yj

zk

The Dot Product : We define the dot product of two vectors v = ai + bj and w = ci + dj to be v . w = ac + bd

Notice that the dot product of two vectors is a number and not a vector. For 3 dimensional vectors, we define the dot product similarly:

Dot Product in R3 If v = ai + bj + ck and w = di + ej + fk then v . w = ad + be + cf

Exercise: Find the dot product of 2i + j - k and i + 2j

1

3k and v = 4j + 5k Exercises: Find u x v when A. and w.The Angle Between Two Vectors We define the angle theta between two vectors v and w by the formula v .3> w = <0. u = 3i + j . We see that angles are orthogonal if and only if v . w = ||v|| ||w|| cos θ Two vectors are called orthogonal if their angle is a right angle. Example: Find the angle between v = 2i + 3j + k and w = 4i + j + 2k The Cross Product Between Two Vectors Let u = ai + bj + ck and v = di + ej + fk be vectors then we define the cross product v x w by the determinant of the matrix: Example: Find the cross product u x v if u = 2i + j .1. w = 0. B. u = 2i .w cos θ = ||v|| ||w|| so that v . we find the scalar triple product: Volume = u.2.0.4j .j + 2k Notice that since switching the order of two rows of a determinant changes the sign of the determinant. v=i-k v = 3i .k.2k. v.2> v = <0. we have u x v = -v x u Parallelepipeds To find the volume of the parallelepiped spanned by three vectors u. (v x w) Example: Find the volume of the parallelepiped spanned by the vectors u = <1.3> NOTE: ( a b) c ( a c) b Scalar triple product a (b c) vector triple product a (b c) a (b c) (a c)b (a b)c (a b) c (a c)b (b c)a 2 .

vector field and Scalar functions 1. z ) inside a solid object.1xy . Let f(x. It takes a vector (of positions) and returns a scalar. z )k v v1 ( x. f ( x. We might also think of the variation of density or charge density ( x. A v ect o r fi e ld v (x. 2. 3 . z ) j v3 ( x.3 Scalar field. y. z) in this room using Cartesian co-ordinates. y. It might be used to describe the spatial variation of temperature T(x) along a one-dimensional bar heated at one end.y) be a differentiable function then the function that take a point (x0.2y then gradf(x. y.1yi + (0. Example: An important vector field that we have already encountered is the gradient vector field. y.0. It is defined by a function that takes a vector (of positions) and returns a vector v v1 ( x. y. y )i v2 ( x.y) = 0.y0) to gradf(x0. if f(x. A scalar function (of one variable) f (x) orf (t) is a formula that takes a scalar and returns a scalar. or the time variation of the DC current i (t ) across a certain component in an electrical circuit. For example. A scala r fi e ld is a scalar quantity defined over a region of space.0. y. y.y0) is a vector field since the gradient of a function at a point is a vector. z ) flowing in a conductor. y ) j ( in 2D) Eg: The spatial variation of fluid velocity v(x.2)j The sketch of the gradient is pictured below.y) = 0. or current I ( x. Eg: The variation of temperature T (x. y. z ) f (r ) (or f (x. z) in a steady flow. 3. y.1. z )i v2 ( x. y) in 2D).1x . z) is a vector-valued quantity defined over a region of space.

It is called the unit tangent vector. Then the distance s( t) along the curve from the point r (t0 ) to the point r (t ) is. u v / u / v / cu / cu / / / u v uxv u v uv u / / / / v u v Tangent vector to the curve: / r (t ) x / (t )i y / (t ) j z / (t )k 1.5 Geometry of Space Curves-Curvature Let r (t ) be a vector description of a curve. Show that the velocity and acceleration are orthogonal.4 Vector functions A vect or fu n ct ion (of one variable) v (x) or v (t) takes a scalar and returns a vector: v v1 (t )i v 2 (t ) j v3 (t )k . 4. Assuming. 3. simply t s (t ) t0 | r / (u )du. as we have seen. Such functions might be used to describe the motion of a particle whose position vector ' is r (t) at time t. 2. 4 . Rules of differentiation . v v(t ) and c is a constant 1. Example: Sketch the graph of each of the following vector functions. or the external forces F (x) acting at distance x along a 1dimensional case. d d d d v v1 (t )i v2 (t ) j v3 (t )k dt dt dt dt Exa mp le: A particle moves on a circle of radius 1. Here u u (t ) . Differentiation and integration of vector functions are easy! One simply differences or integrates the components separately. r / (t ) 0 Now then the vector T dr dr / dt dt r / (t ) ds / dt dr ds is tangent to R and has length one. such that its position vector is given by r (t ) sin t i cos t j Calculate its velocity and acceleration.1.

which is represented by a circular helix. Example: Consider the circle of radius a and center at the origin: r (t ) Example: If r (t ) (t 1)i 2t j t 2 k . is called the principal unit normal vector. Thus dT curvature ( and n ) ds ds 1 dT The unit vector n ds But we know that T . Thus T . If T is the unit tangent and n is the principal unit normal. The length of this vector is called the dT 1 and is usually denoted by the letter .T ds 2T . a cos t i a sin t j Torsion of a Space Curve Let R( t ) be a vector description of a curve. Example: Let r (t ) a cos t i a sin t j ct k be a space curve. First. note that b. note that b is perpendicular to the tangent vector T. Note that the binormal is orthogonal to both T and n.Consider next the derivative d T . So what is perpendicular to both b and T. or normal.T 0 Next. and so must have the direction of n .b 1 | b |2 . and so have we here? The vector This means db ds n and d b ds db ds . and ds so db b. dT ds dT . ds 0 . ds b. the derivative d b is in the plane of T and n. dT ds dT dT 0 . which means that being orthogonal to .T | T |2 1 . d b ds 0 . to the tangent vector T. 5 . Find unit tangent vector and curvature to the curve. and its direction is sometimes called the principal normal direction. | | . Thus T . find unit tangent vector to the curve. The scalar is called the torsion. which means that the vector ds ds perpendicular. Let’s see about its derivative d b with respect to arc length s.T ds T. the unit vector b = T × n is called the binormal vector.

Find the length of the arc of the curve r(t ) and (3. 3) in the direction of the vector a i 2 j k . and let M be the straight line passing through the point (0. Find the curvature of r(t ) largest? Smallest? 7. sin t i cos t j 2 sin t k 2 6 . (a)Find the velocity of the particle. The position of a particle is given by r(t ) cos(t 3 )i sin(t 3 ) j . 1. 0. (b)Find a vector equation for the line tangent to this same curve at the point (1.16 ). 2. 0. Let L be the straight line passing through the point (1. Find the distance between L and M. 6) in the direction of b i 3j 2k . 6. (b)Find the speed of the particle. at what point on the curve is the curvature the 6. b) Do L and M intersect? Explain. Let L be the straight line passing through the point (5. and let M be the straight line passing through the point (0. 0). 4. 0. Find the binomial and torsion for the curve r (t ) 8. 0. Find the unit tangent vector T the principal normal n . Find the binomial and torsion for the curve r (t ) 4 cos t i 3 sin t j . 3. 1. 0) 5. (a)Find a vector tangent to the curve f (t ) (t 2 t )i (t 1) j (t3 5)k at the point (1. 3costi 3sin t j 4t k between the points (3. 5) in the direction of b i 3 j 2k . a) Are L and M parallel? Explain.Exercises: 1. 0). 1. Curvature (a) r (t ) 5 cos t i 5 sin t j 2t k (b) r(t ) (c) r (t ) (2t 3)i (5 t 2 ) j for the curves et cost i et sin t j 6k ti t 3 j . 1. 3) in the direction of the vector a i 2 j k .

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